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Sample records for carassius gibelio autochthonous

  1. Finding of triploid Carassius Gibelio (Bloch, 1780)(Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Memis, D.; Bohlen, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-79 ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : carassius gibelio * cyprinidae * Turkey Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  2. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  4. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

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    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  5. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  6. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

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    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

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    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio in China.

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    Xu, Jin; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding

    2013-09-27

    An epizootic with severe mortality has emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, in China since 2009, and caused huge economic loss. The signs and epidemiology background of the disease were investigated. Parasite examination, bacteria and virus isolation were carried out for pathogen isolation. The causative pathogen was obtained and identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) by experimental infection, electron microscopy, cell culture, PCR assay and sequence alignment, designated as CyHV-2-JSSY. Experimental infection proved the high virulence of CyHV-2-JSSY to healthy gibel carp. Electron microscopy revealed that the viral nucleocapsid was hexagonal in shape measuring 110-120 nm in diameter with a 170-200 nm envelope. The virus caused significant CPE in Koi-Fin cells at the early passages, but not beyond the fifth passages. Sequence alignment of the partial viral helicase gene (JX566884) showed that it shared 99-100% identity to the published sequences of other CyHV-2 isolates. This study represented the first isolation and identification of CyHV-2 in cultured gibel carp in China and laid a foundation for the further studies of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Repair of UVC induced DNA lesions in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdonas, E.; Zukas, K.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of UVC (254 nm) irradiation induced DNA single-strand breaks generated during the excision repair of UV induced DNA damage in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio were studied using alkaline comet assay. Nucleotide excision repair recognised DNA lesions such as UVC induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and produced DNA single-stranded breaks that were easily detected by comet assay. After irradiation of erythrocytes with 58 j/m 2 UVC dose, there was an increase in comet tail moment (CTM) at 2 hours post-radiation, whereas at 4 hours post-radiation CTM decreased and did not differ significantly from the control level (P=0,127). When erythrocytes were exposed to 173 J/m 2 UVC dose, the excision repair delayed in the beginning (0 hours), reached maximum level at 2 hours post-radiation (CTM-54,8) and showed slightly decreased level at 4 hours post-radiation (CTM=18,5). (author)

  10. Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

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    Sait BULUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.

  11. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

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    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

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    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  13. Morphological, histological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus kingchowensis and Thelohanellus cf. sinensis infecting gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782).

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    Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Yang

    2018-06-26

    A Myxobolus species and a Thelohanellus species infecting Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) were redescribed by their morphological, histological and molecular characterization. In the present study, the Myxobolus species infecting the muscle was identified as Myxobolus kingchowensis Chen et Ma, 1998 by the morphological and molecular data. Histologically, mature spores of M. kingchowensis were observed in the intercellular and connective tissue of muscle, though the plasmodia were not found. In addition, scattered spores also occurred in the intercellular of haematopoietic cells, intraepithelial of the renal tubules and interior of the melano-macrophage centres. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. kingchowensis clustered in the clade of muscle-infecting Myxobolus species, further supporting muscle as the infection site of M. kingchowensis. The present Thelohanellus species infecting the gills was identified conspecific as Thelohanellus sinensis reported in Sun (2006) (mark it as T. sinensis-Sun)based on spore morphology, biological traits (host specificity and organ specificity), and molecular data. However, compared with the original description of T. sinensis Chen et Hsieh, 1960, the present Thelohanellus species and T. sinensis-Sun both infecting the gills of gibel carp are distinguishable from the original description in the host and infection site, which made the validity of T. sinensis-Sun dubious. Due to the absence of molecular data in the original description of T. sinensis, we suggest marking the present species and T. sinensis-Sun as T. cf. sinensis to avoid the confusion until T. sinensis is obtained from the type host and type infection site.

  14. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

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    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  15. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

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    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  16. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

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    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  17. Native freshwater species get out of the way: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) impacts both fish and benthic invertebrate communities in North America.

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    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Docherty, Cassandra; Neufeld, Kenton; Hamilton, Kyle; MacPherson, Laura; Poesch, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    Prussian carp ( Carassius gibelio ) are one of the most noxious non-native species in Eurasia. Recently, Prussian carp, a non-native freshwater fish species, were genetically confirmed in Alberta, Canada and have been rapidly expanding their range in North America since establishment. Given their rapid range expansion, there is an increasing need to determine how Prussian carp may impact native species. We assessed the severity of the Prussian carp invasion by (i) determining their impact on fish communities, (ii) assessing their impact on benthic invertebrate communities, (iii) evaluating if Prussian carp alter abiotic conditions, and (iv) identifying where we find higher abundances of Prussian carp. When Prussian carp were established, we found significant changes to the fish community. Correspondingly, the degree of impact to benthic invertebrate communities was related to the stage of invasion (none, early or recent), where changes in fish communities were significantly concordant with changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Finally, we found that higher abundances of Prussian carp were significantly associated with lower abundances of a majority of native fish species. Altogether, using three lines of evidence, we determine that Prussian carp can have wide-ranging impacts on freshwater ecosystems in North America, pressing the need for management intervention.

  18. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

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    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus.

  19. Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.

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    Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection.

  20. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

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    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Influence of ammonia on forming the toxicity of waters from the surface sources of water supply determined on Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782

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    Е. Arystarkhova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the influence of ammonia in waters from surface sources of water supply of Zhytomyr city on forming the toxicity of these waters determined by test-reactions of atypical motor activity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 with the use of the «time sampling» method during 2012–2014. Methodology. Biotesting was performed at the Municipal Enterprise "Zhytomyrvodokanal". Water samples were taken once a month time from the Teteriv river reservoirs and tap water network and then placed into aquaria (8 dm3 on a group. Control and experimental groups of fish were formed according to the following scheme: control group — samples of settled (24 hours tap water; experimental group D-1 — water samples from the Denyshivske reservoir; experimental group D-2 — water samples from the Vidsichne water intake. Test specimens were females of C. auratus gibelio. Biotesting was conducted using the «time sampling» method by keeping fish (n=30 in water for 12 hours. The toxicity indexes of waters were calculated on the basis of the following test-reactions: spiral-like and vector movements, jumping out from water, immobilization and death of fish. Statistical processing of study results were performed using cross-correlation and regression analysis in MS Excel 2007 and Statistica-6. Findings. The study showed an effect of ammonia on the toxicity of waters from reservoirs of the Teteriv river that was determined by atypical motor activity with the use of the «time sampling» method, which consisted in the instantaneous fixation of the number of individuals that favored one or another act of behavior. It was shown that females not adapted to the action of ammonia reacted to its concentration in water of more than 0.55 mg/dm3 by disorders in movements. Unlike fish of experience groups, only single pathological acts were observed in the control group. A positive moderate relationship, which had a tendency to an increase, was

  2. BAFRA BALIK GÖLÜ'NDE YAŞAYAN HAVUZ BALIĞI,Carassius gibelio (BLOCH, 1782'NUN KONDİSYON FAKTÖRÜ VE BOY-AĞIRLIK İLİŞKİSİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

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    Derya BOSTANCI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Bu çalışmada, Bafra Balık Gölü'ndeki Havuz balığının (Carassius gibelio kondisyon faktörü ve boy-ağırlık ilişkisini belirlemek amacıyla, Ocak 2000-Eylül 2002 tarihleri arasında aylık olarak örneklenen 173 birey incelenmiştir. Populasyonda 168 ♀ (% 97.11, 5 ♂ (% 2.89 birey bulunmaktadır. Populasyonun çatal boy dağılımı 16.9-30 cm arasında, ağırlık dağılımı ise 125-730 g arasında değişmiş, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi W = 0.0265 L2,978 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Kondisyon faktörü ise 1.976–3.776 arasında değişmiş ve ortalama kondisyon faktörü 2.494±0.018 olarak belirlenmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Carassius gibelio, Kondisyon faktörü, Boy-ağırlık ilişkisi, Bafra Balık Gölü DETERMINATION OF CONDITION FACTOR AND LENGTH-WEİGHT RELATIONSHIP OF THE CRUCIAN CARP, Carassıus gıbelıo (BLOCH, 1782 INHABITING BAFRA FISH LAKE Abstract: In this study, it is examined the crucian carp (Carassius gibelio which is captured by montly sampling during the period of January 2000 to September 2002 in the Bafra Fish Lake to investigate for the condition factor and length-weight relationship. There are 168 ♀ (% 97.11, 5 ♂ (% 2.89 specimens in the population. The fork length distribution from 16.9 to 30 cm and weight varied between of 125 to 730 g; length-weight relationship was calculated as W = 0.0265 L2.978. Condition factors varied from 1.976 to 3.776 and the mean condition factors were determined as 2.494±0.018. Key words: Carassius gibelio, Condition factor, Length-weight relationship, Bafra Fish Lake

  3. Eğirdir Gölü'nde Gümüşi Havuz Balığı, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 Avcılığında Kullanılan Monofilament Fanyalı Ağların Seçiciliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram KORKMAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been investigated that the characteristics of the selectivity of monofilament trammel nets having 50, 55, 60 mm bar length. This study was carried out on prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782 caught in Lake Eğirdir. An indirect method developed by Holt (1963 was used for determining the selectivity parameters. Common selection factor as SF=4.753 and common standard deviation as SD=2.347 were calculated for monofilament trammel nets. Common selection factor used of the optimum catch lengths of prussian carp in 50, 55 and 60 mm bar length were 23.77; 26.14 and 28.52 cm respectively. The optimum catch lengths were compared with lenghts at first maturity of prussian carp in Lake Eğirdir. Trammel nets of this study do not cause the overfishing on the prussian carp stock

  4. 额尔齐斯河2种类型雌性银鲫的形态特征及D-loop基因序列比较%Comparative analysis between two types of female silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Irtysh River using morphology and mitochondrial control regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马波; 霍堂斌; 李喆; 蔡林钢; 阿达可白克可尔江; 姜作发

    2013-01-01

    Two types of female silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio were discovered in the main stem of the Irtysh Rive (the Crop 185) in May 2008. We defined them as high-dorsal silver crucian carp (1.78−2.14) and low-dorsal silver crucian carp (2.18−2.39) based on differences in their morphology (body length/body depth). The number of lateral line scales in the high and low-dorsal silver crucian carp is 31 and 30, respectively. The number of scales above (or below) the lateral line is 7 (6), the number of scales above (or below) the lateral line in the caudal peduncle is 3 (2). High-dorsal silver crucian carp exhibit a size advantage based on the significant differ-ence in body depth and width, head depth and width, and caudal peduncle depth (P<0.01) between high and low-dorsal silver crucian carp. The mean weight of high-dorsal silver crucian carp is 1.3−1.9 times that of low-dorsal silver crucian carp. A comparison of the mitochondrial control region sequences of the two types re-vealed that each has one haplotype, thus representing intraspecific variation with a low genetic diversity value (0.004). The two types and Fangzheng silver crucian carp in the Heilongjiang River are monophylic, and share the same haplotype with Fangzheng silver crucian carp. Accordingly, we speculate that the Irtysh silver crucian carps are derived from the Heilongjiang River basin. Our observations suggest the two types of C. a. gibelio, particularly the high-dorsal silver crucian carp, have a growth advantage over other crucian carps. Given this, they offer greater potential as breeding stock. Our results provide a theoretical basis for better conservation and utilization of the unique varieties of Irtysh River silver crucian carp.%  2008年5月调查发现,在额尔齐斯河主河道(185团)的雌性银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)群体中存在2种形态类型,按照体长比体高的形态学性状区分,分别为高背型(1.78~2.14)和低背型(2.18~2.39).形态学分

  5. Carassius auratus gibelio—the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2010), s. 176-180 ISSN 2075-1117 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/55/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : invasive alien fish * Carassius auratus gibelio * sex ratio * ploidy status * impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

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    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  7. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  8. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formicki, Grzegorz; Stawarz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m 2 for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m 2 for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation

  9. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicki, Grzegorz [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: formicki@ap.krakow.pl; Stawarz, Robert [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)

    2006-10-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation.

  10. Glycogen dynamics of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in prolonged anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2016-12-01

    Mobilization of glycogen stores was examined in the anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linnaeus). Winter-acclimatized fish were exposed to anoxia for 1, 3, or 6 weeks at 2 °C, and changes in the size of glycogen deposits were followed. After 1 week of anoxia, a major part of the glycogen stores was mobilized in liver (79.5 %) and heart (75.6 %), and large decreases occurred in gill (46.7 %) and muscle (45.1 %). Brain was an exception in that its glycogen content remained unchanged. The amount of glycogen degraded during the first anoxic week was sufficient for the anaerobic ethanol production for more than 6 weeks of anoxia. After 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, there was little further degradation of glycogen in other tissues except the brain where the stores were reduced by 30.1 and 49.9 % after 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, respectively. One week of normoxic recovery following the 6-week anoxia was associated with a complete replenishment of the brain glycogen and partial recovery of liver, heart, and gill glycogen stores. Notably, the resynthesis of glycogen occurred at the expense of the existing energy reserves of the body in fasting fish. These findings indicate that in crucian carp, glycogen stores are quickly mobilized after the onset of anoxia, with the exception of the brain whose glycogen stores may be saved for putative emergency situations.

  11. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

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    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  12. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  13. Autochthonous cheeses of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Zlatan Sarić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the migration of people towards cities, autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina survived. Technologies of these cheeses are simple and adapted to humble mountain limitations. Geographical occasions and rich mountain pastures created a certain participation of ewe's milk cheeses. Communicative isolation of hilly-mountain regions resulted in "closed" cheese production in small households. Autochthonous cheeses in Bosnia and Herzegovina have various origins. Different cheeses are produced in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are : Travnički cheese, Masni (fat cheese, Presukača, Sirac, Livanjski cheese, Posni (lean cheese, "Suvi" (dry cheese or "Mješinski" full fat cheese matured in sheepskin bag, fresh sour milk cheese "Kiseli" and dried sour milk cheese "Kiseli", Zajednica, Basa, Kalenderovački cheese and goat's milk cheeses (Hard and White soft goat's milk cheese, "Zarica" and Urda. Besides above-mentioned types of cheese in Bosnia and Herzegovina some other autochthonous dairy products are produced: Kajmak (Cream, Maslo (Rendered butter and Zimsko kiselo mlijeko (Winter sour milk. The specificity in Bosnia and Herzegovina is that autochthonous dairy products are still mainly both produced and consumed in small rural households. Exceptions are Travnički cheese and Kajmak that are significantly sold at market. Only Livanjski cheese is manufactured as industry dairy product.

  14. Autochthonous Leprosy without Armadillo Exposure, Eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendini, Tina; Levis, William

    2017-11-01

    Autochthonous leprosy has been reported in New York City, where there are no wild armadillos. Recent autochthonous cases also have been reported in Georgia and Florida and blamed on armadillos, including cases with no known armadillo exposure. International migration needs to be considered as a cause of autochthonous leprosy.

  15. Filamoeba sinensis sp. n., a second species of the genus Filamoeba Page, 1967, isolated from gills of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan; Dvořáková, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2005), s. 75-80 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Filamoeba sinensis sp. n. * morphology * phylogeny Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2005

  16. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerbik, P.; Mikolajczyk, T.; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M.; Socha, M.; Chyb, J.; Epler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g -1 of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g -1 ) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g -1 ) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g -1 did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g -1 ) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes

  17. The effect of ploidy and temporal changes in the biochemical profile of gibel carp (Carassius gibelio): a cyprinid fish species with dual reproductive strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Šimková, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2013), s. 171-180 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/09/P620; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biochemical profile of blood * Gibel carp * Ploidy * Temporal variability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2013

  18. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: A case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Vojtek, L.; Halačka, Karel; Hyršl, P.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Cyprinids * Blood biochemistry * Hematology * Immunity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.893, year: 2015

  19. Effects of various feeding patterns of Bacillus coagulans on growth performance, antioxidant response and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway in juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yebing; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Aimin; Yang, Wenping; Lv, Fu; Liu, Fei; Liu, Bo; Sun, Cunxin

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various Bacillus coagulans feeding patterns on growth, antioxidant parameter and Nrf2 pathway in juvenile gibel carp. The similar size of gibel carp (initial weight: 14.33 ± 0.15 g) were subjected to three levels of B. coagulans supplementation (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) and two feeding modes (supplementing B. coagulans continuously or for two days of B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. The fish that were continuously fed 500 mg/kg B. coagulans (P2) and those fed the first basal diet for 5 days followed by 500 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg B.coagulans for 2 days (P4 or P5) showed higher weight gain rate and specific growth rate than the other groups. Blood respiratory burst (RB), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and anti-superoxide anion free radical (AFASER) activities in the P4 group were higher than those of the control. White blood cell count (WBC), RB activity, MPO activity, and glutathione (GSH) content in the P5 group were also higher than those of the control. A similar higher trend was observed in the gene expressions of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NFE2-related factor (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein(Keap1) in the P4 and NOX2, NRF2, CNC homolog 1 (Bach1), peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) in the P5 group compared with the control. Additionally, we observed a significantly lower level of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a higher level of MPO, higher GPX activity, and increased NRF2 and Prx2 expression were all observed in the P2 treatment group compared with the control. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the P2, P3, and P4 groups was lower than that of the control. These results indicate that a diet supplemented with appropriate levels of B.coagulans could improve the growth, immune response, and antioxidant capability of gibel carp. We concluded that the pattern of two days of 500 or 1000 mg/kg B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet was recommended for gibel carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Long temporal study of parasitism in asexual-sexual populations of Carassius gibelio: Does the parasite infection support coevolutionary Red Queen dynamics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakosta, T.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Šimková, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2018 (2018), č. článku 6983740. ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : River floodplain * Fish * Adaptation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Fishery Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  1. A Long temporal study of parasitism in asexual-sexual populations of Carassius gibelio: Does the parasite infection support coevolutionary Red Queen dynamics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakosta, T.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Šimková, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2018 (2018), č. článku 6983740. ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : River floodplain * Fish * Adaptation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  2. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  3. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  4. The toxicity of copper to crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in soft water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjolden, Joachim [Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, Ullevalsveien 72, N-0033, Oslo (Norway); Sorensen, Jorgen [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway); Nilsson, Goeran E. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2007-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a Cu rich medium (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l, approximately 300 {mu}g Cu{sup 2+}/l). Untreated department water (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l) acted as control. Mortality in crucian carp was first observed after 13 days of exposure to the Cu rich medium. There were, however, significant changes in haematocrit, plasma chloride, plasma sodium and water content in muscle in fish exposed to the Cu rich medium after two days. After 14 days of exposure to copper, haematocrit increased to 52 {+-} 2% (control: between 37 and 40%), plasma chloride decreased to 45 {+-} 5 mmol/l (control: 99-106 mmol/l), plasma sodium decreased to 81 {+-} 6 mmol/l (control: 116-137 mmol/l), and water content in muscle increased to 83.0 {+-} 0.3% (control: 78.7-79.9%). No apparent changes in blood ethanol, and minor changes in plasma lactate were observed in copper exposed fish. Analyses of the gills revealed an increasing concentration of copper on the gills from fish exposed to Cu rich water. After 14 days, the concentration of copper accumulated in the gill was 12.8 {+-} 4.1 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight (control: 0.91-1.19 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight). A reduction of the respiratory area in fish exposed to copper was observed, in terms of both lamellar and filamental fusion. The normoxic O{sub 2} uptake did not change, but the critical oxygen tension was elevated to 6.12 {+-} 1.04 mg O{sub 2}/l after a 6 day exposure to copper (control: 1.03 {+-} 0.05 mg O{sub 2}/l). This study shows that crucian carp has a higher tolerance to copper compared to other freshwater fish species. Our results suggest that this tolerance is based on the ability of crucian carp to avoid becoming hypoxic as well as an extreme tolerance to severe loss of plasma ions.

  5. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  6. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G.

    2014-01-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels

  7. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G. [Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels.

  8. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp.

  9. Autochthonous leptospirosis in South-East Austria, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Wallner, Carina; Allerberger, Franz; Schmoll, Friedrich; Seeber, Katharina; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Flick, Holger; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the world's mostly spread zoonoses causing acute fever. Over years, leptospirosis has been reported to occur rarely in Austria and Germany (annual incidence of 0.06/100,000 in Germany). Only imported cases have been on the increase. Objectives of this case-series study were to retrospectively assess epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of leptospirosis illnesses in South-East Austria, to describe risk exposures for autochthonous infections, and to compare patients with imported versus autochthonous infection. During the 9-year period between 2004 and 2012, 127 adult patients (49 females, 78 males) who tested positive by rapid point-of-care test for Leptospira-specific IgM (Leptocheck®) were identified through electronic hospital databases. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 82 patients. A total of 114 (89.8%) of the 127 patients enrolled had acquired leptospirosis within Austria and 13 (10.2%) had potentially imported infections. Most autochthonous cases were diagnosed during the months of June and July, whereas fewest were diagnosed during the winter months. Exposure to rodents, recreational activities in woods or wet areas, gardening, cleaning of basements or huts were the most common risk exposures found in autochthonous infection. Serogroups Australis (n = 23), Sejroe (n = 22), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 11) were identified most frequently by MAT testing in autochthonous infections. Patients with imported leptospirosis were significantly younger, less likely to be icteric and had significantly lower liver transaminase levels (p = 0.004) than those with autochthonous infections. Leptospirosis is endemic in South-East Austria. In contrast to reports from other countries we found a relatively high proportion of leptospirosis cases to be female (39% vs. ∼ 10%), likely the result of differing risk exposures for South-East Austria.

  10. The high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poléo, Antonio B S; Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5.8; 960 μg Al/l), acidic Al-poor water (pH 5.8; 50 μg Al/l) or untreated control water (pH 6.5; 50 μg Al/l). Blood, muscle and gill samples were collected from exposed fish, and closed respirometry was performed to measure critical O2-tension an normoxic O2-consumption. The results show an increased gill surface area in Al-exposed fish, while the critical O2-tension did not change. The normoxic O2-consumption was lower in Al-exposed fish and might be due to a reduced metabolic rate. The results suggest that crucian carp exposed to aluminium do not become hypoxic, since haematocrit, plasma lactate and blood ethanol did not differ from that of control fish after 14 days of exposure. We also observed an initial loss of plasma chloride and sodium, followed by a stabilisation of these ions at a lower level than in control fish. The decrease in plasma ions caused a transient increase in haematocrit and water content in muscle tissue, returning to control levels when the ion concentrations stabilised, suggesting that the water balance was restored. We conclude that the high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia as well as an ability to counteract a continuous loss of plasma ions.

  11. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  13. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  14. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L; Action des hormones neurohypophysaires sur les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-06-25

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [French] Nous avons mesure les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus a l'aide de radiosodium 24. L'action d'extraits neuro-hypophysaires d'origine diverse a ete comparee a celle d'injection temoin de chlorure de sodium isotonique, aussi bien sur les flux d'entree et de sortie de sodium que sur l'excretion urinaire. De ces experiences faites in vivo, nous pouvons tirer les conclusions suivantes: 1 - L'extrait neurohypophysaire de Carassius auratus provoque une augmentation du flux d'entree de sodium au niveau de la branchie de cet animal alors que le flux de sortie reste inchange. Cet extrait semble plus actif qu'une dose d'ocytocine egale a son activite ocytocique propre. Parmi les hormones neurohypophysaires de mammiferes, seule l'ocytocine (a forte dose) produit une action analogue a celle decrite ci-dessus. L'extrait de Rana esculenta reste sans action. Nous en avons conclu a l'existence dans la neurohypophyse de Carassius auratus d'un facteur hormonal agissant au niveau de la branchie pour controler l'osmoregulation de ce poisson. 2 - Les extraits neurohypophysaires de Carassius auratus entrainent chez l'animal une augmentation de la diurese et de la concentration de sodium de l'urine. Cependant cette action reste discrete et fugace. Les hormones de mammiferes, et les extraits neurohypophysaires d'amphibiens restent sans action. 3 - D'autres auteurs ont montre que chez les amphibiens, l'action des hormones neurohypophysaires se traduit a la fois par une augmentation du transport actif de sodium a travers la peau et par un desequilibre de la balance hydrique (augmentation du

  15. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  16. Development of an autochthonous starter culture for spreadable goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia FRAU

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to select strains of LAB autochthonous from Santiago del Estero to formulate a starter culture for making spreadable goat cheese. Four strains were selected: CRL1799 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high acidifying activity, CRL1803 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high proteolytic activity, CRL1808 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus with production of exopolysaccharide and CRL1785 (Enterococcus faecium with diacetyl-acetoin production. The selected strains showed qualities that make them useful as starter culture in the elaboration of spreadable cheese. This starter culture is an alternative that allows obtaining differentiated products. The inclusion of CRL1808 strains seems to improve the rheology and texture, excluding the use of additives.

  17. AUTOCHTHONOUS APPROACHING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE SECURITY RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtescu Emil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimal management for a corporation, no matter what size the corporation is, it must contain the management of the security risk. On the importance that is given to the risk management can depend the well functioning of the corporation. An important role in this process has the owner of the business and the way that this one understands the risk. A good understanding of the risk by the owner will have as effect the allocation of sufficient funds to implement controls meant to bring the risk level in order to be an acceptable one. The autochthonous corporations, in a great part even because of the inexistence of reglementations in this domain, have an empiric approach of the phenomena.

  18. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-01-01

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [fr

  19. Erythrocyte profile of diploid and triploid silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2006), s. 203-207 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carassius auratus * complete red blood count * erythrocyte nuclear dimensions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol75/75-203.pdf

  20. Autochthonous Chikungunya Transmission and Extreme Climate Events in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, David; Boussès, Philippe; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding and mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community and public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased and extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. We report results from close monitoring of the adult and egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species and extension of the transmission period. Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change and extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics and the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood.

  1. Assessment of Caesium -137 accumulation from soil to autochthonous weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Chari, M.; Karuna Sagar, G.; Manjaiah, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted at Nuclear Research Laboratory (NRL), IARI, New Delhi to obtain radio cesium ( 137 Cs) Soil-to-plant transfer factors of autochthonous weeds at low level of contamination, where contamination is a legacy of experimental activities. Studied area is sporadically covered with autochthonous weeds mainly with Amaranthus viridis, Cynodon dactylon, Cassia auriculata, Brachiaria mutica, Parthenium hysterophorus, Bohervia diffusa and some taxonomically unidentified weeds. Extractability as well as bioavailability of 137 Cs was quantified by sequential extraction. In the representative plant and soil samples, 137 Cs activity was measured directly with the 2.5” × 2.5” NaI (TI) well type detector installed in 15 cm thick lead shield and single channel gamma analyzer. Transfer factors of grassy weeds were 0.143 to 0.310 (1.43 × 10 -2 to 3.1 × 10 -2 ), for broad leaved weeds 0.103 to 0.133 (1.03 × 10 -2 to 1.33 × 10 -2 ). Increase in the activity levels increased the transfer factors of weeds. Irrespective of activity levels higher transfer factors were observed in roots ranging from 0.13 to 0.28 (1. 3 × 10 -1 to 2.8 × 10 -1 ). At both the levels (40 and 80 µci) Cynodon dactylon recorded higher root and shoot transfer factor of 2.99 and 0.29 respectively, when compared to other weeds. Significantly lower transfer factors were observed in Parthenium hysterophorus. Geochemical partitioning shown that the reducible phase (56%) is the largest sink for 137 Cs in the studied soils

  2. Evaluation of autochthonous micrococcus strains as starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z; Huang, S; Ai, Z W; Zhang, M; Zhai, S; Chen, X

    2016-03-01

    The technological properties of 22 micrococcus strains from traditional fermented Kedong sufu were evaluated in order to develop autochthonous starter cultures. The proteolytic, autolytic and lipolytic activity, salt tolerance, production and degradation of the biogenic amines of six Micrococcus luteus, nine Kocuria kristinae and seven Kocuria rosea were evaluated. The results indicated that these micrococcus strains exhibited a certain technological diversity, and the results also indicated the best properties to be used in mixed starter cultures. Based on the above findings, two sets of autochthonous starters were formulated. Considering the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sufu, the maturation period of sufu was shortened by 30 days. The profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured using autochthonous mixed starters. Compared to back-slopping fermentation, sufu manufactured with selected autochthonous starter cultures exhibited lower levels of total biogenic amines. The selected strains could be used as starter to avoid the accumulation of high concentrations of biogenic amines while also maintaining typical sensory characteristics and preserving the autochthonous strains of the traditional Kedong sufu. The maturation times of Kedong sufu were shortened by 30 days with application of the autochthonous starter. Autochthonous mixed starters can reduce the generation of biogenic amines, speed up the sufu maturation process and preserve typical sensory quality. Furthermore, the rotation of two sets of mixed starter cultures can effectively resist phage attack during the production of sufu. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Morphogenic variability of some autochthonous plum cultivars in western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Milosevic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted over a period of two years in a Western Serbian valley included in situ identification of autochthonous plum cultivars. Observation and recording of their phenological and pomological traits were performed using IBPGR and UPOV methodologies. Fifteen cultivars derived from Prunus domestica L. and two cultivars derived from P. insititia L. were identified. Flowering started between 24 March and 7 April and fruit ripening between 12 July (Petrovača and 16 September (Trnovača. Fruit weight ranged from 6.79± 0.018 to 36.62± 0.251 g and stone weight from 0.14± 0.002 to 1.95± 0.023 g. The cultivars were classified as being extremely small in terms of fruit size. Rounded fruit shape and light-yellow ground colour were dominant. Skin colour ranged from amber to black. Yellow green was a dominant flesh colour and medium flesh firmness predominated. The fruits of the above cultivars could be processed, particularly into plum brandy, or they could be used fresh or dried. The selected plum cultivars can be used both in breeding programmes and as rootstocks as well as in further disease-related systematic studies under field and laboratory conditions.

  4. Autochthonous human alveolar echinococcosis in a Hungarian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezsényi, Balázs; Strausz, Tamás; Makrai, Zita; Csomor, Judit; Danka, József; Kern, Peter; Rezza, Giovanni; Barth, Thomas F E; Casulli, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease causing a severe clinical condition and is known as the most deadly of all helminth infections. Moreover, this disease is also an increasing concern in Northern and Eastern Europe due to its spread in the wildlife animal host. An asymptomatic 70-year-old woman from south-western Hungary was diagnosed with multiple liver lesions. Imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging), serology (ELISA, indirect hemagglutination and Western blot), and conventional staining methods (hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff) were used for the detection of the disease. A histopathological re-evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin block by immunohistochemical staining with the monoclonal antibody Em2G11 definitively confirmed the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed autochthonous case of human alveolar echinococcosis in Hungary. To what extent diagnostic difficulties may contribute to underestimate this zoonosis in Eastern Europe is unknown. Differential diagnosis with alveolar echinococcosis should be considered for patients with multiple, tumor-like cystic lesions of the liver, in countries where this parasite is emerging.

  5. Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and β-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations.

  6. Application of autochthonous mixed starter for controlled Kedong sufu fermentation in pilot plant tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Xu, Miao; Zhai, Shuang; Chen, Hong; Li, Ai-li; Lv, Xin-tong; Deng, Hong-ling

    2015-01-01

    Traditional sufu is fermented by back-slopping and back-slopping has many defects. The objective of this study was to apply autochthonous mixed starter to control Kedong sufu fermentation. Sufu was manufactured using back-slopping (batch A) and autochthonous mixed starter (batch B) with Kocuria kristinae F7, Micrococcus luteus KDF1, and Staphylococcus carnosus KDFR1676. Considering physicochemical properties of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B met the standard requirements, respectively. Considering sensory characteristics of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The maturation period of sufu was shortened by 60 d. Profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of typical sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured by autochthonous mixed starter. In final products, content of total biogenic amines was reduced by 48%. Autochthonous mixed starter performed better than back-slopping. Fermentation had a positive influence on the quality, safety, and sensory properties of sufu. The application of autochthonous mixed starter does not change the sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sufu. In addition, it reduces maturation period and improves their homogeneity and safety. It is possible to substitute autochthonous mixed starter for back-slopping in the manufacture of sufu. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  8. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic resources of autochthonous fruit species and varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keserović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the plentitude of genetic resources of indigenous varieties of fruit species and their importance for further development of fruit growing, especially from the aspect of breeding new varieties resistant to pathogens and abiotic stress conditions (frost, drought, sunburns, etc.. Economic significance and importance in the human nutrition, as a raw or processed fruitage, were stated as well. Based on the unique biodiversity, the Balkan Peninsula can be considered as a secondary center of divergence for a large number of fruit species, such as Malus x domestica, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. fruticosa, P. amygdalus, P. nana, Juglans regia, Corilus colurna, Corilus avellana, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Cornus mas. The old indigenous and domesticated varieties and natural populations of fruit species on the Balkan Peninsula have never been the subject of comprehensive research work on their collecting and studying. Serbia has no national scientific institution that takes care of genetic resources. Nowadays, the issue of preserving genetic resources is of great importance because, due to the intensification and modernization of plant production, many local populations have disappeared or are reduced to a small number of biotypes. The varieties with huge genetic and breeding value have disappeared forever without any possibility of their return. By importing high quality fruit varieties, we imported many diseases and various pests as well. New varieties intended for intensive cultivation require the application of expensive growing technologies. The systematic scientific work on the study of wild fruit species and autochthonous varieties is of the great interest for fruit science and practice in the future. The establishment of in situ collections with the aim to preserve valuable genetic material is mandatory. In the following period, indigenous and domesticated varieties

  10. An autochthonous geological model for the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive

  11. Many branches, one root: First evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2010), s. 36-41 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Goldfish * Carassius auratus * Phylogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.044, year: 2010

  12. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-04-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate.

  13. Effect of competitive exclusion in rabbits using an autochthonous probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal nutrition has been severely challenged by the ban on antimicrobials as growth promoters. This has fostered the study of alternative methods to avoid colonisation by pathogenic bacteria as well as to improve the growth of animals and feed conversion efficiency. These new options should not alter the normal intestinal microbiota, or affect it as little as possible. The use of probiotics, which are live microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, can be seen as a promising way to achieve that goal. In this study, New Zealand White rabbits were fed diets containing an autochthonous probiotic of Enterococcus spp., with the strains EaI, EfaI and EfaD, and Escherichia coli, with the strains ECI 1, ECI 2 and ECD, during a 25-d trial, to evaluate the impact of the probiotic on the faecal microbiota, including population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance profiles. A control group of rabbits, which was fed a diet containing a commonly used mixture of antimicrobials (colistin, oxytetracycline, and valnemulin, was also studied. To assess the colonisation ability of the mentioned probiotic, the faecal microbiota of the rabbits was characterised up to 10 d after the administration had ended. Isolates of enterococci and E. coli were studied for phylogenetic relationships using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, respectively. Although partially affected by an unexpected clinical impairment suffered by the rabbits in the experimental group, our results showed the following. The difference between the growth rate of the animals treated with antimicrobials and those fed the probiotic was not statistically significant (P> 0.05. The competitive exclusion product was present in the faecal samples in a large proportion, but stopped being recovered by culture as soon as the administration ended and the housing conditions were changed

  14. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W.; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A.

    1996-01-01

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefore special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [de

  15. The Effect of Autochthonous Starter Culture, Sugars and Temperature on the Fermentation of Slavonian Kulen

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    Krešimir Mastanjević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of an isolated and well-characterised autochthonous starter culture, glucose and maltodextrin (w=0.8 % and temperatures of 12 and 20 °C on fermentation and quality of Slavonian kulen produced using the traditional technology and recipe were investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out after 20 days of fermentation. Upon the completion of the production process (90 days, a sensory analysis was carried out. Furthermore, pH value was continuously measured throughout the twenty-day fermentation period. The addition of an autochthonous starter culture and sugars and diff erent fermentation temperatures significantly (p<0.05 affected the instrumental colour and texture parameters of the Slavonian kulen. The fermentation was most intense in the samples with added autochthonous starter culture and 0.8 % glucose, and fermented at 20 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that samples with added autochthonous starter culture and fermented at higher temperature contained a higher number of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative staphylococci and were safe. Sensory evaluation confirmed the outcomes of physicochemical and microbiological analyses and showed differences among samples fermented at two different temperatures and with added glucose or maltodextrin and an autochthonous starter culture.

  16. High light intensity mediates a shift from allochthonous to autochthonous carbon use in phototrophic stream biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karoline; Bengtsson, Mia M.; Findlay, Robert H.; Battin, Tom J.; Ulseth, Amber J.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the riparian vegetation along stream channels, diurnal light availability, and longitudinal fluctuations in the local light regime in streams influence primary production and carbon (C) cycling in benthic stream biofilms. To investigate the influence of light availability on the uptake dynamics of autochthonous and allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in benthic biofilms, we experimentally added 13C-labeled allochthonous DOC to biofilms grown under light intensities ranging from 5 to 152 μmol photons m-2 s-1. We calculated the net C flux, which showed that benthic biofilms released autochthonous DOC across the entire light gradient. Light availability and diurnal light patterns influenced C uptake by benthic biofilms. More allochthonous DOC was respired under low light availability and at night, whereas under high light availability and during the day mainly autochthonous C was respired by the benthic biofilm community. Furthermore, phenol oxidase activity (indicative of allochthonous DOC uptake) was more elevated under low light availability, whereas beta-glucosidase activity (indicative of autochthonous DOC use) increased with light intensity. Collectively, our results suggest that biofilms exposed to high light inputs preferentially used autochthonous DOC, whereas biofilms incubated at attenuated levels showed greater use of allochthonous DOC. This has implications for the spatial dynamics of DOC uptake in streams and speaks against the occurrence of priming effects in algal-dominated stream biofilms.

  17. Enzymatic complex in diets for gold fish fingerlings (Carassius auratusComplexo enzimático na dieta de alevinos de kinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Augusto Signor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the enzymatic complex supplementation in diets for goldfish fingerlings (Carassius auratus, 240 fish weighing initially 1,36 ± 0,02g, randomly distributed in 20 tanks with 150L, in four treatments and five replications, with twelve fish in each experimental unit were used. The fish were fed at 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 and 5:00 p.m. with diets containing different inclusion levels (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% of enzymatic complex (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, ?-glucanase and phytase, and formulated with 32,36% of digestible protein and 3.023kcal of digestible energy kg-1. There were no differences observed (P>0,05 in the mean final weight, weight gain, total length, standard length, survival and carcass composition. However, the fish apparent feed conversion was impaired by the supplementation of enzymatic complex with 0,099% in diet. The use of enzymatic complex does not provides benefits in the productive performance for goldfish fingerlings. Objetivando avaliar a suplementação de complexo enzimático em dietas de alevinos de kinguios (Carassius auratus, foram utilizados 240 peixes com peso inicial de 1,36 ± 0,02g, distribuídos aleatoriamente, em 20 tanques de 150L, em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, com 12 peixes em cada unidade experimental. Os peixes foram arraçoados as 8h, 11h, 14h e 17h, com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% de complexo enzimático (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, b-glucanase e fitase, e formuladas para conter 32,36% de proteína digestível e 3.023kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, sobrevivência e composição de carcaça. No entanto, a conversão alimentar aparente dos peixes alimentados com rações contendo 0,099% do complexo enzimático foi inferior em relação aos alimentados com as demais dietas. Conclui-se que a utiliza

  18. Imported dengue cases, weather variation and autochthonous dengue incidence in Cairns, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF outbreaks often arise from imported DF cases in Cairns, Australia. Few studies have incorporated imported DF cases in the estimation of the relationship between weather variability and incidence of autochthonous DF. The study aimed to examine the impact of weather variability on autochthonous DF infection after accounting for imported DF cases and then to explore the possibility of developing an empirical forecast system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDS: Data on weather variables, notified DF cases (including those acquired locally and overseas, and population size in Cairns were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics. A time-series negative-binomial hurdle model was used to assess the effects of imported DF cases and weather variability on autochthonous DF incidence. Our results showed that monthly autochthonous DF incidences were significantly associated with monthly imported DF cases (Relative Risk (RR:1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01-2.28, monthly minimum temperature ((oC (RR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.77-2.93, monthly relative humidity (% (RR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, monthly rainfall (mm (RR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.81 and monthly standard deviation of daily relative humidity (% (RR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08-1.50. In the zero hurdle component, the occurrence of monthly autochthonous DF cases was significantly associated with monthly minimum temperature (Odds Ratio (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01-2.67. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our research suggested that incidences of monthly autochthonous DF were strongly positively associated with monthly imported DF cases, local minimum temperature and inter-month relative humidity variability in Cairns. Moreover, DF outbreak in Cairns was driven by imported DF cases only under favourable seasons and weather conditions in the study.

  19. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  20. Comparison of Sensory Properties, Shelf-Life and Microbiological Safety of Industrial Sausages Produced with Autochthonous and Commercial Starter Cultures

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    Jadranka Frece

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use isolated and characterized autochthonous functional starter cultures from traditional Croatian dry sausages and to evaluate their capacity for industrial production of five sausages (Čajna sausage, Zimska sausage, Bečka sausage, Srijemska sausage and Slavonski kulen. These defined autochthonous functional starter cultures (combination of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains were used to produce five different industrial sausages which were compared by a panel. The viability of introduced autochthonous Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains and their effect on the final product characteristics, namely microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties were monitored. The obtained results indicate that autochthonous starter cultures survived industrial production of sausages and can be used for production of sausages under controlled conditions. Autochthonous starter cultures obtained better results in the organoleptic evaluation, microbial safety and prolonged shelf-life in comparison with commercial starter cultures.

  1. Complete genome sequence and architecture of crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Tao; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-12-01

    Crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) was isolated from diseased crucian carp with acute gill hemorrhages and high mortality. The CaHV genome was sequenced and analyzed. The data showed that it consists of 275,348 bp and contains 150 predicted ORFs. The architecture of the CaHV genome differs from those of four cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV1, CyHV2, SY-C1, CyHV3), with insertions, deletions and the absence of a terminal direct repeat. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA polymerase sequences of 17 strains of Herpesvirales members, and the concatenated 12 core ORFs from 10 strains of alloherpesviruses showed that CaHV clustered together with members of the genus Cyprinivirus, family Alloherpesviridae.

  2. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  3. Variation in myelin lipid composition induced by change in environmental temperature of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivonchick, D.P.; Roots, B.I.

    1976-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 30/sup 0/C, and the lipid and protein composition of brain and spinal cord myelin was determined. Goldfish myelin contains less galactolipid, but more protein and phospholipid than mammalian and bird myelin. Phosphatidyl choline was the predominant phospholipid in both brain and spinal cord myelin. Fish myelin also showed a greater plasmalogen content with an average ethanolamine plasmalogen/total phosphatidyl ethanolamine ratio of 0.84. Total brain and myelin lipids, with the exception of plasmalogens, showed a resistance to change with thermal acclimation. Differences between brain and spinal cord myelin protein and phospholipids were not observed. It is suggested that temperature acclimation in poikilotherms may be used as a tool in the study of membrane adaptability.

  4. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  5. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Steinbauer, V.; D'Amico, G.; Mihalca, A. D.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 11 (2016), s. 4167-4171 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hepatozoon canis * dogs * red fox es * Czech Republic * autochthonous infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  6. CRYOPRESERVATION OF RAM SPERM FROM AUTOCHTHONOUS BREEDS DURING A NON-MATING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milko SABEV

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to collect and successfully cryopreserve ejaculates in a non-mating season from rams of the autochthonous breeds Karakachan, Cooper-red Shumen and Karnobat-local, raised in Bulgaria. Studies are in progress aiming the elaboration of optimal cryoprotective extenders and freezing technology.

  7. Autochthonous Heritage Languages and Social Media: Writing and Bilingual Practices in Low German on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reershemius, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how speakers of an autochthonous heritage language (AHL) make use of digital media, through the example of Low German, a regional language used by a decreasing number of speakers mainly in northern Germany. The focus of the analysis is on Web 2.0 and its interactive potential for individual speakers. The study therefore…

  8. Dirofilaria repens: emergence of autochthonous human infections in the Czech Republic (case reports)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Chanová, M.; Modrý, David; Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Žampachová, V.; Kolářová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 19 (2016), č. článku 171. ISSN 1471-2334 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dirofilaria repens * Human dirofilariasis * Emerging disease * Autochthonous diseases in Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.768, year: 2016

  9. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (pCDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (pCDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat? for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.; Lewbart, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production i...

  11. Changes of ploidy and sexuality status of "Carassius auratus" populations in the drainage area of the River Dyje (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Lusk, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 165-171 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Carassius auratus * goldfish * ploidy status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...... was registered, and virus could not be re-isolated from goldfish or carp bath-challenged with any of the isolates in the panel....

  13. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive, catalase-negative and asporogenous bacterial strains were selected for a more detailed characterization. Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were determined to be homofermentative cocci and four heterofermentative lactobacilli. Further phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed that those were two different LAB strains with high acidifying and proteolytic activity, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These two autochthonous strains, alone or in combination with commercial starter, were used to produce different types of fresh cheese, which were evaluated by a panel. Conventional culturing, isolation, identification and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE procedures, applied to the total fresh cheese DNA extracts, were employed to define and monitor the viability of the introduced LAB strains and their effect on the final product characteristics. Production of fresh cheese using a combination of commercial starter culture and selected autochthonous strains resulted in improved sensorial properties, which were more similar to the ones of spontaneously fermented fresh cheese than to those of cheese produced with only starter culture or selected strains. After 10 days of storage, that cheese retained the best sensorial properties in comparison with all other types of cheese. The presence of inoculated autochthonous and starter cultures and their identification was demonstrated by DGGE analysis. The obtained

  14. Comparison of autochthonous and imported cases of hepatitis A or hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, J; Kreuels, B; Polywka, S; Addo, M; Luethgehetmann, M; Dandri, M; Dammermann, W; Sterneck, M; Lohse, A W; Pischke, S

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis A and hepatitis E are not limited to tropical countries but are also present in industrialized countries. Both infections share similar clinical features. There is no comparative study evaluating the clinical parameters of autochthonous and imported hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine differences between autochthonous and imported hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections. Medical charts of all patients at our center with acute HAV and HEV infections were analyzed retrospectively (n = 50, study period 01/2009 - 08/2013). Peak bilirubin (median 8.6 vs. 4.4 mg/dL, p = 0.008) and ALT levels (median 2998 vs. 1666 IU/mL, p = 0.04) were higher in patients with hepatitis A compared to hepatitis E. In comparison to autochthones hepatitis E cases, patients with imported infections had significantly higher peak values for AST, ALT, bilirubin and INR (p = 0.009, p = 0.002, p = 0.04 and p = 0.049, respectively). In HAV infection, AST levels tended to be higher in imported infections (p = 0.08). (i) It is not possible to differentiate certainly between acute HAV and HEV infections by clinical or biochemical parameters, however, HAV infections might be associated with more cholestasis and higher ALT values. (ii) Imported HEV infections are associated with higher transaminases, INR and bilirubin levels compared to autochthonous cases and (iii) imported HAV infections tend to be associated with higher transaminases in comparison to autochthonous cases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  16. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  17. Distinctive effects of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter on CDOM spectra in a tropical lake

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Luciana Pena Mello; Brighenti, Ludmila Silva; Staehr, Peter Anton; Asmala, Eero; Massicotte, Philippe; Tonetta, Denise; Barbosa, Francisco Antônio Rodrigues; Pujoni, Diego; Bezerra-Neto, José Fernandes

    2018-01-01

    Despite the increasing understanding about differences in carbon cycling between temperate and tropical freshwater systems, our knowledge on the importance of organic matter (OM) pools on light absorption properties in tropical lakes is very scarce. We performed a factorial mesocosm experiment in a tropical lake (Minas Gerais, Brazil) to evaluate the effects of increased concentrations of allochthonous and autochthonous OM on the light absorption characteristics of colored dissolved organic m...

  18. Bacterial community dynamic associated with autochthonous bioaugmentation for enhanced Cu phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Oliveira, Tânia; Reis, Izabela; Gomes, Carlos R; Mucha, Ana P

    2017-12-01

    Autochthonous bioaugmentation for metal phytoremediation is still little explored, particularly its application to estuarine salt marshes, but results obtained so far are promising. Nevertheless, understanding the behaviour of the microbial communities in the process of bioaugmentation and their role in improving metal phytoremediation is very important to fully validate the application of this biological technology. This study aimed to characterize the bacterial community dynamic associated with the application of autochthonous bioaugmentation in an experimentation which showed that Phragmites australis rhizosphere microorganisms could increase this salt marsh plant potential to phytoremediate Cu contaminated sediments. Bacterial communities present in the autochthonous microbial consortium resistant to Cu added to the medium and in the sediment at the beginning and at the end of the experiment were characterized by ARISA. Complementarily, the consortium and the sediment used for its production were characterized by next generation sequencing using the pyrosequencing platform 454. The microbial consortium resistant to Cu obtained from non-vegetated sediment was dominated by the genus Lactococcus (46%), Raoultella (25%), Bacillus (12%) and Acinetobacter (11%), whereas the one obtained form rhizosediment was dominated by the genus Gluconacetobacter (77%), Bacillus (17%) and Dyella (3%). Results clearly showed that, after two months of experiment, Cu caused a shift in the bacterial community structure of sediments, an effect that was observed either with or without addition of the metal resistant microbial consortium. Therefore, bioaugmentation application improved the process of phytoremediation (metal translocation by the plant was increased) without inducing long term changes in the bacterial community structure of the sediments. So, phytoremediation combined with autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a suitable technology for the recovery of estuarine areas

  19. Distinctive effects of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter on CDOM spectra in a tropical lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. M. Brandão

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing understanding about differences in carbon cycling between temperate and tropical freshwater systems, our knowledge on the importance of organic matter (OM pools on light absorption properties in tropical lakes is very scarce. We performed a factorial mesocosm experiment in a tropical lake (Minas Gerais, Brazil to evaluate the effects of increased concentrations of allochthonous and autochthonous OM, and differences in light availability on the light absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. Autochthonous OM deriving from phytoplankton ( ∼  Chl a was stimulated by addition of nutrients, while OM from degradation of terrestrial leaves increased allochthonous OM, and neutral shading was used to manipulate light availability. Effects of the additions and shading on DOC, Chl a, nutrients, total suspended solid concentrations (TSM and spectral CDOM absorption were monitored every 3 days. CDOM quality was characterized by spectral indices (S250–450, S275–295, S350–450, SR and SUVA254. Effects of carbon sources and shading on the spectral CDOM absorption was investigated through principal component (PCA and redundancy (RDA analyses. The two different OM sources affected CDOM quality very differently and shading had minor effects on OM levels, but significant effects on OM quality, especially in combination with nutrient additions. Spectral indices (S250–450 and SR were mostly affected by allochthonous OM addition. The PCA showed that enrichment by allochthonous carbon had a strong effect on the CDOM spectra in the range between 300 and 400 nm, while the increase in autochthonous carbon increased absorption at wavelengths below 350 nm. Our study shows that small inputs of allochthonous OM can have large effects on the spectral light absorption compared to large production of autochthonous OM, with important implications for carbon cycling in tropical lakes.

  20. Multivariate analysis and clustering reveal high morphological diversity in Tunisian autochthonous grapes (Vitis vinifera: insights into characterization, conservation and commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Lamine

    2014-06-01

    Significance and impact of the study: In this investigation, we highlight the importance of importance of breeding programs, commercialization and evaluation of economically valuable characteristics of the highly diverse autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Tunisia.

  1. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Catarina; Almeida, C Marisa R; Nunes da Silva, Marta; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-09-15

    Microbial assisted phytoremediation is a promising, though yet poorly explored, new remediation technique. The aim of this study was to develop autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that could enhance phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with this metal. The microbial consortia were selectively enriched from rhizosediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis. The obtained consortia presented similar microbial abundance but a fairly different community structure, showing that the microbial community was a function of the sediment from which the consortia were enriched. The effect of the bioaugmentation with the developed consortia on cadmium uptake, and the microbial community structure associated to the different sediments were assessed using a microcosm experiment. Our results showed that the addition of the cadmium resistant microbial consortia increased J. maritimus metal phytostabilization capacity. On the other hand, in P. australis, microbial consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. The addition of the consortia did not alter the bacterial structure present in the sediments at the end of the experiments. This study provides new evidences that the development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium might be a simple, efficient, and environmental friendly remediation procedure. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that enhanced phytoremediation by salt-marsh plants, without a long term effect on sediment bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  3. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  4. Efeito da densidade de estocagem do quinguio, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae, em suas fases iniciais de desenvolvimento Stocking density effect on goldfish, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae fry, during its initial development phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Rodrigues Schamber

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem sobre o desenvolvimento do quinguio, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae em suas fases iniciais. Foram utilizados 300 larvas (Lt = 7,00 mm, distribuídas em 20 aquários (12-L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,50; 1,00; 1,50 e 2,00 larvas/L e cinco repetições. A alimentação utilizada foi à base de náuplios de Artemia sp. (fornecida de forma proporcional a densidade e ração com 40% de proteína bruta (fornecida à vontade. Observou-se aumento linear (p0,001 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora os valores de pH tenham apresentado redução linear (pThis experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the goldfish, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae development, during its initial phases. 300 fry (Lt.: 7.00 mm were distributed in 20 12-liter aquariums. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments (0.50; 1.00; 1.50 and 2.00 fry/liter and five replications. Food consisted of Artemia sp nauplii (supplied proportionally to density and rations with 40% raw protein, given ad libitum. While the biomass per aquarium linear increase (p0.001. On the other hand, quadract effect (p 0.001 by the different stocking densities. The physical-chemical parameters rates remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although pH values suffered linear decrease (pCarassius auratus fry culture can use such density during its initial development phases.

  5. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  6. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  8. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  9. Tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Yang, Fan; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Ruichen

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) can induce obesogen response. However, little is known about the adverse effects of TBT on food intake and energy metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/L (1 and 10 ng/L as Sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). After exposure for 54 d, TBT increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. The patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line with potential orexigenic effects, with increased expression of neuropeptide Y and apelin, and decreased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Interestingly, the energy metabolism indicators (oxygen consumption, ammonia exertion and swimming activity) and the serum thyroid hormones were all significantly increased at the 2.44 ng/L TBT group in fish. However, no changes of energy metabolism indicators or a decrease of thyroid hormones was found at the 24.4 ng/L TBT group, which indicated a complex disrupting effect on metabolism of TBT. In short, TBT can alter feeding and energy metabolism in fish, which might promote the obesogenic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  11. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  12. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  14. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  15. Fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus was studied in Lake Trasimeno by analysing the selectivity of the equipment that can be used to control this invasive species. Sampling was conducted monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 by means of electrofishing, fyke-nets and gill-nets of different-sized mesh (22, 25, 28, 35, 40, 50, 70 and 80 mm. The average value of the CPUEs of goldfish caught was 10175.48 g·10−2·m−2 for gill-nets, 246.97 g·h−1 for fyke-nets and 606.50 g·min−1 for electrofishing. The efficiency of electrofishing was not uniform in all periods of the year, the mean CPUEs being highest in spring, when specimens of reproductive age were preferentially caught. Gill-nets yielded abundant catches of goldfish in all seasons, and displayed good sampling efficiency even in winter. With regard to the selectivity of gill-nets, estimated optimum selection lengths for each mesh size were: 11.92 cm, 13.55 cm, 15.18 cm, 18.97 cm, 21.68 cm, 27.10 cm, 37.94 cm and 43.36 cm. The results of this research demonstrate that the various fishing techniques can be effectively combined with the aim of controlling the goldfish population in Lake Trasimeno.

  16. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  17. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo (Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries)

    1983-07-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 ..mu..g/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of /sup 45/Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in /sup 45/Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled /sup 45/Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer.

  18. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  19. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) as standard fish in bioassays and their reaction to potential reference toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were compared for their suitability as standard bioassay fish. Both species showed the same variability of bioassay results when tested with four toxicants. Fathead minnows are recommended on the basis of their small size and on their capability for use in complete life cycle tests. On the basis of minimum variability of bioassay results, sodium chloride was superior for use as a reference toxicant. Both sodium chloride and pentachlorophenol seemed capable of detecting abnormal fish. On the basis of seven listed criteria either sodium chloride or pentachlorophenol would be acceptable as a reference toxicant.

  20. Physiological and condition-related traits in the gynogenetic-sexual Carassius auratus complex: different investments promoting the coexistence of two reproductive forms?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Hyršl, P.; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 154 (2015), s. 154 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carassius auratus * gene expression * growth Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  1. Phylogeny and biogeographic history of the cyprinid fish genus Carassius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with focus on natural and anthropogenic arrivals in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.K.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 383 (2013), s. 13-20 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Carassius auratus complex * Cytochrome b * Distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2013

  2. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Catarina; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Nunes da Silva, Marta; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Mucha, Ana P.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial assisted phytoremediation is a promising, though yet poorly explored, new remediation technique. The aim of this study was to develop autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that could enhance phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with this metal. The microbial consortia were selectively enriched from rhizosediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis. The obtained consortia presented similar microbial abundance but a fairly different community structure, showing that the microbial community was a function of the sediment from which the consortia were enriched. The effect of the bioaugmentation with the developed consortia on cadmium uptake, and the microbial community structure associated to the different sediments were assessed using a microcosm experiment. Our results showed that the addition of the cadmium resistant microbial consortia increased J. maritimus metal phytostabilization capacity. On the other hand, in P. australis, microbial consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. The addition of the consortia did not alter the bacterial structure present in the sediments at the end of the experiments. This study provides new evidences that the development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium might be a simple, efficient, and environmental friendly remediation procedure. Capsule abstract: Development of autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that enhanced phytoremediation by salt-marsh plants, without a long term effect on sediment bacterial diversity. - Highlights: • Cd resistant microbial consortia were developed and applied to salt-marsh sediments. • In Phragmites australis the consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. • The consortia addition increased Juncus maritimus phytostabilization capacity. • No long term changes on the rhizosediment bacterial structure were observed

  3. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  4. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Catarina [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Laboratório de Hidrobiologia e Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Nunes da Silva, Marta [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Bordalo, Adriano A. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Laboratório de Hidrobiologia e Ecologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Mucha, Ana P., E-mail: amucha@ciimar.up.pt [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Microbial assisted phytoremediation is a promising, though yet poorly explored, new remediation technique. The aim of this study was to develop autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that could enhance phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with this metal. The microbial consortia were selectively enriched from rhizosediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis. The obtained consortia presented similar microbial abundance but a fairly different community structure, showing that the microbial community was a function of the sediment from which the consortia were enriched. The effect of the bioaugmentation with the developed consortia on cadmium uptake, and the microbial community structure associated to the different sediments were assessed using a microcosm experiment. Our results showed that the addition of the cadmium resistant microbial consortia increased J. maritimus metal phytostabilization capacity. On the other hand, in P. australis, microbial consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. The addition of the consortia did not alter the bacterial structure present in the sediments at the end of the experiments. This study provides new evidences that the development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium might be a simple, efficient, and environmental friendly remediation procedure. Capsule abstract: Development of autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that enhanced phytoremediation by salt-marsh plants, without a long term effect on sediment bacterial diversity. - Highlights: • Cd resistant microbial consortia were developed and applied to salt-marsh sediments. • In Phragmites australis the consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. • The consortia addition increased Juncus maritimus phytostabilization capacity. • No long term changes on the rhizosediment bacterial structure were observed.

  5. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68±5.73 μg/g) followed by the liver (0.80±0.16 μg/g) and muscle (0.47±0.16 μg/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28±0.19 μg/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues

  7. Effects of neutral phytase on growth performance and phosphorus utilization in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Dai, Bin-Yang; Qian, Li-Chun

    A feeding trial was conducted for nine weeks to investigate the effects of partially replacing Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 with neutral phytase on the growth performance, phosphorus utilization, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, bone and carcass mineral composition, and digestive-enzyme-specific activity in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The diets prepared with 0.8%, 0%, and 1.8% Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (1%=1 g/100 g) supplements were regarded as the P 1 E 0 , negative control (NC), and positive control (PC) groups, respectively; the other three experimental diets were prepared with the addition of 200, 300, and 500 U/kg of neutral phytase, respectively, based on the P 1 E 0 group. Three hundred and eighty-four fish ((1.50±0.01) g) were randomly distributed in the six treatments with four replicates each. The fish were initially fed with 2%-3% diets of their body weight per day, with feeding twice daily (08:00 and 16:00), under a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle at the temperature of (27.56±0.89) °C. The results showed that supplemental phytase at different levels in the diet improved the final body weight, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, phosphorus utilization, and protein efficiency ratio of crucian carp (PPhytase supplementation increased the mineral content in serum (P), bone (P, Ca), and carcass (P, Ca, Zn, Na, and Mg) (Pphytase-supplemented diets (Pphytase improved the growth performance, phosphorus utilization as well as nutrient utilization in crucian carp, and it can be considered an important nutritional replacement for Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .

  8. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  9. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  10. Impact of autochthonous music on the creation of tourist destination image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Blagus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to determine to what extent autochthonous music may contribute to the creation of the image of a tourist destination. In other words, it aims at demostrating how the Croatian Međimurje County may become recognizable as a tourist destination on the basis of its ethnographic heritage, which exists even today in different ways. The first part of the paper deals with the role of image in the choice of destination and defines the term “destination image”. A particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of the impact of autochthonous music on the image of the Međimurje County. It proves the thesis that autochthonous music plays an important role in the presentation and dissemination of the recognizable image of Međimurje. As shown in this paper, the music of Međimurje is a resource characterized by dynamism, change and adaptability. It is also a source of inspiration of numerous musicians and, thanks to its uniqueness in terms of authenticity, representativeness or rarity, it becomes a quality symbol of the environment in which it came to be. In this sense, the paper offers an insight into the way in which the music of Međimurje might be used to improve the understanding and acceptance of certain communication content by making the message clearer and easier to understand. It is evident that the market evaluated the autochthonous music of Međimurje in the past and will continue to evaluate it to an increasing extent in the future, so claims about its incompatibility with commercialism and utilitarianism may only be accepted conditionally. The second part of the paper includes a description of the methodological frame of the field research that has been conducted as well as a report on its results. In this way, the analysis of the role which the music of Međimurje plays in the creation of image acquires its concrete meaning, since the results of the research can be interpreted with regard to their assumptions and their

  11. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  12. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus.

  13. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium in different aquifer materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueden, H.; Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Hornemann, C.; Seichter, M.; Pekdeger, A.; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Lange, D.; Majerczyk, D.; Meyer, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this research project the influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on immobilisation and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel waste (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilisation behaviour of both elements can be influenced by micro-organisms. The autochthonous population of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on immobilisation of Tc and Se was investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column tests were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling is necessary handling the sediments and waters used for the experiments. Special methods for sampling, storage and handling were developed. More than 30 sediments have been investigated. The number of colony forming units (CFU) has always been relatively low (less than E+06 CFU). The results of recirculation column tests with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterilized (Co-60) parallel tests and were verified with the results of hydrochemical equilibration code PHREEQUE. Instead of the allochthonous micro-orgamisms the autochthonous organisms showed no significant fixation of the radionuclides due to microbial activity. This is true for various temperatures of 10 C (aquifer temperature) and 20 C (normal laboratory temperature). An addition of an inoculum of the autochthonous micro-organisms developed at breeding temperature of 10 and 20 C had no influence on the radionuclide mobility. Performing conventional laboratory experiments you have to consider an overestimated retardation capacity because of an inevitable contamination with allochthonous micro-organisms. (orig.) [de

  14. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; Steinbauer, Vladimír; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David

    2016-11-01

    Blood samples from 21 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 8 hunting dogs from the same locality in the Czech Republic were examined for presence of Hepatozoon canis/Hepatozoon sp. The dogs were selected based on their close contact with foxes during fox bolting and because they had not traveled into known endemic areas. Using diagnostic PCR amplifying partial 18S rDNA fragment, Hepatozoon DNA was detected in 20 red foxes (95 %) and 4 dogs (50 %). From 8 positive foxes and 2 positive dogs, we obtained nearly complete 18S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed very low variability. Buffy coat smears from positive dogs were prepared and examined. No Hepatozoon gamonts were found. This study provides the first report of autochthonous infection of H. canis/Hepatozoon in dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic. Our study indirectly demonstrates cross infection between red foxes and dogs and confirms autochthonous infection of Hepatozoon canis in dogs living in a geographic area well outside the range of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, which is so far the only known vector of H. canis in Europe.

  15. Combined Treatment Effects of Radiation and Immunotherapy: Studies in an Autochthonous Prostate Cancer Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Satoshi; Harris, Timothy J.; Tryggestad, Erik; Yoshimura, Kiyoshi; Zeng, Jing; Yen, Hung-Rong; Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bruno, Tullia C.; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors. Results: The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting

  16. Combined Treatment Effects of Radiation and Immunotherapy: Studies in an Autochthonous Prostate Cancer Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Satoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Timothy J.; Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yoshimura, Kiyoshi [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yen, Hung-Rong; Getnet, Derese; Grosso, Joseph F.; Bruno, Tullia C. [Department of Oncology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); De Marzo, Angelo M. [Department of Pathology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Urology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To optimize the combination of ionizing radiation and cellular immunotherapy using a preclinical autochthonous model of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Transgenic mice expressing a model antigen under a prostate-specific promoter were treated using a platform that integrates cone-beam CT imaging with 3-dimensional conformal therapy. Using this technology we investigated the immunologic and therapeutic effects of combining ionizing radiation with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cellular immunotherapy for prostate cancer in mice bearing autochthonous prostate tumors. Results: The combination of ionizing radiation and immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in pathologic tumor grade and gross tumor bulk that was not evident with either single-modality therapy. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy resulted in improved overall survival in a preventive metastasis model and in the setting of established micrometastases. Mechanistically, combined therapy resulted in an increase of the ratio of effector-to-regulatory T cells for both CD4 and CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions: Our preclinical model establishes a potential role for the use of combined radiation-immunotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer, which warrants further exploration in a clinical setting.

  17. Shortcut nitrification-denitrification by means of autochthonous halophilic biomass in an SBR treating fish-canning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, Marco; Corsino, Santo Fabio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2018-02-15

    Autochthonous halophilic biomass was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) aimed at analyzing the potential use of autochthonous halophilic activated sludge in treating saline industrial wastewater. Despite the high salt concentration (30 g NaCl L -1 ), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS), removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. More than 95% of the nitrogen was removed via a shortcut nitrification-denitrification process. Both the autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass samples exhibited high biological activity. The use of autochthonous halophilic biomass led to high-quality effluent and helped to manage the issues related to nitrogen removal in saline wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  19. Continuous flow bioassay method to evaluate the effects of outboard motor exhausts and selected aromatic toxicants on fish. [Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenniman, G. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Hartung, R.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous flow bioassay system was designed to measure the effects of outboard motor exhaust (OME) emissions and selected volatile and evaporative aromatic toxicants on goldfish (Carassius auratus). Continuous flow bioassays were run for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 720 h to determine lethal concentrations for 50 percent of individuals (LC 50's) for leaded OME, non-leaded OME, toluene, xylene, and 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene, the three individual compounds having been identified as significant aromatic components of OME. The 96 h LC-50's for these substances were found to be 171, 168, 23, 17, and 13 ppm, respectively. The values of 171 and 168 ppm for the two OME's are given in terms of gallons of fuel burned per million gallons of water. The continuous flow bioassay method was demonstrated to be a more reliable indicator of the effects of OME pollutants on aquatic organisms than is the static bioassay method.

  20. Lethal and mutagenic effects of radiation and chemicals on cultured fish cells derived the erythrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Zoology)

    1983-01-01

    GEM 199 cells derived from an eryhtrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which had a high plating efficiency, were used to investigate the lethal and mutational effects of radiations (UV and ..gamma..-rays) and chemicals (4NQO and MNNG). The cells were more resistant to rays than mammalian cells and CAF-MM1 cells derived from the normal fin tissue of goldfish. They were also more resistant to UV-irradiation than CAF-MM1 cells. Photoreactivation after UV-irradiation was present in GEM 199 cells for both survival and mutation. The initial shoulder of the survival curve of UV-irradiated cells was reduced greatly by caffeine, suggesting a high activity of the post-replication repair. The spontaneous mutation frequency to ouabain resistance was 1-5x10/sup -6/ clones per viable cell. MNNG was effective in inducing ouabain-resistant mutation, while 4NQO and ..gamma..-rays did not induce mutation.

  1. First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Paiva de Campos

    Full Text Available In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is caused byLeishmania (Leishmania chagasi and its main vector isLutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus.

  2. Mercury dilution by autochthonous organic matter in a fertilized mangrove wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Wilson; Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Sanders, Luciana M; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson

    2016-06-01

    A dated sediment core from a highly-fertilized mangrove wetland located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) presented a negative correlation between mercury (Hg) and organic carbon contents. This is an unusual result for a metal with well-known affinity to organic matter. A dilution of Hg concentrations by autochthonous organic matter explained this observation, as revealed by carbon stable isotopes signatures (δ(13)C). Mercury dilution by the predominant mangrove-derived organic matter counterbalanced the positive influences of algal-derived organic matter and clay contents on Hg levels, suggesting that deleterious effects of Hg may be attenuated. Considering the current paradigm on the positive effect of organic matter on Hg concentrations in coastal sediments and the expected increase in mangrove organic matter burial due to natural and anthropogenic stimulations of primary production, predictions on the influences of organic matter on Hg accumulation in mangrove wetlands deserve caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Live autochthonous benthic diatoms on the lower depths of Arctic continental shelf. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Druzhkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An autochthonous community of benthic diatoms was discovered in June 2015 in the upper sediment layer at depths of 170, 205, and 245 m in the central Barents Sea. At least three benthic microalgae species (Gyrosigma fasciola, Pleurosigma angulatum, and Pleurosigma sp. 1 were detected in the sediment but not the upper water column. Analyses revealed that these benthic microalgae represent a depleted fragment of Arctic littoral microphytobenthos. Compared with the littoral flora, the deep-water assemblage is less diverse and displays low abundance. The data reported here challenge the generally accepted belief that the presence of certain microalgae at significant depths results from vertical or horizontal transfer.

  4. Do consumers from Međimurje region recognize their autochthonous Turoš cheese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Valkaj

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether consumers from the Međimurje region recognise and distinguish the autochthonous cheese called Turoš from similar cheeses like Prgica and Kvargl originating from regions neighbouring to Međimurje. Chemical, textural and microbiological properties of all three cheeses were given. Preference tests with 200 consumers using a face-to-face survey and a two-step procedure were performed. The blind taste test showed that 97 % of the respondents recognised differences between the tasted samples, and almost half of them preferred the Turoš cheese. Similarly, the informed test showed that a significantly higher number of the respondents preferred the Turoš cheese in comparison to Kvargl and Prgica. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences between respondents’ preferences in the blind and the informed tests.

  5. Selection and characterization of coal mine autochthonous rhizobia for the inoculation of herbaceous legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Anabel González; de Moura, Ginaini Doin; Binati, Renato Leal; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier Inês; Londoño, Diana Morales; Mamede, Ana Carolina Peixoto; da Silva, Emanuela Pille; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-09-01

    Coal open pit mining in the South of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) was inappropriately developed, affecting approximately 6.700 ha. Re-vegetation is an alternative for the recovery of these areas. Furthermore, the use of herbaceous legumes inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria is motivated due to the difficulty implementing a vegetation cover in these areas, mainly due to low nutrient availability. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, among 16 autochthonous rhizobia isolated from the coal mining areas, those with the greatest potential to increase growth of the herbaceous legumes Vicia sativa and Calopogonium mucunoides. Tests were conducted in greenhouse containing 17 inoculation treatments (16 autochthonous rhizobia + Brazilian recommended strain for each plant species), plus two treatments without inoculation (with and without mineral nitrogen). After 60 days, nodulation, growth, N uptake, and symbiotic efficiency were evaluated. Isolates characterization was assessed by the production of indole acetic acid, ACC deaminase, siderophores, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. The classification of the isolates was performed by 16 S rDNA gene sequencing. Only isolates UFSC-M4 and UFSC-M8 were able to nodulate C. mucunoides. Among rhizobia capable of nodulating V. sativa, only UFSC-M8 was considered efficient. It was found the presence of more than one growth-promoting attributes in the same organism, and isolate UFSC-M8 presented all of them. Isolates were classified as belonging to Rhizobium, Burkholderia and Curtobacterium. The results suggest the inoculation of Vicia sativa with strain UFSC-M8, classified as Rhizobium sp., as a promising alternative for the revegetation of coal mining degraded areas.

  6. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Soetaert, Karline; Vonk, Jorien E.; Agusti, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon (OC), however recent research suggests that melt water from sea ice and glaciers could introduce an allochthonous source of OC to the microbial food web with ramifications for the metabolic balance of plankton communities. In this study, we characterized autochthonous and allochthonous sources of OC to the Western Svalbard fjord system using stable isotopes of carbon. We quantified δ13C of eukaryotic and prokaryotic planktonic groups using polar lipid-derived fatty acids as biomarkers in addition to measuring δ13C of marine particulate OC and dissolved OC from glacial runoff. δ13C of bacteria (−22.5‰) was higher than that of glacial runoff OC (−28.5‰) and other phytoplankton groups (−24.7 to −29.1‰), which suggests that marine bacteria preferentially use a third source of OC. We present a Bayesian three-source δ13C mixing model whereby ∼ 60% of bacteria carbon is derived from OC in sea ice, and the remaining carbon is derived from autochthonous production and glacial-derived OC. These results suggest that subsidies of OC from melting glaciers will not likely influence microbial carbon cycling in Svalbard fjords in the future and that further research is needed to determine the effects of melting sea ice on microbial carbon cycling in fjord systems and elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean.

  7. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna M.

    2017-03-27

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon (OC), however recent research suggests that melt water from sea ice and glaciers could introduce an allochthonous source of OC to the microbial food web with ramifications for the metabolic balance of plankton communities. In this study, we characterized autochthonous and allochthonous sources of OC to the Western Svalbard fjord system using stable isotopes of carbon. We quantified δ13C of eukaryotic and prokaryotic planktonic groups using polar lipid-derived fatty acids as biomarkers in addition to measuring δ13C of marine particulate OC and dissolved OC from glacial runoff. δ13C of bacteria (−22.5‰) was higher than that of glacial runoff OC (−28.5‰) and other phytoplankton groups (−24.7 to −29.1‰), which suggests that marine bacteria preferentially use a third source of OC. We present a Bayesian three-source δ13C mixing model whereby ∼ 60% of bacteria carbon is derived from OC in sea ice, and the remaining carbon is derived from autochthonous production and glacial-derived OC. These results suggest that subsidies of OC from melting glaciers will not likely influence microbial carbon cycling in Svalbard fjords in the future and that further research is needed to determine the effects of melting sea ice on microbial carbon cycling in fjord systems and elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean.

  8. Uptake and release kinetics of 134Cs by goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137Cs by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in controlled aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Reddy, S.J.; Kelber, O.; Urich, K.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and release kinetics of 134 Cs by Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137 Cs by Zebra Fish (Brachydanio rerio) from aquatic media of different ionic compositions and temperature was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of radiocesium in the case of Brachydanio rerio is observed to be strongly dependent on the potassium ion concentration of the aquatic medium, but in the case of Carassius auratus this dependence is quite weak. The biological half-lives of the cesium isotopes incorporated into the fish investigated in the present work vary from 19 to 80 days and are influenced by the temperature and the ionic composition of the aquatic medium. (author) 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  9. Evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation and biostimulation during microcosm-simulated oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-07-15

    Oil spills are treated as a widespread problem that poses a great threat to any ecosystem. Following first response actions, bioremediation has emerged as the best strategy for combating oil spills and can be enhanced by the following two complementary approaches: bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation. Studies that compare the relative performance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation suggest that nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products because the survival and degradation ability of microbes introduced to a contaminated site are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Microbial populations grown in rich media under laboratory conditions become stressed when exposed to field conditions in which nutrient concentrations are substantially lower. There is increasing evidence that the best approach to overcoming these barriers is the use of microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as a bioaugmentation technology that exclusively uses microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) slated for decontamination. In this work, we examined the effectiveness of strategies combining autochthonous bioaugmentation with biostimulation for successful remediation of polluted marine environments. Seawater was collected from a pristine area (Agios Onoufrios Beach, Chania) and was placed in a bioreactor with 1% v/v crude oil to facilitate the adaptation of the indigenous microorganism population. The pre-adapted consortium and the indigenous population were tested in combination with inorganic or lipophilic nutrients in the presence (or absence) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) during 90-day long experiments. Chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of petroleum hydrocarbons confirmed the results of previous work demonstrating that the

  10. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

  11. First case of autochthonous human visceral leishmaniasis in the urban center of Rio de Janeiro: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, malnutrition, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. This article reports a case of a patient diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis in the final period following autochthonous transmission in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro. The case reported here is considered by the Municipal Civil Defense and Health Surveillance of Rio de Janeiro to be the first instance of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the urban area of this city. The patient was discharged and is undergoing a follow-up at the outpatient clinic, demonstrating clinical improvement.

  12. Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Lithosphere Across the Variscan Orogen (Iberian Autochthonous Domain, NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Ribeiro, J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Dias da Silva, Í.; Nascimento, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    A new magnetotelluric (MT) survey comprising 17 MT soundings throughout a 30 km long N30°W transect in the Iberian autochthons domain of NW Iberia (Central Iberian Zone) is presented. The 2-D inversion model shows the resistivity structure of the continental crust up to 10 km depth, heretofore unavailable for this region of the Variscan Orogen. The MT model reveals a wavy structure separating a conductive upper layer underlain by a resistive layer, thus picturing the two main tectonic blocks of a large-scale D2 extensional shear zone (i.e., Pinhel shear zone). The upper layer represents a lower grade metamorphic domain that includes graphite-rich rocks. The lower layer consists of high-grade metamorphic rocks that experienced partial melting and are associated with granites (more resistive) emplaced during crustal thinning. The wavy structure is the result of superimposed crustal shortening responsible for the development of large-scale D3 folds (e.g., Marofa synform), later deflected and refolded by a D4 strike-slip shear zone (i.e., Juzbado-Penalva do Castelo shear zone). The later contribution to the final structure of the crust is marked by the intrusion of postkinematic granitic rocks and the propagation of steeply dipping brittle fault zones. Our study demonstrates that MT imaging is a powerful tool to understand complex crustal structures of ancient orogens in order to design future prospecting surveys for mineral deposits of economic interest.

  13. Differential biodistribution of oncolytic poxvirus administered systemically in an autochthonous model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Patrick; Touchefeu, Yann; Cany, Jeannette; Cherel, Yan; Thorne, Steve H; Tran, Lucile; Conchon, Sophie; Vassaux, Georges

    2011-12-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that, unlike oncolytic adenoviruses, oncolytic vaccinia viruses can reach implanted tumors upon systemic injection. However, the biodistribution of this oncolytic agent in in situ autochthonous tumor models remains poorly characterized. In the present study, we assessed this biodistribution in a model of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) obtained after injection of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Twelve months after DEN administration, histology, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and viral titration were used to characterize tumors, as well as to assess the viral load of the livers upon either intravenous or intraperitoineal injection. The results obtained showed that the architecture of the liver was lost, with a noticeable absence of sinusoids, as well as the presence of steatosis and α-fetoprotein-positive HCC tumor nodules. Bioluminescence imaging and measures of the infective virus load demonstrated that intravenous injection of 10(8)  plaque-forming units of the recombinant vaccinia virus led to a predominant transduction of the liver, whereas intraperitoneal injection resulted in a lower level of liver transduction accompanied by an increased infection of the lungs, spleen, kidneys and bowels. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver sections of animals injected intravenously with the virus revealed a preferential localization of vaccinia-specific immunoreactivity in the tumors. The findings of the present study emphasize the importance of the route of administration of the vector and highlight the relevance of systemic injection of oncolytic vaccinia virus in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Autochthonous case of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Teixeira de Faria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum chagasi is an endemic zoonosis present in many areas of Brazil. This parasite needs reservoirs for maintenance of the infection and the presence of dogs in urban areas is a key factor for the spread of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. The aim of this study was to report the first autochthonous case of CVL in the municipality of Iguatama, in west central region of Minas Gerais State. Dog infection by Leishmania infantum chagasi was confirmed in the municipality, previously considered as non-endemic area to CVL. The canine infection by Leishmania was confirmed by three immunological tests for antibodies: indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, rapid Dual Path Platform (DPP® CVL immunochromatographic test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and microscopic demonstration of Leishmania amastigotes in imprints of spleen and bone marrow stained by Giemsa. The species Leishmania infantum chagasi was confirmed by molecular diagnosis (PCR. Studies are being carried out, aiming to describe the importance and the prevalence of this disease in the region and factors associated with its transmission.

  15. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of autochthonous cider yeasts in a cellar from Asturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando Bedriñana, R; Querol Simón, A; Suárez Valles, B

    2010-06-01

    This paper analyses yeast diversity and dynamics during the production of Asturian cider. Yeasts were isolated from apple juice and at different stages of fermentation in a cellar in Villaviciosa during two Asturian cider-apple harvests. The species identified by ITS-RFLP corresponded to Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus/Saccharomyces pastorianus/Saccharomyces kudriavzevii/Saccharomyces mikatae. The species C. parapsilosis is reported here for the first time in cider. The analysis of Saccharomyces mtDNA patterns showed great diversity, sequential substitution and the presence of a small number of yeast patterns (up to 8), present in both harvests. Killer (patterns nos. 22' and 47), sensitive (patterns nos. 12, 15, 33 and 61) and neutral phenotypes were found among the S. cerevisiae isolates. The detection of beta-glucosidase activity, with arbutin as the sole carbon source, allowed two S. cerevisiae strains (patterns nos. 3' and 19') to be differentiated by means of this enzymatic activity. Yeast strains producing the killer toxin or with beta-glucosidase activity are reported for the first time in autochthonous cider yeasts. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of the intention to purchase an autochthonous local lamb breed: Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Azucena; Maza, María Teresa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of respondents said that they probably/definitely would buy it, although only 23% would if the meat is not available in their usual meat store. Then, the lack of availability in the market is an aspect limiting its consumption. The most important factors explaining the intention to purchase for consumers who would purchase this meat if it were not available in their usual store are the importance attached to the animal breed and their social embeddedness with the local area. An appropriate food policy would be to inform consumers about the importance of the animal breed in the quality of the meat and the local origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclophosphamide augments antitumor immunity: studies in an autochthonous prostate cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Kiyoshi; Hipkiss, Edward L; Harris, Tim J; Yen, Hung-Rong; Goldberg, Monica V; Grosso, Joseph F; Getnet, Derese; Demarzo, Angelo M; Netto, George J; Anders, Robert; Pardoll, Drew M; Drake, Charles G

    2009-05-15

    To study the immune response to prostate cancer, we developed an autochthonous animal model based on the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse in which spontaneously developing tumors express influenza hemagglutinin as a unique, tumor-associated antigen. Our prior studies in these animals showed immunologic tolerance to hemagglutinin, mirroring the clinical situation in patients with cancer who are generally nonresponsive to their disease. We used this physiologically relevant animal model to assess the immunomodulatory effects of cyclophosphamide when administered in combination with an allogeneic, cell-based granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting cancer immunotherapy. Through adoptive transfer of prostate/prostate cancer-specific CD8 T cells as well as through studies of the endogenous T-cell repertoire, we found that cyclophosphamide induced a marked augmentation of the antitumor immune response. This effect was strongly dependent on both the dose and the timing of cyclophosphamide administration. Mechanistic studies showed that immune augmentation by cyclophosphamide was associated with a transient depletion of regulatory T cells in the tumor draining lymph nodes but not in the peripheral circulation. Interestingly, we also noted effects on dendritic cell phenotype; low-dose cyclophosphamide was associated with increased expression of dendritic cell maturation markers. Taken together, these data clarify the dose, timing, and mechanism of action by which immunomodulatory cyclophosphamide can be translated to a clinical setting in a combinatorial cancer treatment strategy.

  18. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cycling of modern autochthonous organic matter dominates carbon flow in lakes of north central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, M.; Striegl, R. G.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Kuhn, C.; Dornblaser, M.; Butman, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal and subarctic regions of the world are warming faster than anywhere else on earth, and undergoing rapid climatic and hydrologic changes. Much of this landscape is underlain by organic carbon (OC)-rich permafrost, and it is hypothesized that climate-induced environmental changes could positively reinforce climatic shifts via an increased delivery of terrestrial OC to aquatic networks. Increased OC terrestrial OC export could potentially result in greater aquatic OC mineralization and greenhouse gas production. Currently, a lack of ecosystem-level data precludes our understanding of aquatic OC processing for the vast majority of this remote northern area. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified whole-lake metabolism, limnological-, and hydrological characteristics across multiple seasons in a diverse set of lakes in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska. Intense gross primary production (GPP) and autotrophic net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP - respiration [R]) was common across lakes in spring, followed by a spatially synchronous shift toward heterotrophy (NEP origin, suggesting shifts in NEP were fueled by the recently fixed, lake OC. By scaling our metabolic estimates to the entire YRB, we found mineralization of terrestrial OC in lakes likely accounts for < 1% of terrestrial net primary production on an annual scale. We conclude that flows of autochthonous OC drive C cycling in most YRB lakes, that ancient permafrost-OC currently contributes little to heterotrophic processes in YRB lakes, and that the lakes play little role in remineralizing terrestrial organic material at the whole-catchment scale.

  20. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Victoria; Navazas, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Gil, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Beatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R.; Sanchez, Jesus; Isabel Pelaez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica. The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales, Burkholderiales, and Pseudomonad...

  1. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings for the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Madeira island, Portugal, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, P L; Amaro, F; Osório, H; Luz, T; Parreira, P; Andrade, G; Zé-Zé, L; Zeller, H

    2013-02-07

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Madeira island was reported in 2012. Clinical and laboratory findings of the first two laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases are reported. Both cases had fever (≥38 °C) and petechial rash. Symptoms also included myalgia, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhoea. The two cases were confirmed by serology and one tested positive for a dengue viral sequence. Dengue virus serotype DEN-1 was identified with probable Central or South American origin.

  2. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  3. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Probiotic potential of Bacillus velezensis JW: Antimicrobial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria and immune enhancement effects on Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanglei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Fan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Lijun; Zha, Jiwei; Wang, Gaoxue

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the probiotic potential of B. velezensis JW through experimental and genomic analysis approaches. Strain JW showed antimicrobial activity against a broad range of fish pathogenic bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Vibrio Parahemolyticus. Fish (Carassius auratus) were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 10 7 , and 10 9  cfu/g of B. velezensis JW for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that JW supplemented diets significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. The mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of C. auratus was measured. Among them, the interferon gamma gene (IFN- γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed higher expression after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding (P velezensis JW has the potential to be developed as a probiotic agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

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    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  6. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meixia; Luo, Weiwei; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou

    2018-01-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b), signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2) and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7) were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp. PMID:29538345

  7. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis.

  8. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus. Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b, signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2 and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7 were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp.

  9. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Fan

    Full Text Available Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut of goldfish (Carassius auratus after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+. And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L, bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+, the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut, rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle. The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG increased significantly, and after Zn(2+ exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP were the main target for Zn(2+, while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+ were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  10. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Responses of Medullary Lateral Line Units of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, to Amplitude-Modulated Sinusoidal Wave Stimuli

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    Ramadan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the responses of brainstem lateral line units in goldfish, Carassius auratus, to constant-amplitude and to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal water motions. If stimulated with constant-amplitude sinusoidal water motions, units responded with phasic (50% or with sustained (50% increases in dicharge rate. Based on isodisplacement curves, units preferred low (33 Hz, 12.5%, mid (50 Hz, 10% and 100 Hz, 30% or high (200 Hz, 47.5% frequencies. In most units, responses were weakly phase locked to the carrier frequency. However, at a carrier frequency of 50 Hz or 100 Hz, a substantial proportion of the units exhibited strong phase locking. If stimulated with amplitude-modulated water motions, units responded with a burst of discharge to each modulation cycle, that is, units phase locked to the amplitude modulation frequency. Response properties of brainstem units were in many respects comparable to those of midbrain units, suggesting that they emerge first in the lateral line brainstem.

  12. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

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    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  13. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  14. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and its interaction with antioxidant system in Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yi [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Nankai University), Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Xiaorong, E-mail: yiyluo@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ji Liangliang; Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, direct evidence of hydroxyl radical production in livers of Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was provided using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with spin-trapping. A dose-effect relationship was obtained between hydroxyl radical intensities and PCP exposure. It was observed that hydroxyl radical was significantly induced by 0.001 mg l{sup -1} (below the criteria for Chinese fishery water quality) of PCP exposure. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.9581, p < 0.001) was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities within 7 d of PCP exposure, which suggests that hydroxyl radical are mainly produced from PCP itself. However, no correlation was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities after 7 d, and a higher intensity of hydroxyl radical could still be observed when the PCP liver concentrations decreased to a lower level, which suggests that other mechanisms may possibly contribute to hydroxyl radical production after 7 d. The glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased below that of the control level during the entire period of PCP exposure (0.05 mg l{sup -1}), which suggested oxidative stress occurred.

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  16. DNA methylation analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xiao

    Full Text Available Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids.

  17. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  18. In vivo and in vitro activities of the seed extract of Piper guineense Schum. and Thonn. against skin and gill monogenean parasites of gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Wang, M; Simon, J E; Obiekezie, A I; Morah, F

    2004-10-01

    Methanol extracts of the seeds of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) were active against gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus L. Pisces Cyprinidae) monogenean parasites. The seed extract of P. guineense was administered at different concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg/L) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. There was a higher efficacy of the effects of the extracts against fish parasites under in vitro situations than under in vivo. Three major compounds (piperanine, N-isobutyl (E,E)-2,4 decadienamide and Deltaalpha,beta-dihydrowasanine) were identified from the seed extract of Piper guineense by LC-MS analysis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Differential utilization of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon by aquatic insects of two shrub-steppe desert spring-streams: A stable carbon isotope analysis and critique of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mize, A. L. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the carbon supporting stream food webs comes principally from terrestrial sources or is produced within the stream. Lacking data to resolve the allochthonous/autochthonous issue with any finality, stream ecologists have alternately postulated that stream carbon was principally autochthonous or principally allochthonous. Others argued that autochthonous and allochthonous carbon resources cannot be separated and that the allochthonous/autochthonous dependence issue is unresolvable. Many investigators have seized upon stable carbon isotopes technology as the tool to resolve the controversy. Unfortunately most investigators have conceded that the results are rarely quantitative and that the qualitative relationships are ambiguous. This study points out the fallacies of trying to conjure single isotopic values for either allochthonous or autochthonous carbon. It suggests that stable carbon isotope technology is not reliable in establishing specific consumer/food source relations and that it is not suitable for assessing allochthonous/autochthonous carbon dependence in freshwater streams.

  20. Hyper-IL-15 suppresses metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer by promoting tumour-specific CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Du, Xuexiang; Wang, Zheng; Ju, Jianqi; Jia, Mingming; Huang, Qibin; Xing, Qiao; Xu, Meng; Tan, Yi; Liu, Mingyue; Du, Peishuang; Su, Lishan; Wang, Shengdian

    2014-12-01

    Liver cancer has a very dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. Here, we studied the therapeutic effects of hyper-interleukin15 (hyper-IL-15), which is composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of the IL-15 receptor α chain, on metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers. Liver metastatic tumour models were established by intraportally injecting syngeneic mice with murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells or B16-OVA melanoma cells. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). A hydrodynamics-based gene delivery method was used to achieve sustained hyper-IL-15 expression in the liver. Liver gene delivery of hyper-IL-15 robustly expanded CD8(+) T and NK cells, leading to a long-term (more than 40 days) accumulation of CD8(+) T cells in vivo, especially in the liver. Hyper-IL-15 treatment exerted remarkable therapeutic effects on well-established liver metastatic tumours and even on DEN-induced autochthonous HCC, and these effects were abolished by depletion of CD8(+) T cells but not NK cells. Hyper-IL-15 triggered IL-12 and interferon-γ production and reduced the expression of co-inhibitory molecules on dendritic cells in the liver. Adoptive transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT-1 cells showed that hyper-IL-15 preferentially expanded tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells and promoted their interferon-γ synthesis and cytotoxicity. Liver delivery of hyper-IL-15 provides an effective therapy against well-established metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers in mouse models by preferentially expanding tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells and promoting their anti-tumour effects. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Autochthonous bioaugmentation with environmental samples rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria for bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nedaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Oil-contaminated seawater and desert soil batches were bioaugmented with suspensions of pea (Pisum sativum) rhizosphere and soil with long history of oil pollution. Oil consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the bioremediation batches were counted using a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source and characterized by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-gene sequences. Most of the oil was consumed during the first 2-4 months, and the oil-removal rate decreased or ceased thereafter due to nutrient and oxygen depletion. Supplying the batches with NaNO3 (nitrogen fertilization) at a late phase of bioremediation resulted in reenhanced oil consumption and bacterial growth. In the seawater batches bioaugmented with rhizospheric suspension, the autochthonous rhizospheric bacterial species Microbacterium oxidans and Rhodococcus spp. were established and contributed to oil-removal. The rhizosphere-bioaugmented soil batches selectively favored Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, Caulobacter segnis, and Ensifer adherens. In seawater batches bioaugmented with long-contaminated soil, the predominant oil-removing bacterium was the marine species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. In soil batches on the other hand, the autochthonous inhabitants of the long-contaminated soil, Pseudomonas and Massilia species were established and contributed to oil removal. It was concluded that the use of rhizospheric bacteria for inoculating seawater and desert soil and of bacteria in long-contaminated soil for inoculating desert soil follows the concept of "autochthonous bioaugmentation." Inoculating seawater with bacteria in long-contaminated soil, on the other hand, merits the designation "allochthonous bioaugmentation."

  2. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  3. Elimination of Bisphenol A and Triclosan Using the Enzymatic System of Autochthonous Colombian Forest Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Carolina; Cabana, H.; De Pril, E.; Jones, J. Peter; Jiménez, G. A.; Mejía, A. I.; Agathos, S. N.; Penninckx, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) are known or suspected potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may pose a risk to human health and have an environmental impact. Enzyme preparations containing mainly laccases, obtained from Ganoderma stipitatum and Lentinus swartzii, two autochthonous Colombian forest white rot fungi (WRF), previously identified as high enzyme producers, were used to remove BPA and TCS from aqueous solutions. A Box-Behnken factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and duration of treatment were significant model terms for the elimination of BPA and TCS. Our results demonstrated that these EDCs were extensively removed from 5 mg L−1 solutions after a contact time of 6 hours. Ninety-four percent of TCS and 97.8% of BPA were removed with the enzyme solution from G. stipitatum; 83.2% of TCS and 88.2% of BPA were removed with the L. swartzii enzyme solution. After a 6-hour treatment with enzymes from G. stipitatum and L. swartzii, up to 90% of the estrogenic activity of BPA was lost, as shown by the yeast estrogen screen assay. 2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was used as a mediator (laccase/mediator system) and significantly improved the laccase catalyzed elimination of BPA and TCS. The elimination of BPA in the absence of a mediator resulted in production of oligomers of molecular weights of 454, 680, and 906 amu as determined by mass spectra analysis. The elimination of TCS in the same conditions produced dimers, trimers, and tetramers of molecular weights of 574, 859, and 1146 amu. Ecotoxicological studies using Daphnia pulex to determine lethal concentration (LC50) showed an important reduction of the toxicity of BPA and TCS solutions after enzymatic treatments. Use of laccases emerges thus as a key alternative in the development of innovative wastewater treatment technologies. Moreover, the exploitation of local biodiversity appears as a potentially promising approach for identifying new efficient

  4. Rheology of spreadable goat cheese made with autochthonous lactic cultures differing in their ability to produce exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frau Silvia Florencia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the rheology of spreadable cheeses elaborated with autochthonous lactic starter cultures without the addition of exopolysaccharide-producing strain in the same starter with exopolysaccharide-producing strain. From a rheological standpoint, both samples were characterized as weak viscoelastic gels and pseudoplastic products. It was concluded that cheese made with exopolysaccharide-producing strain showed smaller G', G", and η* values over the range of frequencies studied and smaller critic stress values than the cheese without exopolysaccharide-producing strain. The results obtained indicate that cheeses without exopolysaccharide-producing strain need to be added with any texture enhancer product.

  5. AMPELOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AUTOCHTHONOUS GRAPE CULTIVAR “KALLMET” IN MAL��SIA E MADHE, ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhosh Ferraj; Elisabeta Susaj; Lush Susaj; Irena Kallco

    2012-01-01

    “Kallmet” is one of the most sprout autochthonous wine grape cultivar in the North-western and Central part of Albania. Study was conducted in three consecutive years, 2009-2011, in Malësia e Madhe, 250 m above the sea level, in the North-western part of Albania, in a 10 years old vineyard. For evaluation of the main characteristics the IPGRI Descriptors of Grapevine was used. Form of the new shoot tip of “Kallmet” is half-open, with no anthocianic coloration, and densely prostrate hairs. The...

  6. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  7. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment

  8. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  10. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in copper phytoremediation by a salt marsh plant (Juncus maritimus) and the role of autochthonous bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, I P F M; Mucha, A P; Reis, I; Rodrigues, P; Almeida, C M R

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate, under controlled but environmental relevant conditions, the effects of the presence of both inorganic and organic contaminants (copper and petroleum hydrocarbons) on phytoremediation potential of the salt marsh plant Juncus maritimus. Moreover, bioaugmentation, with an autochthonous microbial consortium (AMC) resistant to Cu, was tested, aiming an increase in the remediation potential of this plant in the presence of a co-contamination. Salt marsh plants with sediment attached to their roots were collected, placed in vessels, and kept in greenhouses, under tidal simulation. Sediments were contaminated with Cu and petroleum, and the AMC was added to half of the vessels. After 5 months, plants accumulated significant amounts of Cu but only in belowground structures. The amount of Cu was even higher in the presence of petroleum. AMC addition increased Cu accumulation in belowground tissues, despite decreasing Cu bioavailability, promoting J. maritimus phytostabilization potential. Therefore, J. maritimus has potential to phytoremediate co-contaminated sediments, and autochthonous bioaugmentation can be a valuable strategy for the recovery and management of moderately impacted estuaries. This approach can contribute for a sustainable use of the environmental resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. The contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanshun; Li, Lin; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Gao, Pei; Zang, Jinhong; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids (FFA) release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish, three groups of processed fish, including bacteriostatic-acidification group (BAG), bacteriostatic group (BG), and spontaneous fermented fish (CG) were established. Results showed that addition of NaN 3 reduced microbial load in BAG and BG below 3.5 log CFU/g after 3 weeks of incubation. Activities of lipases and lipoxygenase declined markedly with increasing time, where BG had the highest activities, followed by CG and BAG. There is a 36.3% higher in the total FFA content in CG than that in BAG, indicating both microbial and endogenous lipases contributed to the FFA liberation in fermented fish while endogenous lipases play a major role. However, compared to BAG and BG, largely higher levels of volatile compounds were observed in CG, suggesting that autochthonous microflora dominated the generation of volatile flavor compounds in fermented fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First occurrence of an autochthonous canine case of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi in the municipality of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris as an apparently natural infection in a non-endemic area. DNA obtained from spleen and liver samples produced the expected fragment in a Leishmania-specific rDNA-based nested-PCR assay. The PCR product, a 490 bp fragment, was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. These results are surprising since no autochthonous human or canine cases of visceral leishmaniasis have ever been reported in this municipality. This case suggests that natural transmission of this disease is occurring in this area.

  13. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2016), s. 107-115 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Temporal changes * Carassius gibelio * Fish holding * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  14. Alien fish species in upper Sakarya River and their distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the fact that the flood plains have been reclaimed, excessive hunting, destruction of the ecologic balance and invasion of the area by the alien fish species threatens the fish stocks in Sakarya River. In this study, we aimed to determine the dispersion area of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), Oreochromis niloticus ...

  15. The influence of low-level radiation on nucleolus activity of cyprinidae embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The number and sizes of nucleoli in embryos of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to low-level radiation at a dose-rate of 10 μ Gy/h and down were larger than those on non-irradiated controls

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus in Spain: emergence of the USA300 clone in an autochthonous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Raquel; Tristan, Anne; Ezpeleta, Guillermo; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jérôme; Cisterna, Ramon; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We characterized all of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected between 2005 and 2008 in the Bilbao, Spain, area. For the first time, the USA300 clone is reported as predominant among PVL-positive clones in a European autochthonous population, requiring active monitoring of the incidence of USA300 in Spain and throughout Europe.

  17. French invasive Asian tiger mosquito populations harbor reduced bacterial microbiota and genetic diversity compared to Vietnamese autochthonous relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eMinard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most significant pathogen vectors of the 21st century. Originating from Asia, it has invaded a wide range of eco-climatic regions worldwide. The insect-associated microbiota is now recognized to play a significant role in host biology. While genetic diversity bottlenecks are known to result from biological invasions, the resulting shifts in host-associated microbiota diversity has not been thoroughly investigated. To address this subject, we compared four autochthonous Ae. albopictus populations in Vietnam, the native area of Ae. albopictus, and three populations recently introduced to Metropolitan France, with the aim of documenting whether these populations display differences in host genotype and bacterial microbiota. Population-level genetic diversity (microsatellite markers and COI haplotype and bacterial diversity (16S rDNA metabarcoding were compared between field-caught mosquitoes. Bacterial microbiota from the whole insect bodies were largely dominated by Wolbachia pipientis. Targeted analysis of the gut microbiota revealed a greater bacterial diversity in which a fraction was common between French and Vietnamese populations. The genus Dysgonomonas was the most prevalent and abundant across all studied populations. Overall genetic diversities of both hosts and bacterial microbiota were significantly reduced in recently established populations of France compared to the autochthonous populations of Vietnam. These results open up many important avenues of investigation in order to link the process of geographical invasion to shifts in commensal and symbiotic microbiome communities, as such shifts may have dramatic impacts on the biology and/or vector competence of invading hematophagous insects.

  18. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  19. Imported and autochthonous leprosy presenting in Madrid (1989-2015): A case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Fanciulli, Chiara; Pérez-Molina, José-Antonio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy remains infrequent in non-endemic areas. The objective of this study was to describe the cases of leprosy reviewed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe and to compare these findings with published data on imported leprosy. Cases of leprosy evaluated at a referral centre are described and salient features of autochthonous and imported cases are compared. A review of the literature on imported leprosy was performed. During the study period, 25 patients with leprosy were followed-up (10 were autochthonous cases and 15 were considered to be imported). Regarding imported cases, the majority were diagnosed in Latin American immigrants (10/15, 67%), mean age was 42 years, there were no differences in gender distribution, estimated average time from arrival in Spain to first visit at the unit was 3 years and from symptom onset to diagnosis was 2 years. Over 80% of imported cases had multibacillary disease and over one third of patients had been previously diagnosed with leprosy. One third had received alternate incorrect diagnoses initially, leprosy completed standard therapy and were considered cured and over one third were lost to follow-up. Leprosy remains a complex disease for healthcare professionals unfamiliar with this infection. Manifestations are polymorphic so misdiagnoses and consequent delays in diagnosis are not infrequent and may lead to resulting disabilities. Early diagnosis and management are essential to prevent sequelae and possible transmission. Improving access to health care, especially for vulnerable groups, would be necessary to advance in the control of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat ® on slime production in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) and koi ( Cyprinus carpio ). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat ® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat ® , when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat ® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  2. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  3. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, N; Armada, E; Duque, E; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2015-02-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms [a consortium of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] were assayed and compared to Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Bacillus megaterium (Bm) or Pseudomonas putida (Psp) and non-inoculation on Trifolium repens in a natural arid soil under drought conditions. The autochthonous bacteria Bt and the allochthonous bacteria Psp increased nutrients and the relative water content and decreased stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, proline and APX activity, indicating their abilities to alleviate the drought stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake and the relative water content, particularly when associated with specific bacteria minimizing drought stress-imposed effects. Specific combinations of autochthonous or allochthonous inoculants also contributed to plant drought tolerance by changing proline and antioxidative activities. However, non-inoculated plants had low relative water and nutrients contents, shoot proline accumulation and glutathione reductase activity, but the highest superoxide dismutase activity, stomatal conductance and electrolyte leakage. Microbial activities irrespective of the microbial origin seem to be coordinately functioning in the plant as an adaptive response to modulated water stress tolerance and minimizing the stress damage. The autochthonous AM fungi with Bt or Psp and those allochthonous Ri with Bm or Psp inoculants increased water stress alleviation. The autochthonous Bt showed the greatest ability to survive under high osmotic stress compared to the allochthonous strains, but when single inoculated or associated with Ri or AM fungi were similarly efficient in terms of physiological and nutritional status and in increasing plant drought tolerance, attenuating and compensating for the detrimental effect of water limitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  5. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  6. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  7. Chemometric approach to evaluate element distribution in muscle, liver and fish bone of roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) from Swarzędzkie Lake (Poland) using ICP-MS and FIAS-CVAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Maria; Komorowicz, Izabela; Hanć, Anetta; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied. The study indicated a large variation in the occurrence of the investigated elements in different parts of the fish body. The highest content of Al and Zn was stated in all fish organs for each fish species. The majority of the applied statistical and chemometric methods (e.g., PCA, CA) refer to roach since we had a large number of data for this species. The obtained results were assessed in terms of their accuracy and precision using certified reference material of Fish Muscle ERM BB422.

  8. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Victoria; Navazas, Alejandro; González-Gil, Ricardo; González, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Béatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R; Sánchez, Jesús; Peláez, Ana Isabel

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica 's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales , Burkholderiales , and Pseudomonadales , especially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera. A total of 54 cultivable rhizobacteria and 41 root endophytes, mainly affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria , were isolated and characterized with respect to several potentially useful features for metal plant accumulation, such as the ability to promote plant growth, metal chelation, and/or mitigation of heavy-metal stress. Seven bacterial isolates were further selected and tested for in vitro accumulation of arsenic in plants; four of them were finally assayed in field-scale bioaugmentation experiments. The exposure to arsenic in vitro caused an increase in the total nonprotein thiol compound content in roots, suggesting a detoxification mechanism through phytochelatin complexation. In the contaminated field, the siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid producers of the endophytic bacterial consortium enhanced arsenic accumulation in the leaves and roots of Betula celtiberica , whereas the rhizosphere isolate Ensifer adhaerens strain 91R mainly promoted plant growth. Field experimentation showed that additional factors, such as soil arsenic content and pH, influenced arsenic uptake in the plant, attesting to the relevance of field conditions in the success of phytoextraction strategies. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms and plants have developed several ways of dealing with arsenic, allowing them to resist and metabolize this metalloid. These properties form the basis of

  9. The rise and fall of the autochthonous self: from Italian Renaissance art and Shakespeare to Heidegger, Lacan, and intersubjectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the unresolved question of the existence of a private core autochthonous self, as it has been described by Winnicott, Modell, and others. The postmodern version of the self has eliminated this concept entirely, relegating the self to a changing and unstable display, or regarding it as totally chaotic, or even an illusion. The question is raised whether by returning to the origins of this notion of a private self and then tracing its apparent dissolution it might be possible to discover some evidence that it still exists. The methodology used is that of obtaining knowledge directly through the arts and the claim is made that because empirical science has clamored to be the only source of knowledge, we have lost what could be obtained by direct intuitive seeing and experiencing the works of creative geniuses. To explore the rise of the autochthonous self this article provides an examination of the shift from Gothic art to Italian Renaissance art, a time which engendered the origin of "man" with his or her elusive private individual self that then became expressed in changing works of art. As this spread north, Shakespeare appeared and similarly invented and illustrated in his characters the private individual self, a concept not appreciated or recognized before the renaissance. But as science arose and Western civilization began to decline, a corresponding disillusionment with "man" took place. The self began to be viewed as solely a social construction with no core except perhaps a genetic endowment. This was accompanied by a reduction in the concept of the human as a valuable and precious living being and was replaced by regarding the human as an object of control and exploitation. After the Second World War a movement in contemporary United States psychoanalysis gradually replaced the ideas of Freud and his emphasis on the "I" in the psychoanalytic process, with forms of relational therapy, assuming that the self was ab initio

  10. Antioxidant Properties and Flavonoid Profile in Leaves of Calabrian Lavandula multifida L., an Autochthon Plant of Mediterranean Southern Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Fazio, Angela; Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Lavandula multifida is a rare short-lived plant characteristic of Mediterranean basin able to survive in hot and arid climatic conditions on poorly evolved limestone soils. In this work, we characterize the enzymatic antioxidant system and phenolic composition, as well as the antioxidant properties of L. multifida fresh leaves. Enzymatic patterns show high level of peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase activities, when compared with L. angustifolia. The same trend is evident in total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione, and in the total antioxidant capacity assay. Moreover, RP-DAD-HPLC analyses of EtOH extract, obtained from fresh leaves, reveal main components, carvacrol, vitexin, and 7- or 8-glucoside derivatives of hypolaetin, scutellarein, luteolin, isoscutellarein, apigenin, and chrysoeriol. The analysis of this autochthon plant depicted a series of strategies adopted by L. multifida to survive in its stressful natural habitat and richness in health-promoting compounds that can be a resource for the preservation of this variety in dangerous of extinction. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José R.; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S.; Robles‐Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar‐Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R.; Paz‐y‐Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua‐Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre‐Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or “shaven heads”, assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua‐Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre‐Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua‐Lamistas and Chankas’ ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q‐M3 Y‐chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua‐Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self‐identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. PMID:26879156

  12. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José R; Lacerda, Daniela R; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S; Robles-Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabricio R

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua-Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre-Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or "shaven heads", assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua-Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre-Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas' ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q-M3 Y-chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua-Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self-identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Spatial and seasonal changes in optical properties of autochthonous and allochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a stratified mountain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchini, Luca; Dattilo, Arduino Massimo; Hull, Vincent; Loiselle, Steven Arthur; Nannicini, Luciano; Picchi, Maria Pia; Ricci, Maso; Santinelli, Chiara; Seritti, Alfredo; Tognazzi, Antonio; Rossi, Claudio

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we present results on seasonal and spatial changes in CDOM absorption and fluorescence (fCDOM) in a deep mountain lake (Salto Lake, Italy). A novel approach was used to describe the shape of CDOM absorption between 250-700 nm (distribution of the spectral slope, S(lambda)) and a new fluorescence ratio is used to distinguish between humic and amino acid-like components. Solar ultraviolet irradiance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOM fluorescence and absorption measurements were analysed and compared to other physicochemical parameters. We show that in the UV-exposed mixed layer: (i) fluorescence by autochthonous amino acid-like CDOM, (ii) values of S(lambda) across UV-C and UV-B wavebands increased during the summer months, whereas (i) average molar absorption coefficient and (ii) fluorescence by allochthonous humic CDOM decreased. In the unexposed deep layer of the water column (and in the entire water column in winter), humic-like CDOM presented high values of molar absorption coefficients and low values of S(lambda). UV attenuation coefficients correlated with both chlorophyll a concentrations and CDOM absorption. In agreement with changes in CDOM, minimal values in UV attenuation were found in summer. The S(lambda) curve was used as a signature of the mixture between photobleached and algal-derived CDOM with respect to the unexposed chromophoric dissolved compounds in this thermal stratified lake. Furthermore, S(lambda) curves were useful to distinguish between low and high molecular weight CDOM.

  14. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Turkish Cypriot paternal lineages bear an autochthonous character and closest resemblance to those from neighbouring Near Eastern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, Cemal; Sevay, Huseyin; Demirdov, Damla Kanliada; Hossoz, Sinem; Ceker, Deren; Teralı, Kerem; Erol, Ayla Sevim

    2017-03-01

    Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea with a documented history of human settlements dating back over 10,000 years. To investigate the paternal lineages of a representative population from Cyprus in the context of the larger Near Eastern/Southeastern European genetic landscape. Three hundred and eighty samples from the second most populous ethnic group in Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots) were analysed at 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci. A haplotype diversity of 0.9991 was observed, along with a number of allelic variants, multi-allelic patterns and a most frequent haplotype that have not previously been reported elsewhere. Pairwise genetic distance comparisons of the Turkish Cypriot Y-STR dataset and Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution with those from Near East/Southeastern Europe both suggested a closer genetic connection with the Near Eastern populations. Median-joining network analyses of the most frequent haplogroups also revealed some evidence towards in situ radiation. Turkish Cypriot paternal lineages seem to bear an autochthonous character and closest genetic connection with the neighbouring Near Eastern populations. These observations are further underscored by the fact that the haplogroups associated with the spread of Neolithic Agricultural Revolution from the Fertile Crescent (E1b1b/J1/J2/G2a) dominate (>70%) the Turkish Cypriot haplogroup distribution.

  16. Effect of autochthonous bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis on bacterial population dynamics and growth of halotolerant bacteria in Brazilian charqui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscola, Vanessa; Abriouel, Hikmate; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Capuano, Verena Sant'Anna Cabral; Gálvez, Antonio; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Charqui is a fermented, salted and sun-dried meat product, widely consumed in Brazil and exported to several countries. Growth of microorganisms in this product is unlikely due to reduced Aw, but halophilic and halotolerant bacteria may grow and cause spoilage. Charqui is a good source of lactic acid bacteria able to produce antimicrobial bacteriocins. In this study, an autochthonous bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 69), isolated from charqui, was added to the meat used for charqui manufacture and evaluated for its capability to prevent the growth of spoilage bacteria during storage up to 45 days. The influence of L. lactis 69 on the bacterial diversity during the manufacturing of the product was also studied, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). L. lactis 69 did not affect the counts and diversity of lactic acid bacteria during manufacturing and storage, but influenced negatively the populations of halotolerant microorganisms, reducing the spoilage potential. The majority of tested virulence genes was absent, evidencing the safety and potential technological application of this strain as an additional hurdle to inhibit undesirable microbial growth in this and similar fermented meat products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activated STAT5 promotes long-lived cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that induce regression of autochthonous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Magali; Buferne, Michel; Verdeil, Grégory; Leserman, Lee; Schmitt-Verhulst, Anne-Marie; Auphan-Anezin, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy based on adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell (TC) is generally limited by poor in vivo expansion and tumor infiltration. In this study, we report that activated STAT5 transcription factors (STAT5CA) confer high efficiency on CD8(+) effector T cells (eTC) for host colonization after adoptive transfer. Engineered expression of STAT5CA in antigen-experienced TCs with poor replicative potential was also sufficient to convert them into long-lived antigen-responsive eTCs. In transplanted mastocytoma- or melanoma-bearing hosts, STAT5CA greatly enhanced the ability of eTCs to accumulate in tumors, become activated by tumor antigens, and to express the cytolytic factor granzyme B. Taken together, these properties contributed to an increase in tumor regression by STAT5CA-transduced, as compared with untransduced, TCs including when the latter control cells were combined with infusion of interleukin (IL)-2/anti-IL-2 complexes. In tumors arising in the autochthonous TiRP transgenic model of melanoma associated with systemic chronic inflammation, endogenous CD8(+) TCs were nonfunctional. In this setting, adoptive transfer of STAT5CA-transduced TCs produced superior antitumor effects compared with nontransduced TCs. Our findings imply that STAT5CA expression can render TCs resistant to the immunosuppressive environment of melanoma tumors, enhancing their ability to home to tumors and to maintain high granzyme B expression, as well as their capacity to stimulate granzyme B expression in endogenous TCs. ©2011 AACR.

  18. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2009-01-01

    Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions.

  19. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  20. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in gynogenetic offspring of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, QinBo; Wang, Juan; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-03-13

    The offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as GRCC) have been obtained in the first generation of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. Chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in GRCC which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific centromere probes directly proves that GRCC possess two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes. Sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (abbreviated as NTS) reveals that three types of 5S rDNA class (class I; class II and class III) in GRCC are completely inherited from their female parent (RCC), and show obvious base variations and insertions-deletions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the entire 5S rDNA probe reveals obvious chromosomal loci (class I and class II) variation in GRCC. This paper provides directly genetic evidence that GRCC is gynogenesis origin. In addition, our result is also reveals that distant hybridization inducing gynogenesis can lead to sequence and partial chromosomal loci of 5S rDNA gene obvious variation.

  2. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  3. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  6. Branched GDGTs in Lacustrine Environments: Tracing Allochthonous and Autochthonous Sources Using Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Y.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Lehmann, M. F.; Niemann, H.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are ubiquitous in soils and peat, as well as in sediments of lakes, rivers and coastal marine environments. It has been found that the distribution of brGDGTs changes systematically with ambient temperature and pH, attesting to their potential as proxy indicators for paleoclimatic reconstruction. In lacustrine sedimentary archives, brGDGTs can originate from two sources: (1) allochthonous soil organic matter and (2) autochthonous brGDGTs produced within the lake system, both of which display fairly distinct temperature-brGDGT relationships. Until now, disentangling the relative contribution of these sources was impossible, complicating the use of brGDGTs for quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions. BrGDGTs in soils display a narrow range with respect to their stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C), generally between -27 and -30 ‰, whereas we recently found contrasting δ13C values as low as -43 ‰ to -46 ‰ for brGDGTs in sediments of a small Alpine lake. To trace the origin of this distinct isotope signal, we determined the 13C content of brGDGTs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the water column of Lake Lugano (Switzerland). The δ13C of SPM-derived brGDGTs decreased systematically from -34 ‰ in the mixolimnion to -41 ‰ in the anoxic monimolimnion of Lake Lugano, providing evidence for aquatic in situ production of 13C-depleted brGDGT. In order to study whether the negative δ13C offset of water column- vs. soil-derived brGDGTs may serve as an indicator for lacustrine brGDGT production, we also analyzed surface sediments from 36 lakes across the Alpine Region. In most (~85 %) of the studied lake sediments, the δ13C of brGDGTs ranged between -34 ‰ and -45 ‰, indicating predominance or a substantial contribution of aquatically produced brGDGTs. However, in some lakes (~15 %) δ13C values between -27 ‰ and -30 ‰ suggest a mainly

  7. National surveillance plan for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in autochthonous Italian cattle breeds: Results of first year of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Carmen; Scoccia, Eleonora; Dettori, Annalisa; Felici, Andrea; Guarcini, Roberta; Petrini, Stefano; Quaglia, Andrea; Filippini, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years. Monetary incentives are used to encourage breeders to achieve the annual seroprevalence ranges stated in the plan. A Ministerial decree states that all bovines in breeding herds and aged older than 12 months should be serologically tested. Serum samples were tested for presence of the antibody to glycoprotein E of BoHV-1 using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The national herd seroprevalence was 55.49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52.01-58.92). Of 25,121 bovines tested for antibodies against BoHV-1, 8014 were positive. The seroprevalence in animals from autochthonous Italian cattle breeds was 31.89% (95% CI 31.31-32.47). Seroprevalence was highest in Podolica cattle (55.14%; 95% CI 54.07-56.21), lowest in Maremmana cattle (9.95%; 95% CI 7.99-12.31), and intermediate in Chianina (22.01%; 95% CI 21.03-23.01), Marchigiana (24.85%; 95% CI 23.52-26.23), and Romagnola (15.60%; 95% CI 14.62-16.64) cattle. These seroprevalence rates indicate a need for intervention to decrease the inevitable severe economic losses arising from BoHV-1 infection. Although some regions in Italy have a long history of combatting BoHV-1 infection, only the province of Bolzano has eradicated IBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Body Weight in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus Using 2b-RAD Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution genetic linkage map is essential for a wide range of genetics and genomics studies such as comparative genomics analysis and QTL fine mapping. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus is widely distributed in Eurasia, and is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. In this study, a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed for crucian carp using 2b-RAD technology. The consensus map contains 8487 SNP markers, assigning to 50 linkage groups (LGs and spanning 3762.88 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.44 cM and genome coverage of 98.8%. The female map had 4410 SNPs, and spanned 3500.42 cM (0.79 cM/marker, while the male map had 4625 SNPs and spanned 3346.33 cM (0.72 cM/marker. The average recombination ratio of female to male was 2.13:1, and significant male-biased recombination suppressions were observed in LG47 and LG49. Comparative genomics analysis revealed a clear 2:1 syntenic relationship between crucian carp LGs and chromosomes of zebrafish and grass carp, and a 1:1 correspondence, but extensive chromosomal rearrangement, between crucian carp and common carp, providing evidence that crucian carp has experienced a fourth round of whole genome duplication (4R-WGD. Eight chromosome-wide QTL for body weight at 2 months after hatch were detected on five LGs, explaining 10.1–13.2% of the phenotypic variations. Potential candidate growth-related genes, such as an EGF-like domain and TGF-β, were identified within the QTL intervals. This high-density genetic map and QTL analysis supplies a basis for genome evolutionary studies in cyprinid fishes, genome assembly, and QTL fine mapping for complex traits in crucian carp.

  9. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  10. Alternations in neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) following an acute and chronic exposure to vinclozolin, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Hatef, Azadeh; Zare, Ava; Socha, Magdalena; Milla, Sylvain; Gosiewski, Grzegorz; Fontaine, Pascal; Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk, Mirosława; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2014-10-01

    The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) is in use globally and known to disrupt reproductive function in male. The present study tested the hypothesis that VZ disrupts testicular function in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by affecting brain-pituitary-testis axis. Goldfish were exposed to 100, 400 and 800 μg/L VZ and 5 μg/L 17β-estradiol (E2) for comparison. In VZ treated goldfish, 11-ketotesteosterone (11-KT) secretion was changed depending on dose and duration period of treatment. Following 7 days of exposure, 11-KT was decreased in goldfish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ, while it was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ after 30 days of exposure. Circulating E2 level was unchanged in VZ treated goldfish, however the E2/11-KT ratio was increased in a concentration-related manner. In E2 treated goldfish, circulatory 11-KT and E2 levels were decreased and increased, respectively, which resulted in an increase in the E2/11-KT ratio. Exposure to VZ at 100 μg/L caused a significant increase in the circulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) after 30 days. In E2 treated fish circulatory LH was decreased, significantly. Transcripts of genes encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone and androgen receptor in the brain, and those of genes encoding LH and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors, StAR, CYP17, and 3β-HSD in the testis changed in VZ-treated goldfish depending on concentration and period of treatment. mRNA of genes encoding vitellogenin and estrogen receptor in the liver and cytochrome P450 aromatase in the brain were increased in E2-treated goldfish. The results suggest that VZ-induced changes in 11-KT were due to disruption in brain-pituitary-testis axis and provide integrated characterization of VZ-related reproductive disorders in male fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  12. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  13. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-06-01

    Accumulation and excretion Of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from radioactive diets (killifish, Oryzias latipes, meats accumulated {sup 137}Cs in the radioactive freshwater) or control diets (killifish meats mixed {sup 137}CsCl) were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in concentration ratio, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency in proportion to the rearing time. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing by administration of non-radioactive commercial diets after the accumulation above for 7 days, demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and followed a gradual decreasing tendency (the biological half lives were about 1.5 days and 52 days, respectively). As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera is more rapid than that for the muscle. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the relative contribution by ingestion of the radioactive diets in the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in natural environmental fish was comparatively higher in comparison with uptake of the radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater. With regard to the difference between the radioactive diets and the control diets, the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in whole body of the fish from the radioactive diets was less than that from the control diets to rearing 5 days, but afterward was not different. The difference of the accumulation between these diets will be attributable to that of the metabolic turnover between these diets. (author)

  14. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  15. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  16. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  17. Taxonomic structure of the yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) and use of autochthonous starters for minimally processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Cardinali, Gainluigi; Minervini, Giovanna; Antonielli, Livio; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Ricciuti, Patrizia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Pichia guilliermondii was the only identified yeast in pineapple fruits. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rossiae were the main identified species of lactic acid bacteria. Typing of lactic acid bacteria differentiated isolates depending on the layers. L. plantarum 1OR12 and L. rossiae 2MR10 were selected within the lactic acid bacteria isolates based on the kinetics of growth and acidification. Five technological options, including minimal processing, were considered for pineapple: heating at 72 degrees C for 15 s (HP); spontaneous fermentation without (FP) or followed by heating (FHP), and fermentation by selected autochthonous L. plantarum 1OR12 and L. rossiae 2MR10 without (SP) or preceded by heating (HSP). After 30 days of storage at 4 degrees C, HSP and SP had a number of lactic acid bacteria 1000 to 1,000,000 times higher than the other processed pineapples. The number of yeasts was the lowest in HSP and SP. The Community Level Catabolic Profiles of processed pineapples indirectly confirmed the capacity of autochthonous starters to dominate during fermentation. HSP and SP also showed the highest antioxidant activity and firmness, the better preservation of the natural colours and were preferred for odour and overall acceptability. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First report of autochthonous non-vectorial canine leishmaniasis in New Caledonia, south-western Pacific: implications for new control measures and recommendations on importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval, Nathalie; Marchal, Céline; Guillaumot, Laurent; Hüe, Thomas; Ravel, Christophe; Keck, Nicolas; Kasbari, Mohamed

    2016-02-25

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL), a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and usually transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies, has rarely been reported in Pacific islands, which have been regarded until now as leishmaniasis-free territory. Here, we report the first autochthonous CanL case in New Caledonia (south-western Pacific) and the investigations carried out 1) to determine how infection was introduced into and transmitted among these dogs and 2) to assess the risks to animal and public health. Extensive epidemiological and entomological investigations in and around the focus were carried out. Leishmaniasis infection was confirmed by histopathology, indirect fluorescent antibody test, real-time PCR, and culture. Parasite strain was typed by the isoenzymatic technique. The survey revealed close contacts between the autochthonous dog and two infected bitches imported from Spain, but failed to find any possible vector or disease spreading to other animals or humans. L. infantum zymodeme MON-1, the most frequent type in the Mediterranean basin, was identified. Although transplacental and venereal transmissions could not be excluded, the evidence was in favour of non-vectorial, direct dog-to-dog transmission. This study corroborates the possibility of non-vectorial routes (transplacental, venereal, and direct dog-to-dog) of canine leishmaniasis transmission in New Caledonia and raises the debate of relevant test requirements and diagnostic sensitivity prior to importation of dogs in Leishmania-free regions. New leishmaniasis control measures and recommendations to avoid future CanL introduction on the island are discussed.

  19. Outbreak of autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in Santa Catarina, Brazil Surto autóctone de leishmaniose visceral canina no Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Steindel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the first outbreak of autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Following the report of two cases of CVL, the Control Center of Zoonotic Diseases conducted a serological survey by ELISA and IFAT assays in seven districts of the Santa Catarina Island. Eleven seropositive dogs of autochthonous transmission were used in the present study. Infection by Leishmania sp. was confirmed by parasitological examination of bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes, culture in Schneider's medium and PCR. Leishmania sp. isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and hybridization with specific probes, allowing for the identification of Leishmania infantum. Autochthonous transmission of this disease in an area with high tourist traffic presents a major public health concern and signifies the emergence of an important zoonosis in southern Brazil. Therefore, the implementation of surveillance and control measures is imperative to prevent the spread of the disease among the canine population as well as transmission to the human population.O presente estudo relata o primeiro surto autóctone de leishmaniose visceral canina (LCV em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Durante levantamento soro-epidemiológico realizado pelo Centro de Controle de Doenças Zoonóticas (CCZ envolvendo 2.124 cães, 29 (1,37% foram soropositivos para VL (ELISA + RIFI. Onze cães positivos por transmissão autóctone foram utilizados no presente estudo. A confirmação da infecção por Leishmania sp. foi realizada pelo exame parasitológico da medula óssea, fígado, baço e linfonodos, cultura em meio Schneider e PCR. Os isolados de Leishmania sp. foram caracterizados por PCR-RFLP e hibridação com sondas específicas, permitindo a identificação de Leishmania infantum. A transmissão autóctone da LCV em uma área com grande fluxo turístico como Florianópolis representa um preocupante risco à saúde p

  20. Change of nucleolus characteristic of fish embryo cells under the influence of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The nucleolus activity of fish embryo cells was stimulated by low-level radiation at a dose rate of 2-13 mGy/h. The size of nucleoli generally increased in embryos of Cyprinus carpio, whereas the number of nucleoli was greater in embryos of Carassius auratus gibelio. The higher the functional activity of nucleolus is, the more pronounced are changes in the characteristics. The size of single nucleolus at gastrulation is the most sensitive characteristic. 16 refs.; 1 tab

  1. The effects of dissolved organic matter and feeding on bioconcentration and oxidative stress of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) to crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Nkoom, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Bioconcentration of UV filters in organisms is an important indicator for the assessment of environmental hazards. However, bioconcentration testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural aquatic environmental factors. In order to better assess the ecological risk of organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) in an actual water environment, this study determined the influences of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg/L) and feeding (0, 0.5, 1, and 2% body weight/d) on bioconcentration of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) in various tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Moreover, oxidative stress in the fish liver caused by the OD-PABA was also investigated by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The bioconcentration of OD-PABA in the fish tissues was significantly decreased with the presence of DOM indicating a reduction of OD-PABA bioavailability caused by DOM. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased by 28.00~50.93% in the muscle, 72.67~96.74% in the gill, 37.84~87.72% in the liver, and 10.32~79.38% in the kidney at different DOM concentrations compared to those of the non-DOM treatments. Significant changes in SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, and MDA levels were found in the DOM- and OD-PABA-alone treatments. However, there were no significant differences in the SOD, CAT, GST, and MDA levels found when co-exposure to OD-PABA and DOM. Feeding led to lower OD-PABA concentrations in the fish tissues, and the concentrations were decreased with increasing feeding ratios. BCFs in various tissues reduced by 39.75~72.52% in the muscle, 56.86~79.73% in the gill, 66.41~87.50% in the liver, and 75.88~89.10% in the kidney, respectively. In the unfed treatments, the levels of SOD and MDA were significantly higher than those of the fed ones while GST and GSH levels were remarkably inhibited indicating the enhanced effect of starvation

  2. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  3. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  4. Comparative studies on the fermentation performance of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor during solid-state or submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    To explore the metabolic characteristic of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor fermentation. Inter-delta amplification analysis was used to differentiate the S. cerevisiae strains at strain level. Twelve biotypes (I-XII) were identified among the 72 S. cerevisiae strains preselected. A comparison was conducted between solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) with S. cerevisiae strains had different genotype, with a focus on the production of ethanol and the volatile compounds. The degree of ethanol ranged from 28·0 to 45·2 g l -1 in SmF and from 14·8 to 25·6 g kg -1 in SSF, and SSF was found to be more suitable for the production of ethanol with higher yield coefficient of all the S. cerevisiae strains. The metabolite profiles of each yeast strain showed obvious distinction in the two fermentations. The highest amounts of ethyl acetate in SmF and SSF were found in genotype VII (328·2 μg l -1 ) and genotype V (672 μg kg -1 ), respectively. In addition, the generation of some volatile compounds could be strictly related to the strain used. Compound β-damascenone was only detected in genotypes I, II, X and XII in the two fermentation processes. Furthermore, laboratory scale fermentations were clearly divided into SSF and SmF in hierarchical cluster analysis regardless of the inoculated yeast strains, indicating that the mode of fermentation was more important than the yeast strains inoculated. The autochthonous S. cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor vary considerably in terms of their volatiles profiles during SSF and SmF. This work facilitates a better understanding of the fermentative mechanism in the SSF process for light-fragrant liquor production. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Influence of oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids with MCPA and Dicamba anions on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ławniczak, Ł., E-mail: lukasz.k.lawniczak@wp.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Syguda, A., E-mail: Anna.Syguda@put.poznan.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Borkowski, A., E-mail: a.borkowski@uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Geology, University of Warsaw, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Cyplik, P., E-mail: pcyplik@wp.pl [Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, University of Life Sciences in Poznan, 60-627 Poznan (Poland); Marcinkowska, K., E-mail: k.marcinkowska@iorpib.poznan.pl [Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznan 60-318 (Poland); Wolko, Ł., E-mail: wolko@o2.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poznan, 60-632 Poznan (Poland); Praczyk, T., E-mail: t.praczyk@iorpib.poznan.pl [Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznan 60-318 (Poland); Chrzanowski, Ł., E-mail: Lukasz.Chrzanowski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Pernak, J., E-mail: Juliusz.Pernak@put.poznan.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which exhibit high efficacy in terms of weed control and low toxicity, but may be persistent due to limited biodegradability, on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil. Four different oligomeric HILs (with two types of cations and different ratio of herbicidal anions) were synthesized and characterized by employing {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. The results of biodegradation assay indicated that none of the tested HILs could be classified as readily biodegradable (biodegradation rate ranged from 0 to 7%). The conducted field studies confirmed that the herbicidal efficacy of the HILs was higher compared to the reference herbicide mixture by 10 to 30%, depending on the dose and weed species. After termination of field studies, the soil treated with the tested HILs was subjected to next generation sequencing in order to investigate the potential changes in the bacterial community structure. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all studied samples. Treatment with the studied HILs resulted in an increase of Actinobacteria compared to the reference herbicidal mixture. Differenced among the studied HILs were generally associated with a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroidetes in case of 1-HIL-Dicamba 1/3 and Firmicutes in case of 2-HIL-Dicamba 1/3. - Highlights: • Impact of herbicidal ionic liquids on bacterial community structure was studied. • Oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids were effective but not readily biodegradable. • Next generation sequencing was used to evaluate shifts in bacterial abundance. • Treatment during field trials resulted in changes at class and species level. • Use of herbicidal ionic liquids affects the structure of autochthonic soil bacteria.

  6. Influence of oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids with MCPA and Dicamba anions on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ławniczak, Ł.; Syguda, A.; Borkowski, A.; Cyplik, P.; Marcinkowska, K.; Wolko, Ł.; Praczyk, T.; Chrzanowski, Ł.; Pernak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of selected herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which exhibit high efficacy in terms of weed control and low toxicity, but may be persistent due to limited biodegradability, on the community structure of autochthonic bacteria present in agricultural soil. Four different oligomeric HILs (with two types of cations and different ratio of herbicidal anions) were synthesized and characterized by employing "1H and "1"3C NMR. The results of biodegradation assay indicated that none of the tested HILs could be classified as readily biodegradable (biodegradation rate ranged from 0 to 7%). The conducted field studies confirmed that the herbicidal efficacy of the HILs was higher compared to the reference herbicide mixture by 10 to 30%, depending on the dose and weed species. After termination of field studies, the soil treated with the tested HILs was subjected to next generation sequencing in order to investigate the potential changes in the bacterial community structure. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all studied samples. Treatment with the studied HILs resulted in an increase of Actinobacteria compared to the reference herbicidal mixture. Differenced among the studied HILs were generally associated with a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroidetes in case of 1-HIL-Dicamba 1/3 and Firmicutes in case of 2-HIL-Dicamba 1/3. - Highlights: • Impact of herbicidal ionic liquids on bacterial community structure was studied. • Oligomeric herbicidal ionic liquids were effective but not readily biodegradable. • Next generation sequencing was used to evaluate shifts in bacterial abundance. • Treatment during field trials resulted in changes at class and species level. • Use of herbicidal ionic liquids affects the structure of autochthonic soil bacteria.

  7. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report; Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroflora auf die Sorption und Remobilisierung des Technetiums und des Selens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Umwelthygiene; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung Rohstoff- und Umweltgeologie

    1996-10-31

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefor special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben wurde der Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroorgansimen auf die Mobilitaet von Technetium und Selen untersucht. Beide redoxsensitiven Radionuklide sind im Abfall von Kernbrennelementen enthalten (Tc ca. 6%). Aus vorangegangenen Forschungsarbeiten ist bekannt, dass die Mobilitaet der beiden Elemente durch

  8. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  9. Method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing: acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. [Pimephales promelas; Carassius auratus; Ictalurus punctatus; Lepomis macrochirus; Salmo gairdneri; Orconectes immunis; Aplexa hypnorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.L.; Holcombe, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed to simultaneously ascertain 96 h LC/sub 50/ values for seven freshwater species in a single flow through test with measured concentrations. It allows interspecific comparisons, easy determination of the most sensitive species, and cuts cost of labor, materials and chemical analysis for measured concentration tests. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, goldfish Carassius auratus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, crayfish Orconectes immunis and snails Aplexa hypnorum. Compounds tested were pentachlorophenol, 2-chloroethanol, 2,4-pentanedione, hexachloroethane, ..cap alpha..-bromo-2',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone, benzaldehyde, 1,3-dichloro-4,6-dinitro-benzene, dursban, sevin and cadmium chloride. The LC/sub 50/ values from these multiple species tests compared favourably with those determined using single species tests at this laboratory, usually within 20%.

  10. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  11. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milella Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    phenolic profile of ten autochthonous vines grown in two different areas of South Italy. By spectrophotometric analysis it has been possible to analyze quali-quantitive characteristics of such substances, while by ORAC method (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity we have measured, in vitro, the antioxidant action. The oenological potential has been evaluated, in relation to polyphenols content, of ten Vitis Vinifera varieties belonging to autochthonous vines of Basilicata, grown in espalier and tent in two areas: in the vineyard of Val d'Agri (PZ, in Basilicata, and in South-East Bari area, in Rutigliano (Ba, in Puglia. The ten varieties belonging to Southern Italy autochthonous vines include four black grapes and six white grapes. Data obtained on total polyphenols content, view of the considerable variability encountered, allow us to affirm that the polyphenolic ripening of wine grapes, thus the reaching of the maximum level, is very influenced by the “terroir”, defined as the cultivation area or environment, by season trend, by cultivation techniques and by the different vines nutritional conditions. The same holds true for the antioxidant activity of the 10 wine grapes varieties of this study, since it is closely related to the polyphenol

  12. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance of treated agrowaste residue and autochthonous inoculates (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus cereus) on bacterial community structure and phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcón, Rosario; Medina, Almudena; Roldán, Antonio; Biró, Borbála; Vivas, Astrid

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed the impact of treatments such as Aspergillus niger-treated sugar beet waste (SB), PO4(3-) fertilization and autochthonous inoculants [arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus cereus], on the bacterial community structure in a soils contaminated with heavy metals as well as, the effectiveness on plant growth (Trifolium repens). The inoculation with AM fungi in SB amended soil, increased plant growth similarly to PO4(3-) addition, and both treatments matched in P acquisition but bacterial biodiversity estimated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rDNA sequences, was more stimulated by the presence of the AM fungus than by PO4(3-) fertilization. The SB amendment plus AM inoculation increased the microbial diversity by 233% and also changed (by 215%) the structure of the bacterial community. The microbial inoculants and amendment used favoured plant growth and the phytoextraction process and concomitantly modified bacterial community in the rhizosphere; thus they can be used for remediation. Therefore, the understanding of such microbial ecological aspects is important for phytoremediation and the recovery of contaminated soils.

  14. Effect of bioaugmented inoculation on microbiota dynamics during solid-state fermentation of Daqu starter using autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Wickerhamomyces and Saccharomycopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Xiaowen; Gan, Xing; Luo, Lixin; Lin, Wei-Tie

    2017-02-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor and vinegar production, is still manufactured through a traditional spontaneous solid-state fermentation process with no selected microorganisms are intentionally inoculated. The aim of this work was to analyze the microbiota dynamics during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu using a traditional and bioaugmented inoculation with autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Saccharomycopsis and Wickerhamomyces at an industrial scale. Highly similar dynamics of physicochemical parameters, enzymatic activities and microbial communities were observed during the traditional and bioaugmented solid-state fermentation processes. Both in the two cases, groups of Streptophyta, Rickettsiales and Xanthomonadales only dominated the first two days, but Bacillales and Eurotiales became predominant members after 2 and 10 days fermentation, respectively. Phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Saccharomycetales and Mucorales dominated the whole fermentation process. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in microbial structure was observed between the traditional and bioaugmented fermentation processes. However, slightly higher microbial richness was found during the bioaugmented fermentation process after 10 days fermentation. Our results reinforced the microbiota dynamic stability during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu, and might aid in controlling the traditional Daqu manufacturing process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress response assessment of Lactobacillus sakei strains selected as potential autochthonous starter cultures by flow cytometry and nucleic acid double-staining analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, M G; Milella, L; Martelli, G; Salzano, G

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the flow cytometry to Lactobacillus sakei strains, selected as potential autochthonous starters, to investigate dynamics and physiological heterogeneity of microbial behaviour under different stress conditions. A simultaneous nucleic acid double-staining assay was applied to discriminate cell populations in different physiological states after exposure to heat (50 and 55°C) and acid (pH 2·5 and 3·0) stresses. Alive cells with intact membranes, damaged cells still alive but with injured membranes, so with even a recovery ability, and dead cells with a permanent membrane damage were differentiated with a significant increase in damaged cells after stronger stress treatments. The existence and characteristics of subpopulations displaying heterogeneity in particular conditions are highly relevant, because specific subpopulations may show improved survival, changes and dynamics under stress conditions. This assay has potential for physiological research on lactic acid bacteria and for application in the food industry. The assessment of intermediate physiological states in Lb. sakei strains with recovery possibility could be an important criterion for application of potential starter cultures. Application of flow cytometry and characterization of sorted subpopulations may contribute to further understanding of diversity and heterogeneity in physiology of bacterial populations. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Other Characteristics of Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Italian Autochthonous Varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo I. G. Tuberoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs from the fruits of Italian autochthonous varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana were investigated to promote their quality aspects. All the analyzed EVOOs showed low values of acidity (≤0.45% and of peroxide value (≤6.22 mEq O2/kg. There were no relevant differences in fatty acids and triacylglycerols composition among the four EVOOs. Tocopherols determined by HPLC-FL revealed that Bosana oil was characterized by the highest α-tocopherol level (213.3 ± 55.4 mg/kg. Chlorophylls, carotenoids, and total phenol (TP contents as well as antioxidant activity (FRAP, DPPH∙, and ABTS∙+ assays of the oils hydrophilic fractions (HFs were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. Some differences concerning the antioxidant activity and the TP content were observed: Bosana oil HF activity was the most pronounced (1.17 ± 0.37 mmol TEAC/kg and it contained the highest TPs amount (335.20 ± 121.34 mg/kg. HFs phenolic composition was determined by HPLC-DAD. The main identified phenols were secoiridoids, dominating in Bosana oil, such as decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA, 35.8 ± 19.9 mg/kg and oleuropein aglycone (3,4-HPEA-EA up to 84.7 mg/kg. In summary, all the four varieties showed good characteristics for the use as quality EVOO.

  18. Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802 Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shimoda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.

  19. Differential activity of autochthonous bacteria in controlling drought stress in native Lavandula and Salvia plants species under drought conditions in natural arid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Elisabeth; Roldán, Antonio; Azcon, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The effectiveness of autochthonous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was studied in Lavandula dentata and Salvia officinalis growing in a natural arid Mediterranean soil under drought conditions. These bacteria identified as Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Enterobacter sp. (E), Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and Bacillus sp. (Bsp). Each bacteria has different potential to meliorate water limitation and alleviating drought stress in these two plant species. B. thuringiensis promoted growth and drought avoidance in Lavandula by increasing K content, by depressing stomatal conductance, and it controlled shoot proline accumulation. This bacterial effect on increasing drought tolerance was related to the decrease of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) that resulted sensitive indexes of lower cellular oxidative damage involved in the adaptative drought response in B. thuringiensis-inoculated Lavandula plants. In contrast, in Salvia, having intrinsic lower shoot/root ratio, higher stomatal conductance and lower APX and GR activities than Lavandula, the bacterial effects on nutritional, physiological and antioxidant enzymatic systems were lower. The benefit of bacteria depended on intrinsic stress tolerance of plant involved. Lavadula demonstrated a greater benefit than Salvia to control drought stress when inoculated with B. thuringiensis. The bacterial drought tolerance assessed as survival, proline, and indolacetic acid production showed the potential of this bacteria to help plants to grow under drought conditions. B. thuringiensis may be used for Lavandula plant establishment in arid environments. Particular characteristic of the plant species as low shoot/root ratio and high stomatal conductance are important factors controlling the bacterial effectiveness improving nutritional, physiological, and metabolic plant activities.

  20. Volatile Profile, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Virgin Olive Oils from Croatian Autochthonous Varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica in Comparison with Italian Variety Leccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Šarolić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oils (VOOs obtained from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica were extensively characterized for the first time. Investigated oils were compared with the oil obtained from Italian variety Leccino, grown and processed under the same conditions. Headspace volatile profile, tocopherols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenolic content, peroxide value, % acidity, K232, K270 as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH of the oils’ hydrophilic fractions (HFs including their phenolic composition were assessed by means of HS-SPME/GC-MS, HPLC-FL, HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Most of the studied quality parameters varied between the cultivars. The main volatile compounds detected in all tested olive oils were the C6 compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Krvavica oil was characterized by hexanal (8.8%–9.4%. Leccino oil contained the highest percentage of (E-hex-2-enal (73.4%–74.0%, whereas (Z-hex-3-enal (21.9%–25.0% and (E-hex-2-enal (27.6%–28.9% dominated in Mašnjača oil. Leccino oil contained the highest amount of tocopherols (312.4 mg/kg, chlorophylls (7.3 mg/kg, carotenoids (4.2 mg/kg and total phenols (246.6 mg/kg. The HF of Leccino oil showed the highest antioxidant capacity (1.3 mmol TEAC/kg, while the HFs of Mašnjača and Krvavica oils exhibited the activity of 0.5 mmol TEAC/kg.

  1. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N tot , ammonium and generating higher BOD 7 . Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H + -ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. - Highlights: ► We examined Acer negundo and Alnus glutinosa leaf extract effects on hydrophytes. ► Nitellopsis obtusa and Lemna minor responded differently to leaf litter leachates. ► 90-day biodegraded A. negundo leaves lost twofold more biomass than that of A. glutinosa. ► A. negundo leachates evoked higher mortality and cell depolarization of N. obtusa. ► Leachates affected H + -ATPase activity in algae membrane preparations. - Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter waterbody can be environmental factor affecting differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems, thus influencing ecological scenarios.

  2. Japon Balığı (Carassius Auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet Anıl; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem Yeşim; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  3. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  4. QUALITY OF AUTOCHTHONOUS SICILIAN PLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sottile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four plum local varieties and accessions obtained from different growing area of the Sicilian island were analyzed for their qualitative and nutraceutical properties and three commercialcultivar were used as references. These properties included the fruit fresh weight (g, the pulp firmness (FFF, the total soluble solids (TSS, the titratable acidity (TA, the total anthocyanins,the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity.This preliminary study showed significantly differeces among the plums; Zuccarato giallo and Prunu Niuru presented TSS higher than the commercial cultivars (24.9 and 21.6 °Brix respectivelyand interesting data obtained on the nutraceutical compounds values suggested these local cultivars as sources of polyphenols (Zuccarato giallo with 663 mg GA/100 gFW and naturalantioxidants (Pruno Regina with 47.46 Fe2+/100 gFW. The characterization of these plums could represent also an important resource for the international activity in the genetic improving andthe collection of the more interesting quality traits could be useful for improving the Prunus database actually in use.

  5. S-type granite generation and emplacement during a regional switch from extensional to contractional deformation (Central Iberian Zone, Iberian autochthonous domain, Variscan Orogeny)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Gama, C.; Hofmann, M.; Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.

    2018-01-01

    Zircon grains extracted from S-type granites of the Mêda-Escalhão-Penedono Massif (Central Iberian Zone, Variscan Orogen) constrain the timing of emplacement and provide information about potential magma sources. Simple and composite zircon grains from three samples of S-type granite were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. New U-Pb data indicate that granites crystallized in the Bashkirian (318.7 ± 4.8 Ma) overlapping the proposed age range of ca. 321-317 Ma of the nearby S-type granitic rocks of the Carrazeda de Anciães, Lamego and Ucanha-Vilar massifs. The timing of emplacement of such S-type granites seems to coincide with the waning stages of activity of a D2 extensional shear zone (i.e. Pinhel shear zone) developed in metamorphic conditions that reached partial melting and anatexis (ca. 321-317 Ma). Dykes of two-mica granites (resembling diatexite migmatite) are concordant and discordant to the compositional layering and S2 (main) foliation of the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Pinhel shear zone. Much of the planar fabric in these dykes was formed during magmatic crystallization and subsequent solid-state deformation. Field relationships suggest contemporaneity between the ca. 319-317 Ma old magmatism of the study area and the switch from late D2 extensional deformation to early D3 contractional deformation. Inherited zircon cores are well preserved in these late D2-early D3 S-type granite plutons. U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores range from ca. 2576 to ca. 421 Ma. The spectra of inherited cores overlap closely the range of detrital and magmatic zircon grains displayed by the Ediacaran to Silurian metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the Iberian autochthonous and parautochthonous domains. This is evidence of a genetic relationship between S-type granites and the host metamorphic rocks. There is no substantial evidence for the addition of mantle-derived material in the genesis of these late D2-early D3 S-type granitic rocks. The ɛNd arrays of heterogeneous

  6. Risk assessment on importation and autochthonous transmission of Zika virus disease in the mainland of China,2016%2016年我国内地寨卡病毒的输入和传播风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂文校; 马涛; 李昱; 刘起勇; 殷文武; 洪志恒; 李群; 倪大新

    2016-01-01

    寨卡病毒病在全球多地流行,可致小头畸形、格林-巴利综合征等神经系统疾病.2016年1~2月我国内地发现输入性病例10例,未发生本地传播.为明确2016年3~12月该病输入我国内地和传播的风险,根据我国内地登革热输入和传播规律、人员往来、伊蚊活动、人群密度等资料,通过定性和定量的风险评估,本文认为,我国内地将会继续发现输入性病例,如果2016年东南亚不流行,则预测2016年3~12月我国内地可能发现输入病例为8~68例;如果东南亚也出现类似往年登革热一样的流行规模,则预测2016年3~12月我国内地可能发现输入性病例为106~876例.6~10月是发生本地传播最有可能的时间;广东、云南、海南、福建、广西和浙江等省区是最可能发生本地传播的地区,其余有白纹伊蚊的省市可能出现本地传播,内蒙古、吉林、黑龙江、青海、宁夏、新疆等省区和辽宁、陕西、甘肃、西藏无伊蚊分布地区,全年均不会发生本地传播.建议各地继续做好输入性病例的监测,有本地传播风险的地区需加强蚊媒监测和控制,做好我国内地赴疫区旅行人员的健康提示,并根据国际疫情和研究进展动态开展风险评估.%Word Health Organizaiton has declared the clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 1 Feberuary 2016,and there is increasing evidence that they are causal related with Zika virus.Zika virus disease has been identified in 41 countires and areas since 2015,and it is spreading to the other parts of the world.There were 10 imported cases of Zika virus disease detected in the mainland of China from January to February 2016,without autochthonous transmission.In order to identify the risk of importation and autochthonous transmission of Zika virus disease in the mainland of China from March to December,2016,we conducted

  7. The Importance of Preservation of Autochthonous Biotope of Pannonian Plane in the Area of Special Nature Reserve “Pašnjaci Velike Droplje“ for Education and Ecotourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Pasic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past the region of Vojvodina was dominated by vast steppes, saline areas, marshes and flooded terrains. Wet terrains were converted into steppes during the Holocene climate changes, but the land under cultivation is gradually taking their place, too. Autochthonous biotope is preserved in some regions of Vojvodina. These regions are under state protection. Special nature reserve “Pašnjaci velike droplje“consists of saline areas and vast steppes and it is the only habitat of Great Bustard in Serbia. Reserve is located in north Banat. Development of ecotourism is based upon endangered ornithology species, heterogeneous fauna as well as upon up the educational purpose of the reserve. There are also possibilities for organizing of photo safaris and nature schools in the reserve. In order to protect autochthonous biotope, legal regulations on protection should be obeyed, fields should be revitalized i.e. they should be transformed into former state of natural mosaic of vast steppes and saline areas.

  8. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  10. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus; however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr, deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3, tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh, were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3 and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4, and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  11. La población inmigrante controla peor su diabetes que la población autóctona Poorer diabetes control among the immigrant population than among the autochthonous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soler-González

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se sabe que hay diferencias entre los grupos de inmigrantes en lo que respecta a la prevalencia de diabetes, pero no disponemos de suficiente evidencia para afirmar que, una vez diagnosticada, sea distinto el grado de control. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar si hay diferencias en la detección y el grado de control de los pacientes diabéticos entre inmigrantes y autóctonos en nuestra región sanitaria. Método: Estudio poblacional observacional transversal que incluye a todos los pacientes diagnosticados de diabetes mellitus de tipo 2 asignados y atendidos durante 2010. Se analizaron los indicadores de calidad de la diabetes y se utilizaron modelos de regresión logística multivariada que se ajustaron por la edad, el sexo y el número de visitas. El método de ajuste fue forzado y se comprobó la no presencia de colinealidad mediante la curva ROC y el test de Hosmer & Lemeshow. Resultados: 77.999 pacientes autóctonos (6846 diabéticos y 30.748 pacientes inmigrantes (415 diabéticos. El 8,78% de los pacientes autóctonos eran diabéticos (1,35% de los inmigrantes, p 0,05. Conclusiones: Hay un peor control y un peor registro de los indicadores de calidad en la atención de la diabetes mellitus en algunos grupos de inmigrantes.Introduction: Ethnic differences are known to exist in the prevalence of diabetes, but little is known about possible differences in the degree of diabetes control among ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in diabetes detection and control between immigrants and the autochthonous population in our health region. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, observational, population-based study of all patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2 registered and treated in 2010. We analyzed diabetes quality indicators and used multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and number of visits. The adjustment method was forced and the

  12. Osmotic dehydration of fish: principal component analysis

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    Lončar Biljana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic treatment of the fish Carassius gibelio was studied in two osmotic solutions: ternary aqueous solution - S1, and sugar beet molasses - S2, at three solution temperatures of 10, 20 and 30oC, at atmospheric pressure. The aim was to examine the influence of type and concentration of the used hypertonic agent, temperature and immersion time on the water loss, solid gain, dry mater content, aw and content of minerals (Na, K, Ca and Mg. S2 solution has proven to be the best option according to all output variables.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31055

  13. Introduction: commentaries and author's response to "The rise and fall of the autochthonous self: from Italian Renaissance Art and Shakespeare to Hediegger, Lacan, and Intersubjectivism" by Richard D. Chessick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffert, Mark; Schwartz, Scott C; Chessick, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the unresolved question of the existence of a private core autochthonous self, as it has been described by Winnicott, Modell, and others. The postmodern version of the self has eliminated this concept entirely, relegating the self to a changing and unstable display, or regarding it as totally chaotic, or even an illusion. The question is raised whether by returning to the origins of this notion of a private self and then tracing its apparent dissolution it might be possible to discover some evidence that it still exists. The methodology used is that of obtaining knowledge directly through the arts and the claim is made that because empirical science has clamored to be the only source of knowledge, we have lost what could be obtained by direct intuitive seeing and experiencing the works of creative geniuses. To explore the rise of the autochthonous self this article provides an examination of the shift from Gothic art to Italian Renaissance art, a time which engendered the origin of "man" with his or her elusive private individual self that then became expressed in changing works of art. As this spread north, Shakespeare appeared and similarly invented and illustrated in his characters the private individual self, a concept not appreciated or recognized before the Renaissance. But as science arose and Western civilization began to decline, a corresponding disillusionment with "man" took place. The self began to be viewed as solely a social construction with no core except perhaps a genetic endowment. This was accompanied by a reduction in the concept of the human as a valuable and precious living being and was replaced by regarding the human as an object of control and exploitation. After the Second World War a movement in contemporary United States psychoanalysis gradually replaced the ideas of Freud and his emphasis on the "I" in the psychoanalytic process, with forms of relational therapy, assuming that the self was ab initio

  14. Origin of natural waters and gases within the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing and autochthonous Miocene strata in South-Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarba, Maciej J.; Pluta, Irena

    2009-01-01

    The molecular and stable isotope compositions of coalbed gases from the Upper Carboniferous strata and natural gases accumulated within the autochthonous Upper Miocene Skawina Formation of the Debowiec-Simoradz gas deposit were determined, as well as the chemical and stable isotope compositions of waters from the Skawina Formation and waters at the top of the Upper Carboniferous strata of the Kaczyce Ridge (the abandoned 'Morcinek' coal mine) in the South-Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Two genetic types of natural gases within the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata were identified: thermogenic (CH 4 , small amounts of higher gaseous hydrocarbons, and CO 2 ) and microbial (CH 4 , very small amounts of ethane, and CO 2 ). Thermogenic gases were generated during the bituminous stage of coalification and completed at the end of the Variscan orogeny. Degassing (desorption) of thermogenic gases began at the end of late Carboniferous until the late Miocene time-period and extended to the present-day. This process took place in the Upper Carboniferous strata up to a depth of about 550 m under the sealing Upper Miocene cover. A primary accumulation zone of indigenous, thermogenic gases is present below the degassing zone. Up to 200 m depth from the top of the Upper Carboniferous strata, within the weathered complex, an accumulation zone of secondary, microbial gas occurs. Waters within these strata are mainly of meteoric origin of the infiltration period just before the last sea transgression in the late Miocene and partly of marine origin having migrated from the Upper Miocene strata. Then, both methanogenic archaebacteria and their nutrients were transported by meteoric water into the near-surface Carboniferous strata where the generated microbial CH 4 saturated coal seams. Waters within the Miocene strata of the Debowiec-Simoradz and Zablocie are of marine origin, and natural gases accumulated within autochthonous Miocene strata of the Debowiec

  15. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In-Depth Two-Year Study of Phenolic Profile Variability among Olive Oils from Autochthonous and Mediterranean Varieties in Morocco, as Revealed by a LC-MS Chemometric Profiling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Bajoub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil phenolic fraction considerably contributes to the sensory quality and nutritional value of this foodstuff. Herein, the phenolic fraction of 203 olive oil samples extracted from fruits of four autochthonous Moroccan cultivars (“Picholine Marocaine”, “Dahbia”, “Haouzia” and “Menara”, and nine Mediterranean varieties recently introduced in Morocco (“Arbequina”, “Arbosana”, “Cornicabra”, “Frantoio”, “Hojiblanca”, “Koroneiki”, “Manzanilla”, “Picholine de Languedoc” and “Picual”, were explored over two consecutive crop seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014 by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid, belonging to five chemical classes (secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, lignans and phenolic acids were identified and quantified. Phenolic profiling revealed that the determined phenolic compounds showed variety-dependent levels, being, at the same time, significantly affected by the crop season. Moreover, based on the obtained phenolic composition and chemometric linear discriminant analysis, statistical models were obtained allowing a very satisfactory classification and prediction of the varietal origin of the studied oils.

  17. Ecological characterisation and infection of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of Brazil over a 10 year period: has the behaviour of the autochthonous malaria vector changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buery, Julyana Cerqueira; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Natal, Licia; Silva, Leonardo Santana da; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Fux, Blima; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Falqueto, Aloisio; Cerutti Junior, Crispim

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND In southeastern Brazil, autochthonous cases of malaria can be found near Atlantic Forest fragments. Because the transmission cycle has not been completely clarified, the behaviour of the possible vectors in those regions must be observed. A study concerning the entomological aspects and natural infection of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) captured in the municipalities of the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state was performed in 2004 and 2005. Similarly, between 2014 and 2015, 12 monthly collections were performed at the same area of the study mentioned above. METHODS Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with CO2 were set in open areas, at the edge and inside of the forest (canopy and ground), whereas Shannon traps were set on the edge. FINDINGS A total of 1,414 anophelines were collected from 13 species. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar and Knab remained the most frequently captured species in the CDC traps set in the forest canopy, as well as being the vector with the highest prevalence of Plasmodium vivax/simium infection, according to molecular polymerase chain reaction techniques. CONCLUSIONS P. vivax/simium was found only in abdomens of the mosquitoes of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, weakening the hypothesis that this subgenus also plays a role in malaria transmission in this specific region.

  18. Complete depletion of primordial germ cells in an All-female fish leads to Sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile All-male occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Shi-Zhu; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhong, Jian-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-11-18

    Gynogenesis is one of unisexual reproduction modes in vertebrates, and produces all-female individuals with identical genetic background. In sexual reproduction vertebrates, the roles of primordial germ cells on sexual dimorphism and gonadal differentiation have been largely studied, and two distinct functional models have been proposed. However, the role of primordial germ cells remains unknown in unisexual animals, and it is also unclear whether the functional models in sexual reproduction animals are common in unisexual animals. To solve these puzzles, we attempt to utilize the gynogenetic superiority of polyploid Carassius gibelio to create a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by a similar morpholino-mediated knockdown approach used in other examined sexual reproduction fishes. Through the germ cell-depleted gonad model, we have performed comprehensive and comparative transcriptome analysis, and revealed a complete alteration of sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the expression alteration leads to up-regulation of testis-biased genes and down-regulation of ovary-biased genes, and results in the occurrence of sterile all-males with testis-like gonads and secondary sex characteristics in the germ cell-depleted gynogenetic Carassius gibelio. Our current results have demonstrated that unisexual gynogenetic embryos remain keeping male sex determination information in the genome, and the complete depletion of primordial germ cells in the all-female fish leads to sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile all-male occurrence.

  19. Effects of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on DNA Damage and p53 Protein Expression in Carassius auratus Linn.%多溴联苯醚对鲫鱼组织DNA损伤及p53蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 瞿建宏; 陈家长; 聂凤琴

    2011-01-01

    以鲫鱼(Carawsius auratus)为试验材料,研究了经不同浓度的2,2’,4,4’-四溴联苯醚(PBDE-47)和十溴联苯醚(PBDE-209)暴露后,鲫鱼体内DNA损伤产物8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)的含量及p53蛋白的水平.结果表明,采用浓度为0.10~5.00 mg·L-1的PBDE-47和10.0~50.0mg·L-1的PBDE-209处理鲫鱼20d,除了0.10 mg·L-1 PBDE-47和10.0 mg·L-1 PBDE-209浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05),其余各浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量均随PBDE-47和PBDE-209浓度增加而逐渐上升,呈显著的相关关系(P<0.01),且8-OHdG和p53蛋白之间也呈显著的正相关.说明PBDE-47和PBDE-209对鲫鱼组织的DNA产生了损伤,具有遗传毒性影响.%Persistent organic pollutants(POPs) has a long-term threat to different biota, including aquatic animals, mammals, especially humans, due to their biomagnified effect in food chain, the study on the toxic effect of POPs to aquatic animals was evidently important and concerned. This paper discussed the variation of DNA-damage product 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) and p53 protein to Carassius awatus in exposed to poly -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE-47 and PBDE-209), where the exposed dose of PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 ranged from 0.10 to 5.00 mg·L-1 and 10.0 to 50.0 mg·L-1, respectively. The results showed that, DNA-damage product 8-OHdC and p53 protein were generated extraordinary in all treatment lasted for 20 days, expectihe 0.1 mg·L-1 in PBDE-47 and 10.0 mg·L-1 in PBDE-209. The variation of 8-OHdC and p53 protein to Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were significantly dose-depend (P<0.01), respectively, and the variation of 8-OHdC was significantly correlated with the variation of p53 protein as well. The results indicated that, the genotoxic effect, characterized by DNA-damage product, such as 8-OHdC and p53 protein in Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were produced. The paper provided more

  20. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  1. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

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    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  2. Improving Moringa Growth by Using Autochthonous and ...

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    Biological methods such as mycorrhiza biotechnology used for raising and sustaining soil fertility in agricultural ecosystems close ... in optimizing plant production technology applicable in eco-sensitive-oriented low in-put agriculture. .... frequently tilled using multiple techniques. ... Seed collection, preparation and planting.

  3. Response of Tunisian autochthonous pearl millet (Pennisetum ...

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    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... This reflects an adaptive response involving an increase in root length to reach deeper water in the soil. It was also notified that the elongation of the radicle is more ... glycol molecules with a Mr ≥ 6000 (PEG 6000) are inert, non ionic ... PEG solution mimic dry soil more closely than solutions of low Mr.

  4. Screening of autochthonous Lactobacillus species from Algerian ...

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    AJB2

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... for increasing self-life storage and enhancing safety of food by using ... manufacturing of fermented food (Fitzsimmons et al.,. 1999; Badis et al., ...... Class IIa bacteriocins: biosynthesis, structure and activity. Microbiol. Rev. 24: .... World. J. Dairy Food. Sci. 1: 12-18. Nettles CG, Barefoot SF (1993). Biochemic ...

  5. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

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    Prof. Ogunji

    crude oil-impacted sites at Bodo community, Ogoniland in the Niger Delta were isolated using ... potential solution to such environmental problems (Akinde et al., 2012). .... communities from mangrove sediments in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Res.

  6. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Sun Yuanyuan; Yin Ying; Ji Rong; Wu Jichun; Wang Xiaorong; Guo Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L -1 medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L -1 medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d -1 pot -1 for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d -1 pot -1 for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  7. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jiahua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yin Ying; Ji Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu Jichun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  8. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by autochthonous willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong; Guo, Hongyan

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L(-1) medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L(-1) medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate=68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, S.; Höglund, Erik; Mayer, I.

    2008-01-01

    -dependent; for instance, many animals show increased risk-taking during courtship behavior by paying less attention to potential predators. We investigated whether the fright reaction, a stereotypical avoidance response to olfactory cues from injured conspecifics, may be affected by reproductive status in a teleost fish...... maturation, were lower in the individuals not responding with a fright reaction compared to those responding. In males, there were no differences between responsive and non-responsive individuals in mean plasma levels of androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) involved in spermatogenesis and male...

  10. Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), s. 205-215 ISSN 1993-0771 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytogenetics * paleotetraploid * heterochromatin * metaphase chromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2013

  11. SILVER CRUCIAN OR CHITON AND DAMAGES IT SAUSSES BY ITS PRESENCE ON FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Kajgana

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available By its presence, silver crucian carp or chiton (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. makes lot of damage on fish-farms. By its nutrition way, the chiton competes with carp, thus reducing its growths and increasing the nutritive coefficient what is unjustified both economically and technologically. The diclinous and hermaphroditic way of procreation influences the spread of this species. After the dissection of an chiton exemplar of 10-12 dag in October 1995 in Našice “Ribnjak 1905” it was stated that it had 23% of male fish. Spawn was in the IV. stage of sex maturity according to Kiseljević. The ways of chiton coming and going to particular pounds as well as measures to control it are analyzed in the text. It is recommended to turn full attention to the filling and re-filling of pounds, prevent the coming of wild fish and fill canals and pounds thoroughly.

  12. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of Marine Bacillus sp. with Antagonistic and Organic-Substances-Degrading Activities and Its Potential Application as a Fish Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxin Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the isolation and characterization of an acid- and bile-tolerant bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. YB1701 with antibacterial and quorum-quenching activity. Strain YB1701 was isolated from coastal sediment samples and characterized by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. In vitro study indicated that strain YB1701 can survive at pH 2.0 for up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Strain YB1701 showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahemolyticus using an agar well diffusion assay. The trial test showed dietary supplementation of YB1701 significantly improved the resistance of Carassius auratus gibelio against A. hydrophila challenge. The safety assessment revealed that the isolate Bacillus sp. YB1701 was not cytotoxic to Carassius auratus gibelio or mice and did not exhibit hemolytic activity on rabbit blood agar plate. Disc-diffusion assays using a panel of antibiotics listed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA showed that YB1701 was susceptible to selected antibiotics. Under laboratory conditions, the degradation rate of organic waste (predominately fish excrement for 14 days by YB1701 was 79.69%. Results from the present study suggest that strain YB1701 is a potential probiotic strain and can be used in aquaculture for degrading organic waste and improving disease resistance of fish against bacterial infection. Further study is needed to assess the utility of strain YB1701 on a commercial scale.

  14. Listeria spp. associated to different levels of autochthonous microbiota in meat, meat products and processing plants Listeria spp. associado a diferentes níveis da microbiota autóctone de carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth of pathogens in these products and interfere in the results of laboratory analyses for detection of these pathogens. With the aim of verifying the possible interference of the autochthonous microbiota encountered in meat and meat products and processing plants over the presence of Listeria spp., 443 samples, collected from 11 meat retail establishments, were submitted to microbiological analysis to determine the levels of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms and Escherichia coli and the presence of Listeria spp., according to the methodology proposed by the USDA. The results did not show evident interference of the autochthonous microbiota over Listeria spp., once the genus was detected even in the meat, meat products and environmental samples with high levels of contamination by mesophilic aerobes and coliforms.Altos níveis de contaminação microbiana, usualmente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e nos ambientes de processamento, podem inibir a multiplicação de microrganismos patogênicos nesses produtos e interferir nos resultados das análises laboratoriais para o isolamento desses patógenos. Com o objetivo de verificar as possíveis interferências da microbiota autóctone encontrada na carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento sobre a presença de Listeria spp., 443 amostras, coletadas em 11 estabelecimentos processadores, foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas para determinação dos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli e para verificação da presença de Listeria spp., de acordo com a metodologia proposta pelo USDA. Os resultados obtidos não mostraram uma interferência evidente da microbiota autóctone sobre Listeria spp., uma vez que esse gênero foi detectado mesmo nas amostras de carne e produtos cárneos e

  15. Primeiro encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG, concomitante com o relato de primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral humana First finding of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in the urban area of Uberlândia, MG, concomitant with the first reported autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do vetor da leishmaniose visceral, Lutzomyia longipalpis, na área urbana de Uberlândia, estado de Minas Gerais e o primeiro caso de leishmaniose visceral humana autóctone no município, notificado ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, por meio da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Discute-se a importância deste encontro na transmissão da doença nessa área.The first occurrence of the vector for visceral leishmaniasis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the urban area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, and the first autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis recorded in the same locality are reported. These were notified to the Zoonosis Control Center, through the Epidemiological Surveillance sector of the Municipal Health Department. The importance of these findings regarding transmission of the disease in this area is discussed.

  16. Morphology of the intestine of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the structures of the intestine of the Goldfish is given. Several morphological techniques have been used. Special attention has been paid to those characteristics of this organ that may be of importance to physiologists working with the same material, with emphasis on cell-to-cell

  17. Molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Luo, Yangzhi; Gao, Zexia; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xianghai; Nie, Huihui; Zhang, Junmei; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch). In this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant CyHV-2 strain (SY-C1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland China and its comparative genomics analysis with the CyHV-2 reference strain ST-J1. Overall, the full-length genome of SY-C1 shares 98.8% homology with that of ST-J1. Sequence comparisons between SY-C1 and ST-J1 indicate that the variations include single-nucleotide mutations, insertions, deletions, and rearrangements, which suggested that SY-C1 is different from ST-J1 and represents a new genotype. Therefore, we propose that the identified CyHV-2 can be divided into 2 different genotypes and be named China genotype (C genotype) and Japan genotype (J genotype) according to their isolation loci. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys indicate that the dominant genotype of CyHV-2 circulating in mainland China is closer to the China genotype than the Japan genotype.

  18. On the possibility of autochthonous Chagas disease in Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, 2000-2001 Sobre a possibilidade da ocorrência de doença de Chagas autóctone em Roraima, Amazônia brasileira, 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Luitgards-Moura

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease has been almost entirely eradicated from the arid zones in Central and Northeastern Brazil where rare or no autochthonous cases have been reported. However, in the last 10 years the disease has increasingly been registered in the Amazon Region. Aiming to investigate the possibility of the occurrence of autochthonous cycle of Chagas disease in Roraima, triatomine collections, vectorial susceptibility studies (this one to be shown elsewhere, parasitological and serological analyses were conducted in three agricultural settlement areas (Rorainópolis, Passarão Project and Ilha Community. Blood-donor candidates were also investigated. This is the first epidemiological survey on Chagas disease conducted in agricultural settlements in Roraima. Triatomine species found were Triatoma maculata, Rhodnius pictipes, Rhodnius robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus. Trypanosoma cruzi detection analyses included xenodiagnosis, indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemaglutination, ELISA and kinetoplast PCR amplification. Natural triatomine infection was not found in intestinal contents. Twenty-five adult settlers (1.4% out of 1821, all > 15 year-old, 20 migrants presented anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Two migrant settlers (from Minas Gerais and Maranhão tested positive for more than two serological tests, besides either being positive for xenodiagnosis or PCR. Results show that Chagas disease is not endemic in the areas studied. However, all elements of the transmission cycle are present, demanding for an adequate and continuous vigilance.A doença de Chagas foi quase inteiramente erradicada das zonas áridas do Brasil Central e Nordeste, onde ciclos autóctones de transmissão praticamente inexistem. Contudo, na última década a doença vem sendo registrada na Região Amazônica. Objetivando investigar a possibilidade da ocorrência de ciclos autóctones de transmissão em áreas de colonização agrícola no Estado de Roraima, foram realizadas

  19. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    herpesvirus‐like particles, subsequently identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus‐2 (CyHV‐2) with a nested PCR protocol. Although it was not possible to attribute a pathogenic role to CyHV‐2 in this mortality event, the identification of this herpesvirus in crucian carp increases the concern about its potential...

  20. Morphologically indistinguishable hybrid Carassius female with 156 chromosomes: A threat for the threatened crucian carp, C. carassius, L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Rylková, K.; Choleva, Lukáš; Merilä, J.; Ráb, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), č. článku e0190924. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Carrasius carrasius * chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. Atractividad de diferentes cebos sobre Trógidos (Coleoptera en el Bosque Autóctono "El Espinal", Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina Attractivity of different Baits on Trogids (Coleoptera in the Autochthonous Forest "El Espinal", Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Gómez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio para determinar la atractividad de cebos sobre las especies de Trogidae presentes en el Bosque Autóctono "El Espinal" en la ciudad de Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina. Se usaron trampas de caída cebadas con carne de vacuno (3, carne de porcino (3, menudo de pollo (3, excremento humano (3, excremento de perro (3 y trampas testigo (sin cebo (3 sumando un total de 18. Se recolectaron cuatro especies de Trogidae: Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, Polynoncus aeger (Guérin-Meneville, Polynoncus gemmingeri (Harold y Polynoncus pilularius (Germar, que mostraron una preferencia hacia los menudos en descomposición de pollo y carne de cerdo seguido por excremento de perro; sugiriendo un comportamiento necrofágico-coprofágico con una tendencia a la necrofagia. Adicionalmente se utilizaron trampas de luz capturándose ejemplares de Omorgus ciliatus (Blanchard.A study to determine the food attractivity of baits on the species of Trogidae present in the Autochthonous Forest El Espinal in Río Cuarto City (Córdoba, Argentina was performed. Pitfall traps baited with beef (3, pork (3, chicken giblets (3, human excrement (3, dog excrement (3 and witness traps (without bait (3 were used, making up a total of 18 traps. Four species of Trogidae were collected Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, Polynoncus aeger (Guérin-Meneville, Polynoncus gemmingeri (Harold and Polynoncus pilularius (Germar, which showed a preference for decomposing meat, especially chicken and pork, followed by dog excrement. Thus suggesting a necrophagous-coprophagous behavior with a tendency to the necrophagy. In an additional sampling light traps were used; Omorgus ciliatus (Blanchard was collected in these.

  2. Selection for autochthonous bifidobacteial isolates adapted to simulated gastrointestinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Jamalifar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Bifidobacterial strains are excessively sensitive to acidic conditions and this can affect their living ability in the stomach and fermented foods, and as a result, restrict their use as live probiotic cultures. The aim of the present study was to obtain bifidobacterial isolates with augmented tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal condition using cross-protection method. "nMethods: Individual bifidobacterial strains were treated in acidic environment and also in media containing bile salts and NaCl. Viability of the acid and acid-bile-NaCl tolerant isolates was further examined in simulated gastric and small intestine by subsequent incubation of the probiotic bacteria in the corresponding media for 120 min. Antipathogenic activities of the adapted isolates were compared with those of the original strains. "nResults and major conclusion: The acid and acid-bile-NaCl adapted isolates showed improved viabilities significantly (p<0.05 in simulated gastric fluid compared to their parent strains. The levels of reduction in bacterial count (Log cfu/ml of the acid and acid-bile-NaCl adapted isolates obtained in simulated gastric fluid ranged from 0.64-3.06 and 0.36-2.43 logarithmic units after 120 min of incubation. There was no significant difference between the viability of the acid-bile-NaCl-tolerant isolates and the original strains in simulated small intestinal condition except for Bifidobacterium adolescentis (p<0.05. The presence of 15 ml of supernatants of acid-bile-NaCl-adapted isolates and also those of the initial Bifidobacterium strains inhibited pathogenic bacterial growth for 24 hrs. Probiotic bacteria with improved ability to survive in harsh gastrointestinal environment could be obtained by subsequent treatment of the strains in acid, bile salts and NaCl environments.

  3. Bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helle; Markager, Svend Stiig; Søndergaard, Morten

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) produced during a phytoplankton bloom. The experiments were conducted with natural plankton communities as batch growth experiments over approximately 30 days with nitrogen limitation. Five to six...... times during the exponential and stationary phases of each experimental bloom the bioavailability of DON was measured over 60 days together with DOC and oxygen consumption. The overall aim was to quantify remineralization of the added nitrate. The results showed that maximum 33 % of the added nitrate...

  4. BESSARABIAN RELIGIOUS MUSIC OF BYZANTINE TRADITION REFLECTED IN AUTOCHTHONOUS MUSICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBANOI HRISTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article below presents an overview of the main musicological studies that aim Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition, developed by musicologists from the Republic of Moldova and Romania. The author emphasizes the idea that although the study of Byzantine religious music in the Bessarabian space is carried out by a limited number of people, their research results deserve attention, being of high scientific value. Some of these results are even internationally recognized. At the same time, the author notes that Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition is not sufficiently researched.

  5. Role of live autochthonous fungi in removing toxic metals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... The fungi isolated from the tannery and textile effluents. S/N. List of fungi ... The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design. (Steel and Torrie, 1980). ..... Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy ...

  6. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes.

  7. Marketing of the autochthonous dried cheese in Zagreb region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Radman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, value added food products is constantlyincreasing. In order to prepare such products for the market it is necessary to understand consumers’ attitudes and preferences towards food products. Dried cheese, one of the traditional products of wider Zagreb region is produced nowadays exclusively on the family farms without proper control of the used inputs and final product, and without any marketing activities. It is possible to add value and to increase the control of dried cheese production bydeveloping county brand of the cheese. The introduction of county brand of dried cheese in the market requires very good preparation in terms of fulfilling consumers’ needs and wishes. In this paper the results of the consumer survey are presented and could be used for the determination of the technological parameters of production and especially for marketing of the cheese and its distribution. The results showed that majority of the consumers prefer harder, compact, bright yellow cheese, with less intensive odour, packed in transparent plastic foil. Certain number of the respondents confused dried cheese with other cheeses sold in the market and therefore it is necessary to educate consumers about dried cheese and its characteristics compared to other cheeses.

  8. An autochthonous sexually transmitted Zika virus infection in Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Percivalle, Elena; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Premoli, Marta; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Girello, Alessia; Dalla Gasperina, Daniela; Balsamo, Maria Luisa; Baldanti, Fausto; Rovida, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.

  9. Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... local biodiversity in tropical area appears as a potentially productive approach for identifying promising ... senting thirteen species and ten different genera (Table ..... which has clear connexions with white biotechnology.

  10. First Autochthonous Coinfected Anthrax in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous anthrax has a mortality rate of 20% if no antibacterial treatment is applied. The clinical manifestations of cutaneous anthrax are obviously striking, but coinfection may produce atypical lesions and mask the clinical manifestations and proper laboratory diagnosis. Anthrax is known to be more common in the Middle East and Iran is one of the countries in which the zoonotic form of anthrax may still be encountered. We report a case of a 19-years-old male who used to apply Venetian ceruse on his skin. Venetian ceruse (also known as Spirits of Saturn is an old cosmetic product used for skin whitening traditionally made from sheep’s spinal cord. The patient referred to the Referral Laboratory, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with atypical dermatosis, pronounced pain, and oedema of the affected tissue. It was confirmed by both conventional and molecular analysis that culture was a mixture of Bacillus anthracis and Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone (1000 mg/day for two weeks, gentamicin (1.5–2 mg/kg/day, terbinafine (200 mg/week for one month, and 1% clotrimazole cream (5 weeks two times per day which resulted in gradual improvement. No relapse could be detected after one-year follow-up. Anthrax infection might present a broader spectrum of symptoms than expected by clinicians. These unfamiliar characteristics may lead to delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and higher mortality rate. Clinicians need to be aware of this issue in order to have successful management over this infection.

  11. Autochthonous blastomycosis of the adrenal: first case report from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Sreehari, Sreekala; Velayudhan, Kandan; Biswas, Lalitha; Babu, Rachana; Ahmed, Shabeer; Sharma, Neelakanta; Kurupath, Vasanth P; Jojo, Annie; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Karim, Shamsul; Biswas, Raja

    2014-04-01

    Systemic endemic mycoses, such as blastomycosis, are rare in Asia and have been reported as health risks among travelers who visit or reside in an endemic area. Adrenal involvement is rarely seen in blastomycosis and has never been reported from Asia. We report the first case of blastomycosis with bilateral involvement of the adrenals in a diabetic patient residing in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India.

  12. Walleye Autochthonous Bacteria as Promising Probiotic Candidates against Flavobacterium columnare

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    Hamza Seghouani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Walleye (Sander vitreus is the second most fished freshwater species in Canada. While much sought by anglers, walleye also supports substantial commercial fisheries. To cope with the recent decline of wild walleye populations, fish farmers produce juveniles for lake stocking. However, walleye breeding is particularly tedious, mostly due to high disease susceptibility at larval and juvenile developmental stages. The main threat is the columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacteria. As F. columnare strains exhibit increasing antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to develop efficient and sustainable alternative strategies to control columnaris disease. Bacterial probiotics have been shown to mitigate infections either by enhancing host immune response or by inhibiting pathogen growth. Being successfully assessed in many fish/pathogen combinations, we developed a tailored probiotic strategy for walleye to prevent and treat columnaris disease. Thirty-seven endogenous bacterial strains were isolated from healthy walleye’s skin and gut, were tested in vitro against F. columnare. Significant antagonistic effect against F. columnare was measured for 2 out of 37 endogenous strains. These two probiotic strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antagonistic effect of these two successful probiotics was further validated in vivo during a 2-month stress trial: groups receiving probiotic treatments showed on average 53.74% survival improvement.

  13. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

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    Sweety

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P. India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was studied at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days at temperatures 20, 25, 30 and 40°C using five synthetic dyes viz. Xylene cynol FF, Brilliant blue R, Aniline Blue, Orange G II and Crystal violet. Decolorization study was carried out under shaking and stationary conditions at pH 4.0, 5.4, 6.5, and 8.0. The results obtained showed that Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger were more efficient then Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus. Highest biodegradation activities of dyes by these aboriginal fungal isolates were observed at pH 5.4 after 9 days of incubation. Maximum decolorization 99.84 % was achieved by Aspergillus niger, followed by Trichoderma virens. This is the first report where the bioremediation aspects of Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus has been revealed.

  14. Analytical study of tamarygo (Prosopis tamarugo) an autochthonous Chilean feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, N; Araya, H; Villalon, R; Tagle, M A

    1977-01-01

    Fallen fruit and dry leaves of P. tamarugo could be used all the year round as the sole feed for cattle or sheep. The chemical composition and energy content of green and dried leaves and fruits were investigated. Cyanogenetic glycosides and alkaloids were not detected in any samples, saponins were found in low concentrations in green fruits and seeds and an antitryptic factor and haemagglutinins were found in seeds.

  15. Autochthonous canine visceral leishmaniasis in a non-endemic area: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil Ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral canina autóctone em uma área não-endêmica: Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Marcio Roberto Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by describing a dog with characteristic symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis. A serum sample from this animal was positive by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF performed in anti-Leishmania total IgG in 1999. Tissues from the same dog were also positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in 2004, identifying Leishmania DNA in the cerebellum, liver, kidney, and intestine. This is the first report of a dog with autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in the county of Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The finding of this IIF-positive dog led to a canine visceral leishmaniasis epidemiological investigation in the county. The investigation was conducted from March 1999 to December 2005. IIF was positive for Leishmania in 22 (3% of 734 examined dogs. Among the 22 IIF-positive dogs, six presented characteristic symptoms of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The results of this epidemiological investigation were sent to local and State public health authorities, requesting visceral leishmaniasis control and preventive measures to interrupt transmission of the disease and avoid the occurrence of human cases.O presente trabalho descreve inicialmente um cão com sintomas característicos de leishmaniose visceral. Amostra de soro desse cão foi positiva por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI conduzida no IgG total anti-Leishmania em 1999. Além disso, tecidos desse cão foram positivos por reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR conduzida em 2004, identificando DNA de Leishmania no cerebelo, fígado, rim e intestino. Esta é a primeira vez que um cão com leishmaniose visceral autóctone foi descrito no Município de Bom Sucesso, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O achado desse cão reagente à IFI levou a uma investigação epidemiológica nesse município. Essa investigação foi conduzida de março de 1999 a dezembro de 2005. Vinte e dois de um total de 734 (3% cães examinados foram reagentes à IFI. Entre os 22 cães IFI reagentes, seis apresentaram

  16. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of autochthonous dairy enterococci isolates: Are they safe candidates for autochthonous starter cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarela eTerzić-Vidojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent the most controversial group of dairy bacteria. They are found to be the main constituent of many traditional Mediterranean dairy products and contribute to their characteristic taste and flavor. On the other hand, during the last 50 years antibiotic-resistant enterococci have emerged as leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity, technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence traits of 636 enterococci previously isolated from 55 artisan dairy products from 12 locations in the Western Balkan countries of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. All strains were identified both by microbiological and molecular methods. The predominant species was Enterococcus durans, followed by E. faecalis and E. faecium. Over 44% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, while 26.2% of the isolates were multi-resistant to three or more antibiotics belonging to different families. 185 isolates (29.1% were susceptible to all 13 of the antibiotics tested. The antibiotic-susceptible isolates were further tested for possible virulence genes and the production of biogenic amines. Finally, five enterococci isolates were found to be antibiotic susceptible with good technological characteristics and without virulence traits or the ability to produce biogenic amines, making them possible candidates for biotechnological application as starter cultures in the dairy industry.

  17. Fenologia reprodutiva e sistema de polinização de Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: atuação de Apis mellifera e de visitantes florais autóctones como polinizadores Reproductive phenology and pollination system of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: the role of Apis mellifera and autochthonous floral visitors as pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcila de Lima Nadia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Fenologia reprodutiva e sistema de polinização de Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: atuação de Apis mellifera e de visitantes florais autóctones como polinizadores. Ziziphus joazeiro é uma espécie endêmica da Caatinga, com grande utilidade econômica, cuja biologia reprodutiva é pouco conhecida. Este estudo aborda a fenologia reprodutiva, a biologia floral e o sistema de polinização de Ziziphus joazeiro no Cariri Paraibano, Nordeste do Brasil. Os períodos de floração e de frutificação ocorreram no fim da estação seca e início da chuvosa, com picos nos meses de dezembro (floração e fevereiro (frutificação. As flores são do tipo disco, esverdeadas, duram cerca de 12 horas e possuem disco nectarífero largo e amarelo, o qual circunda o gineceu. Ocorre protandria associada a outro tipo de dicogamia, a heterodicogamia. Ziziphus joazeiro produz néctar em pequena quantidade (1 µl, com alta concentração de açúcares (75%. Os visitantes florais observados foram vespas, abelhas e moscas. Apis mellifera apresentou maior freqüência de visitas (77,5%, seguida pelo grupo das vespas (20,4%, ambos considerados polinizadores efetivos. As moscas e as outras espécies de abelhas apresentaram baixo percentual de visitas (2,1% e foram consideradas pilhadoras de néctar. A elevada taxa de desenvolvimento inicial de frutos por inflorescência pode sugerir alta eficiência dos polinizadores, uma vez que o mecanismo de dicogamia presente na espécie praticamente impede a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea e de geitonogamia.(Reproductive phenology and pollination system of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae: the role of Apis mellifera and autochthonous floral visitors as pollinators. Ziziphus joazeiro is an endemic species of the Caatinga with great economic importance, whose reproductive biology is poorly understood. This paper analyses the reproductive phenology, floral biology and pollination system of Ziziphus joazeiro at

  18. Deriving freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium for the protection of aquatic life in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium(NaSCN) were studied on the basis of the features of the aquaticbiota in China, and with Reference to U.S.EPA's guidelines. Acutetests were performed on twelve different domestic species todetermine 48h-EC50/96h-EC50 (or 96h-LC50) values for NaSCN. 21dsurvival-reproduction test with Daphnia magna, 60d fry-juvenilepart life stage test with Carassius auratus gibelio and 96h growthinhibition test with Lemna minor were also conducted to estimatelower chronic limit/upper chronic limit values. In the acute tests,D.magna was the most sensitive species to NaSCN followed by Tilapiamossambia, Cyprinus carpio and C.auratus gibelio in turn. The finalacute value of NaSCN was 2.699 mg/L. In the chronic tests,reproduction of daphnids were significantly reduced by NaSCN at 1.0mg/L. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 5.96 to 19.1. A finalchronic value of 0.2530 mg/L was obtained and a final plant valuewas 1346 mg/L. A criterion maximum concentration (1.349 mg/L) anda criterion continuous concentration (0.2530 mg/L) were derivedrespectively. The results of this study may provide useful data toderive national WQC for NaSCN as well as the procedures of derivingWQC of other chemicals for the protection of aquatic biota in China.

  19. Socializing makes thick-skinned individuals: on the density of epidermal alarm substance cells in cyprinid fish, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabell, Ole B; Vegusdal, Anne

    2010-09-01

    In cyprinid fish, density of epidermal club cells (i.e. alarm substance cells) has been found to vary between lakes with different predator fauna. Because predators can be labelled with chemical cues from prey, we questioned if club cell density could be controlled indirectly by predators releasing prey cues. In particular, we suspected a possible feedback mechanism between chemical alarm signals and their cellular source. We raised crucian carp singly and in groups of four. For both rearing types, fish were exposed to skin extracts of either conspecifics or brown trout (without club cells), and provided either low or high food rations. Independent of rearing type, condition factor and club cell density increased with food ration size, but no change was found in club cell density following exposure to conspecific alarm signals. However, the density of club cells was found significantly higher for fish raised in groups than for fish raised alone. We conclude that an increased condition factor results in more club cells, but crucian carp may also possess an awareness of conspecific presence, given by higher club cell densities when raised in groups. This increase in club cell density may be induced by unknown chemical factors released by conspecifics.

  20. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. I. Duration of live fish storage prior to dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-05-03

    We tested the ability of parasite species to respond quickly to artificial conditions (e.g. by changing abundance or even decreasing to extinction) while host fish species were being held alive prior to dissection. Prussian carp Carassius gibelio were sampled by electrofishing from 2 ponds alongside the River Dyje (Czech Republic) during 'cold' and 'warm' seasons. All fish were transported to the laboratory in aerated pond water and kept in a 1 m3 outdoor basin with aged tap water for 6 d. Twenty fish were dissected on consecutive days (total 120 fish for each site). Our results indicated that there was little change in parasite loading over the first 3 d of holding, suggesting no impact on parasitological studies undertaken over this period. From the fourth day, however, overall parasite abundance increased due to rapid reproduction of some parasite species, especially gyrodactylids in the cold season and dactylogyrids in the warm season. Parasite diversity appeared less stable in the warm season, with significant differences being registered as early as the second day. In addition to holding period, environmental conditions during fish holding will also play an important role in parasite community shifts.

  1. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF THE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM IN THE BARDAČA AREA (BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

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    Dragojla Vuković

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna composition of the wetland ecosystem in the Bardača area (Bosnia and Herzegovina was described with the aim of indication on the richness and necessary protection of the biodiversity of this sensitive swamp region. During 2004, qualitative and quantitative fish samplings were carried out, according to seasons, in Matura and Brzaja rivers, the main tributaries of the drainage area around the Sava River. Fish samplings were carried out using an electro–generator pulse and removal method. Analysis of the sampled fishes consisted of species determination and estimation of yield for average density and biomass (N/m2 or m3 and g/m2 or m3. It could be said that during one year examinations, the presence of 24 fish species from 7 families has been determinate. In addition, the analysis of fish diversity was carried out by means of species richness, Shannon–Weaver index, evenness and Simpson index. According to analyzed data, it could be observed that 2 allochtonous pest species, Carassius auratus gibelio and Ictalurus nebulosus presents the most dominant fish species in these waters in almost all sampling seasons.

  2. Trophic interaction between topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and the co-occurring species during summer in the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva is the most common invasive fish in Europe, which can compete with the juveniles of valuable commercial fishes. The goal of this work is to study the diet of topmouth gudgeon and trophic relationships with some native fishes inhabiting the littoral zone of the Dniprodzerzhynsk reservoir. The obtained relatively low values of diet overlaps between topmouth gudgeon and other co-occurring cyprinids such as juvenile roach, Rutilus rutilus; silver bream, Blicca bjoerkna; rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus; Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and bleak, Abramis brama, indicate that it is not a serious food competitor for them, especially commercially valuable ones. On the contrary, high diet overlaps were observed among some native cyprinids such as juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and bleak. The major prey items of topmouth gudgeon were Chydorus sphaericus and chironomids, whereas other cyprinids selected Bosmina spp. This peculiarity may be due to different vertical distributions of these fish in the littoral zone of the reservoir, where topmouth gudgeon inhabit near-bottom water layers, where they preyed on near-bottom and benthic zooplankters and chironomids, while juvenile roach, silver bream, rudd, and juvenile and adult bleak live in higher water layers, where they preyed on pelagic zooplankton.

  3. Dynamic distribution of spindlin in nucleoli, nucleoplasm and spindle from primary oocytes to mature eggs and its critical function for oocyte-to-embryo transition in gibel carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Li, Zhi; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2010-10-01

    Spindlin (Spin) was thought as a maternal-effect factor associated with meiotic spindle. Its role for the oocyte-to-embryo transition was suggested in mouse, but its direct evidence for the function had been not obtained in other vertebrates. In this study, we used the CagSpin-specific antibody to investigate CagSpin expression pattern and distribution during oogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). First, the oocyte-specific expression pattern and dynamic distribution was revealed in nucleoli, nucleoplasm, and spindle from primary oocytes to mature eggs by immunofluorescence localization. In primary oocytes and growth stage oocytes, CagSpin accumulates in nucleoli in increasing numbers along with the oocyte growth, and its disassembly occurs in vitellogenic oocytes, which implicates that CagSpin may be a major component of a large number of nucleoli in fish growth oocytes. Then, co-localization of CagSpin and β-tubulin was revealed in meiotic spindle of mature egg, indicating that CagSpin is one spindle-associated factor. Moreover, microinjection of CagSpin-specific antibody into the fertilized eggs blocked the first cleavage, and found that the CagSpin depletion resulted in spindle assembly disturbance. Thereby, our study provided the first direct evidence for the critical oocyte-to-embryo transition function of Spin in vertebrates, and confirmed that Spin is one important maternal-effect factor that participates in oocyte growth, oocyte maturation, and oocyte-to-embryo transition.

  4. Study of fisheries from riverine Danube Delta: Gorgova – Uzlina and Sontea – Furtuna lake-complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAVODARU Ion

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The fish catch from riverine Danube delta has changed in both structure and size. The average of catches decreased from 1747 t (1963 - 1974 to 252 t (1992 - 2003 in Gorgova–Uzlina lake-complex and from 1,634 t to 211 t in Sontea–Furtuna lake-complex. The catch decline is effect of loosing of habitats and community structure change due to degradation of habitats. The dominant species – Carassius gibelio and Abramis brama has been yearly sampled since 1990 from the commercial catches for stock assessment. The growth, and exploitation parameters as well as the average biomass and the Maximum Sustainable Yields (MSY based on length frequency structure of landing catch have been estimated. Based on the average catch in the last 13 years (1992-2004 and of the fish stock assessment it resulted that in Gorgova – Uzlina lakes a quantity of 250 tons can be sustainable fished while in Sontea – Furtuna lakes - 210 tones. Lack of fishing effort monitoring and poor quality of catch data has induced uncertainty in stock assessment as well as MSY estimation.

  5. Fish fauna from Gârla Pasărea, a heavy modified former floodplain watercourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂVODARU Ion

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Gârla Pasarea” was a former flood plane watercourse in connection with Vedea River discharged in Danube River. The floodplane was embanked for agriculture polder, Vedea River was redirected to discharge direct into Danube River and Gârla Pasarea was cut in several sectors, connected through underground tubes. Fish fauna inventory of Gârla Pasarea was performed in august 2007, using for shallow water backpack electrofisher and deep large water by Nordic gillnets. The species richness includes 15 fish species with a gradient of increasing from upstream to downstream. The most frequent species (very abundant are two exotic respectively, Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius gibelio that survive in extreme condition. Four species are included in Annexes of Emergency Order of Romanian Govern No.57/2007, concerning regime of natural protected area,conservation of natural habitats and wild flora and fauna, respectively Aspius aspius, Cobitis danubialis (elangoides and Misgurnus fossilis are included in Annex 3 that need designate of Special Protected Area for conservation (SPA, andProterorhinus marmoratus (semilunaris is included in Annex 4B, for species of national interest that need strict protection. Recovering and conservation of fish fauna need ecological restoration based on rebuilding of longitudinal connectivity of Gârla Pasarea sectors, reconnect with Vedea River and lateral connectivity of Danube River with it former floodplane.

  6. Trace elements concentrations in aquatic biota from the Iron Gates wetlands in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matache M. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of four heavy metals was studied in living organisms from the wetlands ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park in Romania. Samples included aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum ssp., Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton natans, molluscs (Sinanodonta woodiana, Unio tumidus, Unio pictorum and fish (Silurus glanis, Sander lucioperca, Aspius aspius, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio. Metals organotropism in fish samples (gills, liver, muscle, eggs has been studied (Kojadinovici et al., 2007; Foata et. Al, 2009; Dutton and Fisher, 2011; David et al., 2012. Metal contamination of the wetlandecosystems in the Iron Gates Natural Park has been documented in the past for sediments (Matache et. al, 2002 and soils (Matache et al., 2003. This is a consequence of the mining and quarrying activities performed in the Moldova Noua region between 1960’s and 2000’s. Zinc is the main metal contaminant in all categories of collected samples. For fish muscle tissue (part of the fish mainly consumed by the local inhabitants, comparison with EU standards has been performed. Issues related to human health appear especially for cadmium (EC, 2006. Potamogeton pectinatus is the least accumulating plant species, whilst Potamogeton natans and Ceratophyllum ssp. had shown similar accumulation capacities of the trace elements.

  7. Fluorescence- and NOR-studies at chromosomes of several vertebrate-species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, F.

    1984-05-01

    In the investigated species of fishes clear-cut Chromomycin-positive blocks were visualised. This holds true as well for Lecaspius delineatus, Gobio gobio, Perca fluciatilis, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius and auratus gibelio. In contrast, DA-DAPI-Fluorescence was homogenous along the entire chromosome. The silver-impregnation-technique proved useful in all investigated species of fisches. In the chicken certain chromosome-districts the Chromomycin-fluorescence was more pronounced than in others; Distamycin-DAPI led to a homogeneous staining along hole the arms. The investigations in mouse-chromosomes revealed an R-banding-pattern. The Distamycin-DAPI-pattern of mouse-chromosomes were complementary to the Chromomycin-pattern and strongly pronounced centromeres. Again Distmycin-DAPI-staining did not allow an unquastinable bandling resolution; simularities to Actimomycin-DAPI-fluorochrome-included patterns were observed. By means of silver-impragnation-techniques the presence of double-point-formed NOR's on more chromosomes were highlighted. However an exact destination of the number was not possible and remains reserved to further investigations. (Author)

  8. The influence of environmental abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of ichthyofauna from predeltaic Danube area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Georgiana Calin Sandu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper  is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the capture and fish communities structure from Danube, between Siret River and Prut River mouth. Fish were collected from April to December 2012 in four fishing areas. During the year, 4910 kg, respectively 7121 fish of 31 species were collected. Cyprinidae, the dominant family, 54.84% in term of number of species, was represented by 17 species (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama, Abramis sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Leuciscus idus, Vimba vimba, Aspius aspius, Pelecus cultratus, Chondrostoma nasus, Ctenopharingodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus. Other families had the following structure: Percidae (16.13% with 5 species (Sander lucioperca, Zingel zingel, Zingel streber, Perca fluviatilis, Gymnocephalus schraetzer, Acipenseridae (12.90% with 4 species (Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Clupeidae (6.45% with two species (Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Siluridae (3.23% with one species (Silurus glanis, Esocidae (3.23% with one species (Esox lucius  and Salmonidae (3.23% with one species also (Salmo labrax. The highest capture was 2977.93 kg (60.65%, during the spring season (April-May, followed by autumn season (September–November, with 992.39 kg (20.21%. The water level and water flow showed high correlation with both number and total catch, respectively.

  9. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and organohalogen pollutants in liver of three freshwater fish species in Flanders (Belgium): relationships with biochemical and organismal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Philippe Tony [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: philippe.hoff@ua.ac.be; Van Campenhout, Karen [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van de Vijver, Kristin [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Antwerp University, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Moens, Lotte [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Huyskens, Geert [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Goemans, Geert [Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Duboislaan 14, B-1560 Groenendaal (Belgium); Belpaire, Claude [Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Duboislaan 14, B-1560 Groenendaal (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2005-09-15

    A perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) assessment was conducted on gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders (Belgium). The liver PFOS concentrations in fish from the Ieperlee canal (Boezinge, 250-9031 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the Blokkersdijk pond (Antwerp, 633-1822 ng/g wet weight) were higher than at the Zuun basin (Sint-Pieters-Leeuw, 11.2-162 ng/g wet weight) and among the highest in feral fish worldwide. Eel from the Oude Maas pond (Dilsen-Stokkem) and Watersportbaan basin (Ghent) had PFOS concentrations ranging between 212 and 857 ng/g wet weight. The hepatic PFOS concentration was significantly and positively related with the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and negatively with the serum protein content in eel and carp. The hepatic PFOS concentration in carp correlated significantly and negatively with the serum electrolyte concentrations whereas a significant positive relation was found with the hematocrit in eel. Although 13 organochlorine pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the liver tissue, only PCB 28, PCB 74, {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were suggested to contribute to the observed serological alterations in eel. - Hepatic perfluorooctane sulfonic acid contamination in Flanders (Belgium) might affect serological endpoints in feral carp and eel.

  10. Study of goldfish (Carassius auratus) growth hormone structure-function relationship by domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y H; Cheng, C H K; Chan, K M

    2007-03-01

    Using goldfish as a model, the structure-function relationship of goldfish growth hormone was studied using the strategy of homologous domain swapping. Chimeric mutants were constructed by exchanging homologous regions between goldfish growth hormone (gfGH II) and goldfish prolactin (gfPRL) with their cloned complementary DNAs. Six mutants, with their domain-swapped, were generated to have different combinations of three target regions, including the helix a, helix d and the large section in between these helices (possess the helices b, c and other random coiled regions). After expression in E. coli and refolding, these mutants were characterized by using competitive receptor binding assay (RRA) and growth hormone responding promoter activation assay. The different activity profiles of mutants in Spi 2.1 gene promoter assays from that in RRA shows that, for gfGH, receptor binding dose not confer receptor signal activations. When either helices a or d of gfGH was maintained with other helices replaced by their gfPRL counterparts, both receptor binding and hence gene activation activities are reduced. In mutants with helices b and c in gfGH maintained, containing the gfGH middle section, and helices a and d swapped with gfPRL, the had reduced RRA activities but the promoter activation activities retained. In conclusion, as in the case of human GH, the gfGH molecule possesses two functional sites: one of them is composed of discontinuous epitopes located on the target regions of this study and is for receptor binding; another site is located on the middle section of the molecule that helices a and d are not involved, and it is for activation of GH receptor and intracellular signals.

  11. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both ... There are various studies on the effects of these factors ..... have high salt in the blood and do not spend more energy.

  12. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  13. Opportunity of integrated production of "Ceratophyllum demersum" in a nutrition trial with "Carassius auratus"

    OpenAIRE

    Santana García, Gustavo Julián

    2016-01-01

    [EN]The integrated culture of fish and plant in a recirculated system is called aquaponics, where a mutual benefit have been demonstrated for the cocultured species. Today this practice is still not well known for the most studied consumed freshwater species, and almost nothing has been done for aquarium species. The objective of present work was to study the opportunity of growing one of the most selled aquarium plant coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a coculture with the goldfish (Carass...

  14. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  15. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  16. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  17. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  18. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  20. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  1. Bioremediation of soil with diesel Through the use of autochthonous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta Ramirez, Olga Maria; Rivera Rivera, Angela Patricia; Arias Marin, Lida; Rojano, Benjamin Alberto; Ruiz, Orlando; Cardona Gallo, Santiago Alonso

    2012-01-01

    In this study was isolated and characterized biochemical and molecular a bacterial consortium able to degrade hydrocarbons several, comprised of the following genres: Enterobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Sanguibacter soli, Arthrobacter spy Flavobacterium sp, from soil contaminated with diesel fuel in a laboratory scale, and treated with two technologies for bioremediation: natural attenuation and biostimulation. We obtained a reduction in the concentration of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in a period of 4 months was 36,86% for natural attenuation and 50,99% for biostimulation.

  2. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holding, Johnna M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Soetaert, Karline; Vonk, Jorien E.; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon

  3. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    OpenAIRE

    Holding, J.M.; Duarte, C.M.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Soetaert, K.; Vonk, J.E.; Agusti, S.; Wassmann, P.; Middelburg, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon (OC), however recent research suggests that melt water from sea ice and glaciers could introduce an allochthonous source of OC to the microbial food web with ramifications for the metabolic balance ...

  4. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holding, Johna M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Soetaert, Karline; Vonk, Jorien E.; Agusti, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Middelburg, Jack J.

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon

  5. Leptospirosis: a report on a series of five autochthonous cases in a Greek region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Periklis; Ganitis, Anestis; Papanas, Nikolaos; Iosifidou, Georgia; Maltsan, Tzelal; Kioutsouk, Serif; Christakidou, Evi; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2016-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease difficult to diagnose both to the clinic and the laboratory. Many risk factors have been involved, such as planting, hunting, harvesting and butchering or sports, such as rafting. We reported our experience through a period of 20  months and we tried to investigate prognostic factors predicting clinical outcomes. Five male patients were admitted to our Department with a median age of 40  years. Overall, three out of five patients presented to other hospital and were transferred to ours with a wrong or delayed diagnosis. In terms of clinical signs and symptoms, all presented with fever, myalgia, headache and jaundice, whereas conjunctival suffusion was present in 80% of them. Acute renal injury and liver deficiency were diagnosed in all subjects. Acute renal failure management required dialysis in 3/5 patients, whereas renal recovery was achieved soon after clinical improvement. However, clinical awareness and serology are the most important tools for accurate and quick diagnosis in order to administer the appropriate therapy.

  6. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Dabernat

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th-19(th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  7. The cultivable autochthonous microbiota of the critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncaric, Igor; Tichy, Alexander; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) is a migratory bird that became extinct in Europe centuries ago. Since 2014, the Northern bald ibis is subject to an intensive rehabilitation and conservation regime aiming to reintroduce the bird in its original distribution range in Central Europe and concurrently to maintain bird health and increase population size. Hitherto, virtually nothing is known about the microbial communities associated with the ibis species; an information pivotal for the veterinary management of these birds. Hence, the present study was conducted to provide a baseline description of the cultivable microbiota residing in the Northern bald ibis. Samples derived from the choana, trachea, crop and cloaca were examined employing a culturomic approach in order to identify microbes at each sampling site and to compare their frequency among age classes, seasonal appearances and rearing types. In total, 94 microbial species including 14 potentially new bacterial taxa were cultivated from the Northern bald ibis with 36, 58 and 59 bacterial species isolated from the choana, crop and cloaca, respectively. The microbiota of the Northern bald ibis was dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes, followed by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria, altogether phylotypes commonly observed within avian gut environments. Differences in relative abundances of various microbial taxa were evident among sample types indicating mucosa-specific colonisation properties and tissue tropism. Besides, results of the present study indicate that the composition of microbiota was also affected by age, season (environment) and rearing type. While the prevalence of traditional pathogenic microbial species was extremely low, several opportunists including Clostridium perfringens toxotype A were frequently present in samples indicating that the Northern bald ibis may represent an important animal reservoir for these pathogens. In summary, the presented study provides a first inventory of the cultivable microbiota residing in the critically endangered Northern bald ibis and represents a first step in a wider investigation of the ibis microbiome with the ultimate goal to contribute to the management and survival of this critically endangered bird. PMID:29617453

  8. Autochthonous Case of Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, France, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yann; Rossi, Benjamin; Argy, Nicolas; Baker, Catherine; Nickel, Beatrice; Marti, Hanspeter; Zarrouk, Virginie; Houzé, Sandrine; Fantin, Bruno; Lefort, Agnès

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old Moroccan woman living in France diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and confirmed by testing of serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Physicians should consider the risk for A. cantonensis infection outside of endemic areas.

  9. Vector status of Aedes species determines geographical risk of autochthonous Zika virus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gardner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2015-16 Zika virus pandemic originating in Latin America led to predictions of a catastrophic global spread of the disease. Since the current outbreak began in Brazil in May 2015 local transmission of Zika has been reported in over 60 countries and territories, with over 750 thousand confirmed and suspected cases. As a result of its range expansion attention has focused on possible modes of transmission, of which the arthropod vector-based disease spread cycle involving Aedes species is believed to be the most important. Additional causes of concern are the emerging new links between Zika disease and Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS, and a once rare congenital disease, microcephaly.Like dengue and chikungunya, the geographic establishment of Zika is thought to be limited by the occurrence of its principal vector mosquito species, Ae. aegypti and, possibly, Ae. albopictus. While Ae. albopictus populations are more widely established than those of Ae. aegypti, the relative competence of these species as a Zika vector is unknown. The analysis reported here presents a global risk model that considers the role of each vector species independently, and quantifies the potential spreading risk of Zika into new regions. Six scenarios are evaluated which vary in the weight assigned to Ae. albopictus as a possible spreading vector. The scenarios are bounded by the extreme assumptions that spread is driven by air travel and Ae. aegypti presence alone and spread driven equally by both species. For each scenario destination cities at highest risk of Zika outbreaks are prioritized, as are source cities in affected regions. Finally, intercontinental air travel routes that pose the highest risk for Zika spread are also ranked. The results are compared between scenarios.Results from the analysis reveal that if Ae. aegypti is the only competent Zika vector, then risk is geographically limited; in North America mainly to Florida and Texas. However, if Ae. albopictus proves to be a competent vector of Zika, which does not yet appear to be the case, then there is risk of local establishment in all American regions including Canada and Chile, much of Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, as well as South and East Asia, with a substantial increase in risk to Asia due to the more recent local establishment of Zika in Singapore.

  10. Autochthonous Babesia canis, Hepatozoon canis and imported Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Novotna, M.; Juránková, J.; Hofmannová, L.; Forejtek, P.; Modrý, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 138-146 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne diseases * apicomplexan parasites * PCR detection * 18S rDNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2016

  11. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch.

  12. AUTOCHTHONOUS BIOFACIES IN THE PLIOCENE LORETO BASIN, BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE PIAZZA

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the molluscan and/or echinoid assemblages recovered from two lithostratigraphic units (Piedras Rodadas Sandstone and Arroyo de Arce Norte Sandstone outcropping in the Pliocene Loreto Basin, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Ten biofacies have been identified, i.e. Trachycardium procerum-Trachycardium senticosum Biofacies, Chione compta-Transennella modesta Biofacies, Laevicardium elenense-Chione kelletii Biofacies, Xenophora sp. 1-Strombus subgracilior Biofacies, Crassostrea californica osunai Biofacies, Myrakeena angelica Biofacies, Vermetid-Nodipecten Biofacies, Argopecten abietis abietis Biofacies, Aequipecten dallasi Biofacies and Encope Biofacies. The first four biofacies have been defined on the basis of statistical analyses (cluster analysis, MDS. The other six, which are monospecific or definitely low-diversity, were already identified during field work. The deduced paleoecological bearing of biofacies, largely relying upon the comparison to their closest modern counterparts, provides the basis for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The latter also considers sedimentological evidence and is framed within the tectonic and sedimentary context recently proposed by American workers. Biofacies point toward environments differing in terms of substrate texture, presence/absence of vegetal cover, energy level, variously distributed within the low tide mark-40 m bathymetric range. 

  13. An autochthonous case of hepatitis C virus genotype 5a in Brazil: phylogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, L.C.; Souto, F.J.D.; do Espirito-Santo, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Genotype 5 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been rarely identified in South America. A female of African descent who never left Brazil was found to be infected by this genotype in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil. The patient denied drug injections and revealed that she had received blood...... transfusions several years before. One of her blood donors was identified and tested negative for anti-HCV and HCV RNA, as were her husband and offspring. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 and NS5B regions confirmed that this HCV strain belonged to genotype 5a. However, the E1 region analysis indicates that our...

  14. Selection of autochthonous Oenococcus oeni strains according to their oenological properties and vinification results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Seseña, Susana; Palop, María Llanos

    2010-02-28

    The goal of this study is to carry out a characterization of 84 Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Tempranillo wine samples taken at the cellars in Castilla-La Mancha, in order to select those showing the highest potential as oenological starter cultures. Various oenological properties were analyzed and the ability of some of these strains to grow and undergo MLF in simulated laboratory microvinifications was tested. Twenty-two strains were selected on the basis of fermentation assays and the eight that produced the best results in the chemical analysis of the wines were chosen for further assays. None of the eight strains was either able to produce biogenic amines or displayed tannase or anthocyanase activities. On the other hand all presented activity against p-NP-beta Glucopyranoside, p-NP-alpha Glucopyranoside and p-NP-beta xylopyranoside. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to determine the colonizing ability of the inoculated strains. C22L9 and D13L13 strains showed the highest implantation values. On the basis of this characterization, two strains have been selected which are suitable as starter cultures for MLF of Tempranillo wine. Use of these strains will ensure that MLF proceeds successfully and gives retention of the organoleptic characteristics of wines made in Castilla-La Mancha. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spray-dried adjunct cultures of autochthonous non-starter lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo H; Bergamini, Carina V; Audero, Gabriela; Páez, Roxana; Wolf, I Verónica; Perotti, M Cristina; Hynes, Erica R

    2017-08-16

    Spray-drying of lactic cultures provides direct-to-vat starters, which facilitate their commercialization and use. However, this process may alter the metabolic activity and deteriorate technological features. In this work, we assessed the influence of spray-drying on the survival and aroma production of two strains of mesophilic lactobacilli: Lactobacillus paracasei 90 and Lactobacillus plantarum 91, which have already been characterized as good adjunct cultures. The spray-drying was carried out using a laboratory scale spray and the dried cultures were monitored during the storage for the survival rate. The dried cultures were applied to two cheese models: sterile cheese extract and miniature soft cheese. The influence on the carbohydrate metabolism and the production of organic acids and volatile compounds was determined. Both strains retained high levels of viable counts in the powder after drying and during the storage at 5°C for twelve months. In addition, they also remained at high level in both cheese models during incubation or ripening. Similar profiles of carbohydrate fermentation and bioformation of volatile compounds were observed in the cheese extracts for each of the strains when tested as both fresh and dried cultures. In addition, the ability of Lb. paracasei 90 to increase the production of acetoin and diacetyl remarkably in cheese models was also confirmed for the spray-dried culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungical Activity of Autochthonous Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Prosopis juliflora against Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoteleb, Ali; Troncoso-Rojas, Rosalba; Gonzalez-Soto, Tania; González-Mendoza, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    The ability of Bacillus subtilis , strain ALICA to produce three mycolytic enzymes (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease), was carried out by the chemical standard methods. Bacillus subtilis ALICA was screened based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay and cell-free culture filtrate (25%) against five different phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata , Macrophomina sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Botrytis cinerea , and Sclerotium rolfesii . The B. subtilis ALICA detected positive for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease enzymes. Fungal growth inhibition by both strain ALICA and its cell-free culture filtrate ranged from 51.36% to 86.3% and 38.43% to 68.6%, respectively. Moreover, hyphal morphological changes like damage, broken, swelling, distortions abnormal morphology were observed. Genes expression of protease, β-1,3-glucanase, and lipopeptides (subtilosin and subtilisin) were confirmed their presence in the supernatant of strain ALICA. Our findings indicated that strain ALICA provided a broad spectrum of antifungal activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and may be a potential effective alternative to chemical fungicides.

  17. Autochthonous acute Chagas’ disease in São Paulo State, Brazil: Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mário de Carvalho CIARAVOLO

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the seventies the natural transmission of Chagas’ infection has been considered to be under control in the State of São Paulo and not even a case of American Trypanosomiasis, transmitted by triatomine bugs, has been detected by the epidemiological surveillance system. This situation justifies the report of a case of acute Chagas’ disease that occurred in a forest area considered free of domiciliary triatomines along the Southern seacoast of São Paulo State. In May, 1995 the presence of trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi had been diagnosed in a retired 57 year-old male patient, born and living in Santos (São Paulo State, complaining of fever, fatigue and malaise. The patient reported that 40 days before he had participated with 17 friends in a 7-day excursion in a forest area of the municipalities of Itanhaém and Peruíbe. During this period the group had been lodged in three houses located within the forest. Eight days after the end of the excursion the patient began to have fever, malaise and fatigue. During the next 31 days he had received medical care both as an inpatient and an outpatient, without any significant improvement. After the detection of T. cruzi trypomastigotes in his blood stream the patient began to be treated with benzonidazole in a hospital but died 8 days after the beginning of treatment. The epidemiological investigation carried out showed no signs of the presence of triatomine bugs in the three houses where the group had been lodged, or any indication of Chagas' infection in other excursionistsDoença de Chagas aguda no Estado de São Paulo: aspectos epidemiológicos Desde o início da década de 70 a transmissão natural da infecção chagásica é considerada sob controle e as ações de vigilância epidemiológica desde então desenvolvidas não têm detectado ocorrência de novos casos de tripanosomíase americana, transmitidos por triatomíneos, no Estado de São Paulo. Este fato justifica o relato de ocorrência de caso agudo de doença de Chagas, em área típica de Mata Atlântica, considerada indene de triatomíneos domiciliados. Em maio de 1995 foi diagnosticada a presença de formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi em paciente com 57 anos, sexo masculino, aposentado, residente e natural do município de Santos, na vigência de quadro clínico caracterizado por febre, mal estar e fadiga. O paciente relatou que cerca de 40 dias antes participara de passeio, com outros 17 companheiros, por área silvestre dos municípios de Itanhaém e Peruíbe, com duração de 7 dias. Durante esse período pernoitou em três diferentes habitações de ocupação temporária. Oito dias após o término do passeio passou a apresentar febre, mal estar e fadiga. Permaneceu 31 dias após o início dos sintomas sendo orientado sob várias hipóteses diagnósticas, com atendimento ambulatorial e hospitalar. Após confirmação diagnóstica de infecção chagásica foi novamente internado, vindo a falecer no oitavo dia após a introdução de tratamento com benzonidazol. A investigação epidemiológica efetuada não revelou a presença de triatomíneos domiciliados nas três residências utilizadas pelo grupo de excursionistas nem a presença de anticorpos anti-T.cruzi ou de formas tripomastigotas nos demais participantes do passeio

  18. Improving safety of salami by application of bacteriocins produced by an autochthonous Lactobacillus curvatus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Barbosa, Matheus; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Ivanova, Iskra; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate LAB with anti-Listeria activity from salami samples, characterize the bacteriocin/s produced by selected isolates, semi-purify them and evaluate their effectiveness for the control of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacturing of salami in a pilot scale. Two isolates (differentiated by RAPD-PCR) presented activity against 22 out of 23 L. monocytogenes strains for bacteriocin MBSa2, while the bacteriocin MBSa3 inhibited all 23 strains in addition to several other Gram-positive bacteria for both antimicrobials and were identified as Lactobacillus curvatus based on 16S rRNA sequencing. A three-step purification procedure indicated that both strains produced the same two active peptides (4457.9 Da and 4360.1 Da), homlogous to sakacins P and X, respectively. Addition of the semi-purified bacteriocins produced by Lb. curvatus MBSa2 to the batter for production of salami, experimentally contaminated with L. monocytogenes (10(4)-10(5) CFU/g), caused 2 log and 1.5 log reductions in the counts of the pathogen in the product after 10 and 20 days respectively, highlighting the interest for application of these bacteriocins to improve safety of salami during its manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory profiling and consumer acceptability of new dark cocoa bars containing Tuscan autochthonous food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Claudio; Salusti, Patrizia; Romi, Marco; Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2018-03-01

    A new set of cocoa bars named Toscolata ® were developed containing top-quality extra virgin olive oil, dried apples cultivars, and chestnut flour. The present work has been conducted to define the sensory profile of these products through tasting by trained experts and consumers to study the acceptability, preference, and quality perception. The four sensorial profiles of the bars differed in the level of persistence, bitterness, aromaticity, acidity, astringency, and tastiness. In particular, the sour attribute could be traced to the presence of dried apple. Bars containing apple and chestnut flour obtained higher acceptance ratings, compared to those with extra virgin olive oil. The bar with chestnut flour was preferred by consumers who considered it to be sweeter due to the presence of natural sugars, which lowered the bitter sensation of cocoa. These results showed that the selection of the preferred bar by consumers was mainly based on the level of bitterness and, in particular, elderly consumers expressed a strong preference for the sweetest product. As far as we know, this is the first study comparing the results of a panel of expert tasters with that of consumers in the tasting of dark chocolate.

  20. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topić Popović, Natalija; Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita; Kepec, Slavko; Kazazić, Snježana P.; Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka; Car, Ivan; Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka

    2015-01-01

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  1. Research on the changes of some physiological parameters in several fish species under the action of the talstar insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PONEPAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Talstar insecticide is labeled for numerous bugs and many other household pests and lawn pests. Bifenthrin is highly toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods. Bifenhrin LC50 values range from 0.0038 to17.8 μg/L and is only slightly toxic to both waterfowl and upland game birds (LD50 values range from 1.800 mg/kg to > 2.150 mg/kg. Bifenthrin had no effect on mollusks at its limit of water solubility. This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations – from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml Talstar/l water on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, number of erythrocytes on fish belonging to three species: prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The acute and subacute toxicity of Talstar insecticide was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. The Tlastar product, under the concentrations from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml/l water, produces, after one week of immersion, a significant decrease of the fish oxygen consumption. The insecticide has changed the fish respiratory rhythm in all investigated concentrations after seven days of exposure. The number of erythrocytes has significantly decrease after seven days of immersion at insecticide concentrations of 0.000625 ml Talstar/l water (bleak and perch and 0.00125 (prussian carp ml Talstar/l water. From the three investigated fish species, the perch proved to be the most sensitive to the action of the toxic substance, followed by the bleak and the prussian carp.

  2. Expression pattern and developmental behaviour of cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) during folliculogenesis and oogenesis in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Xia; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2005-08-15

    In vertebrates, folliculogeneis establishes an intricate system for somatic cell-oocyte interaction, and ultimately leads to the acquisition of their respective competences. Although the formation process and corresponding interactions are strikingly similar in diverse organisms, knowledge of genes and signaling pathways involved in follicle formation is very incomplete and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain enigmatic. CNBP has been identified for more than ten years, and the highest level of CNBP transcripts has been observed in adult zebrafish ovary, but little is known about its functional significance during folliculogeneis and oogenesis. In this study, we clone CNBP cDNA from gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and demonstrate its predominant expression in gibel carp ovary and testis not only by RT-PCR but also by Western blot. Its full-length cDNA is 1402 bp, and has an ORF of 489 nt for encoding a peptide of 163 aa. And its complete amino acid sequence shared 68.5%-96.8% identity with CNBPs from other vertebrates. Based on the expression characterization, we further analyze its expression pattern and developmental behaviour during folliculogeneis and oogenesis. Following these studies, we reveal an unexpected discovery that the CagCNBP is associated with follicular cells and oocytes, and significant distribution changes have occurred in degenerating and regenerating follicles. More interestingly, the CagCNBP is more highly expressed in some clusters of interconnected cells within ovarian cysts, no matter whether the cell clusters are formed from the original primordial germ cells or from the newly formed cells from follicular cells that invaded into the atretic oocytes. It is the first time to reveal CNBP relevance to folliculogeneis and oogenesis. Moreover, a similar stage-specific and cell-specific expression pattern has also been observed in the gibel carp testis. Therefore, further studies on CNBP expression pattern and developmental

  3. Distinct sperm nucleus behaviors between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination males are associated with replication and expression-related pathways in a gynogenetic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Jun; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhi; Ding, Miao; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Coexistence and transition of diverse sex determination strategies have been revealed in some ectothermic species, but the variation between males caused by different sex determination strategies and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we used the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with both genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) strategies to illustrate this issue. We found out that males of GSD and TSD in gibel carp had similar morphology, testicular histology, sperm structure and sperm vitality. However, when maternal individuals were mated with males of GSD, sperm nucleus swelling and fusing with the female pronucleus were observed in the fertilized eggs. On the contrary, when maternal individuals were mated with males of TSD, sperm nucleus remained in the condensed status throughout the whole process. Subsequently, semen proteomics analysis unveiled that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways were inhibited in the sperm from males of TSD compared to males of GSD, and most differentially expressed proteins associated with DNA replication, transcription and translation were down-regulated. Moreover, via BrdU incorporation and immunofluorescence detection, male nucleus replication was revealed to be present in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of GSD, but absent in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of TSD. These findings indicate that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways are associated with the distinct sperm nucleus development behaviors in fertilized eggs in response to the sperm from males of GSD and TSD. And this study is the first attempt to screen the differences between males determined via GSD and TSD in gynogenetic species, which might give a hint for understanding evolutionary adaption of diverse sex determination mechanisms in unisexual vertebrates.

  4. Establishment of a novel and highly permissive cell line for the efficient replication of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Jiang, Nan; LaPatra, Scott E; Jin, Ling; Xu, Jin; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Zeng, Lingbing

    2015-06-12

    Haematopoietic necrosis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Currently the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2 in vitro is very difficult due to the lack of permissive cell lines. Studies on the pathogenesis of CyHV-2 have been hampered because the virus has not been extensively characterized. In this study, a novel cell line from the brain of gibel carp, denoted GiCB, has been established and characterized. Sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in the GiCB cell line has been confirmed by virus infection and titration, PCR, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The GiCB cells showed typical cytopathic effect by day 6 post-infection with CyHV-2 including cell shrinkage, rounding, and cell fusion with cytoplasmic vacuolization. The virus titer reached 10(7.5 ± 0.37)TCID₅₀/ml and has been successfully passaged over 50 times in the GiCB cell line. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the complete replication of CyHV-2 in GiCB cells. CyHV-2-infected GiCB cells reacted strongly with polyclonal antibodies against CyHV-2 and CyHV-2 RNA in cells hybridized specifically with the virus RNA probes. Additionally, an experimental infection demonstrated that CyHV-2 produced in GiCB cells caused 100% mortality in gibel carp. All the results provide solid evidence that the GiCB cell line is highly permissive for the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2. This is a significant advancement that will promote additional research on CyHV-2 infection in fish in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of treated wastewater on organismic biosensors at various levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topić Popović, Natalija, E-mail: ntopic@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Strunjak-Perović, Ivančica; Klobučar, Roberta Sauerborn; Barišić, Josip; Babić, Sanja; Jadan, Margita [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Kepec, Slavko [Virkom d.o.o, Public Water Supply and Wastewater Services, Kralja Petra Krešimira IV 30, Virovitica. Croatia (Croatia); Kazazić, Snježana P. [Laboratory for Chemical Kinetics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Matijatko, Vesna; Beer Ljubić, Blanka [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, Zagreb (Croatia); Car, Ivan [Laboratory for Ichthyopathology-Biological Materials, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Repec, Siniša; Stipaničev, Draženka [Croatian Waters, Main Water Management Laboratory, Ul. grada Vukovara 220, Zagreb (Croatia); and others

    2015-12-15

    Relating the treated wastewater quality and its impact on organismic biosensors (Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio and earthworm, Eisenia fetida) was the main objective of the study. The impact on health status of fish living downstream, microbiological contamination and antimicrobial resistance, fish tissue structure, blood biochemistry, oxidative stress, genotoxic effects, as well as multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) was assessed. Treated wastewater discharged from the WWTP modified the environmental parameters and xenobiotic concentrations of the receiving surface waters. Potential bacterial pathogens from fish and respective waters were found in relatively low numbers, although they comprised aeromonads with a zoonotic potential. High resistance profiles were determined towards the tested antimicrobial compounds, mostly sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Histopathology primarily revealed gill lamellar fusion and reduction of interlamellar spaces of effluent fish. A significant increase in plasma values of urea, total proteins, albumins and triglycerides and a significant decrease in the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase were noted in carp from the effluent-receiving canal. Micronucleus test did not reveal significant differences between the examined groups, but a higher frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities was found in fish sampled from the effluent-receiving canal. Earthworms indicated to the presence of MXR inhibitors in water and sludge samples, thus proving as a sensitive sentinel organism for environmental pollutants. The integrative approach of this study could serve as a guiding principle in conducting evaluations of the aquatic habitat health in complex bio-monitoring studies. - Highlights: • Bacteria from fish and water have a zoonotic potential and might pose a health risk • High antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined; particularly to SMX • The sediment total antibiotic concentrations decreased with distance

  6. Cyanobacterial effects in Lake Ludoš, Serbia - Is preservation of a degraded aquatic ecosystem justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokodi, Nada; Drobac, Damjana; Meriluoto, Jussi; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Simeunović, Jelica; Dulić, Tamara; Lazić, Gospava; Petrović, Tamaš; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Subakov-Simić, Gordana; Miljanović, Branko; Codd, Geoffrey A; Svirčev, Zorica

    2018-04-20

    Cyanobacteria are present in many aquatic ecosystems in Serbia. Lake Ludoš, a wetland area of international significance and an important habitat for waterbirds, has become the subject of intense research interest because of practically continuous blooming of cyanobacteria. Analyses of water samples indicated a deterioration of ecological condition and water quality, and the presence of toxin-producing cyanobacteria (the most abundant Limnothrix redekei, Pseudanabaena limnetica, Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis spp.). Furthermore, microcystins were detected in plants and animals from the lake: in macrophyte rhizomes (Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia and Nymphaea elegans), and in the muscle, intestines, kidneys, gonads and gills of fish (Carassius gibelio). Moreover, histopathological deleterious effects (liver, kidney, gills and intestines) and DNA damage (liver and gills) were observed in fish. A potential treatment for the reduction of cyanobacterial populations employing hydrogen peroxide was tested during this study. The treatment was not effective in laboratory tests although further in-lake trials are needed to make final conclusions about the applicability of the method. Based on our observations of the cyanobacterial populations and cyanotoxins in the water, as well as other aquatic organisms and, a survey of historical data on Lake Ludoš, it can be concluded that the lake is continuously in a poor ecological state. Conservation of the lake in order to protect the waterbirds (without urgent control of eutrophication) actually endangers them and the rest of the biota in this wetland habitat, and possibly other ecosystems. Thus, urgent measures for restoration are required, so that the preservation of this Ramsar site would be meaningful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  8. New mtDNA data reveal a wide distribution of the Japanese ginbuna Carassius langsdorfii in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Rylková, K.; Bohlen, Jörg; Šanda, R.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2013), s. 703-707 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : alien species * introduction * molecular genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2013

  9. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  10. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  11. Toxicological responses on cytochrome P450 and metabolic transferases in liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to lead and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Cui, Zhaojie; Wang, Xinlei; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Su

    2018-04-30

    As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0.05-10mg/L, respectively. Four hepatic enzyme activities, including 7-ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were determined after 1, 7, 14, 28 days exposure. The results showed that the activities of EROD and BFCOD in fish were significantly inhibited in response to paraquat at all exposure levels during the whole experiment. Similarly, the inhibitory effects of lead exposure on BFCOD activity were found in our study, while different responses of lead on EROD were observed. There were no significant differences on EROD activity under lower concentrations of lead (less than 0.1mg/L) before 14 days until an obvious increase was occurred for the 0.5mg/L lead treatment group at day 14. Furthermore, lead showed stronger inhibition on GST activity than paraquat when the concentrations of the two toxicants were more than 0.5mg/L. However, the similar dose and time-dependent manners of UGT activity were found under lead and paraquat exposure. Our results indicated that higher exposure levels and longer accumulations caused inhibitory effects on the four enzymes regardless of lead or paraquat stress. In addition, the responses of phase I enzymes were more sensitive than that of phase II enzymes and they may be served as the acceptable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity effects of both lead and paraquat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature selection of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitch. ) after heterogeneous temperature acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.

    1977-01-01

    Goldfish and brook trout were acclimated heterogeneously to temperature by exposing the head and tail simultaneously to different temperatures. The temperature selection of heterogeneously acclimated fish was tested in a vertical temperature gradient and compared to that of homogeneously acclimated fish. All fish selected temperatures essentially corresponding to the state of acclimation of their head. It is concluded that the brain acts as the main control of temperature selection in fish.

  13. Role of pH on the acute toxicity of sulfite in water. [Carassius auratus; Leistes reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of sulfite to fish decreases with increasing pH value, because the HSO/sub 3//sup -/ ion is more toxic than the SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion. An effective sulfite concentration S/sub eff/ which is proportional to the toxicity on fish is expressed by the following equation: S/sub eff/ = (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) + f(SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/), where f is a coefficient which expresses the change of toxicity of sulfite depending on the pH of the water, and varies for each species of fish. For goldfish, owing to the very small toxic contribution of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion (f = 0.07), the pH dependence of the toxicity of sulfite on pH was so strong that sulfite seemed almost non-toxic in basic solution. However, f for guppy is somewhat larger (f = 0.20) so that the toxicity of sulfite weakly depends on the pH value of water.

  14. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, Carassius auratus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, B.A. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC); Peter, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on prolactin release from the goldfish pituitary gland. Fish were acclimated to different photoperiods and temperatures, and also were subjected to a change in either of these two parameters after different acclimation conditions. Serum and pituitary samples were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. In other experiments samples for prolactin analysis were taken every 3 h intermittently over a period of 3 days from fish that were acclimated to different photoperiod and temperature conditions. Longer photoperiods and higher temperatures caused pituitary prolactin release. Serum prolactin changed on a circadian rhythm and the rhythm was modified depending on the length of the photoperiod.

  15. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Paraiso, Julienne J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A.; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31–95°C; pH: 6.8–10.7). bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal). The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS−) and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO−3). Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤70°C). PMID:23964271

  16. FIRST CASE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS HUMAN VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE URBAN CENTER OF RIO DE JANEIRO: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Boechat, Thiago de Oliveira; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha; Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Veras, Mariana Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonosis that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, especially Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia, such as Lutzomyia longipalpis. There are many reservoirs, including Canis familiaris. It is a chronic infectious disease with systemic involvement that is characterized by three phases: the initial period, the state period and the final period. The main symptoms are fever, ma...

  17. Characterization of Essential Oils Obtained from Abruzzo Autochthonous Plants: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities Assessment for Food Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Marika; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; D’Amato, Serena; Lo Sterzo, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oils (EOs) of some officinal plants from Abruzzo territory (Italy) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and their volatile fraction chemical characterization. The EOs were extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrum sativum seeds. The antimicrobial activity was screened against thirteen Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant capacity (AOC) were assessed by means of Folin-Ciocâlteu method, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity with 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (TEAC/ABTS), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays respectively. Among the nine EOs tested, T. vulgaris, S. montana, O. vulgare and C. sativum EOs showed MIC values ranging from 0.625 to 5 μL/mL. The AOC and TPC results for these species were also interesting. The major components for these EOs were thymol for T. vulgaris (44%) and O. vulgare (40%), linalool (77%) for C. sativum, and carvacrol for S. montana (54%). The results allowed the study to establish that these EOs are good candidates for potential application as biopreservatives in foods and/or food manufacture environments. PMID:29393893

  18. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  19. Atypical aetiology of a conjugal fever: autochthonous airport malaria between Paris and French Riviera: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontenille Didier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endemic malaria has been eradicated from France, but some falciparum malaria cases have been described in patients who have never travelled outside the country. Ms. V. 21 year-old and Mr. M. 23 year-old living together in Paris were on holiday in Saint Raphaël (French Riviera. They presented with fever, vertigo and nausea. A blood smear made to control thrombocytopaenia revealed intra-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The parasitaemia level was 0.15% for Ms. V and 3.2% for Mr. M. This couple had no history of blood transfusion or intravenous drug use. They had never travelled outside metropolitan France, but had recently travelled around France: to Saint Mard (close to Paris Charles de Gaulle (CdG airport, to Barneville plage (in Normandy and finally to Saint Raphaël. The most probable hypothesis is an infection transmitted in Saint Mard by an imported anopheline mosquito at CdG airport. The DNA analysis of parasites from Ms. V.'s and Mr. M.'s blood revealed identical genotypes. Because it is unlikely that two different anopheline mosquitoes would be infected by exactly the same clones, the two infections must have been caused by the infective bites of the same infected mosquito.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IMMIGRANT/FOREIGN CHARACTERS AND NATIONAL/AUTOCHTHONOUS CHARACTERS IN SPANISH TELEVISION FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an empirical research in which it were analysed the interactions between immigrants and national characters in a sample of Spanish television fictional programs broadcasted on prime time. This study is a content analysis of 282 interactions between immigrant/foreign and national characters. Thus, it was found that the largest number of relationships between the characters involved was produced in a working context. Moreover, there was a higher proportion of the use of aggressive humour from the national characters to the immigrant/foreigners than in the reverse way. It was also observed that the immigrant/foreigner characters hardly spoke about their feelings, nor were heard by the nationals when they did it, although there were a high number of interactions in which immigrant characters were expressing their opinions and these were attended by national characters. The analysis of the interactions between immigrant and national characters in television fiction is a very important research issue, because it has been proposed that the parasocial interactions are complementary of the interpersonal interactions taking place in daily life (Müller, 2009; Park, 2012.

  1. Biological Activities and Chemical Composition of Methanolic Extracts of Selected Autochthonous Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four lipid-rich microalgal species from the Red Sea belonging to three different genera (Nannochloris, Picochlorum and Desmochloris, previously isolated as novel biodiesel feedstocks, were bioprospected for high-value, bioactive molecules. Methanol extracts were thus prepared from freeze-dried biomass and screened for different biological activities. Nannochloris sp. SBL1 and Desmochloris sp. SBL3 had the highest radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the best copper and iron chelating activities. All species had potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (>50% and mildly inhibited tyrosinase. Picochlorum sp. SBL2 and Nannochloris sp. SBL4 extracts significantly reduced the viability of tumoral (HepG2 and HeLa cells with lower toxicity against the non-tumoral murine stromal (S17 cells. Nannochloris sp. SBL1 significantly reduced the viability of Leishmania infantum down to 62% (250 µg/mL. Picochlorum sp. SBL2 had the highest total phenolic content, the major phenolic compounds identified being salicylic, coumaric and gallic acids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-carotene were identified in the extracts of all strains, while canthaxanthin was only identified in Picochlorum sp. SBL2. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the microalgae included in this work could be used as sources of added-value products that could be used to upgrade the final biomass value.

  2. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7. bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal. The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤ 70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS- and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO3-. Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤ 70°C.

  3. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Berggren

    Full Text Available Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden. The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters. Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter.

  4. The polyphenolics and carbohydrates as indicators of botanical and geographical origin of Serbian autochthonous clones of red spice paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrić, Sanja Ž; Gašić, Uroš M; Dramićanin, Aleksandra M; Ćirić, Ivanka Ž; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Popović-Đorđević, Jelena B; Momirović, Nebojša M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-02-15

    Spice peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Lemeška and Lakošnička paprika were investigated to evaluate their polyphenolic and carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant activity. A total of forty-nine polyphenolics were identified using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to LTQ OrbiTrap mass analyzer. Twenty-five of them were quantified using available standards, while the other compounds were confirmed by exact mass search of their deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) and its MS(4) fragmentation. Thirteen carbohydrates were quantified using high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). Radical scavenging activity (RSA) ranged from 17.32 to 48.34mmol TE (Trolox equivalent)/kg DW (dry weight) and total phenolics content (TPC) was ranged between 7.03 and 14.92g GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/kg DW. To our best knowledge, five polyphenolic compounds were for the first time tentatively identified in paprika: 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, luteolin 7-O-(2″-O-pentosyl-4″-O-hexosyl)hexoside, quercetin 3-O-(2″-O-hexosyl)rhamnoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-[6″-O-(5-hydroxyferuloyl)hexoside]-7-O-rhamnoside, and luteolin 7-O-[2″-O-(5'″-O-sinapoyl)pentosyl-6″-O-malonyl]hexoside. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Stazi, Silvia Rita; Cajthaml, Tomas; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The present work was aimed at isolating and identifying the main members of the mycobiota of a clay soil historically contaminated by mid- and long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (AH) and to subsequently assess their hydrocarbon-degrading ability. All the isolates were Ascomycetes and, among them, the most interesting was Pseudoallescheria sp. 18A, which displayed both the ability to use AH as the sole carbon source and to profusely colonize a wheat straw:poplar wood chip (70:30, w/w) lignocellulosic mixture (LM) selected as the amendment for subsequent soil remediation microcosms. After a 60 d mycoaugmentation with Pseudoallescheria sp. of the aforementioned soil, mixed with the sterile LM (5:1 mass ratio), a 79.7% AH reduction and a significant detoxification, inferred by a drop in mortality of Folsomia candida from 90 to 24%, were observed. However, similar degradation and detoxification outcomes were found in the non-inoculated incubation control soil that had been amended with the sterile LM. This was due to the biostimulation exerted by the amendment on the resident microbiota, fungi in particular, the activity and density of which were low, instead, in the non-amended incubation control soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Autochthonous tumors driven by Rb1 loss have an ongoing requirement for the RBP2 histone demethylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Samuel K; Olenchock, Benjamin A; DiNatale, Gabriel J; Shi, Diana D; Khanal, Januka; Jennings, Rebecca B; Novak, Jesse S; Oser, Matthew G; Robbins, Alissa K; Modiste, Rebecca; Bonal, Dennis; Moslehi, Javid; Bronson, Roderick T; Neuberg, Donna; Nguyen, Quang-De; Signoretti, Sabina; Losman, Julie-Aurore; Kaelin, William G

    2018-04-17

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene ( RB1 ) product, pRB, is common in many human cancers. Targeting downstream effectors of pRB that are central to tumorigenesis is a promising strategy to block the growth of tumors harboring loss-of-function RB1 mutations. One such effector is retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBP2, also called JARID1A or KDM5A), which encodes an H3K4 demethylase. Binding of pRB to RBP2 has been linked to the ability of pRB to promote senescence and differentiation. Importantly, genetic ablation of RBP2 is sufficient to phenocopy pRB's ability to induce these cellular changes in cell culture experiments. Moreover, germline Rbp2 deletion significantly impedes tumorigenesis in Rb1 +/- mice. The value of RBP2 as a therapeutic target in cancer, however, hinges on whether loss of RBP2 could block the growth of established tumors as opposed to simply delaying their onset. Here we show that conditional, systemic ablation of RBP2 in tumor-bearing Rb1 +/- mice is sufficient to slow tumor growth and significantly extend survival without causing obvious toxicity to the host. These findings show that established Rb1 -null tumors require RBP2 for growth and further credential RBP2 as a therapeutic target in human cancers driven by RB1 inactivation.

  7. Travel-associated and autochthonous Zika virus infection in mainland France, 1 January to 15 July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septfons, A; Leparc-Goffart, I; Couturier, E; Franke, F; Deniau, J; Balestier, A; Guinard, A; Heuzé, G; Liebert, A H; Mailles, A; Ndong, J R; Poujol, I; Raguet, S; Rousseau, C; Saidouni-Oulebsir, A; Six, C; Subiros, M; Servas, V; Terrien, E; Tillaut, H; Viriot, D; Watrin, M; Wyndels, K; Noel, H; Paty, M C; De Valk, H

    2016-08-11

    During summer 2016, all the conditions for local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) are met in mainland France: a competent vector, Aedes albopictus, a large number of travellers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, and an immunologically naive population. From 1 January to 15 July 2016, 625 persons with evidence of recent ZIKV infection were reported in mainland France. We describe the surveillance system in place and control measures implemented to reduce the risk of infection. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  8. Assessment of degradation potential of aliphatic hydrocarbons by autochthonous filamentous fungi from a historically polluted clay soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, Stefano; D´Annibale, A.; Stazi, S. R.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Petruccioli, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 505, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 545-554 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA ČR GA13-28283S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mycoaugmentation * Pseudoallescheria sp * Oil-contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.976, year: 2015

  9. Molecular characterization of the hepatitis B virus in autochthonous and endogenous populations in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádila Liliane Barros Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus is classified into eight genotypes, varying from A to H, with distinct geographical distributions. In Brazil, the most frequent genotypes are A, D, and F. METHODS: This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotypes in cases of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV co-infections in an endemic area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. We analyzed 86 serum samples reactive for HBsAg from indigenous and non-indigenous populations obtained from previous serological surveys. RESULTS: Of the 86 reactive serum samples, 39 were found to be HBV-DNA-positive by semi-nested PCR. The genotypes were established by sequencing the amplified S gene region. We obtained 20 sequences classified into three genotypes: A, D, and F. Genotype A was the most frequent (60%, followed by D (35% and F (5%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the HBV genotypes reflected the pattern of historical occupation of the region.

  10. Characterization of Essential Oils Obtained from Abruzzo Autochthonous Plants: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities Assessment for Food Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Pellegrini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the essential oils (EOs of some officinal plants from Abruzzo territory (Italy were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and their volatile fraction chemical characterization. The EOs were extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrum sativum seeds. The antimicrobial activity was screened against thirteen Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. The total phenolic content (TPC and the antioxidant capacity (AOC were assessed by means of Folin-Ciocâlteu method, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity with 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (TEAC/ABTS, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays respectively. Among the nine EOs tested, T. vulgaris, S. montana, O. vulgare and C. sativum EOs showed MIC values ranging from 0.625 to 5 μL/mL. The AOC and TPC results for these species were also interesting. The major components for these EOs were thymol for T. vulgaris (44% and O. vulgare (40%, linalool (77% for C. sativum, and carvacrol for S. montana (54%. The results allowed the study to establish that these EOs are good candidates for potential application as biopreservatives in foods and/or food manufacture environments.

  11. Use of hop extract as antifungal ingredient for bread making and selection of autochthonous resistant starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-02-02

    Aiming at meeting the consumers' demand in terms of bio-preservation, the potential of the combination of the lactic acid bacteria fermentation and the addition of hop extract as natural preservative in breadmaking, was exploited. The antifungal properties of a hop (Humulus lupulus) extract were investigated, showing a significant inhibition of the hyphal growth of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium carneum, Penicillium polonicum, Penicillium paneum, Penicillium chermesinum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti. Lactic acid bacteria belonging to species of Enterococcus feacium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Pediococcus acidilactici were isolated from hop and subjected to selection based on kinetics of growth and acidification. The sourdough (hS) enriched with hop extract (hE), started with three selected strains, had phenols concentration and antioxidant activity higher than those obtained in the same condition but without the hE. Hop-sourdough used in breadmaking delayed the fungal growth (14 days), giving a bread characterized by free aminoacids concentration, antioxidant and phytase activities higher than bread started only with baker's yeast, with or without the addition of hE. Specific volume and cell-total area of the bread containing hE improved, and its sensory profile was characterized by typical sourdough attributes, and a moderate bitter/herbaceous perception.

  12. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina de Abreu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi, which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological. It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  13. POPULATION SIZE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS AND LOCALLY ADAPTED HEN’S BREEDS ON AREA OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On basic certificates about acceptation of Oravka Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn and Sussex, controlled flocks of Slovak Union of Breeders, we analyzed total number of birds, number of breeding males, number of breeding females and effective population size by Simon and Buchenauer (1993 and we evaluated the populations of observed hen’s breeds to categorisations by Scherf (2000. The highest number of birds we recorded at breed New Hampshire from observed hen’s breeds. Average total number of animals in period of year 2003 - 2008 was 1373 birds with average effective population size 445.103. However, the population of New Hampshire poultry in Slovakia was evaluating by massive decrease in last years as a endangered - maintained breed for which an active conservation programme is in place. By contrast, the smallest number of animals was detected at breed White Leghorn with average total number 18.83 birds in period of year 2003 - 2008 and average effective population size 6.605. The breed White Leghorn in Slovakia we categorized to critical breed. National legislation on Slovakia has been created, the fist experience is being gathered and the European legislation is coming in practice. The conditions for the development and preservation of endangered breeds of poultry in Slovak Republic in the long term are being put in place by means of creative and well aimed utilisation of European and national legislation.

  14. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide, blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers. Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC, as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP. The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide. There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing. The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes. Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors. Practical value. The modifications of composite

  15. Subcellular differences in handling Cu excess in three freshwater fish species contributes greatly to their differences in sensitivity to Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyckmans, Marleen; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Since changes in metal distribution among tissues and subcellular fractions can provide insights in metal toxicity and tolerance, we investigated this partitioning of Cu in gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). These fish species are known to differ in their sensitivity to Cu exposure with gibel carp being the most tolerant and rainbow trout the most sensitive. After an exposure to 50 μg/l (0.79 μM) Cu for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month, gills and liver of control and exposed fish were submitted to a differential centrifugation procedure. Interestingly, there was a difference in accumulated Cu in the three fish species, even in control fishes. Where the liver of rainbow trout showed extremely high Cu concentrations under control conditions, the amount of Cu accumulated in their gills was much less than in common and gibel carp. At the subcellular level, the gills of rainbow trout appeared to distribute the additional Cu exclusively in the biologically active metal pool (BAM; contains heat-denaturable fraction and organelle fraction). A similar response could be seen in gill tissue of common carp, although the percentage of Cu in the BAM of common carp was lower compared to rainbow trout. Gill tissue of gibel carp accumulated more Cu in the biologically inactive metal pool (BIM compared to BAM; contains heat-stable fraction and metal-rich granule fraction). The liver of rainbow trout seemed much more adequate in handling the excess Cu (compared to its gills), since the storage of Cu in the BIM increased. Furthermore, the high % of Cu in the metal-rich granule fraction and heat-stable fraction in the liver of common carp and especially gibel carp together with the better Cu handling in gill tissue, pointed out the ability of the carp species to minimize the disadvantages related to Cu stress. The differences in Cu distribution at the subcellular level of gills and

  16. Subcellular differences in handling Cu excess in three freshwater fish species contributes greatly to their differences in sensitivity to Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Marleen, E-mail: marleen.eyckmans@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Since changes in metal distribution among tissues and subcellular fractions can provide insights in metal toxicity and tolerance, we investigated this partitioning of Cu in gill and liver tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). These fish species are known to differ in their sensitivity to Cu exposure with gibel carp being the most tolerant and rainbow trout the most sensitive. After an exposure to 50 {mu}g/l (0.79 {mu}M) Cu for 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 1 month, gills and liver of control and exposed fish were submitted to a differential centrifugation procedure. Interestingly, there was a difference in accumulated Cu in the three fish species, even in control fishes. Where the liver of rainbow trout showed extremely high Cu concentrations under control conditions, the amount of Cu accumulated in their gills was much less than in common and gibel carp. At the subcellular level, the gills of rainbow trout appeared to distribute the additional Cu exclusively in the biologically active metal pool (BAM; contains heat-denaturable fraction and organelle fraction). A similar response could be seen in gill tissue of common carp, although the percentage of Cu in the BAM of common carp was lower compared to rainbow trout. Gill tissue of gibel carp accumulated more Cu in the biologically inactive metal pool (BIM compared to BAM; contains heat-stable fraction and metal-rich granule fraction). The liver of rainbow trout seemed much more adequate in handling the excess Cu (compared to its gills), since the storage of Cu in the BIM increased. Furthermore, the high % of Cu in the metal-rich granule fraction and heat-stable fraction in the liver of common carp and especially gibel carp together with the better Cu handling in gill tissue, pointed out the ability of the carp species to minimize the disadvantages related to Cu stress. The differences in Cu distribution at the subcellular level of gills

  17. THE STATE OF ICHTHYOFAUNA IN THE BAY OF THE KIEV RESERVOIR EXPLOITED UNDER THE REGIME OF THE COMMODITY FISH FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Buzevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Assessment of the number, stock, and major biological indices of the representatives of commercial ichthyofauna in the liman commodity fish farm created on the Kуiv reservoir. Methodology. The work is based on the ichthyologic material obtained from gill net catches with mesh size of 30-120 mm during the summer period of 2013. Data collection and processing were performed according to generally accepted methods. In total, catches of 169 net-days of control nets were analyzed, of which 3426 fish were collected. Quantitative parameters were assessed based on empirical relationships «number – catch-per-unit-effort of gill nets». Findings. Fifteen representatives of commercial ichthyofauna were observed in the bay, which is a cut-off part of the Kуiv reservoir. The majority in small mesh size nets were silver bream Blicca bjoerkna (45.5% in number and Prussian carp Carassius gibelio (24.6%. In large mesh size nets, 65.8% of catches in number and 86.1% by weight composed the introduced species – silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead (Aristichthys nobilis, and common carps (Cyprinus carpio. The native fish fauna of the bay was characterized by sufficiently high portion of commercially valuable fish species that indicates on a possibility for organizing an intensive harvest of the formed stock of the introduced species with high degree of selectivity. Length-weight indices of major commercial species are on the level, which is sufficient for normal fish productivity. Total commercial stocks of native ichthyofauna in the liman is 146 kg/ha that is three times higher than this value for the Kiev reservoir. Originality. For the first time, we performed a complex assessment of the ichthyofauna in the bay of a large reservoir, which for a long time has been used for stocking and intensive fish harvest. Practical value. Sound fish ranching has been shown to provide the stability of structural functional indices of the native

  18. THE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS SECRETIONS OF CYPRINIDAE FISH ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gulay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of cutaneous secretions of Cyprinidae fish on the populations of pathogenic bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Methodology. Pieces of filter paper were placed on the skin of live fish. After a 1 min. exposure, they were removed and placed in glass tubes for the extraction of water-soluble components. Tap water was used as a solvent (previously settled for 48 hours; 0,1 cm3 of water were needed for 1 cm2 area of the filter paper. After extraction, the aqueous solution of fish cutaneous secretions was sterilized by filtering it through filters with pore diameter <0,2 µm. The test was carried out with cultures of E. rhusiopathiae bacteria, which were incubated on heart-brain broth at a temperature of +36,7 ± 0,3 °С for 48-hours. After adding the sterilized tap water and cultures of E. rhusiopathiae bacteria, test samples contained fish cutaneous secretions at following ratios: 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000, 1:10000. As a control, sterilized tap water and E. rhusiopathiae bacteria at ratios similar to test samples were used. In 48 hours, samples were taken from the specimens cultured at a temperature of +18...+20 °С for determination of cell density in E. rhusiopathiae populations. Findings. Aquatic environment, which contains the secretions of skin glands of certain Cyprinidae species, creates favorable conditions for the reproduction and increase in the density of pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae populations. In the conditions of freshwater ecosystems, direct topical biocenotical and trophic relations may be created between pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae bacteria and the studied fish species (рrussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio and wild carp Cyprinus. Originality. For the first time we obtained the quantitative data that demonstrate a stimulating effect of cutaneous secretions of certain fish species on pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae populations. Practical value. The stimulating effect of cutaneous secretions of some

  19. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  20. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  1. The application of hCG, CPH and Ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, K; Kucharczyk, D

    2011-08-01

    Artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. The aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (CPH), Ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. Goldfish spawners were stimulated with hCG, CPH and Ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish from the control group, comprised of unstimulated fish. In another experiment, spawn were induced twice within an interval of 21 days with the same group of fish. The best results in the first experiment in terms of the percentage of ovulating females and survival to the eyed-egg stage were achieved after administering hCG (100% and 88.7%, respectively). However, the highest fecundity was observed in fish stimulated with Ovopel (89,960 eggs/kg). It was shown in the second experiment that female goldfish produce higher weight of eggs during the first spawning, but the number of eggs/BW ratio was higher during the next reproduction process. Survival, both that of embryos to the eyed-egg stage and that of spawners, is higher during the first reproduction act. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  3. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effect of the addition of cow brain powder in commercial feed on the gonadal maturity of comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Subhan, U.; Rosidah; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Abdillah, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to analysis the effect of addition bovine’s brain meal in artificial feed on gonad maturity and to find out the best time of gonad maturity in comet fish.This research was conducted at Fourth Building Hatchery Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University on November 2014 until Januari 2015. Freeze drying of bovine brain was conducted at Research Center Inter University Bandung Institute of Technology. The research was using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications.The treatment were 20 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, 50mg/kg and control. The parameters of this research are Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and egg maturity level. Addition of bovine brain meal in feed with the dose of 50 mg/kg are giving the best result until 45 days of the care time against gonad maturity of comet fish with GSI result 12.93 %, egg maturity level ripe phase 21.115 and fecundity 1520 grain/g.

  5. Chromosome studies of european cyprinid fishes: Cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a carassius female with 206 chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Symonová, Radka; Rylková, K.; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 4 (2013), s. 276-283 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytogenetics * genome addition * GISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  6. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  7. Effect of adjusting kilovolt peak of the X-ray machine on radiographic-image quality in goldfish(Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nut Nuanmanee; Dilok Wongsathein; Rutch Khattiya; Atigan Thongtharb; Utumma Maghanemi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find optimal kilovolt peak (kVp) for radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish with body width and depth ranging between 3-5 centimeters. Materials and Methods: 18 Oranda fish were divided into 6 groups (3 for each group). Body widths of fish in group 1, 2, and 3 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. Body depths of fish in group 4, 5, and 6 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. After the fish were anesthetized, the radiographic images of group 1, 2, and 3 were taken in lateral position with milliamperes (mA) at 50 mA and duration (sec) for 0.02, 0.05, and 0.05 sec, respectively. Kilovolt peak (kVp) was used in range from 40 to 58. In addition, the radiographic images of group 4, 5, and 6 were taken in dorsoventral position at 50 mA for 0.1 sec with varying kVp from 40 to 62. The quality of radiographic images was evaluated by 5 veterinarians and 5 radiologists. Results: The most appropriate kVp in lateral position with 3, 4 and 5 centimeters in body width were 44, 44, and 48, respectively. In addition, the most appropriate kVp in dorsoventral position with 3, 4, and 5 centimeters in body depth were 46, 48, and 50, respectively. Conclusion: The radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish was depended on the appropriated kVp

  8. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline and nitr......The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline...... in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...... that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...

  9. Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam T. Nediani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product.

  10. The Biology of the Triatomine Bugs Native to South Central Texas and Assessment of the Risk They Pose for Autochthonous Chagas Disease Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Edward J; Lawrence, Gena; Gorchakov, Rodion; Alamgir, Hasanat; Dotson, Ellen; Sissel, Blake; Sarkar, Sahotra; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-10-01

    Triatomine bugs are a group of hematophagous arthropods that can serve as biological vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Because of differences in the biology and feeding habits among triatomine species, some are more likely than others to be involved in zoonotic and/or human-to-human transmission cycles of T. cruzi . In an attempt to assess the risk for Chagas disease exposure in south-central Texas, human habitations across Texas Health Service Region 8 (HSR 8) and surrounding counties were surveyed for triatomines to characterize the geographic distribution, species-specific biology, and T. cruzi -infection prevalence better. Between May 2010 and August 2013, a total of 545 triatomines representing all 5 known indigenous species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva, Triatoma lecticularia, Triatoma sanguisuga, and Triatoma protracta woodi) were collected from 59 sites across the region. Triatoma gerstaeckeri was the species most commonly found in domestic and peridomestic ecotopes across Texas HSR 8, representing over 80% of the triatomines collected. Adult T. gerstaeckeri exhibited a seasonal dispersal pattern that began in late April, peaked in mid-May, and then continued into August. On homes with available crevices in the exterior walls, adult T. gerstaeckeri were observed emerging from or entering these protective microhabitats, suggesting possible opportunistic colonization of some exterior walls compartments. Laboratory testing of triatomine hindgut contents for T. cruzi by PCR demonstrated the adult T. gerstaeckeri-infection prevalence across Texas HSR 8 to be 64%. Monitoring peridomestic adult T. gerstaeckeri over the seasonal dispersal peak demonstrated statistically significant increases in both their T. cruzi -infection prevalence (P < 0.01) and tendency to invade human dwellings (P < 0.01) in the later aspect of the emergence peak. In addition to the adult insects, variably sized and staged nymphs were recovered from the inside of 6 separate homes across Texas HSR 8. The results of this study show that T. gerstaeckeri is a widespread and common triatomine species across Texas HSR 8 and documented it to have some notable synanthropic tendencies. The high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in native triatomines, and the high frequency with which T. gerstaeckeri is recovered from human habitations, suggests that there is a risk for human exposure to T. cruzi in Texas HSR 8. Because of this, Chagas disease should be considered on the list of differential diagnoses for cases of cardiac arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, or heart failure in south-central Texas.

  11. Effects of a Potential Autochthonous Probiotic Bacillus subtilis 2-1 on the Growth and Intestinal Microbiota of Juvenile Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zhang, Qin

    2018-04-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis 2-1 from the intestine of healthy sea cucumber on the growth, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microbiota of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were determined in the present study. Sea cucumber was fed with Sargassum thunbergii powder supplemented with B. subtilis 2-1 at different concentrations varying among 0 (control), 105, 107, and 109 CFU g-1 for 8 weeks. Results showed that the growth performance and intestinal amylase and trypsin activities were significantly increased by dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 ( P subtilis 2-1 had no significant influence on the lipase activity in sea cucumber ( P > 0.05). The polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 105 and 107 CFU g-1 inhibited most of the Proteobacteria including those in genus Vibrio. Dietary B. subtilis 2-1 at 109 CFU g-1 not only decreased the abundance and species of genus Vibrio, but also increased the intensity of genera Psychrobacter and Bacillus. A specific dosage of dietary B. subtilis 2-1 could increase the growth and modulate the intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber; thus it might be a novel probiotic for keeping the health of sea cucumber.

  12. Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nediani, Miriam T; García, Luis; Saavedra, Lucila; Martínez, Sandra; López Alzogaray, Soledad; Fadda, Silvina

    2017-05-17

    Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product.

  13. First evidence of autochthonous cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in horse (Equus caballus) in the Americas and mixed infection of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Isabel R; Silva, Soraia O; Moreira, Filipe Moraghi; Prado, Luan Gavião; Fantini, Priscila; Maranhão, Renata de Pino Albuquerque; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Melo, Maria Norma; Palhares, Maristela S

    2013-11-08

    This study reports the first evidence of infection by Leishmania infantum in Equus caballus in Americas and the first mixed infection of L. infantum/Leishmania braziliensis on this mammalian species in the world. The diagnoses was based on presence of parasites in lesions and bone marrow aspirates, their identification by using specific primers for L. infantum and L. braziliensis complexes and also serological methods IFAT and ELISA. The analysis of the PCR products suggested mixed infection in three animals. Further studies involving equine leishmaniasis are carrying out in order to clarify the dynamic of Leishmania sp. in this mammalian specie and their role in the transmission of those parasites in urban endemic area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from autochthonous livestock reveals the dominance of B. abortus biovar 3a in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertu, Wilson J; Ducrotoy, Marie J; Muñoz, Pilar M; Mick, Virginie; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Bryssinckx, Ward; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kabir, Junaid; Welburn, Susan C; Moriyón, Ignacio; Ocholi, Reuben A

    2015-10-22

    Brucellosis is a worldwide widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Control of this disease in a given area requires an understanding of the Brucella species circulating in livestock and humans. However, because of the difficulties intrinsic to Brucella isolation and typing, such data are scarce for resource-poor areas. The paucity of bacteriological data and the consequent imperfect epidemiological picture are particularly critical for Sahelian and Sub-Sahara African countries. Here, we report on the characterization of 34 isolates collected between 1976 and 2012 from cattle, sheep and horses in Nigeria. All isolates were identified as Brucella abortus by Bruce-ladder PCR and assigned to biovar 3 by conventional typing. Further analysis by enhanced AMOS-ERY PCR showed that all of them belonged to the 3a sub-biovar, and MLVA analysis grouped them in a cluster clearly distinct from that formed by European B. abortus biovar 3b strains. Nevertheless, MLVA detected heterogeneity within the Nigerian biovar 3a strains. The close genetic profiles of the isolates from cattle, sheep and horses, suggest that, at least in some parts of Nigeria, biovar 3a circulates among animal species that are not the preferential hosts of B. abortus. Consistent with previous genetic analyses of 7 strains from Ivory Cost, Gambia and Togo, the analysis of these 34 Nigerian strains supports the hypothesis that the B. abortus biovar 3a lineage is dominant in West African countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a new Vaccinia virus isolate reveals the C23L gene as a putative genetic marker for autochthonous Group 1 Brazilian Vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe L Assis

    Full Text Available Since 1999, several Vaccinia virus (VACV isolates, the etiological agents of bovine vaccinia (BV, have been frequently isolated and characterized with various biological and molecular methods. The results from these approaches have grouped these VACV isolates into two different clusters. This dichotomy has elicited debates surrounding the origin of the Brazilian VACV and its epidemiological significance. To ascertain vital information to settle these debates, we and other research groups have made efforts to identify molecular markers to discriminate VACV from other viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV and other VACV-BR groups. In this way, some genes have been identified as useful markers to discriminate between the VACV-BR groups. However, new markers are needed to infer ancestry and to correlate each sample or group with its unique epidemiological and biological features. The aims of this work were to characterize a new VACV isolate (VACV DMTV-2005 molecularly and biologically using conserved and non-conserved gene analyses for phylogenetic inference and to search for new genes that would elucidate the VACV-BR dichotomy. The VACV DMTV-2005 isolate reported in this study is biologically and phylogenetically clustered with other strains of Group 1 VACV-BR, the most prevalent VACV group that was isolated during the bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Sequence analysis of C23L, the gene that encodes for the CC-chemokine-binding protein, revealed a ten-nucleotide deletion, which is a new Group 1 Brazilian VACV genetic marker. This deletion in the C23L open reading frame produces a premature stop-codon that is shared by all Group 1 VACV-BR strains and may also reflect the VACV-BR dichotomy; the deletion can also be considered to be a putative genetic marker for non-virulent Brazilian VACV isolates and may be used for the detection and molecular characterization of new isolates.

  16. SELECTION AND USE OF YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM AUTOCHTHONOUS SOUTHERN ITALY GRAPEWINE CULTIVARS AND IMPACT ON AROMA PROFILE OF PRODUCED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Boscaino, Floriana

    2015-01-01

    Today, the use of selected commercial yeasts (LSA) from Saccharomyces species "sensu stricto" is widespread, because it allows to minimize risks in the production process, to standardize the winemaking procedure and ensure the quality of the final product. On the other hand, the widespread use of starter cultures in the wine industry has resulted in a loss of wine sensory characteristics and in a flattening of those differences crucial to distinguish wines of different cultivars. For this ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  18. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new genotype and its phylogenetic relationship with those of bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; de la Fourniere, Sofía; Orozco, Marcela; Peña Martinez, Jorge; Correa, Elena; Fernandez, Javier; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Paoletta, Martina; Corona, Belkis; Pinarello, Valérie; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2016-05-26

    Anaplasma marginale is a well-known cattle pathogen of tropical and subtropical world regions. Even though, this obligate intracellular bacterium has been reported in other host species different than bovine, it has never been documented in Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater) or Hippocamelus antisense (taruca), which are two native endangered species. Samples from two sick wild animals: a Myrmecophaga tridactyla (blood) and a Hippocamelus antisense (blood and serum) were studied for the presence of A. marginale DNA through msp5 gene fragment amplification. Further characterization was done through MSP1a tandem repeats analysis and MLST scheme and the genetic relationship among previously characterized A. marginale sequences were studied by applying, eBURST algorithm and AMOVA analysis. Anaplasma marginale DNA was identified in the Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Hippocamelus antisense samples. Through molecular markers, we identified an identical genotype in both animals that was not previously reported in bovine host. The analysis through eBURST and AMOVA revealed no differentiation between the taruca/anteater isolate and the bovine group. In the present publication we report the identification of A. marginale DNA in a novel ruminant (Hippocamelus antisense) and non-ruminant (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) host species. Genotyping analysis of isolates demonstrated the close relatedness of the new isolate with the circulation population of A. marginale in livestock. Further analysis is needed to understand whether these two hosts contribute to the anaplasmosis epidemiology.

  19. An autochthonous Avalonian basement source for the latest Ordovician Brenton Pluton in the Meguma terrane of Nova Scotia: U-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan Keppie, J.; Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Fraser Keppie, D.

    2018-04-01

    The Ediacaran-Ordovician Meguma Supergroup was thrust over Avalonia basement prior to the intrusion of post-Acadian, ca. 370 Ma, S-type granitic batholiths. This has led to two main hypotheses regarding the original location of the Meguma terrane, a continental rise prism bordering either NW Africa or Avalonia. On the other hand, the pre-Acadian, ca. 440 Ma Brenton pluton has yielded the following U/Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon data: (1) 448 ± 3 Ma population peak inferred to be the intrusive age and (2) ca. 550 and 700 Ma inherited ages common to both Avalonia and NW Africa. In contrast, Hf isotopic analyses of zircon yielded model ages ranging from 814 to 1127 Ma with most between 940 and 1040 Ma: such ages are typical of Avalonia and not NW Africa. The ages of the inherited zircons found within the Brenton pluton suggest that it was probably derived by partial melting of sub-Meguma, mid-crustal Avalonian rocks, upon which the Meguma Supergroup was deposited. Although Avalonia is commonly included in the peri-Gondwanan terranes off NW Africa or Amazonia, paleomagnetic data, faunal provinciality, and Hf data suggest that, during the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian, it was an island chain lying near the tropics (ca. 20-30 °S) and was possibly a continuation of the Bolshezemel volcanic arc accreted to northern Baltica during the Ediacaran Timanide orogenesis. This is consistent with the similar derital zircon population in the Ediacaran-Cambrian Meguma Supergroup and the Dividal Group in northeastern Baltica.

  20. Symbiotic efficiency of autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and Brevibacillus sp. isolated from cadmium polluted soil under increasing cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, A.; Voeroes, I.; Biro, B.; Campos, E.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon, R.

    2003-01-01

    Selected ubiquitous microorganisms are important components of Cd tolerance in plants. - The effect of inoculation with indigenous naturally occurring microorganisms [an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and rhizosphere bacteria] isolated from a Cd polluted soil was assayed on Trifolium repens growing in soil contaminated with a range of Cd. One of the bacterial isolate showed a marked PGPR effect and was identified as a Brevibacillus sp. Mycorrhizal colonization also enhanced Trifolium growth and N, P, Zn and Ni content and the dually inoculated (AM fungus plus Brevibacillus sp.) plants achieved further growth and nutrition and less Cd concentration, particularly at the highest Cd level. Increasing Cd level in the soil decreased Zn and Pb shoot accumulation. Coinoculation of Brevibacillus sp. and AM fungus increased shoot biomass over single mycorrhizal plants by 18% (at 13.6 mg Cd kg -1 ), 26% (at 33.0 mg Cd kg -1 ) and 35% (at 85.1 mg Cd kg -1 ). In contract, Cd transfer from soil to plants was substantially reduced and at the highest Cd level Brevibacillus sp. lowered this value by 37.5% in AM plants. Increasing Cd level highly reduced plant mycorrhization and nodulation. Strong positive effect of the bacterium on nodule formation was observed in all treatments. Results show that selected ubiquitous microorganisms, applied as enriched inocula, are important in plant Cd tolerance and development in Cd polluted soils

  1. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BIOREMEDIATION PERSPECTIVES USING AUTOCHTHONOUS SPECIES OF Trichoderma sp. FOR DEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL FROM THE TULANCINGO VALLEY, HIDALGO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Islas Pelcastre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show an in vitro bioremediation methodology for atrazine-contaminated soils through the use of local strains of native fungi isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L rhizosphere present in cultivable soils as well as to evaluate its resistance and capacity for atrazine degradation. A Trichoderma sp. species was identified in three cultivable soils from the Tulancingo Hidalgo, México region (contaminated with and without atrazine, which resisted atrazine concentrations of 10,000 mg L-1.  Tests showed that the strain grows exponentially in atrazine-contaminated soil over a range of 105-106 CFU g-1 in 15 days using atrazine as the only carbon and nitrogen source, while the control and witress showed a decrease of 100-103 UFC g-1 in the same period of time. For the atrazine degradation experiments, a treatment of the application of Trichoderma (104 - 105 CFU mL-1 was applied to sterilized and non-sterilized soil contaminated with 500 mg Kg-1 of atrazine, evaluated at four time intervals (5, 10, 20 and 40 days. Statistical differences were found (α=0.050, Tukey among treatments with the fungi and the test days. The native Trichoderma strain degraded 89% of the atrazine in 40 days. It showed that it is viable and cultivable in soil bioremediation.

  3. Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation. Sixty Cu/Zn-resistant rhizobacteria were initially isolated from Sonchus oleraceus grown at a multi-metal-polluted site in Shanghai, China. From these strains, 19 isolates that were all resistant to 300 mg·L-1 Cu as well as 300 mg·L-1 Zn, and could simultaneously grow on Dworkin-Foster salt minimal medium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were preliminarily selected. Of those 19 isolates, 10 isolates with superior plant growth-promoting properties (indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production and insoluble phosphate solubilization were secondly chosen and further evaluated to identify those with the highest bioremediation potential and capacity for bioaugmentation. Strain S44, identified as Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 based on 16S rDNA sequencing, was specifically chosen as the most favorable strain owing to its strong capabilities to (1 promote the growth of rape seedlings (significantly increased root length, shoot length and fresh weight by 92.60%, 31.00% and 41.96%, respectively under gnotobiotic conditions; (2 tolerate up to 1000 mg·L-1 Cu and 800 mg·L-1 Zn; (3 mobilize the highest concentrations of water-soluble Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe (16.99, 0.98, 0.08 and 3.03 mg·L-1, respectively; and (4 adsorb the greatest quantities of Cu and Zn (7.53 and 6.61 mg·g-1 dry cell, respectively. Our findings suggest that Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoextraction. Moreover, the present study provides a comprehensive method for the screening of rhizobacteria for phytoremediation of multi-metal-polluted soils, especially those sewage sludge-amended soils contaminated with Cu/Zn.

  4. Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-Resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Fan, Zhengqiu; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Xiangrong; Li, Kun; Liu, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    The quest for new, promising and indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a deeper understanding of their relationship with plants are important considerations in the improvement of phytoremediation. This study focuses on the screening of plant beneficial Cu/Zn-resistant strains and assessment of their bioremediation potential (metal solubilization/tolerance/biosorption and effects on growth of Brassica napus seedlings) to identify suitable rhizobacteria and examine their roles in microbes-assisted phytoremediation. Sixty Cu/Zn-resistant rhizobacteria were initially isolated from Sonchus oleraceus grown at a multi-metal-polluted site in Shanghai, China. From these strains, 19 isolates that were all resistant to 300 mg⋅L -1 Cu as well as 300 mg⋅L -1 Zn, and could simultaneously grow on Dworkin-Foster salt minimal medium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were preliminarily selected. Of those 19 isolates, 10 isolates with superior plant growth-promoting properties (indole-3-acetic acid production, siderophore production, and insoluble phosphate solubilization) were secondly chosen and further evaluated to identify those with the highest bioremediation potential and capacity for bioaugmentation. Strain S44, identified as Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 based on 16S rDNA sequencing, was specifically chosen as the most favorable strain owing to its strong capabilities to (1) promote the growth of rape seedlings (significantly increased root length, shoot length, and fresh weight by 92.60%, 31.00%, and 41.96%, respectively) under gnotobiotic conditions; (2) tolerate up to 1000 mg⋅L -1 Cu and 800 mg⋅L -1 Zn; (3) mobilize the highest concentrations of water-soluble Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe (16.99, 0.98, 0.08, and 3.03 mg⋅L -1 , respectively); and (4) adsorb the greatest quantities of Cu and Zn (7.53 and 6.61 mg⋅g -1 dry cell, respectively). Our findings suggest that Acinetobacter sp. FQ-44 could be exploited for bacteria-assisted phytoextraction. Moreover, the present study provides a comprehensive method for the screening of rhizobacteria for phytoremediation of multi-metal-polluted soils, especially those sewage sludge-amended soils contaminated with Cu/Zn.

  5. A new route of bioaugmentation by allochthonous and autochthonous through biofilm bacteria for soluble chemical oxygen demand removal of old leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani Ardeshir, Rashid; Rastgar, Sara; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Shokuhi Rad, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Landfill leachate contains environmental pollutants that are generally resistant to biodegradation. In this study, indigenous and exogenous bacteria in leachate were acclimated in both biofilm and suspension forms to increase the removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD). The bacteria from the leachate and sewage were acclimated to gradually increasing leachate concentration prepared using a reverse osmosis membrane over 28 days. The SCOD removal was measured aerobically or nominally anaerobically. Biofilms were prepared using different carrier media (glass, rubber, and plastic). The maximum SCOD removal in suspensions was 32% (anaerobic) and in biofilms was 39% (aerobic). In the suspension form, SCOD removal using acclimated bacteria from leachate and sewage anaerobically increased in comparison with the control (P technology using biofilms and acclimations can be an effective, inexpensive, and simple way to decrease SCOD in old landfill leachate.

  6. Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nediani, Miriam T.; García, Luis; Saavedra, Lucila; Martínez, Sandra; López Alzogaray, Soledad; Fadda, Silvina

    2017-01-01

    Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product. PMID:28513575

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  8. Using accelerometry to quantify prey attack and handling behaviours in piscivorous pike Esox lucius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Andersson, A.; Vinterstare, J.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerometer technology was used to evaluate behaviours in the teleost ambush predator pike Esox lucius foraging on crucian carp Carassius carassius. Automated rule-based estimates of prey-size determined handling time were obtained and are compared with video-recorded behaviours. Solutions to t...... attachment and the limitations imposed by battery-time and data-logging capacities are evaluated......Accelerometer technology was used to evaluate behaviours in the teleost ambush predator pike Esox lucius foraging on crucian carp Carassius carassius. Automated rule-based estimates of prey-size determined handling time were obtained and are compared with video-recorded behaviours. Solutions to tag...

  9. Variation in fish community structure, richness and diversity of 56 Danish lakes with contrasting depth and trophic state: Does the method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the variables that determine the structure and composition of fish communities is crucial for developing fish monitoring programs for lakes. Although electrofishing has long been recognized as an efficient method for quantitative investigations of fish populations, it has typ...... are not well caught in the gill nets such as eel, common carp (Carassius carassius) and stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)....

  10. Contaminación aguda por vertidos textiles: Tratamiento de carpines dorados (Carassius auratus) con dicromato potásico; determinación de la toxicidad y niveles de cromo en branquias.

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Juan, María del Carmen; Flos Bassols, Rosa; Crespi Rosell, Martí; Balash, J.

    1980-01-01

    El cromo es el metal pesado cuantitativamente más importante en el vertido de la Industria Textil; procede esencialmente de los procesos de tintura con colorantes cromatables. Hemos sometido carpines dorados al tratamiento agudo con dicromato potásico disuelto en el agua de tanques experimentales. Se determina la toxicidad y los niveles de cromo en branquias. La concentración de cromo en el tejido branquia1 se halla mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, previa digestión c...

  11. EXPANSION OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL: REPORT OF THE FIRST AUTOCHTHONOUS CASE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF VOLTA REDONDA AND THE DIFFICULTY OF DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis has been showing remarkable epidemiological changes in recent decades, with marked expansion and an emergence of cases in urban areas of the North, Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. The Kala-azar cases reported here, despite being very characteristic, presented a great difficulty of diagnosis, because the disease is not endemic in Volta Redonda. The child underwent two hospitalizations in different hospitals, but got the correct diagnosis only after 11 months of symptom onset. In this report we discuss the main differential diagnoses and call attention to the suspected symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis in patients with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, even in areas not traditionally endemic for the disease.

  12. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: Variation among species and impact of water chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, David L.; Meinelt, Thomas; Liu, Dibo

    2017-01-01

    , Ictalurus punctatus; golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas; goldfish, Carassius auratus; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; sunshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis; and walleye, Sander vitreus. Median lethal concentration...

  13. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  14. Subsequent experimental results of the research of the removal of the 134,137Cs from the meat of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'enko, A.I.; Krapivko, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Expriments on decontamination of meat of Susscrofa, Alces alces, Esox lucius, Tinca tinca, Rutilus rutilus, Carassius carassius were presented. The studies added the following positive results: increasing frequency of decontamination solution change reduced decontamination total duration concerning meat of animals and fishes two fold at least. KMnO 4 addition to the main solution accelerated washout of radioactive cesium. Preliminary fishes a meat freezing considerably increased decontamination efficiency. Decontamination process performed at 4-5 deg C induced no violation of the process and prevented the products from spoiling

  15. Flebotomíneos de áreas com notificações de casos autóctones de leishmaniose visceral canina e leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Phlebotomine fauna in areas of autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flebótomos de áreas com notificações de casos autóctones de leishmaniose visceral canina e leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O município de Angra dos Reis apresenta casos humanos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana desde 1945. Inquéritos flebotomínicos realizados em 1978 revelaram a presença de Nyssomyia intermedia e a primeira notificação de Lutzomyia longipalpis no Rio de Janeiro, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis. Em agosto de 2002 foi notificado o primeiro caso canino de leishmaniose visceral na Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis. Inquéritos flebotomínicos realizados nos peridomicílios, no período de novembro de 2002 a maio de 2003, em quatro localidades de Angra dos Reis, resultaram em 12.554 flebotomíneos e a presença de nove espécies: Brumptomyia sp.; Nyssomyia intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Psychodopygus davisi, Psychodopygus ayrosai, Evandromyia tupinambay, Psathyromyia pelloni. foi Nyssomyia intermedia, predominante em todas as localidades, seguida por M.migonei. O principal vetor da LVA, Lutzomyia longipalpis, não foi detectado nas localidades, incluindo áreas do entorno, onde um cão infectado residia.The city of Angra dos Reis presents human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis since 1945. Phlebotomine surveys in 1978 had disclosed the presence of Nyssomyia intermedia and the first notification of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Rio de Janeiro, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis. In August of 2002 the first canine case of visceral leishmaniasis in the Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis was notified. Surveys of phlebotomines in the peridomiciliary areas, in the period of November, 2002, through May, 2003, in four localities of Angra dos Reis, resulted in 12,554 specimens belonging to nine species: Brumptomyia sp. Nyssomyia intermedia, Migonemyia migonei, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Psychodopygus davisi, Psychodopygus ayrosai, Evandromyia tupinambay, Psathyromyia pelloni. Nyssomyia intermedia was predominant in all localities, followed by M. migonei. The main vector of the AVL, L. longipalpis, was not detected in the localities, including their surroundings, where an infected dog inhabited.

  16. Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  17. Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax Isolates Exhibit Different Physiological and Expression Responses to n-dodecane

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta; Scoma, Alberto; Mapelli, Francesca; De Smet, Rebecca; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms inhabiting hydrocarbon polluted marine environments play a fundamental role in natural attenuation and constitute promising resources for bioremediation approaches. Alcanivorax spp. members are ubiquitous in contaminated

  18. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, ...

  19. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  20. Expertomica Fishgui: comparison of fish skin colour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Štys, D.; Sergejevova, Magda; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 172-180 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CARASSIUS-AURATUS * IMAGE-ANALYSIS * DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  1. Author Details - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jun, JW. Vol 10, No 5 (2011) - Articles Molecular detection of Edwardsiella tarda with gyrB gene isolated from pirarucu, Arapaima gigas which is exhibited in an indoor private commercial aquarium. Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 24 (2012) - Articles Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the goldfish, Carassius ...

  2. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  3. Identification and characterisation of an androgen receptor from zebrafish Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Ole; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2007-01-01

    ) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Binding assays with zfAR demonstrated high affinity, saturable, single class binding site, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor. Saturation experiments along with subsequent Scatchard analysis determined that the Kd of the zfAR for 3H-testosterone was 2 n...

  4. Quantifying the production of dissolved organic nitrogen in headwater streams using 15N tracer additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura T. Johnson; Jennifer L. Tank; Robert O. Hall; Patrick J. Mullholland; Stephen K. Hamilton; H. Maurice Valett; Jackson R. Webster; Melody J. Bernot; William H. McDowell; Bruce J. Peterson; Suzanne M. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Most nitrogen (N) assimilation in lake and marine ecosystems is often subsequently released via autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) production, but autochthonous DON production has yet to be quantified in flowing waters. We measured in-stream DON production following 24 h 15N-nitrate (NO3-...

  5. The host preference and impact of Argulus japonicus ectoparasite on cyprinids in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismiyati; Wulansari, P. D.; Dewi, N. N.

    2018-04-01

    The most widely cultivated freshwater fish are from Familia Cyprinidae, among others goldfish (Carassius auratus), koi (Cyprinus carpio) and comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus). One of the constraints of freshwater fish cultivation is ectoparasite infestation Argulus japonicus. Financial losses have been experienced by some farmers, caused by these ectoparasitic infestaions. This study was aimed to determine the impact of ectoparasite Argulus japonicus infestation on host (freshwater ornamental fish from Familia Cyprinidae), in order to find a preventive solution to treatment on the host. The results showed that prevalence of infested fish by Argulus japonicus were 57 % goldfish, 31 % comet fish and 65 % koi. Changes of histopathology on host were congestion, baoning degeneration, epithelium erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration. The image of infected leukocytes infested by Argulus japonicus were 8.5 % of lymphocytes, 4.7 % neurophils, 3.9 % monocytes, 1.45 % eosinophils and 0,17% basophils.

  6. Molecular basis of pathogenesis of emerging viruses infecting aquatic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates are very abundant in the world, and they are of tremendous importance in providing global food security and nutrition. However, emergent and resurgent viruses, such as ranavirus (e.g., Rana grylio virus, RGV and Andriasd avidianus ranavirus, ADRV, herpesvirus (e.g., Carassius carassius herpesvirus, CaHV, reovirus (e.g., grass carp reovirus 109, GCRV-109, Scophthal musmaximus reovirus, SMReV and Micropterus salmoides reovirus, MsReV, and rhabdovirus (e.g., Siniper cachuatsi rhabdovirus, SCRV and Scophthal musmaximus rhabdovirus, SMRV can cause severe diseases in aquaculture animals and wild lower vertebrates, such as frogs, giant salamanders, fish, and so on. Here, we will briefly describe the symptoms produced by the aforementioned viruses and the molecular basis of the virus–host interactions. This manuscript aims to provide an overview of viral diseases in lower vertebrates with an emphasis on visible symptomatic manifestations and pathogenesis.

  7. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahi1

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05 was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes.

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from seven sampling locations. Only edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 49.0 +- 1.30 pCi/kg and 8.5 +- 0.64 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus collected from Kyoto and Fukui, respectively, in December 1983. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish (from Jul. 1984 to Dec. 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in freshwater fish were determined using radiochemical analysis. Three species of fish (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were collected during the fishing season from eight sampling locations. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. Each sample was weighed and placed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. After carbonized, the sample was ashed in an electric muffle furnace. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 96 +- 1.7 pCi/kg in Cyprinus carpio collected from Akita in July 1984; and that of Cs-137 was 11 +- 0.7 pCi/kg in Carassius auratus from Fukui in December 1984. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, E.; Bouillon, S.; Dittmar, T.; Marchand, C.

    2008-01-01

    Our current knowledge on production, composition, transport, pathways and transformations of organic carbon in tropical mangrove environments is reviewed and discussed. Organic carbon entering mangrove foodwebs is either produced autochthonously or imported by tides and/or rivers. Mangrove litter

  11. Allochthonous bioaugmentation in ex situ treatment of crude oil-polluted sediments in the presence of an effective degrading indigenous microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Antoniou, E. A.; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Nikolopoulou, Maria; Marasco, Ramona; Barbato, Marta; Tsiola, Areti; Tsikopoulou, I.; Giaccaglia, L.; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouani, Atef; Amer, R.; Hussein, Emad I.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Benzha, Fatiha; Blaghen, Mohamed; Malkawi, Hanan Issa; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser Refaat; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Kalogerakis, Nicolas E.

    2015-01-01

    by the autochthonous populations while bioaugmentation, in contrast to biostimulation, did not enhance the remediation process. Our results indicate that when environmental conditions are optimized, the indigenous microbiome at a polluted site will likely outperform

  12. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in Ulva spp. in the presence of nocturnal pulses of metals from sediment: A field transplantation experiment under eutrophic conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Patrí cia M R; De Pablo, Hilda; Guilherme, S. Isabel Antunes Gomes; Carvalho, Susana; Santos, Maria Ana S; Vale, Carlos; Pacheco, Má rio Guilherme Garcê s

    2014-01-01

    emphasize the importance of assessing, in eutrophic systems, the relationship between the variability of chemical conditions and its repercussions on autochthonous organisms over day-night cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-08-01

    Discussion: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories.

  14. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation

  15. Sedimentation of Particulate Organic Matter in the Dona Paula Bay, West Coast of India during November to May 1995-97.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Cardozo, E.; Giriyan, A.; Garg, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    particle flux study in the Santa Monica San Pedro Basin off Los Angeles: particle flux, primary production and transmissometer study. Continental Shelf Research 7: 307-328. Olesen, M. and Lundsgaard, C. 1996 Seasonal sedimentation of autochthonous...

  16. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Daniel J.; Araú jo, Paula A.; Correia, Patrí cia B.; Ramsey, Matthew M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Freeman, Benny Dean; Paul, Donald; Whiteley, Marvin; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified

  17. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucoside and. Folin - Ciocalteu`s phenol reagent were supplied from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, Mo, USA); used reagents were of analytical quality. Wines samples. Selected Vranac wines from vintage 2009, made from autochthonic Vranac V.

  18. Colour intensity in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) as influenced by dietary microalgae addition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Sales, J.; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozák, P.; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : GOLDFISH CARASSIUS-AURATUS * HAEMATOCOCCUS-PLUVIALIS * ASTAXANTHIN Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  19. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 7. Appendix S. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus C,U,F Brown towhee Pipilo fuscus C,U,F Rufous-crowned sparrow Aimophila ruficeps C,R Chipping sparrow Spizella passerina C,R...pipistrelle Pipistrellus hesperus Widespread in ma habitat Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Widespread in ma habitat Townsends big-caved bat Plecotus...occidentalis * Carp Qjprjnus ca rv i *Goldfish Carassius auratus Sacramento blackfish Orthodon microlepidotus Hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus

  20. Radiosensitivity of primary cultured fish cells with different ploidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Egami, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiromu.

    1986-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of primary cultured goldfish cells (Carassius auratus) was investigated by colony formation assay. The radiosensitivity of cells from two varieties of goldfish, which show different sensitivity to lethal effect of ionizing radiation in vivo, was almost identical. Primary cultured cells from diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish retained their DNA content as measured by microfluorometry, and the nuclear size increases as ploidy increases. However, radiosensitivity was not related to ploidy. (author)

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater fish (from Jul. 1981 to Dec. 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    90 Sr and 137 Cs in freshwater fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio and Hypomesus transpacificus nipponensis) were determined. Fish was rinsed with water and blotted with a filter paper. Only the edible part was used in case of larger sized fish, and the whole part was used in case of smaller ones. The results from July to December 1981 are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of overweight and obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant and non-immigrant women in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katharina; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; David, Matthias; Razum, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Maternal excessive weight and smoking are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Germany, immigrant women have a higher prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity compared with autochthonous women. We compared the contribution of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant and autochthonous women in Berlin/Germany. Data from 2586 immigrant women (from Turkey, Lebanon, other countries of origin) and 2676 autochthonous women delivering in three maternity hospitals of Berlin within 12 months (2011/2012) was used. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the association between overweight/obesity and smoking with the outcomes large-for-gestational-age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB) and extreme preterm-birth (E-PTB). Population attributive fractions (PAF) were calculated to quantify the proportion of the outcomes attributable to overweight/obesity and smoking, respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 33.4% among autochthonous and 53.6% among Turkish women. Prevalence risk ratios of excessive weight were highest for LGA infants among immigrant and autochthonous women. The PAFs were -11.8% (SGA), +16.3% (LGA), +3.6% (PTB) and +16.5% (E-PTB) for the total study population. Overweight/obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of delivering an LGA infant among both immigrant and autochthonous women. Compared with autochthonous women, the contribution of excessive weight to LGA is even higher among immigrant women, in whom PAFs of overweight/obesity even exceed those of smoking for some outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Diversity in the Digestive Tracts of Four Indian Air-Breathing Fish Species Investigated by PCR Based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxu He

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An investigation was conducted to identify the allochthonous microbiota (entire intestine and the autochthonous microbiota in proximal intestine (PI and distal intestine (DI of four species of Indian air-breathing fish (climbing perch; Anabas testudineus, murrel; Channa punctatus, walking catfish; Clarias batrachus and stinging catfish; Heteropneustes fossilis by PCR based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. High similarities of the allochthonous microbiota were observed between climbing perch and murrel, walking catfish and stinging catfish, indicating similar food behavior. The autochthonous microbiota of PI and DI from climbing perch and murrel revealed more similarity, than the result obtained from walking catfish and stinging catfish. The autochthonous microbiota of climbing perch and murrel were similar with regard to the allochthonous microbiota, but no such similarity was observed in case of walking catfish and stinging catfish. The fish genotype and intestinal bacteria are well matched and show co-evolutionary relationship. Three fish species has its unique bacteria; autochthonous Enterobacter cloacae, Edwardsiella tarda and Sphingobium sp. in DI of climbing perch, Pseudomonas sp.; allochthonous and autochthonous in PI of walking catfish and uncultured bacterium (EU697160.1, uncultured bacterium (JF018065.1 and uncultured bacterium (EU697160.1 for stinging catfish. In murrel, no unique bacteria were detected.

  5. Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.Haplotypes of goldfish rooted in two sublineages (C5 and C6, which contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of F(ST and N(m revealed a close relationship between goldfish and native C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River. An extraordinary, stepwise loss of genetic diversity was detected from native fish to goldfish and from Grass-goldfish relative to other breeds. Significantly negative results for the tests of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F* were identified in goldfish, including the Grass breed. The results identified eye-shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish with respect to their evolutionary history. Fisher's exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.Chinese goldfish have a matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus, especially the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Anthropogenic selection of the native Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing goldfish and this action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated goldfish, a process similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy--Grass-goldfish, Egg-goldfish, and Wen-goldfish--better reflected the history of domestication.

  6. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science.

  7. Species complexes and phylogenetic lineages of Hoferellus (Myxozoa, Cnidaria) including revision of the genus: A problematic case for taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Jirků, Miloslav; Kodádková, Alena; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, JAN 11 (2016), č. článku 13. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28784P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200961205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * fish * Carassius * Cyprinus carpio * ITS cloning * mode of attachment * Teleostei * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  8. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of three goldfish cell lines using short term endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-06-01

    The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks after ..gamma..-irradiation in three goldfish (Carassius auratus) cell lines with different sensitivities to the lethal effect of ..gamma..-rays has been studied by the DNA strand separation method using hydroxylapatite chromatography. The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was similar in all cell lines. There was also little difference in the degree of inhibition of DNA synthesis immediately after irradiation. However, the rank orders of the durations of division delay and the radiosensitivities of the three cell lines were the same.

  9. Effect of milk feeding system on carcass and meat quality of Frisa Valtellinese kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Frisa goat is an autochthonous breed from high Valtellina (Italian Central Alps, the territory of Sondalo and Grosio villages being regarded as its cradle.Widespread in the Province of Sondrio, it counts about 5.000 heads. Frisa Valtellinese has black coat, apart from the characteristic white stripes of the head (frisature and other specific white regions, and short hair. In comparison with other similar autochthonous Alpine goat breeds it distinguishes thanks to its bigger size (80 cm at withers.

  10. THE PROBLEMS OF HISTORICAL PERIODIZATION OF THE PIANO MUSIC FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HATIPOVA INNA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the author analyzes the problems of historical periodization of the autochthonous works for piano from a modern perspective in order to appreciate the artistic value of the works for piano created by the composers of the Republic of Moldova and to determine the contribution of the authors to the historical development of pianistic art. The objective lawfulness of the historical development of the autochthonous composers’ works for piano and the main trends in the formation of these works are in the spotlight.

  11. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuo Kobayashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan.

  12. Effect of anoxia on the electroretinogram of three anoxia-tolerant vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Milton, Sarah L; Lutz, Peter L; Sundin, Lena; Renshaw, Gillian M C; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Nilsson, Göran E

    2008-08-01

    To survive anoxia, neural ATP levels have to be defended. Reducing electrical activity, which accounts for 50% or more of neural energy consumption, should be beneficial for anoxic survival. The retina is a hypoxia sensitive part of the central nervous system. Here, we quantify the in vivo retinal light response (electroretinogram; ERG) in three vertebrates that exhibit varying degrees of anoxia tolerance: freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta), epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens). A virtually total suppression of ERG in anoxia, probably resulting in functional blindness, has previously been seen in the extremely anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Surprisingly, the equally anoxia-tolerant turtle, which strongly depresses brain and whole-body metabolism during anoxia, exhibited a relatively modest anoxic reduction in ERG: the combined amplitude of turtle ERG waves was reduced by approximately 50% after 2 h. In contrast, the shark b-wave amplitude practically disappeared after 30 min of severe hypoxia, and the frog b-wave was decreased by approximately 75% after 40 min in anoxia. The specific A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist CPT significantly delayed the suppression of turtle ERG, while the hypoxic shark ERG was unaffected by the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist aminophylline, suggesting adenosinergic involvement in turtle but not in shark.

  13. Pb and Cd bioaccumulations in the habitat and preys of red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in Zhalong Wetland, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Yin, Xiongrui; Ya, Yajie; Wang, Yongjie; Zang, Shuying; Zhou, Xia

    2013-12-01

    Pb and Cd concentrations in the habitat and preys of the red-crowned crane (i.e., reed rhizomes and three typical aquatic animal families (Perccottus glehni Dybowski, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, and Viviparidae)) were analyzed to examine the impact of these hazards on red-crowned cranes in northeastern China. Results indicated that Pb and Cd concentrations in the preys of the red-crowned cranes were elevated via food chain. Most of the detected Pb and Cd contents in the sediments were above the natural background level, ranging from 9.85 to 129.72 ppm and 1.23 to 10.63 ppm (dry weight), respectively. Cd geo-accumulation index at all sites were larger than 3, even reached 5.22, suggesting serious pollution in this region. Three common water animal families were detected to contain heavy metals, following the order of increasing concentrations: primary consumers (i.e., Viviparidae and Carassius auratus Linnaeus) cranes showed the highest toxic metal concentrations of Pb (2.09 to 5.81 ppm) and Cd (1.42 to 3.06 ppm) compared with the feces produced by cranes and residual eggshell left by water fowls. Exceptionally high Pb and Cd concentrations in the cranes and their preys were thought to be associated with their habitat.

  14. A comparative biochemical profile of some cyprinids fish in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Darya Mohammed; Mohammed, Sarbaz Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate the baseline values for some serum biochemical parameters for 64 adult freshwater fish including seven species belong to family Cyprinidae, have been collected in Dukan Lake, Kurdistan region-Iraq. Fishes were weighed, measured, and collect blood for blood chemistry. Serum biochemical analyses were determined using (Cobas C 311) full automatic chemical analyzer. The result of comparative study of serum biochemical parameters of all Cyprinidae species showed that serum glucose was (459.10±106.99 mg/dl) and direct bilirubin was (0.056±0.021mg/dl) in Barbus grypus, serum total protein (3.511± 0.0484gm/dl) and HDL (133.11±0.4231mg/dl) in Cyprinus carpio, serum cholesterol (338.33±43.923 mg/dl) and LDL (86.11±11.871mg/dl) in Carassius carassius, serum triglyceride (420.0±28.8mg/dl) and ALK (113.93±20.65U/L) in Chondrostoma regium, serum AST and serum ALT in Capoeta trutta, were significantly higher when compared to other species. In a conclusion there is variation in biochemical values among species of same family.

  15. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Lars B; Brönmark, Christer

    1999-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this effect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology. Our study confirms that drag is higher for deep-bodied crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied fish swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost of transport, U mc , did not experience higher costs of transport than shallow-bodied fish. Deep-bodied crucian carp had significantly lower standard metabolic rates, i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower U mc , and the resulting costs of transport were similar for the two morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals deviate from U mc , e.g. when increasing foraging effort under competition, their steeper power curves will cause substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied conspecifics. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history changes. Thus, this work provides links between hydrodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-dependent fitness cost associated with an inducible defence.

  16. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  17. COLOUR QUALITY ENHANCED ON GOLDFISH JUVENILES THROUGH SHRIMP HEAD MEAL ENRICHED IN FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldfish (Carassius sp. is the ornamental fish which has been managed its culture by fish farmers. The objective of the research is to improve the colour quality of goldfish juveniles through enrichment of feed using shrimp head meal as source of carotenoid. The research was conducted at The Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, using completely randomized design with four treatments of shrimp head meal ratio, 0% (control, 5%, 10%, and 15% in feed, the feed formulation contained isoprotein (30%, and isolipid (15% and three replications of each treatment. Ten juveniles of Carassius sp. with body weight of (1.08±0.02 g stocked in aquarium with water volumes of 20 L. The growth and colour quality in qualitative standard using TCF (Toca Colour Finder were examined, while total carotenoid content on feed were measured by spectrophotometry method. The colour quality of goldfish were also measured at three of fins those were dorsal, ventral, and caudal. The result showed that no significant different on growth and survival rates among the treatments. Based on the present research, the optimal colour improvement to goldfish was by addition of 10% shrimp head meal in feed.

  18. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  19. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 24 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  20. Recent changes in mercury deposition and primary productivity inferred from sediments of lakes from the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazeau, Michelle L.; Poulain, Alexandre J.; Paterson, Andrew M.; Keller, Wendel; Sanei, Hamed; Blais, Jules M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations and organic carbon in lake sediments were examined from the Hudson Bay Lowlands to investigate whether Hg deposition to sediments is related to indicators of autochthonous production. Total organic carbon, “S2” carbon (mainly algal-derived OC), C:N and ∂ 13 C indicators suggest an increase in autochthonous productivity in recent decades. Up-core profiles of S2 concentrations and fluxes were significantly correlated with Hg suggesting that varying algal matter scavenging of Hg from the water column may play an important role in the temporal profiles of Hg throughout the sediment cores. Absence of significant relationship between total Hg and methyl Hg (MeHg) in surficial sediments suggested that inorganic Hg supply does not limit MeHg production. MeHg and OC were highly correlated across lakes in surface and deep sediment layers, indicating that sediment organic matter content explains part of the spatial variation in MeHg concentrations between lakes. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in sediment cores correlate with autochthonous organic production. ► Inorganic Hg supply in sediment does not limit MeHg production. ► Sediment methylmercury concentration is highly correlated with organic C content. - Increased mercury concentrations in lake sediment cores coincide with evidence of increased autochthonous production in lakes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada.

  1. Conquest, Colonial Education and Cultural Uprootedness in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the benefits of Western education to the Africans it had the major negative effect on the Africans of culturally uprooting the Africans from their autochthonous culture consciously or otherwise, into a foreign and alien Western culture.. The argument of this paper is that colonial education was and is still ...

  2. CpDNA haplotype variation reveals strong human influence on oak stands of the Veluwe forest in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.; Koelewijn, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    We examined chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in 78 oak stands of an important forest complex (the Veluwe) in The Netherlands. Based on historical maps and information oak stands were classified as planted or autochthonous. A genetic study by means of cpDNA haplotype characterisation was carried out

  3. Taking advantage from phenotype variability in a local animal genetic resource: identification of genomic regions associated with the hairless phenotype in Casertana pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavo, G; Bertolini, F.; Utzeri, V J

    2018-01-01

    Casertana is an endangered autochthonous pig breed (raised in south-central Italy) that is considered to be the descendant of the influential Neapolitan pig population that was used to improve British breeds in the 19th century. Casertana pigs are characterized by a typical, almost complete, hair...

  4. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1993-01-01

    The title of this volume is a bit misleading. Apart from Rosaceae also the Chrysobalanaceae (two autochthonous species) and the Neuradaceae (one species) are treated. The bulk, however, concerns the Rosaceae in the more restricted and generally adapted sense. In India 32 genera of this family,

  5. Data on healthy food accessibility in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Hagenauer, J

    2017-01-01

    This data descriptor introduces data on healthy food supplied by supermarkets in the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In addition to two neighborhood variables (i.e., share of autochthons and average housing values), the data comprises three street network-based accessibility measures derived

  6. The Manu-Facturing of a Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, William

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Providence Island Sign Language (PSL), an autochthonous and relatively immature language of about 20 speakers. It is a nascent and evolving language whose description can produce rich results for linguistic theory. Such a description will also be an explanation of the phylogeny of a linguistic system. (Author/PJM)

  7. Establishment of the biochemical and endocrine blood profiles in the Majorera and Palmera dairy goat breeds: the effect of feed restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Peña, Raquel; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E

    2015-01-01

    Feed restriction, and seasonal weight loss (SWL), are major setbacks for animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. They may be solved through the use of autochthonous breeds particularly well adapted to SWL. It is therefore of major importance to determine markers of tolerance to fe...

  8. A study of oxygen isotopic fractionation during bio-induced calcite precipitation in eutrophic Baldeggersee, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teranes, J.L.; McKenzie, J.A.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract—In order to better understand environmental factors controlling oxygen isotope shifts in autochthonous lacustrine carbonate sequences, we undertook an extensive one-year study (March, 1995 to February, 1996) of water-column chemistry and daily sediment trap material from a small lake in

  9. Translating for Linguistic Minorities in Northern Ireland: A Look at Translation Policy in the Judiciary, Healthcare, and Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Europe as a multilingual continent hosts three main types of languages: dominant languages, autochthonous minority languages, and new minority languages. From a policy standpoint, planning for speakers of these languages and their needs become a complex matter in which many actors with different interests are involved. Of the many issues which…

  10. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  11. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, M.G.; Wierik, te M.J.; Broens, E.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.; Rosa, de M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hartskeerl, R.A.; Notermans, D.W.; Maassen, K.; Schimmer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with

  12. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  13. Africa Development - Vol 35, No 1-2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Negotiating Nation-building and Citizenship through the Truth and Reconciliation Committee's 'Dramatic' Spheres: A Reading of Two Post-apartheid Plays · EMAIL FREE ... The African Public Space of Dangarembga's Neria: A Site forAutochthonous Feminist Agency · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Secularisation and the rise of immigrant religions: the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    Europe and the United States are very different as far as the significance of religion is concerned, both in the private and the public sphere. Whereas autochthon Europe is secularising to a great extent and any growth of religiousness is mainly a matter of immigrants, the United States is the scene

  16. Meat consumption is a major risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Molier, Michel; van den Hurk, Katja; Prinsze, Femmeke; Hogema, Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of autochthonous hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV gt3) infections in Western Europe is high. Although pigs are a major reservoir of the virus, the exact sources and transmission route(s) of HEV gt3 to humans remain unclear. To determine the role of meat consumption at a population

  17. Developing a Dual-Level Capabilities Approach: Using Constructivist Grounded Theory and Feminist Ethnography to Enhance the Capabilities Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kia M. Q.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a dual-level capabilities approach to development is introduced. This approach intends to improve upon individual-focused capabilities approaches developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Based upon seven months of ethnographic research in the Afro-descendant, autochthonous Garifuna community of Honduras, constructivist grounded…

  18. Importance of phytodetritus and microphytobenthos for heterotrophs in a shallow subtidal sandy sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evrard, V.; Huettel, M.; Cook, P.L.M.; Soetaert, K.; Heip, C.H.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of allochthonous phytodetritus deposition and autochthonous microphytobenthos (MPB) production for benthic consumers in an organic carbon (C-org)-poor sandy sediment was assessed using a C-13-stable isotope natural abundance study combined with a dual C-13-tracer addition

  19. Riparian influences on the biophysical characteristics of seston in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Elliott; Robert J. Naiman; Peter A. Bisson

    2004-01-01

    Suspended particles (seston) in streams are an important source of nutrition for many invertebrates, forming a strong trophic link between plant and animal production. In forested regions the management of riparian corridors may alter alloehthonous and autochthonous contributions to streams, ultimately changing the biophysical characteristics of seston. This article...

  20. C282Y and H63D Mutation Frequencies in a Population from Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alvarez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency of hereditary hemochromatosis gene mutations, C282Y and H63D, from 125 autochthonous blood donors originating from a Central region of Spain, to provide epidemiological data about HFE gene in the Iberian Peninsula.