WorldWideScience

Sample records for carassius auratus potential

  1. Probiotic potential of Bacillus velezensis JW: Antimicrobial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria and immune enhancement effects on Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanglei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Fan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Lijun; Zha, Jiwei; Wang, Gaoxue

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the probiotic potential of B. velezensis JW through experimental and genomic analysis approaches. Strain JW showed antimicrobial activity against a broad range of fish pathogenic bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Vibrio Parahemolyticus. Fish (Carassius auratus) were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 10 7 , and 10 9  cfu/g of B. velezensis JW for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that JW supplemented diets significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. The mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of C. auratus was measured. Among them, the interferon gamma gene (IFN- γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed higher expression after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding (P velezensis JW has the potential to be developed as a probiotic agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Growth Responses and Survival of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five sets of 20-day old goldfish fry, Carassius auratus with average weights of 0.167 ± 0.003 g were reared for eight weeks in plastic bowls for growth and survival studies. One set (labelled MN) was fed Moina and Cyclops. A second set (labelled FM) was fed fishmeal, and a third set (labelled AF) was fed a 45% protein ...

  3. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G.

    2014-01-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels

  4. BIOCHEMISTRY PANEL REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR JUVENILE GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovicz, Laura A; Trosclair, Macy R; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-09-01

    Reference intervals for diagnostic tests are vitally important for clinical decision making. Despite the popularity of pet goldfish (Carassius auratus), reference intervals have not been generated for routine biochemistry panel analytes in this species. This study establishes de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume and total solids, using 47 apparently healthy immature goldfish, and for 11 common chemistry panel analytes (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulin, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) using 39 immature goldfish. Robust reference intervals were generated following recommendations of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Linear regression was used to demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between body weight and calcium, albumin, total protein, potassium, packed cell volume, and total solids. The results of this study serve as a useful baseline for future reference interval generation in goldfish.

  5. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  6. Chlorpheniramine impairs functional recovery in Carassius auratus after telencephalic ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Garção

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of an H1 receptor antagonist on the functional recovery of Carassius auratus submitted to telencephalic ablation. Five days after surgery the fish underwent a spatial-choice learning paradigm test. The fish, weighing 6-12 g, were divided into four groups: telencephalic ablation (A or sham lesion (S and saline (SAL or chlorpheniramine (CPA, ip, 16 mg/kg. For eight consecutive days each animal was trained individually in sessions separated by 24 h (alternate days. Training trials (T1-T8 consisted of finding the food in one of the feeders, which were randomly blocked for each subject. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of SAL or CPA 10 min after the training trials. The time spent by the animals in each group to find the food (latency was analyzed separately at T1 and T8 by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test. At T1 the latencies (mean ± SEM of the A-SAL (586.3 ± 13.6 and A-CPA (600 ± 0 groups were significantly longer than those of the S-SAL (226.14 ± 61.15 and S-CPA (356.33 ± 68.8 groups. At T8, the latencies of the A-CPA group (510.11 ± 62.2 remained higher than those of the other groups, all of which showed significantly shorter latencies (A-SAL = 301.91 ± 78.32; S-CPA = 191.58 ± 73.03; S-SAL = 90.28 ± 41 compared with T1. These results support evidence that training can lead to functional recovery of spatial-choice learning in telencephalonless fish and also that the antagonist of the H1 receptor impairs it.

  7. Carassius auratus gibelio—the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2010), s. 176-180 ISSN 2075-1117 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/55/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : invasive alien fish * Carassius auratus gibelio * sex ratio * ploidy status * impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Hepatic oxidative stress biomarker responses in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to four benzophenone UV filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Sun, Ping; Liu, Hongxia; Yang, Shaogui; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-09-01

    Benzophenone (BP) type UV filters are widely used in many personal care products to protect human from UV irradiation. Despite the estrogenic potencies to fish and the environmental occurrences of BP derivatives in aquatic systems, little information is available regarding their effects on the antioxidant defense system in fish. In this work, the oxidative stress induced in livers of Carassius auratus was assessed using four biomarkers. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was applied to assess the overall antioxidant status in fish. Moreover, liver tissues were also studied histologically. The changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels suggested that BPs generates oxidative stress in fish. The IBR index revealed that the hepatic oxidative toxicity followed the order BP-1>BP-2>BP-4>BP-3. The histopathological analysis revealed lesions caused by BPs. This investigation provides essential information for assessing the potential ecological risk of BP-type UV filters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  10. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-01-01

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [fr

  11. Erythrocyte profile of diploid and triploid silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2006), s. 203-207 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carassius auratus * complete red blood count * erythrocyte nuclear dimensions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol75/75-203.pdf

  12. Genetic variation and population history of three Carassius auratus populations in Huaihe River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yuanjun; Yang, Chengzhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the relationships of drainage history of Huaihe River with the genetic history of Carassius auratus along the river, we examined the genetic variations and population histories of three wild C. auratus populations in Huaihe River based on the D-loop gene. The results showed that their nucleotide and haplotype diversities were ranged from 0.00268 to 0.00651 and from 0.863 to 0.902, respectively, and their genetic distance was quite small. The analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that a frequent inter-population connection and large historic gene flows occurred among the three populations. Demographic analysis indicated that expansions had been happened in three populations. After investigating the historic process of the Huaihe River, we presumed that both nature and artificial factors may play important roles in shaping the genetic structure of the three populations. The present study also provided genetic information of C. auratus for further conservation of its germplasm resources.

  13. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  14. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  15. Many branches, one root: First evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2010), s. 36-41 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Goldfish * Carassius auratus * Phylogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.044, year: 2010

  16. Chemical changes and shelf life of surimi of Carassius auratus (Carassius carassius gibelio during storage at super chilling and freezing temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afsar Sangari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of Surimi from low value fish is a method recommended to increase fish consumption nowadays. In this study, Carassius auratus gibelio was used to produce surimi. Experimental treatments were surimi stored at freezing temperature (-18˚C (group 1 and surimi maintained at super chilling temperature (-3˚C (group 2. The experiment lasted 60 days and approximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH, chemical spoilage were examined and oxidation tests including total base volatile nitrogen (TVB-N and Tiubarbutic acid (TBA were carried out periodically. According to the statistical values of fat, pH, TVB-N and TBA were significantly higher in treatment 2 in comparison to treatment 1 during the maintenance period (p

  17. Identification, tissue distribution and characterization of two heat shock factors (HSFs) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Sun; Chang, Ziwei; Park, Jang-Su

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are synthesized rapidly in response to a variety of physiological or environmental stressors, whereas the transcriptional activation of HSPs is regulated by a family of heat shock factors (HSFs). In vertebrates, multiple HSFs (HSF1-4) have been reported to have different roles in response to a range of stresses. This paper reports the cDNA cloning of two goldfish (Carassius auratus) HSF gene families, HSF1 and three isoforms of HSF2. Both HSF1 and HSF2s showed high homology to the known HSFs from other organisms, particularly the zebrafish. Different patterns of HSF1 and HSF2 mRNA expression were detected in several goldfish tissues, highlighting their distinct roles. In cadmium (Cd)-treated tissues, the responses of HSP70 showed less difference. However, the increase in HSF1 and HSF2 in these tissues differs considerable. In particular, HSF2 was induced strongly in the heart and liver. On the other hand, in heart tissue, HSF1 showed the smallest increment. These results suggest the potential role of HSF2 in assisting HSF1 in these tissues. In another in vitro experiment of hepatocyte cultures, Cd exposure caused similar patterns of goldfish HSF1 and HSF2 mRNA expression and induction of the HSP70 protein. On the other hand, an examination of the characterization of recombinant proteins showed that HSF1 undergoes a conformation change induced by heat shock above 30 °C and approaches each other in the trimer, whereas HSF2 could not sense thermal stress directly. Furthermore, immune-blot analysis of HSFs showed that both monomers and trimmers of HSF1 were observed in cadmium-induced tissues, whereas HSF2 were all in monomeric. These results show that HSF1 and HSF2 play different roles in the transcription of heat shock proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatic complex in diets for gold fish fingerlings (Carassius auratusComplexo enzimático na dieta de alevinos de kinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Augusto Signor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the enzymatic complex supplementation in diets for goldfish fingerlings (Carassius auratus, 240 fish weighing initially 1,36 ± 0,02g, randomly distributed in 20 tanks with 150L, in four treatments and five replications, with twelve fish in each experimental unit were used. The fish were fed at 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 and 5:00 p.m. with diets containing different inclusion levels (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% of enzymatic complex (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, ?-glucanase and phytase, and formulated with 32,36% of digestible protein and 3.023kcal of digestible energy kg-1. There were no differences observed (P>0,05 in the mean final weight, weight gain, total length, standard length, survival and carcass composition. However, the fish apparent feed conversion was impaired by the supplementation of enzymatic complex with 0,099% in diet. The use of enzymatic complex does not provides benefits in the productive performance for goldfish fingerlings. Objetivando avaliar a suplementação de complexo enzimático em dietas de alevinos de kinguios (Carassius auratus, foram utilizados 240 peixes com peso inicial de 1,36 ± 0,02g, distribuídos aleatoriamente, em 20 tanques de 150L, em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, com 12 peixes em cada unidade experimental. Os peixes foram arraçoados as 8h, 11h, 14h e 17h, com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% de complexo enzimático (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, b-glucanase e fitase, e formuladas para conter 32,36% de proteína digestível e 3.023kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, sobrevivência e composição de carcaça. No entanto, a conversão alimentar aparente dos peixes alimentados com rações contendo 0,099% do complexo enzimático foi inferior em relação aos alimentados com as demais dietas. Conclui-se que a utiliza

  19. Crescimento e sobrevivência de larvas de peixe vermelho (Carassius auratus alimentadas com microdietas comerciais Growth and survival of Carassius auratus larvae fed commercial micro diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rema

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho de dois alimentos comerciais para larvas de peixes ornamentais e analisar o efeito que a suplementação em vitaminas e minerais teria sobre a sobrevivência e o crescimento dessas, foi realizado um ensaio de crescimento de 21 dias, com 4800 larvas de peixe vermelho (Carassius auratus, distribuídas por 24 grupos (200 indivíduos por grupo. Cada grupo foi alojado em tanques de 5L de capacidade, ligados a um sistema de recirculação de água. Quatro grupos foram alocados a um controle de jejum, em que os animais não foram alimentados, e os restantes 20 grupos foram utilizados em cinco tratamentos, em quadruplicado. Em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, os peixes ingeriram uma das seguintes dietas: R (referência, C1 (SERA vipan® baby, C2 (SERA® microgran, C1v e C2v (C1 e C2, respectivamente, reforçadas em vitaminas e minerais. As taxas de sobrevivência e crescimento dos peixes do tratamento R foram maiores que as obtidas nos outros tratamentos (PA 21-day growth trial was performed to evaluate two ornamental fish larvae commercial diets and the effect of mineral and vitamin supplementation of the same commercial microdiets on growth and survival of goldfish larvae (Carassius auratus. A total of 4,800 larvae were randomly distributed in 24 groups of 200 individuals. Each group was housed in a 5L tank, connected to a recirculating water system. Four groups were assigned to a fastening control. The animals in these groups did not receive any food. The remaining 20 groups were distributed in five treatments, in quadruplicate. The animals of each treatment were fed one of five experimental diets: R (reference, C1 (SERA vipan® baby, C2 (SERA® microgran, C1v, and C2v (C1 and C2, respectively, reinforced with minerals and vitamins. At the end of the trial, high survival and growth rates were observed in R treatment. There were significant differences in total length and total weight among dietary treatments. Considering the

  20. A multi-biomarker assessment of single and combined effects of norfloxacin and sulfamethoxazole on male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Wu, Donghai; Yan, Zhenhua

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the sublethal effects of norfloxacin alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were investigated, the biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxides dismutase (SOD) activities in liver, vitellogenin (Vtg) in serum and DNA damage in gonad were determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 days of exposure. Brain AChE activity was significantly inhibited by norfloxacin (≥0.4 mg/L) after 4 and 7 days and the mixtures with sulfamethoxazole (≥0.24 mg/L) after 4 days of exposure, and significant concentration-response relationships were obtained. Liver EROD, GST and SOD activities were significantly increased by the individual and mixed pharmaceuticals in most cases and exhibited analogously bell-shaped concentration-response curves. Serum Vtg was increased by the highest concentration of norfloxacin and two higher concentrations of the mixtures. Higher concentrations of the test antibiotics induced significant DNA damage in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicated that selected antibiotics possesses cytotoxic and genotoxic potential against the non-target organism C. auratus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  2. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  3. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTIN DIANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymesin the gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin.To get this goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, sevenand fourteen days to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 g/L. Anothergroup was used as control. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase andgluthatione reductase were significantly decreased, while the glutathione-Stransferasewas up-regulated. All fish, exposed to 2glL deltamethrin revealed gillsmorphological alterations after 48h of exposure which were accentuated after 14days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion of secondary lamellae, epithelial layer ruptureand chloride cells proliferation were observed. These results suggest that animmediate adaptive response to the oxidative stress appeared, demonstratingalterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in the gills of deltamethrinintoxicated fish.

  5. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  6. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  7. Changes of ploidy and sexuality status of "Carassius auratus" populations in the drainage area of the River Dyje (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Lusk, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 165-171 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Carassius auratus * goldfish * ploidy status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Morphometric characteristics and growth of Carassius auratus in the lower part of the River Dyje (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Spurný, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 215-221 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Carassius auratus * ploidy status Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  9. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  10. Baseline survey of the fish fauna of a highly eutrophic estuary and evidence for its colonisation by Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Tweedley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study represents the first quantitative survey of the fish fauna of the highly eutrophic Vasse and Wonnerup estuaries, part of the Ramsar-listed Vasse-Wonnerup Wetland System in south-western Australia. Sampling at five sites in each of these estuaries occurred in January 2012 (austral summer to provide a species inventory and determine whether the number of species, total density and fish community composition differed between the two water bodies. A total of 18,148 fish were recorded, representing six species across four families. Three species that can complete their life cycle within estuaries, i.e. the atherinids Lepthatherina wallacei and Atherinosoma elongata and the gobiid Pseudogobius olorum, dominated the fish fauna, accounting for >99% of all fish collected. No significant inter-estuary differences were observed in the mean number of species, mean total density or fish community composition. Although the fish community was depauperate in terms of the number of species, total density was high, reflecting the presence of permanent and seasonal barriers to the immigration of marine species into these estuaries and the highly productive nature of this system, respectively. Two introduced freshwater species, i.e. the Eastern Gambusia Gambusia holbrooki and the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were recorded in the Vasse Estuary. As C. auratus was found in mesohaline conditions, individuals may be able to use the estuary as a ‘saltbridge’ to gain access to other tributaries and/or the Wonnerup Estuary, and thus expand their distribution. These findings are of concern given the potential deleterious biological and ecological effects of these alien species.

  11. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  12. Composition of Gut Microbiota in the Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) Varies with Host Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghao; Zhou, Li; Yu, Yuhe; Ni, Jiajia; Xu, Wenjie; Yan, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    To understand how a bacteria-free fish gut ecosystem develops microbiota as the fish ages, we performed a 1-year study on the gut microbiota of hatchling gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Our results indicate that the gut microbial diversity increases significantly as the fish develop. The gut microbial community composition showed significant shifts corresponding to host age and appeared to shift at two time points despite consistent diet and environmental conditions, suggesting that some features of the gut microbial community may be determined by the host's development. Dietary and environmental changes also seem to cause significant shifts in the fish gut microbial community. This study revealed that the gut microbiota of gibel carp assemble into distinct communities at different times during the host's development and that this process is less affected by the surrounding environment than by the host diet and development. Community phylogenetic analyses based on the net relatedness index further showed that environmental filtering (host selection) deterministically governs the gut microbial community composition. More importantly, the influence of host-associated deterministic filtering tends to weaken significantly over the course of the host's development. However, further studies are needed to assess whether this host development-dependent shift in gut microbiota will still exist under different rearing strategies.

  13. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the ear of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, P. J.; Presson, J. C.; Popper, A. N.

    1996-01-01

    Cell proliferation and hair cell addition have not been studied in the ears of otophysan fish, a group of species who have specialized hearing capabilities. In this study we used the mitotic S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells in the ear of one otophysan species, Carassius auratus (the goldfish). Animals were sacrificed at 3 h or 5 days postinjection with BrdU and processed for immunocytochemistry. The results of the study show that cell proliferation occurs in all of the otic endorgans and results in the addition of new hair cells. BrdU-labeled cells were distributed throughout all epithelia, including the primary auditory endorgan (saccule), where hair cell phenotypes vary considerably along the rostrocaudal axis. This study lays the groundwork for our transmission electron microscopy study of proliferative cells in the goldfish ear (Presson et al., Hearing Research 100 (1996) 10-20) as well as future studies of hair cell development in this species. The ability to predict, based on epithelial location, the future phenotype of developing hair cells in the saccule of the goldfish make that endorgan a particularly powerful model system for the investigation of early hair cell differentiation.

  15. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  16. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA MARIOARA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  17. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  18. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  19. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  20. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. The environmental regulation of maturation in goldfish, Carassius auratus: effects of various LED light spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-02-01

    While there have been a number of studies on the effects of photoperiod and duration of light and dark exposure, much less information is available on the importance of light intensity. This study investigated the effects of exposure of goldfish, Carassius auratus exposed to white fluorescent bulbs, and red (peak at 630nm), and green (530nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at approximately 0.9W/m(2) (12-h light:12-h dark) for four months on a number of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of native GnRH molecules (gonadotropin-releasing hormones; salmon GnRH, sGnRH; and chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II), gonadotropin hormones (GTHα; follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH-β; luteinizing hormone, LH-β2), kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) mRNA levels. Furthermore, we measured LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in plasma and we performed gonad histological observations. GnRHs, Kiss1, GPR54 and GTH mRNA and plasma LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in the in vivo and in vitro groups exposed to green LEDs were significantly higher than the other groups. Histological analysis revealed the presence of oocytes in the yolk stage in fish exposed to green light. These results suggest that green wavelengths regulate the HPG axis and enhance sexual maturation in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological and condition-related traits in the gynogenetic-sexual Carassius auratus complex: different investments promoting the coexistence of two reproductive forms?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Hyršl, P.; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 154 (2015), s. 154 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carassius auratus * gene expression * growth Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  3. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  4. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  6. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Jia Lai-Bing; Yin Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments. The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming. We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp (carassius auratus). A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well. With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force. Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-06-01

    Accumulation and excretion Of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from radioactive diets (killifish, Oryzias latipes, meats accumulated {sup 137}Cs in the radioactive freshwater) or control diets (killifish meats mixed {sup 137}CsCl) were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in concentration ratio, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency in proportion to the rearing time. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing by administration of non-radioactive commercial diets after the accumulation above for 7 days, demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and followed a gradual decreasing tendency (the biological half lives were about 1.5 days and 52 days, respectively). As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera is more rapid than that for the muscle. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the relative contribution by ingestion of the radioactive diets in the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in natural environmental fish was comparatively higher in comparison with uptake of the radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater. With regard to the difference between the radioactive diets and the control diets, the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in whole body of the fish from the radioactive diets was less than that from the control diets to rearing 5 days, but afterward was not different. The difference of the accumulation between these diets will be attributable to that of the metabolic turnover between these diets. (author)

  8. Accumulation and health risk assessment of trace elements in Carassius auratus gibelio from subsidence pools in the Huainan coalfield in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lanlan; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yuan

    2017-08-30

    Microelement (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were determined in the muscle, skin, gill, and liver tissues of Carassius auratus gibelio collected from subsidence pools at three different coal mines in the Huainan coalfield in China. The concentrations of elements in the water were within the allowable levels for raising fish. However, the higher levels of these metals in sediment may pose potential harm on fish. It was found that the concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn in all fish tissues were higher, while As, Cd, and Pb levels were relatively low. Microelement accumulation appeared to be more widespread in subsidence pools than that in natural water. Elements accumulated in fish tissues differently: the highest metal concentrations were generally found in the liver tissues of the fish analyzed, whereas the lowest were recorded in the muscles. The mean element concentrations in muscle tissue from C. auratus gibelio collected from subsidence pools (As, 0.16 mg/kg; Cd, 0.06 mg/kg; Cr, 6.21 mg/kg; Cu, 1.61 mg/kg; Ni, 3.88 mg/kg; Pb, 1.76 mg/kg; and Zn, 12.80 mg/kg dry weight) were far below the allowable limit of the hygienic standard in fish proposed by the Ministry of Health in China, suggesting that the fish were safe for human consumption. A health risk assessment also suggested there was no risk from the analyzed elements for inhabitants near the Huainan coalfield that consume fish.

  9. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  10. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  11. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  12. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under changing food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, An-Jie; Killen, Shaun S; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-15

    Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Morphological, histological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus kingchowensis and Thelohanellus cf. sinensis infecting gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Yang

    2018-06-26

    A Myxobolus species and a Thelohanellus species infecting Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) were redescribed by their morphological, histological and molecular characterization. In the present study, the Myxobolus species infecting the muscle was identified as Myxobolus kingchowensis Chen et Ma, 1998 by the morphological and molecular data. Histologically, mature spores of M. kingchowensis were observed in the intercellular and connective tissue of muscle, though the plasmodia were not found. In addition, scattered spores also occurred in the intercellular of haematopoietic cells, intraepithelial of the renal tubules and interior of the melano-macrophage centres. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. kingchowensis clustered in the clade of muscle-infecting Myxobolus species, further supporting muscle as the infection site of M. kingchowensis. The present Thelohanellus species infecting the gills was identified conspecific as Thelohanellus sinensis reported in Sun (2006) (mark it as T. sinensis-Sun)based on spore morphology, biological traits (host specificity and organ specificity), and molecular data. However, compared with the original description of T. sinensis Chen et Hsieh, 1960, the present Thelohanellus species and T. sinensis-Sun both infecting the gills of gibel carp are distinguishable from the original description in the host and infection site, which made the validity of T. sinensis-Sun dubious. Due to the absence of molecular data in the original description of T. sinensis, we suggest marking the present species and T. sinensis-Sun as T. cf. sinensis to avoid the confusion until T. sinensis is obtained from the type host and type infection site.

  14. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  16. The stimulatory effect of LED light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red, green, and purple. We investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (Opn4m), rhodopsin (RH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in goldfish exposed to different LED light spectra. Opn4m, RH, MCH, and MCH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the white fluorescent bulb (control) and red LED groups. Furthermore, skin cells were isolated to measure the MCH-R mRNA expression levels. The results show that the mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the control and red LED groups. In addition, body weights in the green and purple LED groups were significantly higher than those in the control and red LED groups. However, POMC mRNA expression levels in the green and purple LED groups were significantly lower than those in the control and red LED groups. These results suggest that specific wavelengths regulate fish skin color through neuropeptide hormones and photoreceptors, and POMC, which is related to stress hormones and melatonin, is associated with stress levels as well as skin color.

  17. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Dietary Lipid Levels on Growth Performance, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of Nutrients, and Blood Characteristics of Juvenile Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aimin; Han, Guangming; Lv, Fu; Yang, Wenping; Huang, Jintian; Yin, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, apparent digestibility, and blood biochemical indices of juveniles crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were evaluated. Triplicate groups of fish (average weight 2.05±0.02 g) were fed four isonitrogenous experimental diets formulated with increasing levels (13.6, 61.3, 115, and 259.8 g kg-1) of lipid. The weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) was highest in fish fed 115 g kg-1 of lipid, the WG and SGR of 259.8 g kg-1 lip...

  19. Xenoestrogens elicit a modulation of endocannabinoid system and estrogen receptors in 4NP treated goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Valentina; Palermo, Francesco; Mosconi, Gilberto; Cottone, Erika; Cocci, Paolo; Nabissi, Massimo; Borgio, Luca; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta M; Franzoni, Maria Fosca

    2011-10-01

    Based on pharmacological, behavioral and neuroanatomical studies, the endocannabinoids appear to be pivotal in some important neuroendocrine regulations of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Interestingly, a well developed endocannabinoid system was recently demonstrated by us in different bonyfish brain areas which control reproduction, energy balance and stress. Fish in particular are very sensitive to different types of stressors which can heavily affect their reproductive activity and negatively reverberate on aquaculture. Since recent new data have been reported on endocrine disruptors (EDs) impact on zebrafish receptor CB1 expression, in the present research we have investigated the response of the endocannabinoid system to acute treatment with an environmental stressor such as the xenoestrogen nonylphenol (4NP) in the brain and peripheral tissues of the goldfish Carassius auratus. First of all the estrogenic effects induced by 4NP were demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase of plasma levels and gene expression of the biomarker vitellogenin, then changes in cannabinoid receptors and anandamide degradative enzyme, the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), were analysed by means of Real Time PCR. As the exposure to EDs may lead to an activation of estrogen receptors and affects the Aromatase (AROB) transcription, changes in mRNA levels for ER subtypes and AROB were also evaluated. Our results confirm in goldfish the effect of 4NP on ERα and ERβ1 receptors and point out a different sensitivity of CB1 and CB2 for this compound, suggesting distinct roles of these cannabinoid receptors in some adaptive processes to contrast stress induced by xenoestrogen exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between PCBs and biological factors (weight, length, lipid content) for both species. On the other hand, the mean concentration of THg in the muscle of pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens.

  2. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  3. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  4. Assessment of water pollution in the Tronto River (Italy) by applying useful biomarkers in the fish model Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, F A; Mosconi, G; Angeletti, M; Polzonetti-Magni, A M

    2008-08-01

    The Tronto River (southern Marche region of central Italy) is located in an area with neighboring industrial activities and is contaminated with domestic and industrial wastewater. Water quality data analyses revealed the presence of a mixture of low levels of heavy metals and organic compounds. The effects of long-term exposure to Tronto River water on juvenile Carassius auratus were evaluated with an integrated approach using xenoestrogens biomarkers, such as vitellogenin (VTG) and ER beta-1 mRNA expression, and stress parameters (i.e., cortisol and glucose in the blood and glycogen in the liver). Treatment with Tronto River water did not induce VTG synthesis in fish and did not affect ER beta-1 mRNA expression. Moreover, cortisol titers found in the plasma of fish exposed to Tronto River water were lower than those found in the control group. Regarding energy parameters, treatment with Tronto River water induced an increase in plasma glucose and a depletion of liver glycogen reserves.The effects of Tronto River water were studied in parallel with those of 4-NP and CdCl(2). The 4-NP at the dose of 22 microg/L induced the synthesis of peripheral vitellogenin and increase of ER beta-1 titers; on the contrary, CdCl2 exposure at the concentration of 22 microg/L did not induce significant changes on plasma VTG and/or hepatic ER beta-1 levels. In addition, no significant changes in plasma cortisol levels in fish exposed to 4-NP or CdCl(2) were found. Fish exposed to CdCl(2) displayed liver glycogen depletion, but no significant increase in plasma glucose was observed. On the contrary, a 30-day exposure to 4-NP induced only a slight decrease of glycogen reserves without any changes in plasma glucose levels. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term exposure of juvenile goldfish to the water of the Tronto River significantly affects both stress and energy parameters. There is evidence that pollutants, present in Tronto River water, were not able to induce

  5. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  7. Genome sequencing and annotation of Aeromonas veronii strain Ae52, a multidrug-resistant isolate from septicaemic gold fish (Carassius auratus in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.S. De S. Jagoda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of A. veronii strain Ae52 isolated from the kidney of a morbund, septicaemic gold fish (Carassius auratus in Sri Lanka. This clinical isolate showed resistance to multiple antimicrobials; amoxicillin, neomycin, trimethoprim-sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin and nitrofurantoin. The size of the draft genome is 4.56 Mbp with 58.66% of G + C content consisting 4328 coding sequences. It harbors a repertoire of putative antibiotic resistant determinants that explains the genetic basis of its resistance to various classes of antibiotics. The genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession numbers BDGY01000001-BDGY01000080.

  8. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  9. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  10. The toxicity of cadmium to three aquatic organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus) under different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, R-J; Wang, X-H; Feng, M-B; Li, Y; Liu, H-X; Wang, L-S; Wang, Z-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of pH on cadmium toxicity to three aquatic organisms: Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna and Carassius auratus. The acute toxicity of Cd(2+) to P. phosphoreum and D. magna at five pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0) was assessed by calculating EC50 values. We determined that Cd(2+) was least toxic under acidic conditions, and D. magna was more sensitive to the toxicity of Cd than P. phosphoreum. To evaluate Cd(2+)-induced hepatic oxidative stress in C. auratus at three pH levels (5.0, 7.25, 9.0), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the level of glutathione and the malondialdehyde content in the liver were measured. Oxidative damage was observed after 7d Cd exposure at pH 9.0. An important finding of the current research was that Cd(2+) was generally more toxic to the three test organisms in alkaline environments than in acidic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined or Individual Effects of Dietary Probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and Nucleotide on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Hemato-biochemical Parameters, and Innate Immune Response in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinejad, Nooshin; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Valiollah

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic Pedicoccus acidilactici and nucleotide (separately or combined) on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, hemato-immunological parameters, and immunity response in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (average weight 5-6 g) were acclimatized and divided into eight experimental diets supplemented with P. acidilactici of different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% diet) and nucleotides (0 and 0.5% diet) for 6 months. Fish fed with experimental diets showed significant differences in terms of final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, daily growth rate, and condition factor when compared to control diet (P < 0.05). Fish fed with probiotic (0.3%) separately and combined with nucleotide (0.5%) had highest RBC and WBC when compared to other diets (P < 0.05), while the highest values for Hb and Hct as well as total protein, glucose, albumin, and globulin were observed in probiotic (0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diet. Serum lysozyme and anti-protease activities were significantly higher in probiotic (0.1 and 0.2%) and nucleotide (0.5%) combined diets. Similarly, these two diets combined showed the highest colonization of P. acidilactici when compared to other diets. In conclusion, combined dietary probiotic and nucleotide improve the growth performance, hemato-biochemical parameters, and intestine growth in C. auratus.

  12. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  13. Endocrine disrupting effects of waterborne fluoxetine exposure on the reproductive axis of female goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennigen, Jan A; Zamora, Jacob M; Chang, John P; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that pharmaceuticals and personal care products reach urban watersheds, bioconcentrate in fish, and potentially disrupt physiological homeostasis. These impairments often affect hormone functions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRRIs) are increasingly studied with regards to their endocrine disrupting effects on teleost physiological processes, including reproduction. To examine whether FLX effects on the endocrine regulation of reproductive physiology in goldfish are sex-specific, we exposed sexually recrudescent female goldfish to two waterborne concentrations of FLX (0.54μg/L and 54μg/L) using an experimental design previously used for sexually mature male goldfish. To evaluate possible endocrine disrupting effects, we quantified the gonadosomatic index, circulating hormone concentrations (luteinizing hormone, LH; growth hormone, GH; 17-β estradiol, E 2 ; and testosterone, T), and the expression of isotocin and vasotocin in the telencephalon, gonadotropin subunits and GH in the pituitary, and gonadotropin receptors, GH receptors, and aromatase in the ovary. Female goldfish exposed to 0.54μg/L FLX exhibited a significant decrease in circulating E 2 , and conversely, a significant increase in circulating LH and ovarian aromatase mRNA levels, suggesting disruption of E 2 -mediated feedback on LH release. These results, when compared with those previously observed in males, reveal that waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant levels of FLX sex-specifically disrupts the reproductive endocrine axis in goldfish, characterized by a decrease in E 2 in females, and conversely, estrogen-like effects in males. These data emphasize the importance of studying the effect of endocrine disrupting chemicals on both sexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  15. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sialoglycoprotein Isolated from Eggs of Carassius auratus Ameliorates Osteoporosis: An Effect Associated with Regulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yiming; Zhao, Yanlei; Zhan, Qiping; Yu, Peng; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-04-13

    In the current study, ovariectomized (OVX) rats and the senescence-accelerated mouse strain P6 (SAMP6) were employed to establish models of postmenopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis, respectively. The effects of treatment with sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of Carassius auratus (Ca-SGP) on these two types of osteoporosis were investigated in vivo. Results showed that Ca-SGP significantly increased bone mineral density, ameliorated trabecular bone microstructure, and improved bone biomechanical properties in both OVX rats and SAMP6. The osteogenesis related Wnt/β-catenin pathway was targeted to study the underlying mechanism of Ca-SGP activity. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, Ca-SGP suppressed the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signal via down-regulating the expression of key genes including LRP5, β-catenin, and Runx2, suggesting that overactive osteogenesis was controlled by Ca-SGP. The bone formation was sharply weakened in senile osteoporosis, whereas Ca-SGP treatment promoted osteoblast activity by stimulating the Wnt/β-catenin signal. In conclusion, Ca-SGP ameliorated these two types of osteoporosis by normalizing bone anabolism.

  17. Sialoglycoproteins prepared from the eggs of Carassius auratus prevent bone loss by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanghua; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Shuhong; Zhao, Yanlei; Wang, Yiming; Yu, Zhe; Wang, Shanshan; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the improvement of osteoporosis by sialoglycoproteins isolated from the eggs of Carassius auratus (Ca-SGP) in ovariectomized rats. Ca-SGP was supplemented to ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. The results showed that Ca-SGP treatment remarkably prevented the reduction of bone mass, improved cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties. Ca-SGP also significantly decreased the serum contents of TRAP, Cath-K, MMP-9, DPD, CTX-1, Ca, and P. Mechanism investigation revealed that Ca-SGP significantly increased the OPG/RANKL ratio in mRNA expression, protein expression and serum content. Further research suggested that NF-κB signaling pathways were inhibited by suppressing the mRNA and protein expressions of NFATc1 and TRAF6, diminishing the mRNA expression and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, three key transcription factors in NF-κB pathways. These results suggest that Ca-SGP can improve osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption via suppressing the activation of osteoclastogenesis related NF-κB pathways.

  18. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  19. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  20. Analysis of the goldfish Carassius auratus olfactory epithelium transcriptome reveals the presence of numerous non-olfactory GPCR and putative receptors for progestin pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt Richard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goldfish (Carassius auratus uses steroids and prostaglandins as pheromone cues at different stages of the reproductive cycle to facilitate spawning synchronization. Steroid progestin pheromone binding has been detected in goldfish olfactory membranes but the receptors responsible for this specific binding remain unknown. In order to shed some light on the olfactory epithelium transcriptome and search for possible receptor candidates a large set of EST from this tissue were analysed and compared to and combined with a similar zebrafish (Danio rerio resource. Results We generated 4,797 high quality sequences from a normalized cDNA library of the goldfish olfactory epithelium, which were clustered in 3,879 unique sequences, grouped in 668 contigs and 3,211 singletons. BLASTX searches produced 3,243 significant (E-value -10 hits and Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated a further 1,223 of these genes (37.7%. Comparative analysis with zebrafish olfactory epithelium ESTs revealed 1,088 identical unigenes. The transcriptome size of both species was estimated at about 16,400 unigenes, based on the proportion of genes identified involved in Glucose Metabolic Process. Of 124 G-protein coupled receptors identified in the olfactory epithelium of both species, 56 were olfactory receptors. Beta and gamma membrane progestin receptors were also isolated by subcloning of RT-PCR products from both species and an olfactory epithelium specific splice form identified. Conclusion The high similarity between the goldfish and zebrafish olfactory systems allowed the creation of a 'cyprinid' olfactory epithelium library estimated to represent circa 70% of the transcriptome. These results are an important resource for the identification of components of signalling pathways involved in olfaction as well as putative targets for pharmacological and histochemical studies. The possible function of the receptors identified in the olfactory system is

  1. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  2. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  3. The effects of dissolved organic matter and feeding on bioconcentration and oxidative stress of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) to crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Nkoom, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Bioconcentration of UV filters in organisms is an important indicator for the assessment of environmental hazards. However, bioconcentration testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural aquatic environmental factors. In order to better assess the ecological risk of organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) in an actual water environment, this study determined the influences of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg/L) and feeding (0, 0.5, 1, and 2% body weight/d) on bioconcentration of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) in various tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Moreover, oxidative stress in the fish liver caused by the OD-PABA was also investigated by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The bioconcentration of OD-PABA in the fish tissues was significantly decreased with the presence of DOM indicating a reduction of OD-PABA bioavailability caused by DOM. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased by 28.00~50.93% in the muscle, 72.67~96.74% in the gill, 37.84~87.72% in the liver, and 10.32~79.38% in the kidney at different DOM concentrations compared to those of the non-DOM treatments. Significant changes in SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, and MDA levels were found in the DOM- and OD-PABA-alone treatments. However, there were no significant differences in the SOD, CAT, GST, and MDA levels found when co-exposure to OD-PABA and DOM. Feeding led to lower OD-PABA concentrations in the fish tissues, and the concentrations were decreased with increasing feeding ratios. BCFs in various tissues reduced by 39.75~72.52% in the muscle, 56.86~79.73% in the gill, 66.41~87.50% in the liver, and 75.88~89.10% in the kidney, respectively. In the unfed treatments, the levels of SOD and MDA were significantly higher than those of the fed ones while GST and GSH levels were remarkably inhibited indicating the enhanced effect of starvation

  4. Immune responses to live and inactivated Nocardia seriolae and protective effect of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN γ) against nocardiosis in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sukanta Kumar; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2014-08-01

    Looking into the fact that substantial mortality and morbidity is associated with intracellular Gram +ve bacterium, Nocardia seriolae infection, an effective vaccine against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant losses in aquaculture practices. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of live (sub-lethal) and inactivated (antigenic form) N. seriolae on cellular and humoral immunity in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii as well as the therapeutic potency of recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN γ) against N. seriolae infection. Effect of live and inactivated N. seriolae immunisation on the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, CD8α(+) T cells and surface Ig M(+) cells in peripheral blood leucocytes, spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney of ginbuna was studied after 1st, 3rd, 7th, 15th and 30th day post immunisation. The percentage of CD8α(+) T cells in spleen and head kidney of ginbuna was significantly higher at 3rd day post immunisation. Similarly, surface Ig M(+) cells level was found to increase in both live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised groups. On the contrary, high percentage of CD4(+) T cells was observed in live N. seriolae immunised group in both the head and trunk kidneys at 30th day post immunisation. The humoral immune response to live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised ginbuna showed high antibody titre at 15th day post immunisation but the level declined subsequently in both the immunised groups. On challenge with virulent N. seriolae (1.2 × 10(8) CFU/ml), the relative percent survival was 62.5 and 75 in live and inactivated N. seriolae immunised groups, respectively. Furthermore, we have also studied the therapeutic potency of rIFN γ and found the possible involvement of IFN γ in resistance mechanism in fish. Administration of rIFN γ into ginbuna (at 10 μg/fish) one day before challenge study was found to protect ginbuna. The relative percent survival of ginbuna was 43.75 and 60 when

  5. Ghrelin modulates gene and protein expression of digestive enzymes in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) via the GHS-R1a: Possible roles of PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-02-15

    Ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, GHS-R1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. In vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture led to a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of most of the digestive enzymes tested. The ghrelin-induced upregulations of digestive enzyme expression were all abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, and most of them by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 or the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. This indicates that ghrelin effects on digestive enzymes are mediated by GHS-R1a, partly by triggering the PLC/PKC and AC/PKA intracellular signaling pathways. These data suggest a role for ghrelin on digestive processes in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  7. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL AND CYTOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF BLOOD RED CELLS OF AGE-2 PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 IN THE CONDITIONS OF INTOXICATION WITH COPPER IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sharamok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To detect the effect of elevated copper ion concentrations (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits on morphological and cytometric parameters of erythrocytes of age-2 Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 in experimental and natural conditions. Methodology. During the work, summarized results of studies performed in 2015-2016 were used. Morphological and cytometric parameters of Prussian carp erythrocytes were determined in the conditions of natural habitats (Zaporizhzhia reservoir and an experiment. Copper ion concentration both in the experiment and natural conditions was similar and was 0.01 mg/L (10 aquaculture Maximum Permissible Limits. Experimental studies were performed during 21 days. In the control aquarium, fish were kept in the settled tap water; while in the experimental aquaria, intoxication of fish with copper ions was modelled by introducing CuSO4 in water. Blood smears were examined under 40x and 100 x magnifications with the use of microphotography (digital camera Sciencelab T500 5.17 M. Findings. The performed hematological studies showed that under the conditions of experimental chronic intoxication with copper ions (0.01 mg/L, age-2 Prussian carp had an increase in the share of immature forms of erythrocytes, increase in the number of erythrocytes with pathological signs (cell wall destruction, atypical forms, increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ration, but the difference in cytometric parameters of erythrocytes between experimental and control fish was not significant. When comparing the morphometric parameters of erythrocytes of fish kept in experimental and natural conditions with similar copper ion concentrations (0.01 mg/L, a significant increase in the nucleus areas of mature erythrocytes was detected and, correspondingly, an increase in the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio of erythrocytes (by almost 30% in fish in experimental conditions compared to fish, which lived in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir. An increase

  9. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Myxobolus pronini n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the abdominal cavity and visceral serous membranes of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in Russia and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Batueva, Marina-D; Zhao, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Tong-Tong; Li, Ai-Hua

    2016-10-25

    Myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to Cnidaria. High diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in Russia and China; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. Here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the Russian and Chinese isolates of this new myxosporean. Myxobolus pronini n. sp. was found free in the abdominal cavity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in Lake Baikal watershed, Russia, and embedded in the visceral serous membranes of the same fish species in Lake Taibai, Hubei province, China. The morphometric data of the plasmodia and mature spores exhibited some differences between the Russian and Chinese isolates, but SSU rDNA sequences indicated that these two geographical isolates are conspecific. The mature spores from the two locations are obovate in frontal view, with wider anterior than posterior end and lemon-shaped in sutural view. Spores of the Russian isolate were 14.3-16.2 (mean 15.1 ± 0.2) μm long, 9.6-10.8 (10.1 ± 0.1) μm wide and 6.4-7.4 (6.7 ± 0.15) μm thick; those of the Chinese isolate were 13.8-15.6 (14.7 ± 0.24) μm long, 9.6-13.3 (9.6 ± 0.65) μm wide and 6.2-7.2 (6.6 ± 0.16) μm thick. The newly-generated rDNA sequences (including SSU rDNA, ITS and LSU rDNA) from the two isolates represented some variations within the intraspecific range. Homology search by BLAST showed that the newly obtained rDNA sequences do not match any sequences available on GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis based on the aligned partial SSU rDNA sequences indicated that this novel species clustered with several gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus spp. with round anterior end of spores. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on all obtained ITS sequences showed that distinct genetic geographical differentiation occurred for this new parasite. Myxobolus

  10. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  11. PTHrP potentiating estradiol-induced vitellogenesis in sea bream (Sparus auratus, L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, vitellogenin is an important nutritional precursor protein produced solely in the liver and released into the blood where it binds calcium. In the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) 17beta-Estradiol (E2) plays an important role in the synthesis of vitellogenin, but also the pituitary

  12. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  13. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  14. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  15. Phylogeny and biogeographic history of the cyprinid fish genus Carassius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with focus on natural and anthropogenic arrivals in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.K.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 383 (2013), s. 13-20 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Carassius auratus complex * Cytochrome b * Distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2013

  16. The role of ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus in transfer of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded parasitic infections were associated with degenerative, necrotic, inflammatory and proliferative changes in the skin and underlying muscles. Imported ornamental goldfish may be a source of infection to carp and native tilapia. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the etiology and ...

  17. Molecular identification of hybrids of the invasive gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio and crucian carp Carassius carassius in Swedish waters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wouters, J.; Janson, S.; Lusková, Věra; Olsén, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 7 (2012), s. 2595-2604 ISSN 0022-1112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Baltic Sea * cyprinid * D-loop * hybridization * microsatellite Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.834, year: 2012

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  19. Glycogen dynamics of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in prolonged anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2016-12-01

    Mobilization of glycogen stores was examined in the anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linnaeus). Winter-acclimatized fish were exposed to anoxia for 1, 3, or 6 weeks at 2 °C, and changes in the size of glycogen deposits were followed. After 1 week of anoxia, a major part of the glycogen stores was mobilized in liver (79.5 %) and heart (75.6 %), and large decreases occurred in gill (46.7 %) and muscle (45.1 %). Brain was an exception in that its glycogen content remained unchanged. The amount of glycogen degraded during the first anoxic week was sufficient for the anaerobic ethanol production for more than 6 weeks of anoxia. After 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, there was little further degradation of glycogen in other tissues except the brain where the stores were reduced by 30.1 and 49.9 % after 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, respectively. One week of normoxic recovery following the 6-week anoxia was associated with a complete replenishment of the brain glycogen and partial recovery of liver, heart, and gill glycogen stores. Notably, the resynthesis of glycogen occurred at the expense of the existing energy reserves of the body in fasting fish. These findings indicate that in crucian carp, glycogen stores are quickly mobilized after the onset of anoxia, with the exception of the brain whose glycogen stores may be saved for putative emergency situations.

  20. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  1. Modified Method of Metaphase Plates Obtaining for Polyploid Fish Genera Carassius and Cobitis Karyotyping (Actinopterygii, Cypriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhtayevych P. P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ото- браны и апробированы современные методики получения метафазных пластинок соматических клеток рыб, дающих наибольший эффект при исследовании полиплоидных видов. На основании эмпирических данных в отношении представителей родов Carassius и Cobitis рекомендуется ме- тодика с использованием CoCl2 и колхицина. В статье приведено подробное описание модифи- цированной методики и полученные в результате её применения метафазные пластинки Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, 1758 и триплоидной формы Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758.

  2. The effects of salinity on growth of goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four different salinities (SW, 50% SW, 100% SW and 150% SW) on specific growth rate, weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both species were respectively adapted to water source, which has salinity of 8 ppt in the experimental unit for one month and ...

  3. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... The effects of four different salinities (SW, 50% SW, 100% SW and 150% SW) on specific growth rate, weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both species were respectively adapted to water source, which has salinity of 8 ppt in the experimental unit.

  4. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formicki, Grzegorz; Stawarz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m 2 for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m 2 for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation

  5. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Soon; Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium conce...

  6. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Soon; Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-02-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium concentration in muscle tissue of wild goldfish was 0.65-3.21 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, whereas it decreased in Group IV. Levels of cadmium in gill tissue of wild goldfish were 16.57-42.39 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, 15.23-43.01 mg/kg wet wt in Group II, 15.11-39.56 mg/kg wet wt in Group III, and 13.15-38.55 mg/kg wet wt in Group IV (P taurine may have a preventive effect against cadmium accumulation in biological tissues.

  7. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  8. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  9. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  10. Some aspects of reproductive biology of the Crucian carp Carassius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of reproductive biology of Carassius carassius (L.) such as sex ratio, breeding season, size at first maturity and fecundity were studied from 539 fish samples collected from October 2003 to September 2004 in Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. The overall sex ratio (male: female) was 1.1.7 and deviated significantly from ...

  11. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the potential for trophic transfer of roxithromycin along an experimental food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Zhang, Zhenghua

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a new class of environmental pollutants in recent years. But data about their potential for transfer and biomagnification in aquatic food chains are still lacking. In this study, bioaccumulation of the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) was determined in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea Daphnia magna and the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 48 h of exposure, S. obliquus accumulated ROX from media, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 74.6, 46.3, and 24.5 l kg(-1) at nominal exposure concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 μg l(-1), respectively. After 48 h of feeding ROX-contaminated algae, D. magna was able to accumulate ROX in all three concentration treatments, but biomagnification did not occur at this trophic level, as biomagnification factors (BMFs) varied from 0.21 to 0.29 in different concentration treatments were well below one. In tissues (muscle, gill, liver, and bile) of C. auratus fed with contaminated daphnia for 8 days, no biomagnification was observed. However, this species did accumulate a certain degree of ROX through food chain transfer, and the tissue burden was greatest in the liver > muscle > gill and lowest in the bile. This work suggests that the trophic transfer should be a matter of concern for ecological risk assessments of pharmaceutical substances in aquatic food webs.

  13. CRYOPRESERVATION OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus) SPERMATOZOA: EFFECTS OF EXTENDER SUPPLEMENTED WITH TAURINE ON SPERM MOTILITY AND DNA DAMAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluyer, Filiz; Öğretmen, Fatih; Inanan, Burak Evren

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids, present in seminal plasma at high concentration, protect spermatozoa against cell damage during cryopreservation. Experiments were designed to analyze the effect of semen extender supplemented with taurine on post-thawed sperm motility and duration, as well as DNA damage. Extenders were supplemented with 1, 2 or 4 mM taurine. Semen samples were diluted at the ratio of 1:9 with the extenders. Diluted samples were aspirated into 0.25 ml French straws and 0.1 ml pellets. DNA damage was assessed with the comet assay after cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of sperm motility were significantly increased by taurine. Additionally, sperm motility and the motility period in pellets were higher than in straws. The best concentration of taurine was 4 mM, and the highest post-thaw motility rate (72.50 ± 3.54 %) and duration (17.50 ± 0.71 s) were obtained from the extender with 4 mM in pellets. DNA damage was decreased after taurine supplementation. Pellets could be used for goldfish sperm cryopreservation. The addition of 4 mM taurine increases the post-thaw motility and decreases DNA damage on goldfish semen.

  14. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m 2 ). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H 2 O 2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H 2 O 2 ) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  15. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  16. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    nitric oxide (NO) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cardiac performance was examined both under basal (constant preload and afterload) and loading conditions, i.e. preload-induced increases in stroke volume (SV) and hence cardiac output at constant afterload (the Frank–Starling response). Hypoxic......Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  17. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  18. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  19. The toxicity of copper to crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in soft water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjolden, Joachim [Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, Ullevalsveien 72, N-0033, Oslo (Norway); Sorensen, Jorgen [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway); Nilsson, Goeran E. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2007-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a Cu rich medium (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l, approximately 300 {mu}g Cu{sup 2+}/l). Untreated department water (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l) acted as control. Mortality in crucian carp was first observed after 13 days of exposure to the Cu rich medium. There were, however, significant changes in haematocrit, plasma chloride, plasma sodium and water content in muscle in fish exposed to the Cu rich medium after two days. After 14 days of exposure to copper, haematocrit increased to 52 {+-} 2% (control: between 37 and 40%), plasma chloride decreased to 45 {+-} 5 mmol/l (control: 99-106 mmol/l), plasma sodium decreased to 81 {+-} 6 mmol/l (control: 116-137 mmol/l), and water content in muscle increased to 83.0 {+-} 0.3% (control: 78.7-79.9%). No apparent changes in blood ethanol, and minor changes in plasma lactate were observed in copper exposed fish. Analyses of the gills revealed an increasing concentration of copper on the gills from fish exposed to Cu rich water. After 14 days, the concentration of copper accumulated in the gill was 12.8 {+-} 4.1 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight (control: 0.91-1.19 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight). A reduction of the respiratory area in fish exposed to copper was observed, in terms of both lamellar and filamental fusion. The normoxic O{sub 2} uptake did not change, but the critical oxygen tension was elevated to 6.12 {+-} 1.04 mg O{sub 2}/l after a 6 day exposure to copper (control: 1.03 {+-} 0.05 mg O{sub 2}/l). This study shows that crucian carp has a higher tolerance to copper compared to other freshwater fish species. Our results suggest that this tolerance is based on the ability of crucian carp to avoid becoming hypoxic as well as an extreme tolerance to severe loss of plasma ions.

  20. Seasonal development and pathological changes associated with the parasitic nematode Philometroides sanguineus in wild crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) in England

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, C. F.; Moravec, František; Turnbull, J. F.; Ferguson, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), 329-338 ISSN 0022-149X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometroides * Carassius * England Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.157, year: 2012

  1. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  2. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp.

  3. Purifying selection on leptin genes in teleosts may be due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Danio rerio. Epinephelus coioides. Oncorhynchus mykiss. Morone saxatilis. Salvelinus alpinus. Salvelinus alpinus. Takifugu rubripes. Oryzias latipes. Tetraodon nigroviridis. Salmo salar. Salmo salar. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Ctenopharyngodon idella. Carassius auratus. Carassius auratus. Cyprinus carpio. Cyprinus ...

  4. The high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poléo, Antonio B S; Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5.8; 960 μg Al/l), acidic Al-poor water (pH 5.8; 50 μg Al/l) or untreated control water (pH 6.5; 50 μg Al/l). Blood, muscle and gill samples were collected from exposed fish, and closed respirometry was performed to measure critical O2-tension an normoxic O2-consumption. The results show an increased gill surface area in Al-exposed fish, while the critical O2-tension did not change. The normoxic O2-consumption was lower in Al-exposed fish and might be due to a reduced metabolic rate. The results suggest that crucian carp exposed to aluminium do not become hypoxic, since haematocrit, plasma lactate and blood ethanol did not differ from that of control fish after 14 days of exposure. We also observed an initial loss of plasma chloride and sodium, followed by a stabilisation of these ions at a lower level than in control fish. The decrease in plasma ions caused a transient increase in haematocrit and water content in muscle tissue, returning to control levels when the ion concentrations stabilised, suggesting that the water balance was restored. We conclude that the high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia as well as an ability to counteract a continuous loss of plasma ions.

  5. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Molecular cloning of Pcc-dmrt1s and their specific expression patterns in Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) affected by 17α-methyltestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Liang, Hongwei; Xu, Peng; Li, Meng; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-08-01

    Dmrt1, an important transcription factor associated with testicular differentiation, is conserved among teleost, which could also be detected in ovaries. In the present study, three isoforms of Pcc-dmrt1s (Pcc-dmrt1a, Pcc-dmrt1b and Pcc-dmrt1c) resulting from alternative splicing of the dmrt1 gene were cloned and characterized in the triploid gynogenetic fish, the Pengze crucian carp. Their mRNA expression profiling was investigated in juvenile developmental stages, tissues of the adult fish, and the juveniles under 84.2 ng/L 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) treatments. Results showed that their putative proteins shared high identities to Dmrt1 in cyprinid fish species. Gene expression profiling in the developmental stages showed that all the three target genes had a highest/lowest expression at 56/40 days post-hatching (dph), respectively. The period of 40 dph appeared to be a key time during the process of the ovary development of Pengze crucian carp. The tissue distribution results indicated that Pcc-dmrt1s were predominantly expressed in hepatopancreas, brain, spleen and ovary of the female fish. MT significantly increased the mRNA expression of Pcc-dmrt1a (all 4-week exposures) and Pcc-dmrt1b (except for week 2), while repressed Pcc-dmrt1c transcripts at all exposure period except for week 2. MT extremely significant repressed cyp19a1a transcripts for 1 week. The present study indicated that MT could influence the ovary development of Pengze crucian carp by disturbing gene expressions of Pcc-dmrt1s and cyp19a1a. Furthermore, the present study will be of great significance to broaden the understanding of masculinizing pathway during ovary development in gynogenetic teleost.

  7. Effects of various feeding patterns of Bacillus coagulans on growth performance, antioxidant response and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway in juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yebing; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Aimin; Yang, Wenping; Lv, Fu; Liu, Fei; Liu, Bo; Sun, Cunxin

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various Bacillus coagulans feeding patterns on growth, antioxidant parameter and Nrf2 pathway in juvenile gibel carp. The similar size of gibel carp (initial weight: 14.33 ± 0.15 g) were subjected to three levels of B. coagulans supplementation (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) and two feeding modes (supplementing B. coagulans continuously or for two days of B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. The fish that were continuously fed 500 mg/kg B. coagulans (P2) and those fed the first basal diet for 5 days followed by 500 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg B.coagulans for 2 days (P4 or P5) showed higher weight gain rate and specific growth rate than the other groups. Blood respiratory burst (RB), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and anti-superoxide anion free radical (AFASER) activities in the P4 group were higher than those of the control. White blood cell count (WBC), RB activity, MPO activity, and glutathione (GSH) content in the P5 group were also higher than those of the control. A similar higher trend was observed in the gene expressions of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NFE2-related factor (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein(Keap1) in the P4 and NOX2, NRF2, CNC homolog 1 (Bach1), peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) in the P5 group compared with the control. Additionally, we observed a significantly lower level of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a higher level of MPO, higher GPX activity, and increased NRF2 and Prx2 expression were all observed in the P2 treatment group compared with the control. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the P2, P3, and P4 groups was lower than that of the control. These results indicate that a diet supplemented with appropriate levels of B.coagulans could improve the growth, immune response, and antioxidant capability of gibel carp. We concluded that the pattern of two days of 500 or 1000 mg/kg B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet was recommended for gibel carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated CO2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO 2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO 2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO 2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO 2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO 2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO 2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO 2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO 2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO 2 levels.

  9. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and functional characterization of the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) chromatin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiasong; Hodgkinson, Jordan W; Li, Chao; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2014-05-01

    We report on the identification and functional characterization of HMGB1 of the goldfish. Quantitative analysis indicated the highest expression of goldfish HMGB1 in the brain, with lower mRNA levels in spleen, intestine, kidney, gill and heart. HMGB1 was also differentially expressed in goldfish immune cell populations with highest mRNA levels present in splenocytes and neutrophils. We generated and functionally characterized the recombinant HMGB1 (rgHMGB1). The rgHMGB1 primed the respiratory burst response in monocytes and induced nitric oxide production of primary goldfish macrophages. Treatment of goldfish macrophages with heat-killed Mycobacterium marinum and Aeromonas salmonicida elevated the expression of HMGB1 and resulted in higher HMGB1 protein levels. The rgHMGB1 induced a dose-dependent production of TNFα-2 and IL-1β1 of goldfish macrophages. Furthermore, the dual luciferase reporter assay revealed that goldfish HMGB1 induced the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results indicate that goldfish HMGB1 is a critical regulatory cytokine of inflammatory and antimicrobial response of the goldfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  12. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  13. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T 4 U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T 3 U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using 125 I-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T 4 U, and a 204% increase in T 3 U. The much greater increase in T 3 U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T 3 U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T 4 U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed

  14. Finding of triploid Carassius Gibelio (Bloch, 1780)(Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Memis, D.; Bohlen, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-79 ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : carassius gibelio * cyprinidae * Turkey Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  15. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  16. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  17. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  18. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  19. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa D Patrick; Mahmood Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. ...

  20. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Heather M. Gray; Kyle Summers; Roberto Ibáñez D.

    2009-01-01

    Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a serie...

  1. Estudio ultraestructural en testículo de hamster vasectomizado (Mesocricetus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña, Francisco; Malavasi, Jollyana

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructure of adult hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) testis was studied by means of light and electron microscopes during fourteen months after bilateral vasectomy. In all the vasectomized animals there was marked degeneration of the seminiferous tubules as well as reduction of spermatogenesis. The thickening of the basal membrane was quite evident and showed extensive infolding. In the Sertoli cells, the presence of spherical or oval membrane-bound granules, vacuoles and degenerating c...

  2. Topical treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) with formulations containing pentamidine

    OpenAIRE

    COMANDOLLI-WYREPKOWSKI, Claudia Dantas; GRAFOVA, Iryna; NAIFF, Maricleide de Farias; AVELLA, Maurizio; GENTILE, Gennaro; GRAFOV, Andriy; FRANCO, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) relies mainly on pentavalent antimonials salts and second-line drugs include pentamidine and amphotericin B, but these therapies have side effects and require parenteral administration. The aim of this work was to evaluate the topical formulations containing pentamidine isethionate (PI) in the experimental treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected in the nose with Leishmania (Leish...

  3. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  4. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  5. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Gray

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a series of kin-discrimination trials. The behavior of large tadpoles was observed when presented with two small, tethered tadpoles, one a clutchmate and one an unrelated tadpole. In these simultaneous presentation tests, tadpoles displayed a significant preference for attacking kin. In a series of timed trials, pairs of unequally sized tadpoles were placed together in containers. The majority (70% of large tadpoles took less than24 hr to consume the small tadpole. Kinship did not affect the survival time of the small tadpole. Our results are consistent with observations that D. auratus is an indiscriminate predator. As conspecifics may be serious competitors, their swift elimination would be an advantage, particularly in the small, nutrient-poor poolsused by this species.

  6. A Long Temporal Study of Parasitism in Asexual-Sexual Populations of Carassius gibelio: Does the Parasite Infection Support Coevolutionary Red Queen Dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Pakosta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius gibelio is an extraordinary cyprinid species exhibiting both sexual and asexual reproduction. We hypothesized that parasitism selection is one of the potential mechanisms contributing to the coexistence of the two reproductive forms of C. gibelio living in the same habitat. We performed a four-year study to investigate the dynamics of parasite infection in C. gibelio. According to the Red Queen prediction, the asexual form is a target of parasite adaptation due to its low genetic variability. Both sexual and gynogenetic forms of C. gibelio exhibited similar levels of prevalence, with monogeneans being the most frequently observed parasite group. We observed the temporal dynamics of parasite infection in the last year of investigation, when both forms were more strongly parasitized. The sexual form was more parasitized by ectoparasites in the first and last years and less parasitized by nematodes in the last year when compared to the gynogenetic form. We found no trend of high parasite infection in gynogenetic mtDNA haplotypes. We conclude that Red Queen dynamics is not the mechanism driving parasite infection in sexual-gynogenetic C. gibelio over a long time scale. Alternatively, we suggest that the dynamics of parasite infection in this complex may be generated by multiple mechanisms.

  7. Condition factor and diet of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Chrysichthys auratus (Siluriformes: Bagridae from Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ebenezer Atobatele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and C. auratus are important, highly valued and threatened freshwater species. To contribute with their ecological knowledge, the condition factor and diet of these two congeneric species were studied between April 2005 and April 2006. Food items of fish were evaluated by occurrence and numerical abundance methods, and the possible changes among sexes, seasons and sizes were considered. Results showed that generally C. nigrodigitatus were better conditioned than C. auratus. The males of C. nigrodigitatus and females of C. auratus were in better condition than their respective opposite sex throughout the year, and during the wet season compared to the dry. The food items of C. nigrodigitatus and C. auratus were similar and comprised twelve species belonging to five groups: Insecta (three species, Crustacea (five species, Arachnida (one species, Rotifera (one species and Mollusca (two species. Other food items included fish scales, unidentified green eggs, plant parts, detritus and sand. Insecta and Crustacea dominated the food items in both species. For C. nigrodigitatus, insect consumption increased with fish size, while Crustacea items decreased (from 89.59% for 8.1cm - 12.0cm size class to 1.58% for 20.1cm - 26.0cm size class. However, while C. auratus smaller sized fish preferred Crustacea (98.72% for 8.1cm -12.0cm size class, larger sized fish had both groups in relatively similar amounts. Schoener Overlap Index for both species and between seasons is 1.00. Diet breadth ranged from 0.00-1.47 for C. nigrodigitatus and 0.00-1.32 for C. auratus. Food Richness ranged from 0.00-1.44 for both species. Gut Repletion Index for C. nigrodigitatus and C. auratus are 76.39% and 76.27% respectively. Although, there is considerable similarity and overlap in the utilization of food resource for both coexisting species, condition factor and feeding behavior suggest strategies to reduce intra- and inter-specific competition. Rev

  8. Irisin in goldfish (Carassius auratus): Effects of irisin injections on feeding behavior and expression of appetite regulators, uncoupling proteins and lipoprotein lipase, and fasting-induced changes in FNDC5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Zahndra Diann; Hackett, Jessica Dalton; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Irisin is a peptide cleaved from the fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene that is secreted predominantly by muscle cells but also by other tissues including brain and intestine. In mammals, irisin has been shown to have thermogenic actions via the modulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and to affect feeding and energy homeostasis via actions in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle and gastrointestinal tract. To examine the role of irisin on feeding and metabolism in fish, the effects of peripheral (intraperitoneal) injections of irisin on feeding behavior, glucose levels and the mRNA expressions of appetite regulators (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, agouti related protein AgRP, orexin), UCPs and lipoprotein lipase LPL and brain factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor , BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase TH) were assessed in brain, white muscle and intestine. Irisin injections (100ng/g) induced a decrease in food intake and increases in brain orexin, CART1 and CART2, UCP2, BDNF, muscle UCP2 and intestine LPL mRNA expressions but did not affect blood glucose levels, brain AgRP, TH, UCP1, UCP3 and LPL or muscle UCP1, UCP3 and LPL expressions. A partial goldfish FNDC5 cDNA was isolated and the expressions of FDNC5, UCPs, LPL and BDNF were also compared between fed and fasted fish. Fasting induced decreases FNDC5 mRNA expression in the brain and intestine, but not in muscle. Fasting also induced increases in brain BDNF and LPL expressions and increases in UCP1, UCP2, UCP3 and LPL expressions in muscle. Our result suggest that irisin is an anorexigenic factor in fish and its actions might be in part mediated by appetite-regulating factors such as CART and orexins as well as UCP2 and brain factors such as BDNF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contaminación aguda por vertidos textiles: Tratamiento de carpines dorados (Carassius auratus) con dicromato potásico; determinación de la toxicidad y niveles de cromo en branquias.

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Juan, María del Carmen; Flos Bassols, Rosa; Crespi Rosell, Martí; Balash, J.

    1980-01-01

    El cromo es el metal pesado cuantitativamente más importante en el vertido de la Industria Textil; procede esencialmente de los procesos de tintura con colorantes cromatables. Hemos sometido carpines dorados al tratamiento agudo con dicromato potásico disuelto en el agua de tanques experimentales. Se determina la toxicidad y los niveles de cromo en branquias. La concentración de cromo en el tejido branquia1 se halla mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, previa digestión c...

  10. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...... and nitrite on the O2 consumption rate and isometric twitch force development in electrically paced ventricular preparations during hypoxia, and measured O2 affinity and nitrite reductase activity of the purified heart Mbs of both species. Upon hypoxia (9% O2), O2 consumption and developed force decreased...... in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...

  11. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  12. Memory for individual scent in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as assessed by habituation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R E

    1993-06-01

    The memory of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) for the flank scent of other male hamsters was investigated in a series of habituation experiments. In 2 types of habituation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2), male hamsters habituated to the flank scent of 1 male and then increased their level of investigation to that of a novel male; similar results were obtained when the intervals between trials ranged from 1 s to 2 days. When the test trial was 10 or 21 days after habituation (Experiment 3), males discriminated between familiar and novel flank scents at 10 days but not at 21 days. The results demonstrate recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individual odors and excellent memory for these differences. Habituation techniques yield extremely robust results and may be useful for investigations of other aspects of individual signatures.

  13. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  14. Sensory acceptability and fatty acid profile of fish crackers made from Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, our aim was to consider the production of fish crackers using Carassius gibelio and to investigate the fatty acid profile and sensory quality of the fish crackers. Fish cracker mixture with a ratio 3.5:1.5 (minced fish/wheat starch was obtained. Based on the total minced fish and starch level, 1.75% salt, 0.25% black pepper, 2% sunflower oil, 1% baking powder and 10% cold water (4 °C were added and stirred until a homogenous mixture was obtained. The mixture was compressed in an extractor and baked. The moisture content of minced fish (CMF, cracker dough (CD and crackers (CCr was 77.73 ± 0.14%, 63.10 ± 2.18% and 7.95 ± 0.67% respectively. The n6/n3 ratio of crackers was 2.61 ± 0.20, PUFA/SFA ratio 2.28 ± 0.06 and DHA/EPA ratio 1.81 ± 0.01. The overall acceptability score obtained by the sensory evaluation of panelists was very high (8.09 ± 0.25.

  15. Preliminary Study Regard Histopathological Tissue Changes Associated to EDTA Experimental Exposure in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to describe possible histopathological lesions induced by EDTA using as chelating agent in prussian carp (Carassius Gibelio species. 80 healthy prussian carp specimens were collected from a local pond and acclimated for two weeks in laboratory conditions. Acclimated fish were housed in a 60 l capacity glass aquariums (20 fishes/aquarium and divided into four groups: control group was maintained in EDTA-free freshwater, EDTA1 group receiving 0.05 g EDTA/l in water, EDTA2 group receiving 0.1g EDTA/l in water and EDTA3 group receiving 0.15 g EDTA/l in water. After a 21 days exposure to doses of EDTA above mentioned, some fish tissues were sampled and processed for microscopical examination. Compared to the control specimens, severe structural and functional alterations were identified in gills, liver and kidneys of fish exposed, including totally disorganized aspect of gill lamella with detached and dystrophic epithelium, intense fibrosis in the walls of arterioles, venules and gallbladder channels, denudation and necrosis processes of renal corpuscles respectively.

  16. Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids: Aggression and Anxiety During Exposure Predict Behavioral Responding During Withdrawal in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent ...

  17. cDNA cloning of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and expression of the active region as myofibril-bound serine proteinase inhibitor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Long; Cao, Min-Jie; Shi, Chao-lan; Wei, Xiao-Nan; Li, Huan; Du, Cui-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) (EC 5.3.1.9) can act as a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) inhibitor (MBSPI) in fish. In order to better understand the biological information of the GPI and its functional domain for inhibiting MBSP, the cDNA of GPI was cloned from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) with RT-PCR, nested-PCR and 3'-RACE. The result of sequencing showed that the GPI cDNA had an open reading frame of 1662bp encoding 553 amino acid residues. After constructing and comparing the three-dimensional structures of GPI and MBSP, the middle fragment of crucian carp GPI (GPI-M) was predicted as a functional domain for inhibiting MBSP. Then the crucian carp GPI-M gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the recombinant GPI-M (rGPI-M) with molecular mass of approximately 21kDa in the form of inclusion bodies. The rGPI-M was obtained at an electrophoresis level purity of approximately 95% after denaturation and dialysis renaturation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae from Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rivera Félix

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical, and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta’s length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, pLos otolitos sagitta son los más estudiados debido a su variabilidad morfológica y a su tamaño, sin embargo, los otolitos de D. auratus no han sido estudiados hasta el momento. En el presente estudio, se muestra una descripción completa de la morfología y un análisis morfométrico de diversas medidas. El análisis incluye las relaciones entre el ancho y largo de la sagitta contra la longitud cefálica, longitud estándar, altura y peso de 449 peces. El material biológico fue capturado con un chinchorro playero en las costas de Alvarado y el Puerto de Veracruz de noviembre 2009 a junio 2010. Las sagittae fueron extraídas, limpiadas, fotografiadas (SEM y ópticas y medidas. La comparación entre el otolito derecho e izquierdo no mostró diferencias significativas entre el ancho y largo (prueba de t, p<0.05 para cada sexo. El otolito derecho fue utilizado para las relaciones de las distintas medidas del otolito del pez y del otolito de hembras y machos; la prueba de Fisher (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001 no mostró diferencias significativas de las pendientes e intersecciones entre ellos. La relación longitud del otolito

  19. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  20. DNA extraction protocols may influence biodiversity detected in the intestinal microbiome: a case study from wild Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinskaya, Elena N; Andree, Karl B; Simonov, Evgeniy P; Solovyev, Mikhail M

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation, we examined the influence of different DNA extraction protocols on results obtained for intestinal microbiota of Prussian carp. We showed that significant differences were observed in numbers of reads, OTUs, Shannon index and taxonomic composition between two different DNA extraction protocols for intestine of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), and differences were also evident between microbial communities in the intestinal mucosa and intestinal content. Statistical analyses of 25 published articles also revealed a significant relationship between methods of DNA extraction and bacterial diversity in fish intestine of freshwater species. Microbial diversity, community structure, proportions of read numbers derived from each OTU and the total number of OTU's obtained by different DNA extraction protocols could lead to a bias in results obtained in some cases, and therefore researchers should be conservative in conclusions about community structures. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Reproductive activity of the frog Dendrobates auratus Girard in captivity breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Křížová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of the reproduction activities of Dendrobates auratus Girard, 1855 is part of a broader ana­ly­sis of the problems encountered when keeping frogs from the family Dendrobatidae in captivity. The aim is to achieve an optimization of measures for successful breeding of these amphibians, for both the amateur hobbyist and conservationist alike. Due to the wide area they have colonized, many colour variations exist; the reproduction parameters of six differently coloured examples of the species were tracked. The collection of data happened in standardized conditions over two consecutive years (2007, 2008 and was aimed at measuring five indicators concerning reproduction, understanding of egg-laying dynamics during a year, measuring the risk of stock loss during different stages of development and determining if any differences existed between the different colour variations in these parameters. A noticable alternating cycle of rest and reproduction activities has been observed between equinoxes. In the harvest there were usually 5–10 eggs with an average incubation period of 10 days (8–18 at a temperature of 22 °C. The total duration of development was on average 74 days (64–103. The number of eggs in a harvest and the duration of incubation were statistically dif­fe­rent with the blue form between different observed periods. Total mortality rate during ontogenesis reached 10–53%, the highest losses were in the period when the tadpole left its egg and began developing its hind legs, 5–60%. The optimisation of breeding conditions has been reccommended. Secondary be­ne­fits of this study research was the collection of new knowledge about ethology of this species in captivity.

  2. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Rotllant, J.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and

  3. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  4. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  5. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  6. Preparation and ultrastructure of spermatozoa from green poison frogs, Dendrobates auratus, following hormonal induced spermiation (Amphibia, Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Christian; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Meyer, Wilfried; Meinecke, Burkhard

    2009-07-01

    Few ultrastructural studies have been performed on members of the Dendrobatidae, although such investigations can be useful for the understanding of reproductive patterns, as a diagnostic method for males in breeding programs for endangered amphibians and for phylogenetic analysis. The sperm ultrastructure of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus, from Panama is described following induced spermiation in living animals. To date only testicular spermatozoa in other dendrobatid frogs have been analysed. Moreover, an electron microscopic preparation method (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) for dendrobatid sperm cells in low concentration is presented. Sperm cells from stimulated frogs (100 IU human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG, twice at an interval of 1h) were recovered via cloaca lavage using 600 microl isotonic phosphate-free amphibian saline (IPS). Centrifuged flushings (5 min, 173 x g) were deposited on microscopic slides. Adherent spermatozoa were treated with Karnovsky fixative (overnight, 4 degrees C). After postfixation (2h, 1% osmium tetroxide), samples were dehydrated in series of ascending acetones (30-100%). For transmission electron microscopy sperm cells were encapsulated using Epon and 1.5% 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (DMP 30). Ultrathin sections (70 nm) were cut and stained with uranyl acetate (30 min) and lead citrate (5 min). Sperm cells are filiform with a 21.1+/-2.7 microm long and arcuated head and a single tail (35.0+/-4.2 microm length). Their acrosomal complex is located at the anterior portion of the head and consists of the acrosomal vesicle which has low electron density, and the subjacent electron-dense subacrosomal cone. In transverse section, the nucleus is circular (1.9+/-0.2 microm diameter) and conical in longitudinal section. It is surrounded by several groups of mitochondria. The chromatin is highly condensed and electron-dense but shows numerous electron-lucent inclusions. A short midpiece has a

  7. BODY WEIGHT AS A DETERMINANT OF CLINICAL EVOLUTION IN HAMSTERS (Mesocricetus auratus INFECTED WITH Leishmania (Viannia panamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Gomez-Galindo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The clinical outcome of infection with Leishmania species of the subgenus Viannia in hamster model (Mesocricetus auratus has shown to be different depending on experimental protocol. Body weight has been a relevant determinant of the clinical outcome of the infection in hamsters with visceral leishmaniasis but its importance as a clinical parameter in hamsters with cutaneous leishmaniasis is not known. In this study, the clinical evolution of infection with L. (V panamensis was evaluated in juvenile and adult male hamsters during 11 weeks by comparing clinical parameters such as attitude, temperature, respiratory rate, appearance of the stool, and body weight between infected and non-infected groups. Results showed that body weight decreased in adult hamsters after infection by L. (V panamensis; this observation supports the use of body weight as an additional parameter to define the management or treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in infected adult hamsters used as an animal experimental model for leishmaniasis.

  8. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  9. Ultrastructural patterns of secretory activity in poison cutaneous glands of larval and juvenile Dendrobates auratus (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, R; Delfino, G; Parra, G J

    2003-01-01

    A transmission electron-microscope study has been performed on larval and juvenile skin of the Central American arrow-frog Dendrobates auratus to investigate early secretory processes and maturational changes in the serous (poison) glands. Poison biosynthesis involves the endoplasmic reticulum (both smooth and rough types), as well as Golgi stacks which release early serous product as secretory vesicles (or pre-granules). These vesicles contain fine-grained material, along with single electron-opaque bodies, spheroidal in shape, that accompany the grained product throughout its post-Gogian, maturational change. The first steps of this process involve condensation and lead to the formation of secretory granules with a glomerular-like substructure, resulting from a thick, random aggregation of rods (secretory granule subunits). Advanced maturational activity causes the loss of peculiar granule substructure: the dense bodies split into fragments, whereas the thick glomerular arrangement becomes looser, until the secretory product changes into a dispersed material. This ultrastructural study revealed biosynthesis and maturation processes in close sequence, suggesting the poison of D. auratus contains proteins and/or peptides as well as lipophilic compounds. Molecules of both these classes are known to perform several roles relevant to survival strategies in extant anurans. Furthermore, the ephemeral granules with a glomerular-like substructure detected in tadpoles and froglets exhibit the complex patterns of mature poisons in adult specimens of other anurans: Hylidae and related families. This agrees with current trends in the taxonomy of these advanced frogs and underlines the pertinence of an ontogenetic approach in investigating anuran phylogenesis.

  10. Meiosis completion and various sperm responses lead to unisexual and sexual reproduction modes in one clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Sun, Min; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xi-Yin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Liu, Wei; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Unisexual polyploid vertebrates are commonly known to reproduce by gynogenesis, parthenogenesis, or hybridogenesis. One clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio has been revealed to possess multiple modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, but the cytological and developmental mechanisms have remained unknown. In this study, normal meiosis completion was firstly confirmed by spindle co-localization of β-tubulin and Spindlin. Moreover, three types of various nuclear events and development behaviors were revealed by DAPI staining and BrdU-incorporated immunofluorescence detection during the first mitosis in the fertilized eggs by three kinds of different sperms. They include normal sexual reproduction in response to sperm from the same clone male, typical unisexual gynogenesis in response to sperm from the male of another species Cyprinus carpio, and an unusual hybrid-similar development mode in response to sperm from another different clone male. Based on these findings, we have discussed cytological and developmental mechanisms on multiple reproduction modes in the polyploid fish, and highlighted evolutionary significance of meiosis completion and evolutionary consequences of reproduction mode diversity in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:26042995

  11. Induction of two major isoforms of metallothionein in crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) by air-pumping stress, dexamethasone, and metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, N.; Ren, H.-W.; Hwang, G.-S.; Tominaga, S.; Itoh, N.; Tanaka, K. [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    The induction of metallothionein (MT) by physical and chemical stress was assessed using the fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck et Schlegel). The fish exposed to violent air-pumping stress for 6 days revealed time-dependent induction of MT-like metal-binding proteins in both their livers and kidneys. Their hepatic contents after exposure to stress were elevated to twice the basal level with 24 h, resulting in more than a 3-fold increase at 144 h, whereas their renal contents gradually increased after 24 h and reached the same level as that in the liver around 96 h. Two major inducible proteins were purified from livers of fish exposed to stress and were shown to be MT based upon their chromatographic behavior, UV absorption spectra and their molecular weights. Consequently, they were termed ccMT-1 and ccMT-2, according to their elution sequence upon anion-exchange chromatography. Both proteins mainly bound zinc in their endogenous forms and showed different immunogenicity to rat and rabbit MTs. Dexamethasone, a potent inducer for MT synthesis in mammals, induced the production of both isoforms in crucian carp, whereas cadmium and zinc ions prominently induced the synthesis of ccMT-2. These results indicate that crucian carp have the ability to produce MTs in response to various kinds of environmental stress and that violent air-pumping stress in crucian carp may induce MT synthesis, in part, via the release of endogenous factor(s), such as glucocorticoids. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Burst-swimming performance predicts the outcome of cannibalistic interactions in green poison frog larvae (Dendrobates auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sean C; Lappin, A Kristopher

    2013-11-01

    Whole-animal performance (e.g., swimming speed, bite force) functions as a fundamental link between organism and environment and, as such, performance characteristics are important in determining the outcomes of agonistic interactions, both interspecific and intraspecific. Cannibalism is an intraspecific agonistic interaction for which winners may be expected to exhibit superior performance in characteristics relevant to cannibalistic behavior. The larvae of the Green Poison Frog (Dendrobates auratus) exhibit cannibalistic behavior in which "fast-starts" (i.e., high velocity and acceleration from a resting position) are used in attempts to bite and avoid being bitten by conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that superior fast-start swimming performance is positively associated with winning cannibalistic interactions between similarly sized individuals. Fast-starts by larvae were imaged with a high-speed camera, and pairs of size-matched individuals then underwent interaction trials to determine whether swimming performance is associated with winning a cannibalistic interaction. Linear acceleration of the snout tip, approximating the position of the mouthparts used to attack an opponent, was significantly greater in winners than losers. At the estimated center of mass, generally representing a target for an attacking opponent, linear velocity and acceleration were significantly greater in winners than losers. Understanding the role of performance in intraspecific interactions can help elucidate how they contribute to population dynamics, and thus how such interactions ultimately drive morphological and behavioral evolution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. A Study About Biacetabulum appendiculatum Szidat, 1937 (Cestoda: Caryophllaeidea) on Barbus plebejus escherichi Steindachner, 1864

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Koyun

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the parasitic infections of some fish species were studied and identified. During the study, six fish species have been recorded in Enne Dam Lake, namely; Alburnus alburnus (bleak), Carassius carassius (Crucian carp), Carassius auratus (golden carp), Barbus plebejus escherichi (barb), Leuscius cephalus (chub) and Nemacheilus sp. (loach). From all this fish, Biacetabulum appendiculatum Szidat, 1937 was recorded only on barb. This cestode (tapeworm) species that is B. appendic...

  15. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Reproductive biology of Catfish Chrysichthys auratus, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809, (Family: Bagridae from Damietta branch of the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Ragheb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology of 803 specimens of Chrysichthys auratus from Damietta branch of the River Nile, Egypt was studied between January and December 2010. The overall sex ratio (M:F = 1:1.18 was significant at P < 0.05 and the ratio showed insignificant variation in summer and autumn. The length of the onset sexual maturity was 12.3 cm SL at age 1.34 years for males and 9.7 cm SL at age 0.56 years for females. C. auratus showed prolonged spawning season extending from October to June with a peak in March for both sexes and the fish restart their reproductive cycle in July. The maximum value for GSI and GI were shown in March for both sexes (GSI = 0.49% ± 0.30 and 11.17% ± 9.65 for males and females respectively and GI = 1.02% ± 0.64 for males and 22.85% ± 20.00 for females. The reproductive load was 0.464 and 0.366 for males and females respectively. The study of ova diameters showed protracted and indefinite spawning period with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 mm (mean value = 1.53 ± 0.45. The absolute fecundity ranged from 696 to 4687 eggs but the relative fecundity was from 70 to 247 eggs/unit fish length. The results showed that C. auratus has different life history strategies in Egyptian River Nile water than any other African Rivers.

  17. Comparison of clinical hematological changes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical hematological changes under anesthetization in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus) due to treatment with local anesthetics. Our data indicate that the values declined significantly (P < 0.05) with dissolved oxygen amount after anesthetization, furthermore, the ...

  18. Cutaneous myxosarcoma in a Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratusMixossarcoma cutâneo em um Hamster Sírio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Laufer Amorim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathological findings in a 2-years-old Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus with a cutaneous myxosarcoma are described. Grossly, there was a large cutaneous mass in the right cervical region. Microscopical evaluation revealed a myxosarcoma characterized by pleomorphic, fusiform cells loosely arranged, randomly distributed, and presenting a moderate amount of basophilic amorphous stroma. There were hemorrhagic areas within the tumor. The basophilic amorphous stroma was positive to Alcian blue confirming the presence of a mucopolysaccharide matrix. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, and were negative for cytokeratin or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP.São descritos os achados anatomopatológicos de um caso de mixossarcoma cutâneo em um Hamster Sírio de 2 anos de idade. Macroscopicamente, foi evidenciada um grande massa cutânea na região cervical lateral direita. A microscopia revelou a presença de um caso de mixossarcoma caracterizado por células fusiformes pleomórficas, frouxamente arranjadas, distribuídas aleatoriamente e, apresentando quantidade moderada de substância basofílica amorfa no estroma e áreas hemorrágicas. O estroma basofílico amorfo foi positivo na coloração Alcian blue, confirmando a presença de matriz mucopolissacarídea. Na imunoistoquímica, as células neoplásicas expressaram vimentina e foram negativas para a marcação de citoqueratina e proteína ácida fibrilar (GFAP.

  19. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. © 2013.

  20. Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids: Aggression and Anxiety During Exposure Predict Behavioral Responding During Withdrawal in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety- eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. PMID:24126136

  1. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  2. Radioactive tracers in the study of energy turnover by a grazing insect (Chrysochus auratus Fab. ; coleoptera chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.C. Jr.; Reichle, D.E.

    1968-01-01

    Radioisotope tags of rubidium-86 and phosphorus-32 were used to measure food consumption by the chrysomelid beetle Chrysochus auratus feeding upon the old field herb Apocynum cannabinum. The elimination of isotope by beetles which had fed upon tagged plants was used to estimate the rates of food consumption. For individuals at isotopic equilibrium with their food base, isotope input (I) equals the biological turnover of isotope: I = kQ/sub e/M/a, where k is the turnover rate of isotope, Q/sub e/ is the equilibrium concentration of isotope in the beetles, M is mass (mg dry wt), and a is the assimilation coefficient for the particular radioisotope. Turnover rates (k) were calculated from biological half-lives (T/sub b/), where k = 0.693/T/sub b/. The biological half-life of YWRb in Chrysochus was one day, while that of TSP was 7.5 days in females and 10.2 days in males. The calorific value of Apocynum leaves was 4625 cal/g dry wt (5640 cal/g ash-free wt); that of Chrysochus was 5227 cal/g dry wt (5537 cal/g ash-free wt). Individuals consumed 56.8% (15.9 mg) of their dry body weight in food per day. Of the ingested foliage, 43% of the ash-free dry matter was digested, 56% of the energy assimilated, and 71% of the ash content assimilated. The calorific value (cal/g) of digested food was 1.17 times greater than that consumed. Beetles assimilated 87% of the YWRb and 74% of the TSP present in food. Ranking of turnover times showed Chrysochus to be most conservative in its expenditure of food energy and dry matter, followed by mineral constituents. 9 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Lincoln Barroso de Magalhaes

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  4. Perception of scent over-marks by golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus): novel mechanisms for determining which individual's mark is on top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R E; Bhorade, A

    1998-09-01

    Hamsters preferentially remember or value the top scent of a scent over-mark. What cues do they use to do this? Using habituation-discrimination techniques, we exposed male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) on 3 to 4 trials to genital over-marks from 2 females and then tested subjects for their familiarity with these 2 scents compared with that of a novel female's secretion. Preferential memory for 1 of the 2 individuals' scents did not occur if the 2 marks did not overlap or did not overlap but differed in age, but it did occur if a region of overlap existed or 1 mark apparently occluded another (but did not overlap it). Thus, hamsters use regions of overlap and the spatial configuration of scents to evaluate over-marks. These phenomena constitute evidence for previously unsuspected perceptual abilities, including olfactory scene analysis, which is analogous to visual and auditory scene analysis.

  5. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  6. Development of the leptospirosis by experimental infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, strain LO4, by intact and scratched skin exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and evolution of leptospirosis in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus by experimental infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, LO4 strain, by intact and scratched skin exposures, having as control the intraperitoneal route, were evaluated. Hundred-twenty female hamsters distributed in two groups according to inoculation route (intact and scratched skin were used. Infectious inoculum was constituted by a pure culture of L. interrogans serovar Canicola (strain LO4, isolated from liver from a slaughtered swine in Londrina, Paraná state and typified by agglutinins adsortion technique with monoclonal antibody kit at the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The animals were observed twice a day during 21 days. Animals that died were necropsied and kidneys, liver, genital tract (uterus and ovaries and brain were aseptically collected. On the 21st post-inoculation day, surviving animals were euthanized. In these animals, serum samples were also collected by cardiac puncture to antileptospires agglutinins research using microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Fresh direct microscopy and microbiological culture were used for the detection of leptospires. Scratched skin route induced larger lethality when compared to intact skin route, with establishment and evolution of leptospirosis. On the other hand, intact skin route induced renal and/or genital carrier state more frequently. LO4 strain presented low immunogenic power, characterized by soroconversion at the MAT in only one inoculated animal.

  7. CYP27A1 expression in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus, L.): effects of calcitriol and parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Gideon S; Pinto, Elsa S L C; Canario, Adelino V M; Spanings, Tom; Flik, Gert

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about vitamin D metabolism in fishes. Several reports have shown hydroxylase activities in various organs to produce vitamin D metabolites, but the enzymes involved have not been isolated or characterized. We isolated and characterized a renal mitochondrial hydroxylase, CYP27A1, that governs vitamin D metabolism in gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus. The enzyme is highly expressed in kidney and to a far lesser extent in liver. When treated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D or calcitriol, the kidney responded differentially and time dependently with CYP27A1 mRNA expression levels. This response substantiates a role for CYP27A1 in fish vitamin D metabolism. This notion is strengthened by upregulation of CYP27A1 in sea bream treated with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), and suggests an original role for PTHrP in calcitriol-regulated processes n fish similar to the role of PTH in mammalian vitamin D-dependent processes.

  8. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  9. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  10. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  11. Assessing the Impact of EDTA Chelating Effect on some Macro- and Microminerals in Prussian Carp (Carassius Gibelio Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chelators are used in chemical analysis, in medical aplications, as water softeners, as decontamination agents on radioactive surfaces and they are ingredients in many commercial products such as shampoos and food preservatives. Such a synthetic chelator is EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is considered one of the tools that promises to control the heavy metal pollution in aquaculture. EDTA attaches itself to heavy metals and carries the metals from the fish body. EDTA can also slow free-radical activity produced by heavy metals in the body. Because its ability to sequester metal ions, we tried to estimate the potential risks of a chronic exposure to EDTA on tissue mobilization of some metals which have an essential role in realization of different cell functions in Prussian carp specimens. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn. Mn and Cu, were the mineral elements we have targeted in this study. It was found that these minerals have a trend of their tissues distribution and concentration in the body of the control specimens (higher or lower related to other similar works and EDTA presence in water led to a significant decreasing of their level in all tissues analyzed in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  13. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  14. Vegetation Structure of Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Habitat in Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation Central Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina, Rahmawati; Wasiq, Hidayat Jafron

    2018-02-01

    Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation is ebony leaf monkey's habitats in Central Java Indonesia. Continuously degradation of their population is caused by illegal hunting and habitat degradation that made this species being vulnerable. Habitat conservation is one of important aspects to prevent them from extinction. The purpose of this research was to analyze the vegetation's structure and composition, which was potentially, becomes habitat and food source for the monkeys. Data collected using purposive sampling with line transect method of four different level of vegetation. Data analysis used Important Value Index and Diversity Index. There were 43 species of vegetation at seedling stage, 18 species at sapling stage, 8 species at poles stage and 27 species at trees stage. Species that had the highest important value index at seedling was Stenochlaena palustri , at the sapling was Gnetum gnemon, at pole was Swietenia mahagoni and at tree was Tectona grandis . Species of trees those were potentially to become habitat (food source) for ebony leaf monkey were T. grandis, Dipterocarpus gracilis, Quercus sundaica and Ficus superba. The highest diversity index was at seedling gwoth stage.

  15. Expertomica Fishgui: comparison of fish skin colour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Štys, D.; Sergejevova, Magda; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 172-180 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CARASSIUS-AURATUS * IMAGE-ANALYSIS * DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  16. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  17. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, ...

  18. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10...

  19. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatto to identify somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in each species.

  20. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integração do enxerto heterólogo de pele humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Integration of human skin heterologous graft into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch sub-epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração de enxertos de pele total humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu de 18 hamsters machos, exogâmicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de pele humana normal foram obtidos de pele excedente de mastoplastia redutora de paciente parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de pele, perfazendo um total de 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica foi realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante fotografias padronizadas. Na avaliação microscópica foi adotado como critério de integração a presença de vasos sangüíneos na derme dos enxertos. Observou-se também a presença de queratina, melanócitos, infiltrado celular e aspecto do tecido conjuntivo. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação macroscópica foi observada uma reação vascular em torno dos fragmentos até 12 dias do implante, e a presença de pigmentação castanho-escura a partir de 42 dias. À microscopia, integraram-se 80,64% dos fragmentos enxertados, inclusive no grupo de 168 dias. Observou-se infiltrado celular inflamatório até 12 dias, a presença de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias e uma hialinização do tecido conjuntivo após 84 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Fragmentos de pele humana integram-se no tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster, mantêm-se vascularizados por 168 dias, e conservam o epitélio íntegro até 21 dias. O subepitélio da bolsa representa modelo experimental de investigação da fisiologia de pele humana ex vivo.PURPOSE: To describe the integration of total human skin into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample was formed by 18 male hamsters, outbred, aging between 10 and 14 weeks. Fragments of

  2. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  3. Eğirdir Gölü'nde Gümüşi Havuz Balığı, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 Avcılığında Kullanılan Monofilament Fanyalı Ağların Seçiciliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram KORKMAZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been investigated that the characteristics of the selectivity of monofilament trammel nets having 50, 55, 60 mm bar length. This study was carried out on prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch,1782 caught in Lake Eğirdir. An indirect method developed by Holt (1963 was used for determining the selectivity parameters. Common selection factor as SF=4.753 and common standard deviation as SD=2.347 were calculated for monofilament trammel nets. Common selection factor used of the optimum catch lengths of prussian carp in 50, 55 and 60 mm bar length were 23.77; 26.14 and 28.52 cm respectively. The optimum catch lengths were compared with lenghts at first maturity of prussian carp in Lake Eğirdir. Trammel nets of this study do not cause the overfishing on the prussian carp stock

  4. Colour intensity in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) as influenced by dietary microalgae addition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Sales, J.; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozák, P.; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : GOLDFISH CARASSIUS-AURATUS * HAEMATOCOCCUS-PLUVIALIS * ASTAXANTHIN Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  5. Radiosensitivity of primary cultured fish cells with different ploidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Egami, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiromu.

    1986-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of primary cultured goldfish cells (Carassius auratus) was investigated by colony formation assay. The radiosensitivity of cells from two varieties of goldfish, which show different sensitivity to lethal effect of ionizing radiation in vivo, was almost identical. Primary cultured cells from diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish retained their DNA content as measured by microfluorometry, and the nuclear size increases as ploidy increases. However, radiosensitivity was not related to ploidy. (author)

  6. Comparative functional responses of native and high impacting invasive fishes: impact predictions for native prey populations

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Z.; Sheath, D.; Amat Trigo, F.; Britton, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative functional responses (FRs) can predict impacts of invasive species,including piscivorous fishes, via quantifying their depletion of native food resources as a function of prey density. The utility of FRs for predicting impacts on prey populations by invasive fishes of different trophic guilds was tested here by\\ud comparing the FRs of the invaders Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus, with three native, trophically analogous fishes, Barbus barbus, Squalius cephalus and Tinca tinc...

  7. Trematodiasis en algunos peces del lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. del Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo; Luis García-Prieto

    1999-01-01

    In September, 1995 and January, 1996, six species of fishes from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacan, Mexico, were collected (Alloophorus robustus n=30, Goodea atripinnis n=30, Xenotoca variata n=41, Chirostoma jordani n=30, Carassius auratus n=30 and Oreochromis aureus n=30), to establish the infection levels reached by Posthodiplostomum minimum, Clinostomum complanatum and Diplostomum (Tylodelphys) sp., in their hosts. Infection caused by P. minimum metacercariae was the most important helminthiasis co...

  8. Acute toxicity of vanadium to two species of freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudtson, B.K.

    1979-09-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and guppies (Lebistes reticulatus) were the two freshwater, thermophilous fishes chosen for use in this study. These species were selected for the following reasons: (1) low cost/individual, (2) ready availability, (3) ease of care and handling, (4) suspected differences between the two species in their responses to this metal, and (5) the usefulness of both as generalized models for the response of freshwater and marine fishes to vanadium.

  9. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  10. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan, with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Miyazaki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage, Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal.

  11. Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.Haplotypes of goldfish rooted in two sublineages (C5 and C6, which contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of F(ST and N(m revealed a close relationship between goldfish and native C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River. An extraordinary, stepwise loss of genetic diversity was detected from native fish to goldfish and from Grass-goldfish relative to other breeds. Significantly negative results for the tests of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F* were identified in goldfish, including the Grass breed. The results identified eye-shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish with respect to their evolutionary history. Fisher's exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.Chinese goldfish have a matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus, especially the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Anthropogenic selection of the native Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing goldfish and this action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated goldfish, a process similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy--Grass-goldfish, Egg-goldfish, and Wen-goldfish--better reflected the history of domestication.

  12. Female crucian carp, Carassius carassius, lose predator avoidance behavior when getting ready to mate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, S.; Höglund, Erik; Mayer, I.

    2008-01-01

    , the crucian carp. We demonstrate that among individuals not responding to alarm substances with a fright reaction, the majority were ovulated or spermiated. In females, mean plasma concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone, gonadal steroids known to decrease during the later stages of sexual...

  13. E-commerce of freshwater aquarium fishes: potential disseminator of exotic species in Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.3919 E-commerce of freshwater aquarium fishes: potential disseminator of exotic species in Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.3919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of freshwater aquarium fish species for sale was surveyed from July 2005 to June 2006 in Brazilian electronic commerce and the Orkut website. São Paulo was the leading state regarding virtual shops, auctions on Arremate/Mercado Livre, and hobbyists on Orkut, with 52, 44 and 46%, respectively. The Southeast and South regions led the offer of pest species such as C. carpio, C. auratus and P. reticulate. Among the 207 species for sale, 14 species considered potential pests were identified, contrasting with only one page that warned about the dangers of aquarium dumping. The easy access to fish (especially the potential pest species through e-commerce and Orkut, together with the low total price (unitary value + shipping and handling ranging from US$ 17.67 to 30.39, and fast interstate delivery (two-four days on average confirm the widespread e-commerce accessibility and its high dispersal potential via postal services and home hobbyists trade. It is imperative to enforce the use of warnings or alert messages in e-commerce about the dangers of biological invasions.The availability of freshwater aquarium fish species for sale was surveyed from July 2005 to June 2006 in Brazilian electronic commerce and the Orkut website. São Paulo was the leading state regarding virtual shops, auctions on Arremate/Mercado Livre, and hobbyists on Orkut, with 52, 44 and 46%, respectively. The Southeast and South regions led the offer of pest species such as C. carpio, C. auratus and P. reticulate. Among the 207 species for sale, 14 species considered potential pests were identified, contrasting with only one page that warned about the dangers of aquarium dumping. The easy access to fish (especially the potential pest species through e-commerce and Orkut, together with the low total price (unitary value + shipping and handling ranging from US$ 17.67 to 30.39, and fast interstate delivery (two-four days on average confirm the widespread e

  14. Development of Vaccines Against Nocardiosis in Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sukanta K; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis, one of the most systemic and devastating diseases, is currently emerging as an important disease of cultured marine and freshwater fishes. The causative agent of this disease is Nocardia seriolae, a Gram-positive acid-fast bacterium. An effective vaccine/vaccination strategy against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant loss in aquaculture practices. In this chapter, we present the vaccination/immunization protocol in fish against both live (sublethal) and inactivated form of N. seriolae using ginbuna crucian carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) as a model. N. seriolae either in live (sublethal) form or inactivated antigenic form is found to elevate immunity in ginbuna and also can induce protective immunity upon challenge. In order to develop live vaccine, determination of sublethal dose is critical and needs to be established in the host fish species through pathogenicity and persistence studies. Herein for ginbuna, a sublethal dose of 10(6) CFU/mL was determined by pathogenicity study through a series of challenge doses followed by pathogen persistence study by microbiological and molecular techniques. On the other hand, for inactivated antigenic form, the concentration of the N. seriolae was approximately 10(8) CFU/mL. Although this study showed significant potential of both the forms of N. seriolae as candidate for vaccination, factors such as dose, duration and form need to be optimized in individual fish species.

  15. Pathology Survey on a Captive-Bred Colony of the Mexican Goodeid, Nearly Extinct in the Wild, Zoogoneticus tequila (Webb & Miller 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Arbuatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Goodeid, Zoogoneticus tequila, is considered nearly extinct in the wild and it is maintained in captivity by the nonprofit international “Goodeid Working Group.” The unique Italian colony has produced about 180 fish so far. The observable diseases were registered and some fish were submitted, immediately after spontaneous death, to necroscopic and histopathologic exams. Encountered diseases included the following: 7 cases of scoliosis (2 males and 5 females; 2 fish with a similar congenital deviation of ocular axis; 1 adult male with left corneal opacity, presumably of traumatic origin; 1 female fish with a large subocular fluid-filled sac, histologically referable to a lymphatic cyst, similarly to the eye sacs of a Goldfish variety (Carassius auratus called bubble eye; and 1 female fish with recurrent abdominal distension consequent to distal bowel dilation and thinning, associated with complete mucosal atrophy, and comparable to intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndromes described in humans and various animal species. The absence of infectious or parasitic diseases, as well as the low incidence of diseases potentially related to environmental alterations or nutritional disorders such as spinal deformities, suggests the adequacy of breeding management techniques of Z. tequila for its conservation and reintroduction in to the original habitat in the near future.

  16. Relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the French National Nature Reserve of Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Hélène; Buet, Astrid; Ramade, François

    2002-11-01

    The Reserve of Biosphere of Camargue [French National Nature Reserve of Camargue (NNRC)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. To evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. Metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. In addition, the incorporation of xenobiotic molecules in the lipid compartments was investigated. The contents of glycogen, total lipids, proteins and lipidic phosphorus were analyzed in liver and skeletal muscles of three teleostean: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla); the crucian carp (Carassius auratus); and the catfish (Ictalurus melas). The atmospheric origin of the PAH detected in any season in the biomass and the OCs compounds contamination by derive from agricultural treatments are established. In contradiction with some laboratory acute intoxication studies, we observe a positive correlation between tissue concentrations of contaminants and the muscular glycogen amount, a sensitive energy reserve marker. Moreover, it seems likely that the incorporation of these xenobiotics is located preferentially in the membrane structures.

  17. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality...... today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can provide general insights...... that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence....

  18. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  19. Potential bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.L.; Tomio, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, relativistic confining potential models, endowed with bag constants associated to volume energy terms, are investigated. In contrast to the usual bag model, these potential bags are distinguished by having smeared bag surfaces. Based on the dynamical assumptions underlying the fuzzy bag model, these bag constants are derived from the corresponding energy-momentum tensor. Explicit expressions for the single-quark energies and for the nucleon bag constant are obtained by means of an improved analytical version of the saddle-point variational method for the Dirac equation with confining power-law potentials of the scalar plus vector (S + V) or pure scalar (S) type

  20. Consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos por peces ornamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Franco Archundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre alternativas de alimento para especies acuáticas con alto potencial económico, es uno de los principales temas de estudio en la acuicultura. En la presente investigación se evaluó el consumo de pre-adultos de mosquito por cuatro especies ícticas ornamentales: Carassius auratus, Pterophyllum scalare, Danio rerio y Xiphophorus helleri. El diseño experimental consistió en cuatro tratamientos, con tres réplicas. Cada ensayo se realizó de manera independiente entre especies. En cada acuario (1 l se colocaron dos peces juveniles, con peso húmedo y longitud total (promedio ± desviación estándar conocidos. Se suministraron en un tratamiento 100 larvas y en otro 100 pupas de mosquito. La tasa diaria de consumo de larvas y pupas se registró a un intervalo de tres horas durante un ciclo de 24 horas por especie. El peso húmedo de pre-adultos de mosquito difirió 5.20% y el seco 37.69%; en ambos casos, superior en las pupas (p < 0.001. Los peces fueron más activos durante la fase luminosa, 09:00-18:00 h, evidenciado por una mayor tasa de consumo de larvas y pupas de mosquito. Carassius auratus presentó el mayor consumo de larvas/pez/24 horas 131.33 ± 4.16 y de pupas/pez/24 horas 86.16 ± 3.20. Lo anterior difirió significativamente con respecto a P. scalare, D. rerio y X. helleri (p < 0.001. Finalmente, Carassius auratus presentó la mayor capacidad de consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos.

  1. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence....... While most Bugkalot men have today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can...... provide general insights that can also be used in other contexts to understand how men construct hegemonic masculinity by strategically adopting the interspace of civility and violence....

  2. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  3. The effects of methyltestosterone on sex reversal in bluegill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, L.E.; Stanley, J.G.

    1973-01-01

    Small impoundments stocked with bluegill often become overcrowded with small, undesirable fish. This problem would be prevented if it were possible to stock only one sex, but sexing of small bluegill is difficult and unreliable. Monosex broods in Oryzias latipes [3], Tilapia mossambica [1], and Carassius auratus [5] can be produced by using sperm from sex-reversed genotypic females to fertilize eggs from normal females. The objective of this research was to develop a method for changing sex in bluegill fry by administering androgens.

  4. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two...... different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  5. Groundwater Potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    INTEGRATION OF HYDROGEOPHYSICAL AND REMOTE SENSING DATA IN THE. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER POTENTIAL OF THE BASEMENT COMPLEX. TERRAIN OF EKITI STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA. 1. 2. 3. 4. Bayowa O.G., Olorunfemi M.O., Akinluyi F.O., and Ademilua O.L. 1Department of Earth ...

  6. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  7. Carassius "gibelio" in the fish communities of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2003), s. 133-138 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /8./. Lodz, 04.06.2001-07.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Prussian carp * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed...

  9. Life without oxygen: gene regulatory responses of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius heart subjected to chronic anoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre-Olav Stensløkken

    Full Text Available Crucian carp are unusual among vertebrates in surviving extended periods in the complete absence of molecular oxygen. During this time cardiac output is maintained though these mechanisms are not well understood. Using a high-density cDNA microarray, we have defined the genome-wide gene expression responses of cardiac tissue after exposing the fish at two temperatures (8 and 13 °C to one and seven days of anoxia, followed by seven days after restoration to normoxia. At 8 °C, using a false discovery rate of 5%, neither anoxia nor re-oxygenation elicited appreciable changes in gene expression. By contrast, at 13 °C, 777 unique genes responded strongly. Up-regulated genes included those involved in protein turnover, the pentose phosphate pathway and cell morphogenesis while down-regulated gene categories included RNA splicing and transcription. Most genes were affected between one and seven days of anoxia, indicating gene regulation over the medium term but with few early response genes. Re-oxygenation for 7 days was sufficient to completely reverse these responses. Glycolysis displayed more complex responses with anoxia up-regulated transcripts for the key regulatory enzymes, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, but with down-regulation of most of the non-regulatory genes. This complex pattern of responses in genomic transcription patterns indicates divergent cardiac responses to anoxia, with the transcriptionally driven reprogramming of cardiac function seen at 13 °C being largely completed at 8 °C.

  10. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  11. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  12. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  13. The insemination of goldfish ( Carassium auratus) oocyte matured in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renxue; Wu, Xianhan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Shicui; Ma, Yingjie; Wu, Shangqin; Shi, Yingxian

    1991-03-01

    Full maturation of goldfish oocyte was induced in vitro by 17 α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone. The oocyte maturation involves GV migration to the periphery of the oocyte and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). In the experiment, incubation duration for GVBD varied in different broods of oocytes. Generally, if the duration for GVBD was shorter than 6 h, oocytes would have a better chance to survive after maturation and insemination. The maturation of nucleus (GV) and cytoplasm are not synchronous. Cytoplasm maturation occurs several hs after GVBD. Oocytes inseminated 8 9 h after GVBD have the highest fertilizing and hatching rate. Fertilized ova matured in vitro can develop to sexually mature adults capable of reproduction.

  14. Sensibility of the hamster (Cricetus auratus to the Treponema pertenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery-Guimarães

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, 8 Hamsters inoculated with material from yaws lesions (Treponema pertenue, developed skin lesions considered specific by their clinical and histopathological aspects and by the presence of treponemae. These lesions appeared on the scrotumm, testicle, prepuce, anus, tail, muzzle, back and hinders paws (palm surface. In the internal organs no treponemae were found in direct examinations and inoculation of brain, spleen and lymph node. The incubation period was of 35 days for the testicle, 55 days for the scrotum and 107 days for peritoneal cavity inoculation. Positive sub-inoculations were obtained. The serum reactions (Qasserman's and Kahn's were negative in all 5 tested Hamsters. Out of 4 normal females matched to infected males two developed nasal lesions resulting from direct contact. Apparently the genital lesions hindered copulation. Hamsters are very well suited for an experimental study of yaws.Em 2 experiências, 8 Hamsters inoculados com material direto de lesões boubáticas (Treponema pertenue, desenvolveram lesões cutâneas consideradas específicas, pelo aspecto clínico e histopatológico e pela presentça de treponemas. Essas lesões se manifestaram no escrôto, testículo, prepúcio, anus, cauda, focinho, dorso e patas posteriores (face palmar. Nos órgãos internos não foram vistos treponemas ao exame direto e, uma vez, por inoculação de cérebro, baço e gânglio linfático. O período incubativo foi de 35 dias pela via testicular, 55 dias pela via escrotal e 107 dias pela via peritonial. Foram obtidas sub-inoculações positivas para Hamsters normais. As experiências continuam. De 4 fêmeas normais, acasaladas com 4 hamsters infectados apenas 2 mostraram lesões positivas resultantes de contágio direto. Aparentemente, não houve copulação e, se esta ocorreu, não determinou fecundação.

  15. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Julie M; Field, Karen E; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of CoCl2 in future

  16. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  17. Oxidative stress as a mechanism for toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D): studies with goldfish gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2013-12-01

    The effects of exposure to the widely used herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at environmentally permitted (1 mg L(-1)), slightly toxic (10 mg L(-1)), and highly toxic (100 mg L(-1)) concentrations were analyzed in gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus, a popular fish model for ecotoxicological research. Fish were exposed to the pesticide in water for 96 h and an additional group of fish were treated by the highest 2,4-D concentration and then allowed to recover for further 96 h. Among markers of oxidative stress, goldfish exposure to 2,4-D did not affect carbonyl protein levels in the gills, but fish exposure to 100 mg L(-1) of 2,4-D enhanced lipid peroxide concentrations (by 58 %) and oxidized glutathione levels (by 49 %), the latter also significantly increasing (by 33 %) oxidized/total glutathione ratio. Activities of three enzymes of antioxidant defence also increased under 2,4-D exposure: superoxide dismutase (by 29-35 %), catalase (by 41 %), and glutathione peroxidase (by 19-33 %). Activities of other antioxidant associated enzymes as well as other potential markers of stress (e.g. aminotransferase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, lactate metabolism) showed little or no response in gills to 2,4-D exposure. However, virtually all affected parameters returned to control values during recovery period. A combination of selected indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, measured in fish gills, may provide to be effective biomarkers to assess environmental hazards of 2,4-D to freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout, the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3 for 0 h (control, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h-48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA. Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h-180 h; which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the

  19. Anti-oxidative defences are modulated differentially in three freshwater teleosts in response to ammonia-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Giblen, Terri; Zinta, Gaurav; De Rop, Michelle; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA) were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h-48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidant

  20. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Butler

    Full Text Available Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of

  1. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Satellite potentials for hypergeometric Natanzon potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codriansky, S. [Departamento de Matematicas y Fisica, Instituto Pedagogico de Caracas, Universidad Pedagogica Experimental Libertador (Venezuela)]. E-mail: codrians@reacciun.ve; Salamo, S. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ssalamo@fis.usb.ve

    2002-05-17

    As a result of the so(2,1) treatment of the hypergeometric Natanzon potentials {l_brace}V{sub N}{r_brace} a set of potentials related to a given one is determined; these are the satellite potentials and all belong to the Natanzon class. The set arises as the result of the action of the so(2,1) generators on the carrier space of an irreducible representation. The results are compared to those obtained from supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) for some Natanzon potentials. The chains of Natanzon potentials constructed using the idea of a satellite potential are, in most cases, different from the SUSYQM chains. (author)

  3. Recombinant NAD-dependent SIR-2 protein of Leishmania donovani: immunobiochemical characterization as a potential vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharia, Rajendra K; Tandon, Rati; Sharma, Tanuj; Suthar, Manish K; Das, Sanchita; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Sundar, Shaym; Sunder, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2015-03-01

    The development of a vaccine conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Immunoproteomic characterization of Leishmania donovani proteins led to the identification of a novel protein NAD+-dependent Silent Information regulatory-2 (SIR2 family or sirtuin) protein (LdSir2RP) as one of the potent immunostimulatory proteins. Proteins of the SIR2 family are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain that exerts unique NAD-dependent deacetylase activity. In the present study, an immunobiochemical characterization of LdSir2RP and further evaluation of its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential was done to assess for its possible involvement as a vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis. LdSir2RP was successfully cloned, expressed and purified. The gene was present as a monomeric protein of ~45 kDa and further established by the crosslinking experiment. rLdSir2RP shown cytosolic localization in L. donovani and demonstrating NAD+-dependent deacetylase activity. Bioinformatic analysis also confirmed that LdSir2RP protein has NAD binding domain. The rLdSir2RP was further assessed for its cellular response by lymphoproliferative assay and cytokine ELISA in cured Leishmania patients and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in comparison to soluble Leishmania antigen and it was observed to stimulate the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α significantly but not the IL-4 and IL-10. The naïve hamsters when vaccinated with rLdSir2RP alongwith BCG resisted the L. donovani challenge to the tune of ~75% and generated strong IL-12 and IFN-γ mediated Th1 type immune response thereof. The efficacy was further supported by remarkable increase in IgG2 antibody level which is indicative of Th1 type of protective response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of rLdSir2RP was done using computational approach. The immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggest the

  4. Effective potential for non-convex potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; O'Raifeartaigh, L.; Parravicini, G.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the well-known relationship between the effective potential GAMMA and the vacuum graphs μ of scalar QFT follows directly from the translational invariance of the measure, and that it holds for all values of the fields phi if, and only if, the classical potential is convex. In the non-convex case μ appears to become complex for some values of phi, but it is shown that the complexity is only apparent and is due to the failure of the loop expansion. The effective potential actually remains real and well-defined for all phi, and reduces to μ in the neighbourhood of the classical minima. A number of examples are considered, notably potentials which are spontaneously broken. In particular the mechanism by which a spontaneous breakdown may be generated by radiative corrections is re-investigated and some new insights obtained. Finally, it is shown that the renormalization group equations for the parameters may be obtained by inspection from the effective potential, and among the examples considered are SU(n) fields and supermultiplets. In particular, it is shown that for supermultiplets the effective potential is not only real but positive. (orig.)

  5. Comparative analysis of intermuscular bones in fish of different ploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhong, Zezhou; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Shaojun; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-01

    We documented the number, morphology, and distribution of intermuscular bones in five fishes of different ploidy: Carassius auratus (Abbr.WCC, 2n=100), Carassius auratus variety PengZe (Abbr.PZCC, 3n=150), improved triploid crucian carp (Abbr.ITCC, 3n=150), improved red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., Abbr.IRCC, ♀, 2n=100), and improved allotetraploids (Abbr.G×AT, ♂, 4n=200). The number of intermuscular bones in WCC, PZCC, and G×AT ranged from 78 to 83 ([Formula: see text]=81), 80 to 86 ([Formula: see text]=84), and 77 to 84 ([Formula: see text]=82), respectively. The numbers in ITCC and IRCC were significantly lower, ranging from 77 to 82 ([Formula: see text]=79) and 58 to 77 ([Formula: see text]=71), respectively. The average number of intermuscular bones in each sarcomere, ranked in order from highest to lowest, was 0.721 (WCC), 0.673 (PZCC), 0.653 (G×AT), 0.633 (ITCC), and 0.608 (IRCC). There was no difference between ITCC and G×AT or between G×AT and PZCC. However, the average number of intermuscular bones in the sarcomeres of ITCC, WCC, and PZCC differed significantly, as did that of IRCC and the four other kinds of fish. The intermuscular bone of these five fishes was divided into seven shape categories, non-forked (), one-end-unequal-bi-fork (), one-end-equal-bi-fork (Y), one-end-multi-fork, two-end-bi-fork, two-end-multi-fork, and tree-branch types. Generally, the morphological complexity was higher in the anterior intermuscular bones than in the posterior body. The number of intermuscular bones was similar but not equal between the left and right sides of the body. ITCC had significantly fewer intermuscular bones than either WCC or PZCC, making it of greater commercial value. Additionally, IRCC and ITCC had fewer intermuscular bones than WCC. Our observations are significant in both fish bone developmental biology and genetic breeding.

  6. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  7. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  8. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  9. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds

  10. Generalized Rosenbluth potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-05-01

    It is shown that the coefficients of friction and diffusion of the Balescu-Lenard equation can be derived from two ''generalized Rosenbluth potentials'', which reduce to the standard Rosenbluth potentials if wave effects are neglected. The potentials are evaluated explicitly in the case of Maxwellian field particles. The dominant contribution of wave effects to the potentials is due to the interaction of electron field particles with ion sound waves

  11. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipperud, L; Jørgensen, A G; Heier, L S; Salbu, B; Rosseland, B O

    2013-09-01

    Polonium-210 in water and (210)Pb and (210)Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of (210)Pb and (210)Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of (210)Po was higher than for (210)Pb, and the accumulation of (210)Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg(-1) ww). Although the average activity concentration of (210)Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25-327 Bq kg(-1) ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported (210)Po into the liver, and that the distributions of (210)Po and (210)Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for (210)Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of (210)Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10(5), >2.5 × 10(4) and >1.4 × 10(4), respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log (210)Po in liver and δ(15)N could indicate biomagnification of (210)Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for (210)Po, the concentration of (210)Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Po-210 and Pb-210 in water and fish from Taboshar uranium mining Pit Lake, Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipperud, L.; Jørgensen, A.G.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 in water and 210 Pb and 210 Po in different fish organs from 3 different fish species in Taboshar Pit Lake (n = 13), located in the uranium mining area in Tajikistan, and in Kairakkum Reservoir (reference lake, n = 3), have been determined as part of a Joint project between Norway, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The average activity concentration of 210 Pb and 210 Po in liver, muscle and bone of Carassius auratus was higher than the concentration in similar tissues of C. carpio and Sander lucioperca from the reference site. The accumulation of 210 Po was higher than for 210 Pb, and the accumulation of 210 Po was highest in the liver of C. auratus (3673 ± 434 Bq kg −1 ww). Although the average activity concentration of 210 Pb in liver and bones of C. auratus from Pit Lake were fairly similar, a huge variation in the liver activity concentrations (25–327 Bq kg −1 ww) was found. The results confirm direct uptake of unsupported 210 Po into the liver, and that the distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish organs were different. The BCF (L/kg) for 210 Po in bone, liver and muscle clearly demonstrates high accumulation of 210 Po in C. auratus, especially in the liver. The average BCFs of liver, bone and muscle were >1.4 × 10 5 , >2.5 × 10 4 and >1.4 × 10 4 , respectively. All fish in the Pit Lake were found to be in the same trophic level, however, a linear correlation between log 210 Po in liver and δ 15 N could indicate biomagnification of 210 Po in liver of C. auratus. In regards to the recommended Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) for 210 Po, the concentration of 210 Po in muscle tissues of C. auratus is alarming, as there is a high probability for the local population at risk to exceed the recommended ALI through consumption of fish from Taboshar Pit Lake

  13. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  14. Graphical Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  15. Quantum potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.

  16. Handbook of interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A.M.; Taylor, R.

    1981-08-01

    This Handbook collects together interatomic potentials for a large number of metals. Most of the potentials describe the interactions of host metal atoms with each other, and these, in some cases, may be applied to solid and liquid metals. In addition, there are potentials (a) for a metallic impurity alloyed with the host, (b) for a small number of chemical impurities in the metal (eg H, O), and (c) for rare-gas impurities, notably He. The Handbook is intended to be a convenient source of potentials for bulk, surface and defect calculations, both static and dynamic. (author)

  17. Examining Management Success Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrano, Louis A.

    The derivation of a model of management success potential in hospitals or health services administration is described. A questionnaire developed to assess management success potential in health administration students was voluntarily completed by approximately 700 incoming graduate students in 35 university health services administration programs…

  18. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  19. A physiologically based pharmacokinetics model for florfenicol in crucian carp and oral-to-intramuscular extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Sun, Y X; Shan, Q; Zhao, H Y; Zeng, D P; Zeng, Z L

    2013-04-01

    In this study, an oral physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed for florfenicol in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Subsequently, oral-to-intramuscular extrapolation was performed and the two models were used to predict florfenicol concentrations in the edible tissues of crucian carp. The oral model gave good predictions in most tissues, except for kidney and liver in which the florfenicol concentrations were underestimated at the later time points. In contrast, using the intramuscular model, the concentrations in the kidney were overestimated at the later time points. Both models had the best predictive ability in the main edible tissue, the muscle. The oral model also accurately predicted the florfenicol concentrations in the muscle after multiple doses. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of predicting florfenicol concentrations in the edible tissues of crucian carp using a route-to-route extrapolation method. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Studies on monitoring of river water quality by neutron activation analysis of aquatic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masao; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1990-02-01

    In order to clarify the possibility of a new method to monitor the river water quality by neutron activation analysis of aquatic biota, the followings were investigated: (1) the species of fish, water plants and aquatic insects which we can collect easily in Tamagawa River basin, (2) problems in pre-treatment of biological samples, and (3) relationship between elemental concentrations in biological samples and in river water. We found that the biological species suitable for the analytical investigation are Carassius auratus langsdorfii (GINBUNA), Pseudorasbora parva (MOTSUGO), Potamageton orientalis Hagst. (AINOKOITOMO), Elodea nuttalli (Planch.) St. John (KOKANADAMO), Cheuma-topsyche brevilineata (Iwata) (KOGATASHIMATOBIKERA) and Hydropsyche orientalis Martynov (URUMASHIMATOBIKERA). Fish samples showed apparently different concentrations of elements in each part of their bodies. Simple washing of water plants and aquatic insects was found not to be enough to eliminate rock-oriented particles. Such elements as Ag, Mn and Zn showed relationships of their concentrations between in biological samples and in river water. (author).

  1. SILVER CRUCIAN OR CHITON AND DAMAGES IT SAUSSES BY ITS PRESENCE ON FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Kajgana

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available By its presence, silver crucian carp or chiton (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. makes lot of damage on fish-farms. By its nutrition way, the chiton competes with carp, thus reducing its growths and increasing the nutritive coefficient what is unjustified both economically and technologically. The diclinous and hermaphroditic way of procreation influences the spread of this species. After the dissection of an chiton exemplar of 10-12 dag in October 1995 in Našice “Ribnjak 1905” it was stated that it had 23% of male fish. Spawn was in the IV. stage of sex maturity according to Kiseljević. The ways of chiton coming and going to particular pounds as well as measures to control it are analyzed in the text. It is recommended to turn full attention to the filling and re-filling of pounds, prevent the coming of wild fish and fill canals and pounds thoroughly.

  2. Trematodiasis en algunos peces del lago de Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In September, 1995 and January, 1996, six species of fishes from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacan, Mexico, were collected (Alloophorus robustus n=30, Goodea atripinnis n=30, Xenotoca variata n=41, Chirostoma jordani n=30, Carassius auratus n=30 and Oreochromis aureus n=30, to establish the infection levels reached by Posthodiplostomum minimum, Clinostomum complanatum and Diplostomum (Tylodelphys sp., in their hosts. Infection caused by P. minimum metacercariae was the most important helminthiasis considering the number of hosts they parasite (five of six, and the high levels of abundance of the infection; we suggest that fish preferences and the generalist character of the trematode are the causes that determine this infection. Finally, the role of goodeids and atherinids in transmission of infections in the lake is confirmed; the former being the main group mantaining such infections.

  3. TRAMA TRÓFICA DE LOS PECES DEL EMBALSE LA GOLETA (PRIMAVERA 2007 EN EL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Navarrete-Salgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la posición trófica de la ictiofauna del embalse La Goleta, Estado de México. Se realizó un muestreo en la primavera de 2007, donde se registraron los siguientes parámetros del agua, temperatura, profundidad, transparencia, turbidez, oxígeno disuelto, conductividad, pH, dureza, y alcalinidad, también se realizó la captura de peces utilizando un chinchorro charalero. El análisis del contenido estomacal se determinó con el método numérico y volumétrico. Los peces capturados pertenecen a tres especies: Menidia jordani, la cual se considera una especie zooplanctófaga generalista; Cyprinus carpio, es omnívoro muy generalista y Carassius auratus que es un pez herbívoro generalista.

  4. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  5. Estado de las poblaciones de anfibios en un parque urbano de Pamplona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosá, A., Arias, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones aisladas de tres anfibios (Triturus marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelophylax perezi han sido muestreadas entre 2005 y 2007, en primavera y finales de verano, en un canal y tres estanques de un parque urbano céntrico de la ciudad de Pamplona. Los 8 adultos censados en 2005 de T. marmoratus han podido desaparecer en los años siguientes, a causa de unas obras urbanas realizadas junto al parque. La estima de la población de A. obstetricans se acerca al millar de adultos. Su periodo reproductor se extiende hasta septiembre, y una parte de la población larvaria inverna sin metamorfosear. El ajardinamiento de la zona, la contaminación del agua y la presencia de depredadores y competidores introducidos, como Procambarus clarkii y Carassius auratus, ponen en peligro la supervivencia de los anfibios.

  6. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Due to the extensive use of chlorophenols (CPs) in anthropogenic activities, 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP), among other CPs, can enter aquatic ecosystems and can be harmful to a variety of organisms, including bacteria, fish and humans, that are exposed directly and/or indirectly to such contaminated environments. Based on the existing knowledge and in order to move a step forward, the purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic and mainly the genotoxic effects of 2-CP using a combination of bioassays. The tests include the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and micronuclei induction in the erythrocytes of Carassius auratus as well as in cultured human lymphocytes. The results obtained reveal that 2-CP is able to induce dose-dependent toxic and genotoxic effects on the selected tested concentrations under the specific experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ICRF enhanced potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ion-confining potentials in the Phaedrus tandem mirror are shown to be enhanced over Boltzmann-relations predicted values by radio-frequency (rf) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The ICRF enhanced potential is larger in the end cell with a lower passing density. Peak potential values decrease with increasing ion endloss current (or central cell density) for a constant rf capacitor bank voltage, and increase with increasing rf-capacitor bank voltage, for a constant ion endloss value (or central cell density). In fully axisymmetric operation, a potential peak is produced in an end cell by the central-cell rf, (with-out end-cell rf) and is found only in the end cell nearer the central-cell antenna. ICRF enhanced potentials are explained as an equilibrium between the electron-collisional filling-in rate and the electron pumping out rate provided by axial time-varying electric fields. Thermal barrier-like potential structures were found in the transition regions between the central cell and end cells, in the fully axisymmetric Phaedrus. Central-cell ICRF trapping effects combined with end-cell μΔ B forces create and pump the barrier potential wells

  8. Modulation of desensitization at glutamate receptors in isolated crucian carp horizontal cells by concanavalin A, cyclothiazide, aniracetam and PEPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Lu, T; Yang, X L

    1999-03-01

    In horizontal cells freshly dissociated from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) retina, we examined the effects of modulators of glutamate receptor desensitization, concanavalin A, cyclothiazide, aniracetam and 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluoro-phenoxyacetam ide (PEPA), on responses to rapid application of glutamate and kainate, using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Incubation of concanavalin A suppressed the peak response but weakly potentiated the equilibrium response of horizontal cells to glutamate. Cyclothiazide blocked glutamate-induced desensitization in a dose-dependent manner, which resulted in a steady increase of the equilibrium current. The concentration of cyclothiazide causing a half-maximal potentiation for the equilibrium response was 85 microM. Furthermore, cyclothiazide shifted the dose-response relationship of the equilibrium current to the right, but slightly suppressed the kainate-induced sustained current. These effects of concanavalin A and cyclothiazide are consistent with the supposition that glutamate receptors of carp horizontal cells may be an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-preferring subtype. In order to further characterize the AMPA receptors of horizontal cells, modulation by aniracetam and PEPA of glutamate- and kainate-induced currents was studied. Aniracetam, a preferential modulator of flop variants of AMPA receptors, considerably blocked desensitization of glutamate-induced currents, but only slightly potentiated kainate-induced currents. It was further found that PEPA, a flop-preferring allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor desensitization, slightly suppressed the peak current, while it dramatically potentiated the equilibrium current induced by glutamate in a dose-dependent manner. PEPA was much potent than aniracetam at these receptors and showed the effect on glutamate-induced desensitization even at a concentration as low as 3 microM. PEPA also potentiated non

  9. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  10. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...

  11. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  12. Smoothed square well potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, P. [Institute for Nuclear Research Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vertse, T. [Institute for Nuclear Research Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Faculty of Informatics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-07-15

    The classical square well potential is smoothed with a finite range smoothing function in order to get a new simple strictly finite range form for the phenomenological nuclear potential. The smoothed square well form becomes exactly zero smoothly at a finite distance, in contrast to the Woods-Saxon form. If the smoothing range is four times the diffuseness of the Woods-Saxon shape both the central and the spin-orbit terms of the Woods-Saxon shape are reproduced reasonably well. The bound single-particle energies in a Woods-Saxon potential can be well reproduced with those in the smoothed square well potential. The same is true for the complex energies of the narrow resonances. (orig.)

  13. Conocimiento actual sobre la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens en el estado de Durango, México Current status of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Charre-Medellín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el estado del conocimiento sobre la distribución de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis para el estado de Durango, México, con base en bibliografía previa y 2 nuevos registros basados en excretas. Sólo 3 de los reportes históricos disponibles estuvieron documentados con evidencia física u observaciones. El análisis de las excretas reveló principalmente restos de peces, en su mayoría nativos. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus y Scartomyzon austrinus no se habían registrado previamente en la dieta de L. longicaudis en México. La presencia de la nutria neotropical en las partes altas y media de 3 grandes cuencas (Mezquital-San Pedro, Nazas y Grande de Santiago apunta a la importancia de preservar las cabeceras de estos ríos, donde la nutria puede persistir aún cuando sus partes bajas tengan un fuerte efecto antropogénico.An update on the state of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis for the state of Durango, Mexico is presented based on the revision of literature reports and the addition of 2 new records. Upon revision, only 3 of the previous reports are supported by physical evidence or observations; and 2 more are newly documented records based on scats. Analysis of these samples indicated that the main items consumed by otters in Durango were mostly native fishes. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus and Scartomyzon austrinus had not been recorded previously in the neotropical otter's diet. Neotropical otters are able to persist at the headwaters of at least 3 major basins (San Pedro-Mezquital, Nazas, and Grande de Santiago even though strong anthropogenic disturbances have already occurred downstream, thus pointing to the need of effective conservation strategies for these areas.

  14. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  15. Overview of interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, G.; Malerba, L.

    2005-12-01

    In this report an overview on interatomic potentials is given. This overview is by no means complete and it has merely the intention to give the reader an idea of where interatomic potentials come from, as well as to provide the basic ideas behind some commonly used methods for deriving interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics applications. We start by giving a short introduction about the concept of interatomic potential in the framework of quantum mechanics, followed by a short description of commonly used methods for deriving semi-empirical interatomic potentials. After some short theoretical notions on each method, some practical parameterizations of commonly used potentials are given, including very recent ones. An effort has been made to classify existing approaches within a rational and consequent scheme, which is believed to be of use for a thorough comprehension of the topic. Although these approaches can be used in a variety of different materials, we will only discuss the practical cases of metals. Following this, some widespread ad hoc modification of the general methods are discussed. The report is concluded by a generalization of the methods to multi-component materials, in particular metallic alloys. (author)

  16. E-commerce of freshwater aquarium fishes: potential disseminator of exotic species in Brazil = Comércio eletrônico de peixes ornamentais de água doce: potencial dispersor de espécies exóticas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of freshwater aquarium fish species for sale was surveyed from July 2005 to June 2006 in Brazilian electronic commerce and the Orkut website. São Paulo was the leading state regarding virtual shops, auctions on Arremate/Mercado Livre, and hobbyists on Orkut, with 52, 44 and 46%, respectively. The Southeast and Southregions led the offer of pest species such as C. carpio, C. auratus and P. reticulata. Among the 07 species for sale, 14 species considered potential pests were identified, contrasting with only one page that warned about the dangers of aquarium dumping. The easy access to fish (especially the potential pest species through e-commerce and Orkut, together with the low total price (unitary value + shipping and handling ranging from US$ 17.67 to 30.39, and fast interstate delivery (two-four days on average confirm the widespread e-commerce accessibility and its high dispersal potential via postal services and home hobbyists trade. It is imperative to enforce the use of warnings or alert messages in e-commerce about thedangers of biological invasions. A disponibilidade para venda de espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce foi pesquisada de julho/2005 a junho/2006 no comércioeletrônico brasileiro e no site de relacionamentos Orkut. O Estado de São Paulo foi o principal em lojas virtuais, leilões no Arremate/Mercado Livre e aquaristas vendendo peixes no Orkut, com 52, 44 e 46%, respectivamente. As regiões Sudeste e Sul são as que maisanunciaram espécies como C. carpio, C. auratus e P. reticulata. Entre as 207 espécies disponíveis para venda, 14 foram identificadas como potenciais praga, contrastando com apenas uma página eletrônica que alertava sobre os perigos do descarte de espécies ornamentais exóticas em novos ambientes. O fácil acesso aos peixes (notadamente espécies consideradas potenciais praga pelo comércio eletrônico e Orkut, aliado a um preço acessível (valor unitário + embalagem + frete

  17. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  18. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  19. Graphing Electric Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  20. Measurement of Electric Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the measurement of electric potentials by means of a flame probe. This method is used extensively in the new Nuffield Advanced Level Physics course, and provides a means of taking reliable quantitative results in an area of most school courses where the majority of the work is qualitative. (JR)

  1. Biomethanation and Its Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    , plugflow, biofilm, UASB, etc.) and process conditions (retention times, loading rates, temperatures, etc.) in order to maximize the energy output from the waste and also to decrease retention time and enhance process stability. Biomethanation has strong potential for the production of energy from organic...

  2. Potentials of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, A.; Schroder, O. [Johann Heinrich von Thunen Inst., Braunschweig (Germany); Krahl, J. [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences, Coburg (Germany); Bunger, J. [Inst. for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-Univ. Inst., Bochum (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the potential of biofuels with particular reference to the situation in Germany and Europe. Emphasis was on technical potential, such as biofuel production, utilization and environmental aspects. The Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering ran vTI emission tests on diesel engines to evaluate the environmental impacts of biofuels. This testing facility is able to drive heavy-duty diesel engines in both stationary and dynamic test cycles, such as the European ESC and ETC. Additional analyses were conducted to determine the fine and ultra-fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes, ketones, and the usual regulated exhaust gas compounds. Ames tests were conducted to assess the mutagenic potential of tailpipe emissions. Previous study results showed that neat vegetable oils can render the exhaust high in mutagenic potency. Some of the non-regulated exhaust gas compounds were found to vary nonlinearly with the blend composition. B20 was found to have high mutagenic potential and was subject to sedimentation.

  3. Germany's power potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for independent power projects in Germany after the reunification. The topics discussed in the article include legal questions, pricing regulations, pollution regulations, energy efficiency regulations, the carbon tax, the market for modernization of power plants and construction of new capacity, and the future outlook

  4. Solar energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of solar energy as a national resource is discussed. Research and development programs for the development of eleven concepts are described to show the proposed funding for each year over a fifteen year period. The estimated energy contributions by period for each of the solar concepts are analyzed. The estimated impact of the solar concepts to the year 2020 are tabulated.

  5. Language as Pure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  6. Potentials Unbounded Below

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Continuous interpolates are described for classical dynamical systems defined by discrete time-steps. Functional conjugation methods play a central role in obtaining the interpolations. The interpolates corrrespond to particle motion in an underlying potential, V. Typically, V has no lower bound and can exhibit switchbacks wherein V changes form when turning points are encountered by the particle. The logistic map is used to illustrate these features.

  7. Potential Vorticity in Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, G. M.; Mace, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    A version of Noether's second theorem using Lagrange multipliers is used to investigate fluid relabelling symmetries conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We obtain a new generalized potential vorticity type conservation equation for MHD which takes into account entropy gradients and the ${\\bf J}\\times{\\bf B}$ force on the plasma due to the current ${\\bf J}$ and magnetic induction ${\\bf B}$. This new conservation law for MHD is derived by using Noether's second theorem in conjuncti...

  8. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  9. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  10. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1997-07-01

    Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish`s (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the killifish`s raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish`s control raw meat mixed with {sup 137}Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to {sup 137}CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD{sub 280nm} in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that {sup 137}Cs accumulated in the killifish`s meat was shown not to be binding to protein`s composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with {sup 137}Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, {sup 137}Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish`s meat was not almost different from those of each control and {sup 137}CsCl solution. (author)

  11. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  12. A simple and affordable calorespirometer for assessing the metabolic rates of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, M D; Gosline, J M; Richards, J G

    2013-12-15

    Calorimetry is the measurement of the heat liberated during energy transformations in chemical reactions. When applied to living organisms, it measures the heat released due to the energy transformations associated with metabolism under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This is in contrast to the often-used respirometric techniques for assessing energy turnover, which can only be used under fully aerobic conditions. Accordingly, calorimetry is considered the 'gold standard' for quantifying metabolic rate, yet despite this, it remains a seldom-used technique among comparative physiologists. The reasons for this are related to the expense and perceived difficulty of the technique. We have designed and constructed an inexpensive flow-through calorespirometer capable of detecting rates of metabolic heat loss and oxygen consumption (O2) in fish under a variety of environmental conditions over long-term experiments. The metabolic heat of the fish is detected as a voltage by a collection of Peltier units wired in series, while oxygen optodes placed on the inflowing and outflowing water lines are used for the calculation of O2. The apparatus is constructed in a differential fashion to account for ambient temperature fluctuations. This paper describes the design and construction of the calorespirometer for ~$1300 CDN. Using the goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus), we show that the calorespirometer is sensitive to changes in metabolic rate brought about by pharmacological manipulation and severe hypoxia exposures.

  13. The Static Baryon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Tsapalis, A; Forcrand, Ph. de

    2002-01-01

    Using state of the art lattice techniques we investigate the static baryon potential. We employ the multi-hit procedure for the time links and a variational approach to determine the ground state with sufficient accuracy that, for distances up to $\\sim 1.2$ fm, we can distinguish the $Y$- and $\\Delta$- Ans\\"atze for the baryonic Wilson area law. Our analysis shows that the $\\Delta$-Ansatz is favoured. This result is also supported by the gauge-invariant nucleon wave function which we measure for the first time.

  14. Electrostatic potential in superconductor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipavský, Pavel; Koláček, Jan; Morawetz, K.; Brandt, E. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2002), s. 14511-1-14511-18 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 601; GA ČR GA202/00/0643; GA AV ČR IAA1010806; GA AV ČR IAA1010919 Grant - others:ESF(XX) VORTEX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Ginzburg-Landau theory * Bernoulli potential * Abrikosov vortex lattice Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  15. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  16. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  17. Zoonotic potential of Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M

    2013-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  19. The effective nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical analyses is made of the mean effective internucleon potential required in the shell-model description of nuclei, allowing for the presence of many-body effects as suggested by current theory. A consistent description is found in which the effective two-body interaction acts almost entirely in even states, and the many-body effects are simulated by a repulsive three-body contact interaction. The strength of the two-body interaction is consistent with that expressed by the free scattering matrix of the two-nucleon system, and that of the three-body interaction with the 'rearrangement energy' calculated in the many-body theory. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  20. Potential vorticity in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Mace, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    A version of Noether's second theorem using Lagrange multipliers is used to investigate fluid relabelling symmetries conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We obtain a new generalized potential vorticity type conservation equation for MHD which takes into account entropy gradients and the J × B force on the plasma due to the current J and magnetic induction B. This new conservation law for MHD is derived by using Noether's second theorem in conjunction with a class of fluid relabelling symmetries in which the symmetry generator for the Lagrange label transformations is non-parallel to the magnetic field induction in Lagrange label space. This is associated with an Abelian Lie pseudo algebra and a foliated phase space in Lagrange label space. It contains as a special case Ertel's theorem in ideal fluid mechanics. An independent derivation shows that the new conservation law is also valid for more general physical situations.

  1. Not utilized learning potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    -conscious disjuncture, in development of the concept pseudo-everyday life activities and in a categorizing mo­del for and a theory about student nurses' learning processes. The theory includes relations between 4 types of  disjuncture, 3 types of content in the learning processes, and factors that provoke...... transformation from one type of disjuncture to another.      Students and mentors are not aware that students are in potential learning situations when they interact on their own with patients, and that it is non-routine for students to act with patients in pseudo-everyday life activities. It may be possible......  When the Danish Nursing Education in 2002 became a Bachelor Degree the clinical part of the education was reduced. Therefore, it was necessary to optimize learning in practice.       I made a qualitative investigation to describe student nurses' learning processes in non-routine situations where...

  2. Potential for nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1977-05-01

    The question of whether or not terrorists will ''go nuclear'' is discussed. It is possible, although there is no historical evidence that any criminal or terrorist group ever made any attempt to acquire nuclear material for use in an explosive or dispersal device. In terms of intentions, psychotics are potential nuclear terrorists, but in terms of capabilities, they are the farthest away from being able to acquire a nuclear weapon. The history of nuclear incidents in the U.S. and abroad is reviewed. As the nuclear industry expands, the number of low-level incidents (bomb threats, pilferage, etc.) will increase also, but not necessarily escalate to more serious incidents. Terrorists may ''go nuclear'' solely for the publicity value; nuclear hoaxes may be attenpted. Nuclear terrorism seems more attractive as a threat than as an action. But the nature of the threat may change in the future, and the danger of imitation of a successful nuclear terrorist act is pointed out

  3. Pseudo potentials and model potentials in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, O.; Jouin, H.; Fuentealba, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, it is discussed the main differences between the use of pseudo-potentials and model potentials in collision problems . It is shown the potential energy curves for distinct systems obtained with both kinds of potentials. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  4. Bioremedication: Potentials and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The three main types of marine oil spill bioremediation involve fertilizers, seeding, and open-water applications. Fertilizers contain nutrients that trigger the growth of indigenous oil-degrading microorganisms. Seeding involves adding exogenous microbes to an oiled environment to promote increased biodegradation rates. The effectiveness of using either seeding or fertilizers in the open ocean has not been well established and most of the scientific community and many oil professionals remain skeptical about the utility of bioremediation at sea because rigorously controlled and documented experiments have not yet been done. Several companies have advocated using bioremediation for open ocean oil spills, but they have not yet produced convincing evidence that their products work as claimed. A potentially significant problem at sea is keeping the microorganisms in contact with the oil long enough for degradation to occur. The jury is still out regarding regulatory and public acceptance of bioremediation as a technique to clean up oil spills in general. Commercialization of bioremediation products is hindered by lack of protocols for testing and approval, although efforts are underway to devise such mechanisms

  5. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.

  6. Toxic potential of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Jiří; Gupta, Ramesh C; Wu, Qing-hua; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-10-01

    This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that palytoxin acts as a hemolysin and alters the function of excitable cells through multiple mechanisms of action. Palytoxin selectively binds to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a Kd of 20 pM and transforms the pump into a channel permeable to monovalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 10 pS. This mechanism of action could have multiple effects on cells. Evaluation of palytoxin toxicity using various animal models revealed that palytoxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin following an intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intratracheal route of exposure. Palytoxin also causes non-lethal, yet serious toxic effects following dermal or ocular exposure. Most incidents of palytoxin poisoning have manifested after oral intake of contaminated seafood. Poisonings in humans have also been noted after inhalation, cutaneous/systemic exposures with direct contact of aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing Cnidarian zoanthids. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide.

  7. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of

  8. Quantum potentiality revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2017-10-01

    Heisenberg offered an interpretation of the quantum state which made use of a quantitative version of an earlier notion, , of Aristotle by both referring to it using its Latin name, potentia, and identifying its qualitative aspect with . The relationship between this use and Aristotle's notion was not made by Heisenberg in full detail, beyond noting their common character: that of signifying the system's objective capacity to be found later to possess a property in actuality. For such actualization, Heisenberg required measurement to have taken place, an interaction with external systems that disrupts the otherwise independent, natural evolution of the quantum system. The notion of state actualization was later taken up by others, including Shimony, in the search for a law-like measurement process. Yet, the relation of quantum potentiality to Aristotle's original notion has been viewed as mainly terminological, even by those who used it thus. Here, I reconsider the relation of Heisenberg's notion to Aristotle's and show that it can be explicated in greater specificity than Heisenberg did. This is accomplished through the careful consideration of the role of potentia in physical causation and explanation, and done in order to provide a fuller understanding of this aspect of Heisenberg's approach to quantum mechanics. Most importantly, it is pointed out that Heisenberg's requirement of an external intervention during measurement that disrupts the otherwise independent, natural evolution of the quantum system is in accord with Aristotle's characterization of spontaneous causation. Thus, the need for a teleological understanding of the actualization of potentia, an often assumed requirement that has left this fundamental notion neglected, is seen to be spurious. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  9. Quantum potentiality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2017-11-13

    Heisenberg offered an interpretation of the quantum state which made use of a quantitative version of an earlier notion, [Formula: see text], of Aristotle by both referring to it using its Latin name, potentia , and identifying its qualitative aspect with [Formula: see text] The relationship between this use and Aristotle's notion was not made by Heisenberg in full detail, beyond noting their common character: that of signifying the system's objective capacity to be found later to possess a property in actuality. For such actualization, Heisenberg required measurement to have taken place, an interaction with external systems that disrupts the otherwise independent, natural evolution of the quantum system. The notion of state actualization was later taken up by others, including Shimony, in the search for a law-like measurement process. Yet, the relation of quantum potentiality to Aristotle's original notion has been viewed as mainly terminological, even by those who used it thus. Here, I reconsider the relation of Heisenberg's notion to Aristotle's and show that it can be explicated in greater specificity than Heisenberg did. This is accomplished through the careful consideration of the role of potentia in physical causation and explanation, and done in order to provide a fuller understanding of this aspect of Heisenberg's approach to quantum mechanics. Most importantly, it is pointed out that Heisenberg's requirement of an external intervention during measurement that disrupts the otherwise independent, natural evolution of the quantum system is in accord with Aristotle's characterization of spontaneous causation. Thus, the need for a teleological understanding of the actualization of potentia, an often assumed requirement that has left this fundamental notion neglected, is seen to be spurious.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  11. Influence of Zinc on Gill Morphology of Gibelio Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    OpenAIRE

    Iliana G. Velcheva; Atanas D. Arnaudov; Elenka S. Georgieva

    2010-01-01

    The influence of increasing concentrations of Zinc sulfate (Zn SO4x7H20) on thehystostructure of Gibelio carp gills was investigated. Changes were observed even in the lowestconcentration (0.1 mg.l-1) – degenerating, cirulation and hyperplastic processes. With the increasingof the Zinc concentration, the hyperplasic processes were predominant over the degenerating andcirulation ones.

  12. The epidermal structure of Carassius gibelio: a link with ploidy status in spawning and postspawning periods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Papoušek, Ivo; Mendel, Jan; Šimková, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 9 (2010), s. 2171-2179 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/55/07; GA ČR GP524/09/P620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : club and goblet cells * gibel carp * ploidy level Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2010

  13. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  14. VT Act 174 Wind Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The statewide wind potential layer used in the Act 174 effort represents three combined wind resource layers: Potential Residential and Small and...

  15. Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi

    1999-01-01

    Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

  16. Pair potentials for fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskes, M.I.; Melius, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range pair potentials are presented for the fcc metals Ni, Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Cu, and Al. Experimental data considered in deriving the potentials include the sublimination energies and stacking-fault energies as well as the lattice parameters, elastic constants, and vacancy-formation and -migration energies. A volume-dependent energy term has been included in the potentials. By scaling the potentials with respect to lattice spacing and a characteristic binding energy, a striking similarity can be seen between the various potentials. These potentials have been used to calculate a variety of point-defect properties including self-interstitial geometries and migration energies. In addition the migration energy of helium and its binding energy to a vacancy have been calculated

  17. The neutron optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The present status of optical model calculations of neutron scattering and interactions is reviewed, with special emphasis on more recent developments and the more promising lines of research. The use of dispersion relations to provide an extra constraint on the potential is discussed, together with their application to studies of the Fermi surface anomaly. The application of potential inversion techniques to determine the form of the potential is also considered. (author). 39 refs, figs

  18. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu 2 Zr 2 O 7+y , fluorite-type (Pu 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 2-x and AmO 2-x have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  19. Androgenic Regulation of Male Sexual Behavior and Physiology in the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Piekarski, David John

    2012-01-01

    The androgen testosterone (T) and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), are released from the gonads and act in the brain and periphery to control many male-typical traits, including male sexual behavior (MSB). The classical model of androgenic action asserts that T, or DHT binds to a single species of intracellular androgen receptor (AR), that acts as a transcription factor to induce transactivation of androgen-regulated genes. Accordingly, androgens may take hours or days to assert t...

  20. Quantification of fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelini M.O.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to the utilization of laboratory animal blood and its by-products are particularly attractive, especially regarding hamsters due to their small size and difficulties in obtaining serial blood samples. Steroid hormone metabolite quantification in feces, widely used in studies of free-ranging or intractable animals, is a non-invasive, non-stressor, economical, and animal saving technique which allows longitudinal studies by permitting frequent sampling of the same individual. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for laboratory animals. Estradiol and progesterone metabolites were quantified by radioimmunoassay in feces of intact, sexually mature female Syrian hamsters during the estrous cycle (control and in feces of superovulated females. Metabolites were extracted by fecal dilution in ethanol and quantified by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations were 9.703 and 180.74 ng/g feces in the control group, respectively. Peaks of estrogen (22.44 ± 4.54 ng/g feces and progesterone (655.95 ± 129.93 ng/g feces mean fecal concentrations respectively occurred 12 h before and immediately after ovulation, which is easily detected in this species by observation of a characteristic vaginal postovulatory discharge. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations (28.159 and 586.57 ng/g feces, respectively were significantly higher in superovulated animal feces (P < 0.0001. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to monitor ovarian activity in Syrian hamsters non-invasively by measuring fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites. This technique appears to be a quite encouraging method for the development of new endocrinologic studies on laboratory animals.

  1. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  2. Morphogenesis of palatal ridges in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, M.; Matulová, Petra; Witter, K.; Tichý, F.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2005), s. 319-327 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : oral cavity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005

  3. Isolation of a novel aquaglyceroporin from a marine teleost (Sparus auratus): function and tissue distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Estevao, M.D.; Fuentes, J.; Cardoso, -; Fabra, M.; Passos, A.L.; Detmers, F.J.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Cerda, J.; Power, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aquaporins (formerly called the major intrinsic protein family) are transmembrane channel proteins. The family includes the CHIP group, which are functionally characterised as water channels and the GLP group, which are specialised for glycerol transport. The present study reports the

  4. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus: Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation. Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer in late stages of the trials then in early stages. Nonetheless, the most choices to adjacent stations were in Distant-Patches condition, while skips and diagonal-station choices were more frequently showed in the Near-Patches condition.

  5. Histochemical study of brown-fat cells in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.E.; Boyadzhieva-Mikhailova, A.; Koncheva, L.; Angelova, P.; Evgen'eva, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors undertake the task of studying the synthesis of certain hormones by brown-fat cells. The authors used brown-fat cells from the golden hamster. The metabolism of brown-fat cells was studied on precultured cells, which made it possible to detect the synthesis of the studied substances rather than their accumulation in the organ. The authors conducted three experiments. First, fragments of brown fat were cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo. Pieces of brown fat were cultivated in parallel in vitro on agar (organotypic cultures) and on plasma (histotypic cultures). During cultivation in diffusion chambers, the chambers were implanted in the abdominal cavity of young white rats. For in vitro cultivation, TCM 199 plus 15-20% calf serum was used. A total of 36 cultures with 12 cultures in each series of experiments were performed. The auto-radiographic studies of brown-fat cells were conducted on 24-hour cultures and on brown-fat fragments taken from the intact animal. The cultures were incubated with isotopes for 1 h. Either [ 3 H]lysine (87.3 Ci/mM specific activity), [ 3 H]arginine (16.7 Ci/mM), [ 3 H]glycerol (43 Ci/mM), or [ 3 H]cholesterol (43 Ci/mM) were added to the medium. After incubation, the cultures were washed three times in pure medium, fixed in Sierra fluid, and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were covered with Ilford K 2 emulsion, and the preparations were exposed for 20 days at 4 0 C temperature. Radio-immunological methods were used to study the accumulation of estradiol-17-beta in the culture medium by the Dobson method and that of testerone. The culture medium was taken on cultivation days 2,4,6,8, and 10. The medium was changed during cultivation every third day, which made it possible to judge the rates of accumulation of material with increase in the cultivation times

  6. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  7. Neural mechanisms of individual and sexual recognition in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrulis, Aras

    2009-06-25

    Recognizing the individual and sexual identities of conspecifics is critical for adaptive social behavior and, in most mammals this information is communicated primarily by chemosensory cues. Due to its heavy reliance on odor cues, we have used the Syrian hamster as our model species for investigating the neural regulation of social recognition. Using lesion, electrophysiological and immunocytochemical techniques, separate neural pathways underlying recognition of individual odors and guidance of sex-typical responses to opposite-sex odors have been identified in both male and female hamsters. Specifically, we have found that recognition of individual odor identity requires olfactory bulb connections to entorhinal cortex (ENT) rather than other chemoreceptive brain regions. This kind of social memory does not appear to require the hippocampus and may, instead, depend on ENT connections with piriform cortex. In contrast, sexual recognition, through either differential investigation or scent marking toward opposite-sex odors, depends on both olfactory and vomeronasal system input to the corticomedial amygdala. Preference for investigating opposite-sex odors requires primarily olfactory input to the medial amygdala (ME) whereas appropriately targeted scent marking responses require vomeronasal input to ME as well as to other structures. Within the ME, the anterior section (MEa) appears important for evaluating or classifying social odors whereas the posterodorsal region (MEpd) may be more involved in generating approach to social odors. Evidence is presented that analysis of social odors may initially be done in MEa and then communicated to MEpd, perhaps through micro-circuits that separately process male and female odors.

  8. PTHrP and calcium balance in gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Wolter

    2007-01-01

    The research aimed to elucidate hypercalcemic regulation in juvenile sea bream confronted with an experimentally induced limited access to environmental calcium. The principle to restrict sea bream in its access to calcium in water and diet was to activate hypercalcemic regulatory factors such as

  9. Plasmas: Diversity, pervasiveness and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1998-01-01

    When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, pervasiveness and potential: diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy, time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.

  10. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section is significant in regard to fertility potential, and a value of 1% or less (approximately Sertoli cells only) may predict low fertility potential. To our knowledge Sertoli cells only have not been observed before 15 months of life...

  11. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  12. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and two-person Cournot games.

  13. Potential photosynthesis of crop surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1959-01-01

    A formula for calculating the potential photosynthesis of a closed crop surface is proposed, assuming that the leaves of the crop are not arranged in any definite direction. In the Netherlands, values for potential photosynthesis vary from 290 kg. CH2O/ha./day in June to 50 kg./ha./day in December.

  14. Spacetime Metrics from Gauge Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Minguzzi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I present an approach to gravity in which the spacetime metric is constructed from a non-Abelian gauge potential with values in the Lie algebra of the group U(2 (or the Lie algebra of quaternions. If the curvature of this potential vanishes, the metric reduces to a canonical curved background form reminiscent of the Friedmann S3 cosmological metric.

  15. A Reappraisal of Children's "Potential"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clémentine; Higham, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    What does it mean for a child to fulfil his or her potential? This article explores the contexts and implications of the much-used concept of potential in educational discourses. We claim that many of the popular, political and educational uses of the term in relation to childhood have a problematic blind spot: interpersonality, and the necessary…

  16. Ambipolar potential formation in TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D.L.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    TMX experimental data on ambipolar potential control and on the accompanying electrostatic confinement are reported. New results on the radial dependence of the central-cell confining potential are given. Radial and axial particle losses as well as scaling of the central-cell axial confinement are discussed

  17. Imagined Potentialities of Healthcare Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on health care technologies and initiatives, particularly, Electronic Health Records (EHRs). These technologies are ascribed various potentialities, attributing them the capacity to do a wide range of things, from improving efficiency to saving medical costs and even saving...... lives. These complex and often conflicting imagined potentialities lead to inflicted burden on designers, policy makers and healthcare practitioners who are faced with different realities on the ground. The conflicting notions have real life effects as these impact our present understanding of...... an inherent capacity to produce a change. The term potentiality has a long history in Western philosophy, in particularly in Aristotle’s metaphysics where he distinguishes between potentiality and actuality. Potentiality refers to the capacity that a thing can be said to have; the capacity to come...

  18. Mathematical theory of potential scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, T.

    1963-01-01

    Before we go into a detailed discussion of the potential scattering we would like to spend a few words on the reason potential scattering is interesting. We think that one of the main reasons of success of the potential model is that we can discuss it quite rigorously and that at the same time it gives a fairly intuitive picture of the scattering process and it provides in a way the language for a fully relativistic theory. We do not think that the potential model has been particularly satisfactory in explaining quantitatively the known experimental data, for instance the nucleon-nucleon scattering; yet we have good reasons to believe that at low energy any field theory will ultimately yield some sort of spin-dependent potential, containing spin orbit coupling and exchange terms. How this can be done and how far one has gone in this direction has nothing to do with the subject of these lectures which are merely concerned with the discussion of the solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a given class of potentials. That is,we assume from the very beginning that a potential exists although we do not know it or we know only broad features like the range and its analytic properties as function of the distance. For simplicity we do not deal with spin or exchange terms although they can be taken care of with little modifications. We just want to find those features of potential scattering which are to a large extent independent of the particular selection of the potential.

  19. Cold atoms in singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, J. P.

    1998-09-01

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the interaction between cold Li atoms from a magnetic-optical trap (MOT) and a charged or current-carrying wire. With this system, we were able to realize 1/r 2 and 1/r potentials in two dimensions and to observe the motion of cold atoms in both potentials. For an atom in an attractive 1/r 2 potential, there exist no stable trajectories, instead there is a characteristic class of trajectories for which atoms fall into the singularity. We were able to observe this falling of atoms into the center of the potential. Moreover, by probing the singular 1/r 2 potential with atomic clouds of varying size and temperature we extracted scaling properties of the atom-wire interaction. For very cold atoms, and very thin wires the motion of the atoms must be treated quantum mechanically. Here we predict that the absorption cross section for the 1/r 2 potential should exhibit quantum steps. These quantum steps are a manifestation of the quantum mechanical decomposition of plane waves into partial waves. For the second part of this work, we realized a two dimensional 1/r potential for cold atoms. If the potential is attractive, the atoms can be bound and follow Kepler-like orbits around the wire. The motion in the third dimension along the wire is free. We were able to exploit this property and constructed a novel cold atom guide, the 'Kepler guide'. We also demonstrated another type of atom guide (the 'side guide'), by combining the magnetic field of the wire with a homogeneous offset magnetic field. In this case, the atoms are held in a potential 'tube' on the side of the wire. The versatility, simplicity, and scaling properties of this guide make it an interesting technique. (author)

  20. Vector Games with Potential Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pusillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non cooperative games with potential function was introduced by Monderer and Shapley in 1996. Such games have interesting properties, among which is the existence of equilibria in pure strategies. The paper by Monderer and Shapley has inspired many game theory researchers. In the present paper, many classes of multiobjective games with potential functions are studied. The notions of generalized, best-reply and Pareto potential games are introduced in a multicriteria setting. Some properties and Pareto equilibria are investigated.

  1. Potential Theory Surveys and Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.

  2. Exceptional circles of radial potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, M; Perry, P; Siltanen, S

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear scattering transform is studied for the two-dimensional Schrödinger equation at zero energy with a radial potential. Explicit examples are presented, both theoretically and computationally, of potentials with nontrivial singularities in the scattering transform. The singularities arise from non-uniqueness of the complex geometric optics solutions that define the scattering transform. The values of the complex spectral parameter at which the singularities appear are called exceptional points. The singularity formation is closely related to the fact that potentials of conductivity type are ‘critical’ in the sense of Murata. (paper)

  3. Discovering Potential Correlations via Hypercontractivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeji; Gao, Weihao; Kannan, Sreeram; Oh, Sewoong; Viswanath, Pramod

    2017-11-01

    Discovering a correlation from one variable to another variable is of fundamental scientific and practical interest. While existing correlation measures are suitable for discovering average correlation, they fail to discover hidden or potential correlations. To bridge this gap, (i) we postulate a set of natural axioms that we expect a measure of potential correlation to satisfy; (ii) we show that the rate of information bottleneck, i.e., the hypercontractivity coefficient, satisfies all the proposed axioms; (iii) we provide a novel estimator to estimate the hypercontractivity coefficient from samples; and (iv) we provide numerical experiments demonstrating that this proposed estimator discovers potential correlations among various indicators of WHO datasets, is robust in discovering gene interactions from gene expression time series data, and is statistically more powerful than the estimators for other correlation measures in binary hypothesis testing of canonical examples of potential correlations.

  4. Molecular potentials and relaxation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karo, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of empirical pseudopotentials, in evaluating interatomic potentials, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for obtaining highly accurate potential curves and permits the modeling of core-valence correlation, and the inclusion of relativistic effects when these are significant. As an example, recent calculations of the chi 1 Σ + and a 3 Σ + states of LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH and the chi 2 Σ + states of their anions are discussed. Pseudopotentials, including core polarization terms, have been used to replace the core electrons, and this has been coupled with the development of compact, highly-optimized basis sets for the corresponding one- and two-electron atoms. Comparisons of the neutral potential curves with experiment and other ab initio calculations show good agreement (within 1000 cm -1 over most of the potential curves) with the difference curves being considerably more accurate

  5. Effective potentials for twisted fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banach, R.

    1981-01-01

    Minus the density of the effective action, evaluated at the lowest eigenfunction of the (space-time) derivative part of the second (functional) derivative of the classical action, is proposed as a generalised definition of the effective potential, applicable to twisted as well as untwisted sectors of a field theory. The proposal is corroborated by several specific calculations in the twisted sector, namely phi 4 theory (real and complex) and wrong-sign-Gordon theory, in an Einstein cylinder, where the exact integrability of the static solutions confirms the effective potential predictions. Both models exhibit a phase transition, which the effective potential locates, and the one-loop quantum shift in the critical radius is computed for the real phi 4 model, being a universal result. Topological mass generation at the classical level is pointed out, and the exactness of the classical effective potential approximation for complex phi 4 is discussed. (author)

  6. Chirally motivated K- nuclear potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieply, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mares, J.

    2011-01-01

    In-medium subthreshold K-bar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K - atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K - nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold K-bar N amplitudes, with ReV K chiral =-(85±5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When K-bar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K - nuclear potential results, ReV K c hiral+phen. =-(180±5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K - -nuclear quasibound states generated by V K chiral are reported and discussed.

  7. Singular potentials in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Koo, E. Ley [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a review of some mathematical methods as recently developed and applied to deal with singular potentials in Quantum Mechanics. Regular and singular perturbative methods as well as variational treatments are considered. (author). 25 refs.

  8. Molecular potentials and relaxation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karo, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of empirical pseudopotentials, in evaluating interatomic potentials, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for obtaining highly accurate potential curves and permits the modeling of core-valence correlation, and the inclusion of relativistic effects when these are significant. Recent calculations of the X 1 Σ + and a 3 Σ + states of LiH, NaH, KH, RbH, and CsH and the X 2 Σ + states of their anions are discussed. Pseudopotentials, including core polarization terms, have been used to replace the core electrons, and this has been coupled with the development of compact, higly-optimized basis sets for the corresponding one- and two-electron atoms. Comparisons of the neutral potential curves with experiment and other ab initio calculations show good agreement (within 1000 cm -1 over most of the potential curves) with the difference curves being considerably more accurate. In the method of computer molecular dynamics, the force acting on each particle is the resultant of all interactions with other atoms in the neighborhood and is obtained as the derivative of an effective many-body potential. Exploiting the pseudopotential approach, in obtaining the appropriate potentials may be very fruitful in the future. In the molecular dynamics example considered here, the conventional sum-of-pairwise-interatomic-potentials (SPP) approximation is used with the potentials derived either from experimental spectroscopic data or from Hartree-Fock calculations. The problem is the collisional de-excitation of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen at an Fe surface. The calculations have been carried out for an initial vibrotational state v = 8, J = 1 and a translational temperature corresponding to a gas temperature of 500 0 K. Different angles of approach and different initial random impact points on the surface have been selected. For any given collision with the wall, the molecule may pick up or lose vibrotatonal and translational energy

  9. On the optical potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    For the nuclear reaction description a separable optical potential is constructed. Sop is optimal in view of the Schwinger variational principle. The green function is calculated with the Vsub(opt) potential. Equations of the method of strong channel coupling. A characteristic case of the three-body problem is considered, namely: elastic scattering of a particle on the bound state of second and third particles

  10. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-01-01

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green α-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained

  11. Propagator for finite range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, Ilaria; Moretti, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The Schroedinger equation in integral form is applied to the one-dimensional scattering problem in the case of a general finite range, nonsingular potential. A simple expression for the Laplace transform of the transmission propagator is obtained in terms of the associated Fredholm determinant, by means of matrix methods; the particular form of the kernel and the peculiar aspects of the transmission problem play an important role. The application to an array of delta potentials is shown

  12. Potential scattering of Dirac particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1981-01-01

    A quantum mechanical interpretation of the Dirac equation for particles in external electromagnetic potentials is discussed. It is shown that a consequent development of the Stueckelberg-Feynman theory into a probabilistic interpretation of the Dirac equation corrects some prejudices concerning negative energy states, Zitterbewegung and bound states in repulsive potentials and yields the connection between propagator theory and scattering theory. Limits of the Dirac equation, considered as a wave mechanical equation, are considered. (U.K.)

  13. Estimation of potential uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, D.L.

    1977-09-01

    Potential estimates, like reserves, are limited by the information on hand at the time and are not intended to indicate the ultimate resources. Potential estimates are based on geologic judgement, so their reliability is dependent on the quality and extent of geologic knowledge. Reliability differs for each of the three potential resource classes. It is greatest for probable potential resources because of the greater knowledge base resulting from the advanced stage of exploration and development in established producing districts where most of the resources in this class are located. Reliability is least for speculative potential resources because no significant deposits are known, and favorability is inferred from limited geologic data. Estimates of potential resources are revised as new geologic concepts are postulated, as new types of uranium ore bodies are discovered, and as improved geophysical and geochemical techniques are developed and applied. Advances in technology that permit the exploitation of deep or low-grade deposits, or the processing of ores of previously uneconomic metallurgical types, also will affect the estimates

  14. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents

  15. Virtual potentials for feedback traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2012-12-01

    The recently developed feedback trap can be used to create arbitrary virtual potentials, to explore the dynamics of small particles or large molecules in complex situations. Experimentally, feedback traps introduce several finite time scales: There is a delay between the measurement of a particle's position and the feedback response, the feedback response is applied for a finite update time, and a finite camera exposure integrates motion. We show how to incorporate such timing effects into the description of particle motion. For the test case of a virtual quadratic potential, we give the first accurate description of particle dynamics, calculating the power spectrum and variance of fluctuations as a function of feedback gain, testing against simulations. We show that for small feedback gains, the motion approximates that of a particle in an ordinary harmonic potential. Moreover, if the potential is varied in time, for example by varying its stiffness, the work that is calculated approximates that done in an ordinary changing potential. The quality of the approximation is set by the ratio of the update time of the feedback loop to the relaxation time of motion in the virtual potential.

  16. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  17. Spatiotemporal deformations of reflectionless potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.; Longhi, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reflectionless potentials for classical or matter waves represent an important class of scatteringless systems encountered in different areas of physics. Here we mathematically demonstrate that there is a family of non-Hermitian potentials that, in contrast to their Hermitian counterparts, remain reflectionless even when deformed in space or time. These are the profiles that satisfy the spatial Kramers-Kronig relations. We start by considering scattering of matter waves for the Schrödinger equation with an external field, where a moving potential is observed in the Kramers-Henneberger reference frame. We then generalize this result to the case of electromagnetic waves, by considering a slab of reflectionless material that both is scaled and has its center displaced as an arbitrary function of position. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that the backscattering from these profiles remains zero, even for extreme deformations. Our results indicate the supremacy of non-Hermitian Kramers-Kronig potentials over reflectionless Hermitian potentials in keeping their reflectionless property under deformation and could find applications to, e.g., reflectionless optical coatings of highly deformed surfaces based on perfect absorption.

  18. A semiclassical study of optical potentials - potential resonances -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.; Marty, C.

    1977-01-01

    A semiclassical method is used to analyze resonances produced by complex potentials. The absorption plays a central role: when it is not too great, resonances manifest themselves by enhancement of cross sections near π. The reverse is not necessarily true, for instance the anomalous large angle scattering for α-Ca is due to a coherent superposition of many partial waves

  19. The Potential of Conductivity, Redox Potential and Dissolved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was therefore to explore the potential of DO, Eh and Co in milk quality assessment. Raw milk, lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) activated raw milk and LP-s activated Ultra High Temperature (UHT) milk inoculated singly with pure strains were used in this study. The performances of DO, Eh and Co in ...

  20. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2...... similar fertility potentials were found in adulthood. Five of the 65 patients (7.7%, 95% confidence limits 2.5 to 17%) may experience infertility, representing 33% of both groups with less than 1% of the age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (approximately no germ cells......) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility. Otherwise...

  1. The potential of biogas energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acaroglu, M.; Hepbasli, A.; Kocar, G.

    2005-01-01

    Biogas technology has been known about for a long time, but in recent years the interest in it has significantly increased, especially due to the higher costs and the rapid depletion of fossil fuels as well as their environmental considerations. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of biogas energy in the 15 European Union (EU) countries and in Turkey, which is seeking admission to the EU and is trying to meet EU environmental standards. Biogas energy potential of the 15 EU countries is estimated to be about 800 PJ. Besides this, Turkey's annual animal waste potential is obtained to be about 11.81 million tons with a biogas energy equivalent of 53.6 PJ. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies towards the optimum utilization of biogas energy. (author)

  2. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  3. Geogenic radon potential in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemski, J.; Siehl, A.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.

    1998-01-01

    Classification of geogenic radon potential in Germany is based on detailed field studies of radon activity in soil gas and gas permeability of the soil in representative test areas with an expected high geogenic radon potential and further on wider spaced investigations in the main part of Germany. As a result, detailed maps of geogenic radon potential for selected test area as well as a general map for Germany (1:2 000 000) are presented. Radon activity in soil gas shows great regional variability, which can direct optimisation of further measures for radon prevention and mitigation, as well as focus attention to areas where additional smaller scaled investigations could be advisable. (orig.) [de

  4. Neutron and proton optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.

    1985-11-01

    The neutron and proton optical model potentials (OMP) are discussed in terms of microscopic (MOMP) and phenomenological (POMP) models. For the MOMP, two approaches are discussed, the nucleus matter approach [Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux (JLM) and Brieva-Rook-von Geramb (BRVG), potentials] and the finite nuclei approach (Osterfeld and Madsen). For the POMP, the Lane charge-exchange potential and its validity over a wide mass range is reviewed. In addition to the Lane symmetry term, the Coulomb correction to both the real and imaginary parts of the OMP is discussed for the above models. The use of the OMP to calculate collective inelastic scattering and observed differences between the neutron- and proton-deformation parameters is also illustrated. 25 refs., 3 figs

  5. Potential Theory of Multicomponent Adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We developed a theory of multicomponent adsorption on the basis of the potential concept originally suggested by Polanyi. The mixture is considered as a heterogeneous substance segregated in the external field emitted by the adsorbent. The same standard equation of state, with no additional fitting...... parameters, is used for the segregated and for the bulk phases. With this approach, few parameters are needed to correlate pure component adsorption isotherms. These parameters may be used to predict adsorption equilibria of multicomponent mixtures without additional adjustment. A connection between...... the potential theory and the spreading pressure concept is established, and problems of the theory consistency are studied. Numerical algorithms are suggested for evaluation of the segregated state of the mixture in the potential field of adsorption forces. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreement...

  6. Handbook methane potential; Handbok metanpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, Anna (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Before using a organic material for biogas production it is essential to evaluate the methane production potential. The methane potential is one important tool possible to use during planning of new plants but also when new materials are considered for already running biogas plants. The chemical composition of different organic material varies extensively and this will have an impact on both the degradability and the methane potential. Information about the methane potential of a specific material can sometimes be found in the literature or can be calculated after a chemical/ physical or biological characterization. Here, the BMP test (Biochemical Methane Potential) is a commonly used method. Today the BMP test is a commonly used method to determine the methane potential. Many national and international research groups, consultants as well as personal at biogas plants are using this method and there is a lot of data available in the literature from such tests. In addition there are several protocols giving guidelines on how to execute a BMP-test. The BMP-test is performed in many different ways, not always under optimized conditions, and there is a lack of information on how to interpret the obtained data. This report summarizes knowledge from the literature and the experience from a Swedish referee group, consisting of persons being active performers of BMP-tests. The report does not include a standardized protocol as the procedure can be performed in different ways depending on available equipment and on the type of material to be tested. Instead the report discusses different factors of great importance for a successful test giving reliable results. The report also summarizes important information concerning the interpretation and how to present results in order to allow comparison of data from different test.

  7. Potential Applications of Manual Games,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    34 just because some electronic equipment is used to keep track of logistics, combat results, and force status. Even a highly computerized game like...D-A152 541 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MANUAL GAMES (U) RAND CORP ii SANTA MONICA CA T A BROW~N FEB 84 RAND/P-6957 UNCLASI7FIED F/G 12/2 N El..I 111 1...128 112.5 111 m; * _ 1.8 I1111 ’I’ll MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATI NAl fii~ t1 RI 1A L4k, I POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MANUJAL GAMES Lfl N Lfl

  8. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    biopsy simultaneously with unilateral orchiopexy. In adulthood 56 of the 87 patients agreed to measurement of serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and testicular volume, and 54 provided specimens for semen analysis. RESULTS: The number of spermatogonia per tubular cross....... CONCLUSIONS: The age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section is significant in regard to fertility potential, and a value of 1% or less (approximately Sertoli cells only) may predict low fertility potential. To our knowledge Sertoli cells only have not been observed before 15 months of life...

  9. Potential problems with interpolating fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birse, Michael C. [The University of Manchester, Theoretical Physics Division, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    A potential can have features that do not reflect the dynamics of the system it describes but rather arise from the choice of interpolating fields used to define it. This is illustrated using a toy model of scattering with two coupled channels. A Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is constructed which is a mixture of the waves in the two channels. The potential derived from this has a strong repulsive core, which arises from the admixture of the closed channel in the wave function and not from the dynamics of the model. (orig.)

  10. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  11. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzila, Charles; Dewulf, Jo; van Langenhove, Herman; Spanjers, Henri; Kiriamiti, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the energy crisis through innovative use of the available but underutilised biowaste such as organic residues from maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane. Biogas technology is assumed to have the capacity to economically and sustainably convert these vast amounts of biowaste into renewable energy, thereby replacing the unsustainable fossil energy sources, and reducing dependency on fossil fuels. However, the total energy potential of biogas production from crop residues available in Kenya has never been evaluated and quantified. To this end, we selected five different types of residues (maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane) from Kenya and evaluated their energy potential through biomethane potential analysis at 30 C and a test time of 30 days. The specific methane yields for maize, barley, cotton, tea and sugarcane residues obtained under batch conditions were respectively 363, 271, 365, 67 and 177 m 3 per tonne volatile solids. In terms of energy potential, maize, cotton and barley residues were found to be better substrates for methane production than tea and sugarcane residues and could be considered as potential substrates or supplements for methane production without compromising food security in the country. The evaluated residues have a combined national annual maximum potential of about 1313 million cubic meters of methane which represent about 3916 Gigawatt hour (GWh) of electricity and 5887 GWh of thermal energy. The combined electrical potential is equivalent to 73% of the country's annual power production of 5307 GWh. Utilization of the residues that are readily available on a 'free on site' basis for energy production could substitute the fossil fuels that

  12. Wind energy potential in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Though located in the tropics, India is endowed with substantial wind resources because of its unique geographical location which gets fully exposed to both the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The westerly winds of the south-west monsoons provide bulk of the wind potential. Areas with mean annual wind speed exceeding 18 k mph and areas with mean annual power density greater than 140 W/m 2 have been identified using the wind data collected by the wind monitoring project funded by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Seasonal variations in wind speed at selected locations are discussed as also the frequency distribution of hourly wind speed. Annual capacity factors for 250 kW wind electric generators have been calculated for several typical locations. A good linear correlation has been found between mean annual wind speed and mean annual capacity factor. A method is described for assessing wind potential over an extended region where adequate data is available. It is shown that the combined wind energy potential over five selected areas of limited extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu alone amounts to 22,000 MW under the assumption of 20 per cent land availability for installing wind farms. For a higher percentage of land availability, the potential will be correspondingly higher. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Being a potentially responsible party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on CERCLA II- ability for the unlucky potentially responsible parties (PRPs) which is a Draconian form of strict, joint and several liability with limited statutory defenses that in most cases are impossible to establish. CERCLA vigorously employs these legal concepts, stretching a PRP's financial exposure to the limits necessary to meet the enormous financial costs of remediation

  14. phytoremediation potential of the plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2Department of Botany, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. 3Department of Botany, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Accepted 3 August, 2009. The use of grasses for phytoremediation of crude oil polluted soils especially in the tropics is a new area of study with a lot of potentials. The effect of different ...

  15. Hydrogeological Investigation and Groundwater Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses groundwater quality and productivity in Haromaya watershed, eastern Ethiopia. Continuous pumping test data, collected from seven boreholes was used to determine productivity of the aquifers. 14 water samples were tested for water quality. The aquifers on the basis of permeability, potential and ...

  16. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic,

  17. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, György, E-mail: szabo@mfa.kfki.hu; Borsos, István, E-mail: borsos@mfa.kfki.hu

    2016-04-05

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  18. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-01-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  19. Proprioceptive evoked potentials in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S; Chen, A C; Eder, Derek N

    2000-01-01

    , P190, and a single negative frontal Fz/N70 component. We conclude that a brisk change of a hand held load elicits a significant evoked potential (EP) unlike the electrical somato-sensory EP (SEP). The stimulus is perceived as applied force. For this reason we call it a proprioceptive EP (PEP...

  20. Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian

    KAUST Repository

    Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte

    2014-09-01

    This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.

  1. Death Education and Suicide Potentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Nina Ribak

    1983-01-01

    Assessed whether a death education course attracted students with significantly different attitudes toward death. Results indicated that the death education class did attract persons with greater acceptance of suicide and death. The course tended to further decrease avoidance and increase acceptance. Potentiality for committing suicide was not…

  2. ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF FLUORESCENT Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Thus, Pf5 the powerful siderophore producer (866 µg mg-1 protein) has the potential to suppress the activity of pathogens and enhance the plant growth. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. The financial support provided for this work by the University Grants Commission, South Eastern. Regional Office, Hyderabad [File No. MRP-658/.

  3. Potential theory for directed networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation.

  4. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  5. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...... and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented....

  6. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.

  7. Smartphones: A Potential Discovery Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Starkweather

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated wide adoption of smartphones by researchers is viewed by the authors as a basis for developing mobile-based services. In response to the UNLV Libraries’ strategic plan’s focus on experimentation and outreach, the authors investigate the current and potential role of smartphones as a valuable discovery tool for library users.

  8. Resolution in photovoltaic potential computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, M.N.; Coors, V; Zlatanova, S.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Zlatanova, S.; Laurini, R.; Baucic, M.; Rumor, M.; Ellul, C.; Coors, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking

  9. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  10. ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF FLUORESCENT Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    This study focused on the antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas in vitro, and its inoculation effect on growth performance of Lycopersicon esculentum in Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani infested soil. Biochemical characteristics of fluorescent Pseudomonas showed that all ten isolates were positive ...

  11. Manyfield inflation in random potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkmo, Theodor; Marsh, M. C. David

    2018-02-01

    We construct models of inflation with many randomly interacting fields and use these to study the generation of cosmological observables. We model the potentials as multi-dimensional Gaussian random fields (GRFs) and identify powerful algebraic simplifications that, for the first time, make it possible to access the manyfield limit of inflation in GRF potentials. Focussing on small-field, slow-roll, approximate saddle-point inflation in potentials with structure on sub-Planckian scales, we construct explicit examples involving up to 100 fields and generate statistical ensembles comprising of 164,000 models involving 5 to 50 fields. For the subset of these that support at least sixty e-folds of inflation, we use the 'transport method' and δ N formalism to determine the predictions for cosmological observables at the end of inflation, including the power spectrum and the local non-Gaussianities of the primordial perturbations. We find three key results: i) Planck compatibility is not rare, but future experiments may rule out this class of models; ii) In the manyfield limit, the predictions from these models agree well with, but are sharper than, previous results derived using potentials constructed through non-equilibrium Random Matrix Theory; iii) Despite substantial multifield effects, non-Gaussianities are typically very small: fNLloc ll 1. We conclude that many of the 'generic predictions' of single-field inflation can be emergent features of complex inflation models.

  12. Potential Theory for Directed Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Ming; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering factors underlying the network formation is a long-standing challenge for data mining and network analysis. In particular, the microscopic organizing principles of directed networks are less understood than those of undirected networks. This article proposes a hypothesis named potential theory, which assumes that every directed link corresponds to a decrease of a unit potential and subgraphs with definable potential values for all nodes are preferred. Combining the potential theory with the clustering and homophily mechanisms, it is deduced that the Bi-fan structure consisting of 4 nodes and 4 directed links is the most favored local structure in directed networks. Our hypothesis receives strongly positive supports from extensive experiments on 15 directed networks drawn from disparate fields, as indicated by the most accurate and robust performance of Bi-fan predictor within the link prediction framework. In summary, our main contribution is twofold: (i) We propose a new mechanism for the local organization of directed networks; (ii) We design the corresponding link prediction algorithm, which can not only testify our hypothesis, but also find out direct applications in missing link prediction and friendship recommendation. PMID:23408979

  13. The hydrogeothermal potential of Southern Hesse; Das hydrogeothermische Potential Suedhessens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzer, C.; Fluhrer, S.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    The paper investigates rock series suited as storage media and the temperature distribution in the subsurface of Southern Hesse. It gives an idea of the possibilities for hydrogeothermal energy use in the area. The densily populated Rhein-Main-region provides a good demand potential for geothermal heat. A substantially elevated geothermal gradient of about 60 K/km as compared to the continental average of 30 K/km could be demonstrated in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben. Thermal anomalies could be localised. The Rotliegend-layers (Perm) provide the highest geothermal ressources in the region. In more shallow depth, the Hydrobia layers (Teritary) show reasonable values. To the north, the potential of these series decreases. Hence hydrogeothermal energy use should not be considered in the northern part of Southern Hesse. The highest potential can be expected from the Rotliegend layers in the area of Stockstadt and Biebesheim. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung geht auf die moeglichen Speichergesteine und die Temperaturverteilung im Untergrund Suedhessens ein und gibt einen ersten Eindruck von den Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie in der Region. Fuer geothermische Waerme besteht im dicht besiedelten Rhein-Main-Gebiet eine gute Abnehmerstruktur. Im noerdlichen Oberrheingraben konnte im Mittel ein deutlich erhoehter Temperaturgradient von etwa 60 K/km gegenueber dem kontinentalen Krustendurchschnittswert von 30 K/km nachgewiesen werden. Waemeanomalien wurden lokalisiert. Die Rotliegendschichten weisen im untersuchten Gebiet eindeutig die hoechsten Ressourcen auf. In geringerer Tiefenlage erzielen die Hydrobienschichten noch beachtliche Werte. Nach Norden nimmt das Potential der Schichten ab. Daher ist von einer Nutzung der Hydrogeothermie im noerdlichen Bereich Suedhessens eher abzuraten. Die hoechsten Ressourcen in Suedhessen sind im Bereich von Stockstadt und Biebesheim in den Rotliegenschichten zu erwarten. (orig.)

  14. Geothermal heat. Potential, danger, efficiency; Erdwaerme. Potential, Gefahr, Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbuero Timmer Reichel GmbH, Haan (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the potential, danger and utilization of geothermal heat. Geothermal heat promises the solution of numerous energy problems. From the use of near-surface layers which substantially are affected by enviromental impacts such as solar radiation up to the depth use of the heat flow from the interior of the earth, there exist very different energy sources which are to be considered separately for each application.

  15. Optical potential from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, J.; Danielewicz, P.; Hagen, G.; Nunes, F. M.; Papenbrock, T.

    2017-02-01

    We develop a method to construct a microscopic optical potential from chiral interactions for nucleon-nucleus scattering. The optical potential is constructed by combining the Green's function approach with the coupled-cluster method. To deal with the poles of the Green's function along the real energy axis we employ a Berggren basis in the complex energy plane combined with the Lanczos method. Using this approach, we perform a proof-of-principle calculation of the optical potential for the elastic neutron scattering on 16O. For the computation of the ground state of 16O, we use the coupled-cluster method in the singles-and-doubles approximation, while for the A ±1 nuclei we use particle-attached/removed equation-of-motion method truncated at two-particle-one-hole and one-particle-two-hole excitations, respectively. We verify the convergence of the optical potential and scattering phase shifts with respect to the model-space size and the number of discretized complex continuum states. We also investigate the absorptive component of the optical potential (which reflects the opening of inelastic channels) by computing its imaginary volume integral and find an almost negligible absorptive component at low energies. To shed light on this result, we computed excited states of 16O using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with singles-and-doubles excitations and we found no low-lying excited states below 10 MeV. Furthermore, most excited states have a dominant two-particle-two-hole component, making higher-order particle-hole excitations necessary to achieve a precise description of these core-excited states. We conclude that the reduced absorption at low energies can be attributed to the lack of correlations coming from the low-order cluster truncation in the employed coupled-cluster method.

  16. On the dynamics of gauge potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jiafu; Li Yuanjie; Zhang Jinru

    1992-01-01

    The gauge potential is resolved into gauge potential of strength and gauge potential of phase. The phase gauge potential can be described with an equivalent potential of inertial force. A Lagrangian density with phase gauge potential is given and some examples are discussed. The method proposed has been extended to the case of the non-Abelian group

  17. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariño Arturo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity of a country; (b the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a identifying

  18. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  19. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño, Arturo H; Chavan, Vishwas; King, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most nonparticipant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to contribute to filling gaps in digitized

  20. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-09-01

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigues, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  1. The potential of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Lundsager, P.

    1992-09-01

    Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigus, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

  2. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  3. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  4. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear energy: potentiality and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    2008-01-01

    After a discussion about a broad definition of energy security and about the main challenges facing a potential nuclear renaissance, the article analyses how the European Union and the United States have addressed these challenges. There is no doubt that nuclear power will remain an important component of global energy mix, but it should not be seen as a panacea to the flows in the global energy markets [it

  6. POTENTIAL OF CANOLA IN MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bishwa B.

    1996-01-01

    This study consists of four different aspects of canola in Michigan with special emphasis on northern Michigan. The economic feasibility of canola as an alternative cash crop, potential canola growing area, feasibility of establishing canola processing plant(s) in northern Michigan and the canola marketing situation in Michigan were appraised. Secondary data, previous research results, key informant interviews, informal visits, expert opinions and survey data were used to study these aspects ...

  7. Laser Surgeries - Subverting Potential Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of lasers in Operation Theatre (OT is a challenge for both the surgeons and anesthesiologists due to its potential hazard of thermal injury to both patients and OT personnel Adequate preparations need to be undertaken prior to surgery to reduce the risks associated with laser beams. Pre-considered contingency plans for airway fires should be in place. Strict implementation of safety precautions is key for safety of patients and staff in naval hospitals.

  8. Potential energy function of CN-

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špirko, Vladimír; Polák, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 248, č. 1 (2008), s. 77-80 ISSN 0022-2852 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550511; GA AV ČR IAA400400504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : potential energy curve * fundamental transition * spectroscopic constants Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2008

  9. Wavepacket scattering in potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, T.A.; Hammer, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    A contour integration technique is developed which enforces the initial conditions for wavepacket-potential scattering. The expansion coefficients for the exact energy eigenstate expansion are automatically expressed in terms of the plane wave expansion coefficients of the initial wavepacket, thereby simplifying what is usually a tedious, mathematical process. The method is applicable regardless of the initial spatial separation of the wavepacket from the scattering center

  10. Potential Psychiatric Uses for MDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar?Klosinski, BB; Mithoefer, MC

    2017-01-01

    Phase II trials of 3,4?methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)?assisted psychotherapy have demonstrated initial safety and efficacy for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with potential for expansion to depression and anxiety disorders. In these trials, single doses of MDMA are administered in a model of medication?assisted psychotherapy, differing from trials involving daily drug administration without psychotherapy. This model presents an opportunity to utilize accelerated regu...

  11. Biological Potential in Serpentinizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of the microbial substrate hydrogen during serpentinization, the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks, has focused interest on the potential of serpentinizing systems to support biological communities or even the origin of life. However the process also generates considerable alkalinity, a challenge to life, and both pH and hydrogen concentrations vary widely across natural systems as a result of different host rock and fluid composition and differing physical and hydrogeologic conditions. Biological potential is expected to vary in concert. We examined the impact of such variability on the bioenergetics of an example metabolism, methanogenesis, using a cell-scale reactive transport model to compare rates of metabolic energy generation as a function of physicochemical environment. Potential rates vary over more than 5 orders of magnitude, including bioenergetically non-viable conditions, across the range of naturally occurring conditions. In parallel, we assayed rates of hydrogen metabolism in wells associated with the actively serpentinizing Coast Range Ophiolite, which includes conditions more alkaline and considerably less reducing than is typical of serpentinizing systems. Hydrogen metabolism is observed at pH approaching 12 but, consistent with the model predictions, biological methanogenesis is not observed.

  12. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Remark on shape invariant potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drigo Filho, Elso; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    1997-01-01

    For more than a decade, Supersymmetry has provided new information about ordinary quantum mechanical problems, and Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics has become a field research by itself. If has been shown that the symmetry between two different systems that share energy spectra can be interpreted in terms of supersymmetry. From the knowledge of the ground state of a given potential it is possible to find another potential with the same energy spectrum, except for the ground state. In fact, from the use of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians and their degeneracy spectra it has become possible to determine a ladder of Hamiltonians and their spectra, only through the ground states of the ladder. Concerning the partner Hamiltonians with potentials V + and V - that are similar in shape but Differ in the parameters. Gedenshtein introduced in 1983 the concept of shape invariance. Here we propose an extension of this concept. It is formulated in terms of the functional form of the whole super-family and not only between any two members of the ladder. We give two examples where all the members of the super-family can be written in a general functional form and conclude that Gedenshtein's conditions of shape invariance is sufficient but not necessary in order to obtain the super-family. (author)

  14. Sodium exchange process in lower vertebrates studies by means of {sup 24}Na. Their interpretation as a 'purification' of radioactive water; Les echanges de sodium des vertebres inferieurs etudies a l'aide du {sup 24}Na. Leur interpretation comme une 'epuration' d'eau radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetz, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Fresh-water fish and amphibians live in an aquatic medium which is very hypotonic with respect to their internal medium. By osmosis the water passes through their permeable teguments (gills, mucous membranes, skin). It is known from the work of Krogh (1937-1939) that this water is eliminated by the kidney, which emits a copious diluted urine. Yet however great the dilution, the urinary excretion results in a loss of salts for the organism. This loss is compensated, even in the absence of any nourishment, by active absorption of ions. Some recent workers have attempted, by using radioactive isotopes, to establish the balance between the input and output flows of ions through the permeable membranes in vivo, whereas chemical analytical methods only allow the net result of these exchanges to be obtained. We have attempted to present here a new method for the simultaneous measurement of the sodium flow takes over the whole animal. This method has been applied to the fresh-water fish Carassius auratus and to the frog Rana esculenta. In the course of this investigation we have considered interpreting it as a 'purification of radioactive water'. (author) [French] Les poissons d'eau douce et les amphibiens vivent dans un milieu aquatique tres hypotonique par rapport a leur milieu interieur. Par osmose, l'eau penetre a travers leurs teguments permeables (branchies, muqueuses, peau). On sait depuis les travaux de Krogh (1937-1939) que cette eau est eliminee par le rein qui emet une urine abondante et diluee. Mais si diluee soit-elle, l'excretion uranaire entraine une perte de sels pour l'organisme. Cette perte est compensee, meme en l'absence de toute alimentation, par une absorption active d'ions. Quelques travaux recents ont tente, grace a l'utilisation des isotopes radioactifs, de dresser le bilan des flux d'entree et de sortie des ions a travers les membranes permeables in vivo, alors que les methodes d

  15. DIGITAL CONTACT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the technique of analog contact potential difference probes well developed. Due to the influence of various parasitic factors, analog probes has substantial errors. The integration time for automatic CPD compensation should be at least several seconds to achieve high accuracy measurements. The speed and the accuracy are essential, for example, for Scanning Kelvin Probes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a digital contact potential difference probe, with a higher accuracy and speed of measurements as compared to analog probe. The digital probe made on base of 32-bit microprocessor with a Cortex M4 core. Measuring cycle consists of at least two successive determinations of the output signal amplitude at different compensation voltage generated by the microcontroller. It allows synchronizing of the generated oscillations and reading of the measuring signals. Data arrays processed in real time of the Digital Signal Processing by microprocessor. In this case is possible computation of the root mean square value or determination of the desired spectral line of the signal after fast Fourier transformation. Both methods permit eliminate of random noise and spurious harmonics. The method provides the digital contact potential difference probe operation in large signal mode and with a large signal/noise ratio. This eliminates the error associated with the zero signal finding. Also the integration time for automatic CPD compensation of the measured value is not necessary, which significantly reduces the measurement time and eliminates errors of compensation and DAC. In addition, the microcontroller could control the movement of the probe during scanning and transfer data to the host computer on interface USB, etc.

  16. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  17. Energy intensities: Prospects and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the previous chapter, the author described how rising activity levels and structural change are pushing toward higher energy use in many sectors and regions, especially in the developing countries. The extent to which more activity leads to greater energy use will depend on the energy intensity of end-use activities. In this chapter, the author presents an overview of the potential for intensity reductions in each sector over the next 10-20 years. It is not the author's intent to describe in detail the various technologies that could be employed to improve energy efficiency, which has been done by others (see, for example, Lovins ampersand Lovins, 1991; Goldembert et al., 1987). Rather, he discusses the key factors that will shape future energy intensities in different parts of the world, and gives a sense for the changes that could be attained if greater attention were given to accelerate efficiency improvement. The prospects for energy intensities, and the potential for reduction, vary among sectors and parts of the world. In the majority of cases, intensities are tending to decline as new equipment and facilities come into use and improvements are made on existing stocks. The effect of stock turnover will be especially strong in the developing countries, where stocks are growing at a rapid pace, and the Former East Bloc, where much of the existing industrial plant will eventually be retired and replaced with more modern facilities. While reductions in energy intensity are likely in most areas, there is a large divergence between the technical and economic potential for reducing energy intensities and the direction in which present trends are moving. In the next chapter, the author presents scenarios that illustrate where trends are pointing, and what could be achieved if improving energy efficiency were a focus of public policies. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  19. Governing the potentials of life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how educational leadership is increasingly becoming affective in order to cultivate what has been termed “the potentials” of pupils to meet the challenge of bringing schools into “the world class league”. The analysis draws upon the notion of governmentality and the ”affective...... by showing the difficulties in keeping the promises made and by introducing the Massumian distinction between possibilities and potentiality. The conclusion states that the edifying nature of the technologies paradoxically overshadows the possibilities promised by the technologies....

  20. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  1. Potential Psychiatric Uses for MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar-Klosinski, B B; Mithoefer, M C

    2017-02-01

    Phase II trials of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy have demonstrated initial safety and efficacy for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with potential for expansion to depression and anxiety disorders. In these trials, single doses of MDMA are administered in a model of medication-assisted psychotherapy, differing from trials involving daily drug administration without psychotherapy. This model presents an opportunity to utilize accelerated regulatory pathways, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Breakthrough Therapy Designation, to most effectively and expeditiously test such novel approaches. © 2016, The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  2. Zoonotic potential of Helicobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mladenova-Hristova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helicobacter contains more than 35 species. Helicobacter pylori is the most important in terms of human health. Discovery of these helicobacters gives opportunity to understand the relationship between these bacteria which colonise the animal and human gut and their effect on the host. Infection with Helicobacter spp. and the associated diseases in their hosts allow us to study the pathogenic mechanisms. The potential zoonotic pathway for the transmission of Helicobacter spp. and epidemiology of this genus, deserve more attention to these emerging pathogens.

  3. Potential benefits from the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Discussing the potential benefits from the CTBT monitoring in Africa, analysis and data communication systems it was concluded that although yet undeveloped, the possibilities arising from participation in CTBT regime are being identified. The integrated data obtained from the verification technologies of the CTBT should open further horizons for civil society. The main topics of interest are: treaty related science and technology developments, monitoring techniques, ideas and initiatives for expanding existing activities and developing cooperation, including the issues of regional centres and centres of excellence

  4. Quantifying effects of hydrological and water quality disturbances on fish with food-web modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Shengtian; Xiang, Hua; Sun, Ying; Yang, Zengyuan; Yu, Qiang; Lim, Richard P.

    2018-05-01

    Accurately delineating the effects of hydrological and water quality habitat factors on the aquatic biota will significantly assist the management of water resources and restoration of river ecosystems. However, current models fail to comprehensively consider the effects of multiple habitat factors on the development of fish species. In this study, a dynamic framework for river ecosystems was set up to explore the effects of multiple habitat factors in terms of hydrology and water quality on the fish community in rivers. To achieve this the biomechanical forms of the relationships between hydrology, water quality, and aquatic organisms were determined. The developing processes of the food web without external disturbance were simulated by 208 models, constructed using Ecopath With Ecosim (EWE). These models were then used to analyze changes in biomass (ΔB) of two representative fish species, Opsariichthys bidens and Carassius auratus, which are widely distributed in Asia, and thus have attracted the attention of scholars and stakeholders, due to the consequence of habitat alteration. Results showed that the relationship between the changes in fish biomass and key habitat factors can be expressed in a unified form. T-tests for the unified form revealed that the means of the two data sets of simulated and observed ΔB for these two fish species (O. bidens and C. auratus) were equal at the significance level of 5%. Compared with other ecological dynamic models, our framework includes theories that are easy to understand and has modest requirements for assembly and scientific expertise. Moreover, this framework can objectively assess the influence of hydrological and water quality variance on aquatic biota with simpler theory and little expertise. Therefore, it is easy to be put into practice and can provide a scientific support for decisions in ecological restoration made by river administrators and stakeholders across the world.

  5. Immunotherapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eZhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles or EVs is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized endosome-derived vesicles secreted by many cell types and their immunomodulatory potential is independent of their cell source. Besides immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, cancer and stem cells also secrete immunologically active exosomes that could influence both physiological and pathological processes. The immunological activities of exosomes affect both innate and adaptive immunity and include antigen presentation, T cell activation, T cell polarisation to Tregs, immune suppression and anti-inflammation. As such, exosomes carry much immunotherapeutic potential as a therapeutic agent and a therapeutic target.

  6. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Tresp, Christoph; Menke, Henri; Urvoy, Alban; Firstenberg, Ofer; Büchler, Hans Peter; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole-dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source.

  7. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  8. Safety assessments for potential exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.I.

    2012-04-01

    Safety Assessment of potential exposures have been carried out in major practices, namely: industrial radiography, gamma irradiators and electron accelerators used in industry and research, and radiotherapy. This paper focuses on reviewing safety assessment methodologies and using developed software to analyse radiological accidents, also review, and discuss these past accidents.The primary objective of the assessment is to assess the adequacy of planned or existing measures for protection and safety and to identify any additional measures that should be put in place. As such, both routine use of the source and the probability and magnitude of potential exposures arising from accidents or incidents should be considered. Where the assessment indicates that there is a realistic possibility of an accident affecting workers or members of the public or having consequences for the environment, the registrant or licensee should prepare a suitable emergency plan. A safety assessment for normal operation addresses all the conditions under which the radiation source operates as expected, including all phases of the lifetime of the source. Due account needs to be taken of the different factors and conditions that will apply during non-operational phases, such as installation, commissioning and maintenance. (author)

  9. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P J

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines. The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology. In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effective crystal field potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mulak, J

    2000-01-01

    As it results from the very nature of things, the spherical symmetry of the surrounding of a site in a crystal lattice or an atom in a molecule can never occur. Therefore, the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of any bound ion or atom have to differ from those of spherically symmetric respective free ions. In this way, the most simplified concept of the crystal field effect or ligand field effect in the case of individual molecules can be introduced. The conventional notion of the crystal field potential is narrowed to its non-spherical part only through ignoring the dominating spherical part which produces only a uniform energy shift of gravity centres of the free ion terms. It is well understood that the non-spherical part of the effective potential "seen" by open-shell electrons localized on a metal ion plays an essential role in most observed properties. Light adsorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering and basic characteristics derived from magnetic and thermal measurements, ar...

  11. Unleashing the Potential of SCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that with the present state of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption by the companies, the potential benefits of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and integration is about to be unleashed. This paper presents the results and the implications of a survey on ERP adoption...... in the 500 largest Danish enterprises. The study is based on telephone interviews with ERP managers in 88.4 % of the "top 500" enterprises in Denmark. Based on the survey, the paper suggests the following four propositions: (i) ERP has become the pervasive infrastructure; (ii) ERP has become a contemporary...... technology; (iii) ERP adoption has matured; and (iv) ERP adoption is converging towards a dominant design. Finally, the paper discusses the general implications of the surveyed state of practice on the SCM research challenges. Consequently we argue that research needs to adjust its conceptions of the ERP...

  12. "Human potential" and progressive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    2012-01-01

    : the emergence of ‘intelligence’ and life as a biological phenomenon from the 1920s is illustrated; the emergence of ‘Black culture’, ‘Negros’ and ‘races’ from the 1930s is depicted, and the emergence of ‘national cultures’ from the 1940s – enhanced by UNESCO after World War II – is demonstrated. Although race......This article examines the cultural constructs of progressive pedagogy in Danish school pedagogy and its emerging focus on the child’s human potential from the 1920s to the 1950s. It draws on Foucault’s notion of ‘dispositifs’ and the ‘elements of history’, encircling a complex transformation...

  13. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  14. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  15. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, C.G.; Notz, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents the results of a fully documented peer review of DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, ''Characteristics of Potential Repository Wastes''. The peer review was chaired and administered by oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and was conducted in accordance with OCRWM QA procedure QAAP 3.3 ''Peer Review'' for the purpose of quailing the document for use in OCRWM quality-affecting work. The peer reviewers selected represent a wide range of experience and knowledge particularly suitable for evaluating the subject matter. A total of 596 formal comments were documented by the seven peer review panels, and all were successfully resolved. The peers reached the conclusion that DOE/RW-0184, Rev. 1, is quality determined and suitable for use in quality-affecting work

  16. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Emerging markets trigger great expectations. Many foreign multinationals are eager to exploit the entrepreneurial opportunities potentially related to less developed but fast growing markets. This is not a new phenomenon. Multinationals from more developed countries have for long searched...... for opportunities in less developed markets and have dealt with the related challenges. Foreign environments with different needs and capabilities, unstable institutions and policies, stark fluctuations in the macroeconomic environment and unrealistic expectations are just some of the obstacles for ‘turning...... to understand changes and continuities in the opportunities and challenges less developed markets presented for MNEs, and in the various ways in which their managers responded to these. Rather than relying on the ‘emerging market’ label, we ask (1) why managers perceived certain markets as ‘emerging’ and which...

  17. Prediction of acid generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses acid rock drainage (ARD), a term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The principal ingredients for ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. The oxidation reactions responsible for the formation of ARD are often accelerated by biological activity. These reactions yield low pH (acidic) water that has the potential to mobilize heavy metals that may be contained in the geologic materials that are contacted. ARD can cause a detrimental impact on the quality of ground or surface water to which it discharges. ARD likely has been associated with mines since mining began. ARD is not necessarily confined to mining activities, but can occur naturally wherever sulfide-bearing rock is exposed to air and water. It is important to recognize that not all operations that expose sulfide-bearing rock will result in ARD

  18. Sustainability Potentials of Housing Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sodagar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of choosing refurbishment over new build have recently been brought into focus for reducing environmental impacts of buildings. This is due to the fact that the existing buildings will comprise the majority of the total building stocks for years to come and hence will remain responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. This paper investigates the total potentials of sustainable refurbishment and conversion of the existing buildings by adopting a holistic approach to sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and questionnaires have been used to analyse the environmental impact savings (Co2e, improved health and well-being, and satisfaction of people living in refurbished homes. The results reported in the paper are based on a two year externally funded research project completed in January 2013.

  19. Recreation and risk: potential exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J

    1997-10-24

    The Department of Energy and other federal facilities are reclaiming land through the process of remediation and restoration, and this land will eventually be turned over for future land uses that may involve recreation. Understanding the amount of recreation that is likely (and thus individual exposure) is an essential element in decisions about cleanup standards. In this article the number of days people engage in different recreational activities as a measure of potential exposure is examined. People attending a Mayfest celebration (n = 399) and the Palmetto Sportsmen's Classic (n = 285) in Columbia, SC, were interviewed regarding their recreational activities. In most cases reported in the literature, recreational activities are examined as the mean number of days people engage in each activity per year, but to determine risk it is essential to know the distribution of these activities. In descending order of frequency, people attending the Mayfest reported their activities as birdwatching, photographing, fishing, hiking, camping, and hunting. There were significant gender differences in the frequency of activities, with men spending more days in every activity except birdwatching and photography. There were ethnic differences in recreation, with whites engaging in higher levels of most recreational activities than blacks, but the percentage of black men who reported fishing more than 100 d per year was greater than for white men. Most people reported their participation in most activities less than 30 d per year; however, a higher percentage of people reported participating in photography, birdwatching, and fishing more than 30 d per year compared to the other activities. Further, individuals at the Sportsman's Classic reported far higher rates of hunting and fishing per year than the general public. These data can be used to examine potential exposure of recreationists on remediated and restored land. The data clearly indicate that over 25% of the people

  20. extracts as potential dietary supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Strugała

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In times of worsening civilization diseases the interest in natural healing substances is on the increase. To reduce unwanted side effects of many synthetic drugs, it is reasonable to introduce to the daily diet foods rich in natural compounds of plant origin that are beneficial for health. The purpose of the study was to determine the biological activity and stability of selected ethanol extracts of the fruit of chokeberry, blackcurrant, hawthorn, rosehip, quince and Japanese quince as potential nutraceuticals.Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined in relation to model phospholipid membranes (IC50 PC. Antiradical activity was determined in a test with the DPPH• radical (IC50 DPPH. Also the inhibition of enzymatic (1-LOX oxidation of linoleic acid was determined at the beginning of the period of storage of the extracts at room temperature and after 12 months. Results: After 12 months of storage the highest antioxidant stability was shown by blackcurrant extract (1.5% increase in IC50 PC, the highest antiradical stability by quince extract (1.0% reduction in IC50 DPPH, and the highest stability of 1-LOX enzyme inhibition by chokeberry extract (6.3% reduction in inhibition at a concentration of 8 μg∙ml-1. Japanese quince extract showed the strongest regenerating properties with respect to oxidized phospholipid membranes and the highest ability to eliminate the free radical DPPH•. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ethanol extracts of the fruits (in particular blackcurrant, chokeberry and Japanese quince are a potential source of dietary supplements of expected effectiveness in preventive treatment.

  1. Smallholder telecoupling and potential sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl S. Zimmerer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smallholders are crucial for global sustainability given their importance to food and nutritional security, agriculture, and biodiversity conservation. Worldwide smallholders are subject to expanded telecoupling whereby their social-ecological systems are linked to large-scale socioeconomic and environmental drivers. The present research uses the synthesis of empirical evidence to demonstrate smallholder telecoupling through the linkages stemming from the global-level integration of markets (commodity, labor, finance, urbanization, governance, and technology. These telecoupling forces are often disadvantageous to smallholders while certain conditions can contribute to the potential sustainability of their social-ecological systems. Case studies were chosen to describe sustainability opportunities and limits involving smallholder production and consumption of high-agrobiodiversity Andean maize amid telecoupled migration (Bolivia, the role of international eco-certification in smallholder coffee-growing and agroforests (Colombia, smallholder organic dairy production in large-scale markets and technology transfer (upper Midwest, U.S.A., and smallholders' global niche commodity production of argan oil (Morocco. These case studies are used to identify the key challenges and opportunities faced by smallholders in telecoupling and to develop a conceptual framework. This framework specifies the integrated roles of global systems together with influential public and private institutions operating at multiple scales including the national level. The framework also integrates the local dynamics of smallholders' multiple land use units and their socioeconomic and environmental variation. Spatial spillover effects in smallholder landscapes are an additional element. This framework further establishes the un-Romantic, nonteleological, and antifetishistic view of smallholders. It provides specific insights on the multilevel dynamics of smallholder telecoupling

  2. The phenomenon of retarded potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskov, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The logic simulation of process of time delay of potential on a moved body - recipient resulted in the deduction about cyclic irregularity of time delay, that means, that the moved body makes longitudinal vibrations. A conclusion is drawn that length of longitudinal vibrations depending from three variable: the law of interaction, spacing interval between bodies of interaction and phase velocity looks like: λ=Hv ph /R·F(R) (1), where λ- length of oscillations; H- factor of proportionality; v ph - phase velocity of a body; R - distance between test and central bodies R(t); F(R) - law of interaction. So far as λ=v ph /v, and R·F(R)=∫ ∞ R F(R)dR=E move , then formula (1) will be transformed into: E move =Hv pv /λ=Hv. Thus, the energy of radiating having the similar law is only reflex of motion of a matter. The energy of oscillating motion can be expressed through linear maximal velocity. It is established, that different expressions of the same energy, result in the law of a view of a proportion for lengths of de Broglie's waves: It shows that de Broglie's waves - the actual oscillating motions of bodies, as demonstrate interference and diffraction pictures at a dissipation of the accelerated particles on crystalline gratings. This deduction has far-reaching consequences for finding - out of the cause bases of the laws of a nature. So, the quantum mechanics becomes partition of mechanics of solids and is comprises all interactions. The nuclear energy is not 'defect of mass', but is 'defect' of energy of oscillating motion: ΔE=H v1 -H v2 . Definition of real cause of nuclear energy is very important for construction of model of nuclei and for development of physics as the whole. The interconnection of the phenomenon of longitudinal vibrations of moved bodies, as result of irregularity of time delay of potential, with many other natural phenomena is looked through. By such, as: motion of planets and electrons on elliptical orbits, oscillating of dipping drips

  3. Theoretical study on optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Hung Gi.

    1984-08-01

    The optical model potential of non-local effect on the rounded edge of the potential is derived. On the basis of this potential the functional form of the optical model potential, the energy dependence and relationship of its parameters, and the dependency of the values of the parameters on energy change are shown in this paper. (author)

  4. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  5. Biological potential of Stillingia oppositifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Barros Cota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts from leaves and stems of Stillingia oppositifolia Baill. ex Müll. Arg., Euphorbiaceae, were screened for antifungal and cytotoxic properties. The extracts presented Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values around 250 µg.mL-1 against Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, and around 63 µg.mL-1 for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. They were tested on three human cell lines (UACC-62, MCF-7, and TK-10, disclosing GI50 values, (concentration able to inhibit 50% of the cell growth ranging from 50 to 100 µg.mL-1. Organic extract from stems furnished hexanic, dichloromethanic and aqueous phases after partition. Chromatographic fractionation of the hexanic soluble phase of the stems yielded aleuritolic acid 3-acetate, β-sitosterol, 3-epi-β-amyrin, β-amyrone and palmitic acid. These compounds showed antifungal and cytotoxic activities in the same range as the organic crude extract and low toxic effect against mononuclear cells obtained from human peripheral blood. This is the first report on chemical and biological potential of S. oppositifolia.

  6. Thermodynamic potential in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic potential, Ω, in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is derived using the path-integral formalism. Renormalization of Ω is shown by proving the following theorem: Ω/sub B/(e/sub B/,m/sub B/,T,μ) - Ω/sub B/(e/sub B/,m/sub B/,T = 0,μ = 0) = Ω/sub R/(e/sub R/,m/sub R/,T,μ,S), where B and R refer to bare and renormalized quantities, respectively, and S is the Euclidean subtraction momentum squared. This theorem is proved explicitly to e/sub R/ 4 order and could be analogously extended to any higher order. Renormalization-group equations are derived for Ω/sub R/, and it is shown that perturbation theory in a medium is governed by effective coupling constants which are functions of the density. The behavior of the theory at high densities is governed by the Euclidean ultraviolet behavior of the theory in the vacuum

  7. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.; Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  9. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  10. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break with the indu......Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break...... with the industrial paradigm of standardization, have been put forward. This development is carried forward by computers and digital fabrication, but has yet to find its way into the production of building components. With regards to concrete casting, however, existing research do offer advancement towards...... an increased customisation of casting moulds. The hypothesis of this research is that the techniques used in this research do not fully address the tectonic potentials of concrete which gives rise to the primary research question: Is it possible to enhance existing or develop new concrete casting techniques...

  11. Natural factors as potential insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueds, H.; Pycke, C.; Loof, A. de

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce environmental pollution, it is of great interest to find alternative methods for controlling insect pests. With the progress made in the isolation and identification of peptides and endogenous toxins from insects, the question can be raised whether or not these natural factors are potentially useful as insecticides. The aim of the present study was to test certain toxins and myotropic peptides isolated from insects for their usefulness as insecticides. Over twenty neuropeptides isolated from different insect species have been isolated and identified in the laboratory. To date, tests have been carried out on the influence of four neuropeptides on the food intake of L 1 larvae of Mamestra brassicae. Also, the crude haemolymph, as well as some of the purified fractions of the Colorado potato beetle, have been tested. At least one of the neuropeptides and some of the compounds present in the haemolymph and the purified fraction D have a negative influence on the development of L 1 larvae of M. brassicae after oral intake. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  12. Conotoxins: Therapeutic Potential and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Layer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological variety of conotoxins, diverse peptides found in the venoms of marine cone snails, is well recognized. Venoms from each of the estimated 500 species of cone snails contain 50 to 200 distinct biologically active peptides. Most conotoxins characterized to date target receptors and ion channels of excitable tissues, such as ligandgated nicotinic acetylcholine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and type 3 serotonin receptors, as well as voltage-gated calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, and G-protein-coupled receptors including α-adrenergic, neurotensin, and vasopressin receptors, and the norepinephrine transporter. Several conotoxins have shown promise in preclinical models of pain, convulsive disorders, stroke, neuromuscular block, and cardioprotection. The pharmacological selectivity of the conotoxins, coupled with the safety and efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models, has led to their investigation as human therapeutic agents. In the following review, we will survey the pharmacology and therapeutic rationale of those conotoxins with potential clinical application, and discuss the unique challenges that each will face in the course of their transition from venom component to human therapeutic.

  13. Potential adjustments to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    There are three basic approaches to the problem of climate change: prevention through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, repair of damages by offsetting the effects of the gases, or learning to live with the climatic changes. Delaying greenhouse warming does not seem possible, at least not without substantial, unsupportable costs. A number of strategies to counter the effects of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases have been proposed, but few have been given serious attention. Alternatives include additions of particulate matter to the atmosphere, altering land use to change the earth's reflectivity, cultivating carbon-eating organisms in the ocean, and injecting sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere to absorb visible sunlight. A contrasting response to the aggravated greenhouse effect is to require the world to adjust. Before potential adaptation strategies can be identified, regional and sectoral impacts of climate change must be understood, but few studies to date are convincing. It is suggested that the best response may be to delay any action on climatic warming, except in those cases where action can be justified on the basis of immediate or non-climate related benfits. 10 refs

  14. Thymoquinone and its therapeutic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darakhshan, Sara; Bidmeshki Pour, Ali; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine has attracted great attention in the recent years and is increasingly used as alternatives to chemical drugs. Several lines of evidence support the positive impact of medicinal plants in the prevention and cure of a wide range of diseases. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the most abundant constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds and most properties of N sativa are mainly attributed to TQ. A number of pharmacological actions of TQ have been investigated including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-histaminic, anti-microbial and anti-tumor effects. It has also gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and neuroprotective activities. In addition, positive effects of TQ in cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, reproductive disorders and respiratory ailments, as well as in the treatment of bone complications as well as fibrosis have been shown. In addition, a large body of data shows that TQ has very low adverse effects and no serious toxicity. More recently, a great deal of attention has been given to this dietary phytochemical with an increasing interest to investigate it in pre-clinical and clinical researches for assessing its health benefits. Here we report on and analyze numerous properties of the active ingredient of N. sativa seeds, TQ, in the context of its therapeutic potentials for a wide range of illnesses. We also summarize the drug's possible mechanisms of action. The evidence reported sugests that TQ should be developed as a novel drug in clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Dunne, Krista A.

    2016-01-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. ‘Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman–Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  17. Integrative Potential of Architectural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The architectural activity integrative potential is considered through the combination as well as the organization of necessary universal human and professional, artificial and natural, social and individual architectural activities in the multidimensional unity of its components reflecting and influencing the public thinking with the artistic-figurative language of international communication using experimental form-building, interactive presentations, theatrical and gaming expressiveness to organize an easier contact with the consumer, methods of design and advertising. The methodology is used to reflect the mutual influence of personal and social problems through globalization and identification of their problem in the public, to study the existing methods of the problem solving, to analyze their effectiveness, to search for actual problems and new solutions to them using the latest achievements of technological progress, artistic patterns, creation of a holistic architectural image reflecting the author’s worldview in the general picture of the modern world with its inherent tendencies “Surah” and “entertainment”. The operative communication means in the chain of social experience are developed - the teacher - the trainee - the new educational result used to transmit the updated information in a generalized form, the current and final control through the use of feedback sheets, supporting summaries, info cards, its decisions. The paper considers the study time efficiency due to the organization of the research activity which allows students to obtain a theoretical generalized information (the creator’s limitation) in the process of filling or compiling informative and diagnostic maps that provide the theoretical framework for the creative activity through gaming activity that turns into a work activity which has a diagnosed result.

  18. Allelochemical potential of Callicarpa acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Ana Luisa; Mata, Rachel; Sims, James J; González-Coloma, Azucena; Cruz-Ortega, Rocio; Guadaño, Ana; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Midland, Sharon L; Ríos, Riselda; Gómez-Pompa, Arturo

    2003-12-01

    The allelochemical potential of Callicarpa acuminata (Verbenaceae) was investigated by using a biodirected fractionation study as part of a long-term project to search for bioactive compounds among the rich biodiversity of plant communities in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Aqueous leachate, chloroform-methanol extract, and chromatographic fractions of the leaves of C. acuminata inhibited the root growth of test plants (23-70%). Some of these treatments caused a moderate inhibition of the radial growth of two phytopathogenic fungi, Helminthosporium longirostratum and Alternaria solani (18-31%). The chloroform-methanol (1:1) extract prepared from the leaves rendered five compounds: isopimaric acid (1), a mixture of two diterpenols [sandaracopimaradien-19-ol (3) and akhdarenol (4)], alpha-amyrin (5), and the flavone salvigenin (6)]. The phytotoxicity exhibited by several fractions and the full extract almost disappeared when pure compounds were evaluated on the test plants, suggesting a synergistic or additive effect. Compounds (4), (5), and the semisynthetic derivative isopimaric acid methyl ether (2) had antifeedant effects on Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Compound 5 was most toxic to this insect, followed by (2), (4), and (6) with moderate to low toxicity. No correlation was found between antifeedant and toxic effects on this insect, suggesting that different modes of action were involved. All the test compounds were cytotoxic to insect Sf9 cells while (6), (4), and (1) also affected mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Compound 5 showed the strongest selectivity against insect cells. This study contributes to the knowledge of the defensive chemistry and added value of C. acuminata.

  19. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  20. Square well approximation to the optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Gupta, M.C.; Marwadi, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Approximations for obtaining T-matrix elements for a sum of several potentials in terms of T-matrices for individual potentials are studied. Based on model calculations for S-wave for a sum of two separable non-local potentials of Yukawa type form factors and a sum of two delta function potentials, it is shown that the T-matrix for a sum of several potentials can be approximated satisfactorily over all the energy regions by the sum of T-matrices for individual potentials. Based on this, an approximate method for finding T-matrix for any local potential by approximating it by a sum of suitable number of square wells is presented. This provides an interesting way to calculate the T-matrix for any arbitary potential in terms of Bessel functions to a good degree of accuracy. The method is applied to the Saxon-Wood potentials and good agreement with exact results is found. (author)

  1. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  2. Potential wine ageing during transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

  3. Exploring the potential of MAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderzalm, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous benefits, the full potential for uptake of MAR for use of treated wastewater and urban stormwater has not been realised. CSIRO is currently leading research to address some of the major impediments to uptake of MAR. These include the clogging of the soil or aquifer matrix, leading to reduced infiltration rates; water quality impacts on the receiving aquifer; and uncertainty regarding the economics of MAR schemes. Field-scale application of MAR through national demonstration projects aims to reduce the uncertainty associated with technical and economic feasibility and facilitate water recycling via the aquifer. Current research in the Managed Aquifer Recharge and Recycling Options (MARRO) project provides two case studies using novel infiltration techniques, soil aquifer treatment (SAT) and infiltration galleries, to recharge treated wastewater for non-potable use. SAT at Alice Springs supplements existing groundwater resources for future irrigation supplies, while an infiltration gallery at Floreat (Western Australia) is evaluating the potential of MAR to sustain groundwater-fed wetlands. These infiltration techniques provide an opportunity to optimise the passive treatment processes and minimise water quality impacts on the receiving groundwater. SAT uses open infiltration basins operated intermittently to create alternate wet and dry cycles and optimise natural treatment processes within the subsurface. Power and Water Corporation's Alice Springs SAT scheme has been in operation since 2008 to prevent overflow of treated wastewater to surface water systems and augment the groundwater resource. Wastewater for recharge to a Quaternary sand and gravel aquifer is treated by stabilisation ponds and dissolved air flotation, with filtration added to the treatment train in late 2013. The scheme commenced as four basins with a total recharge area of 7,640 sq.m, but was increased to allow 600,000 m 3 /year recharge to the current, larger capacity of

  4. Scalar potentials and the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergerhoff, B.; Soff, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Dirac equation is solved for various types of scalar potentials. Energy eigenvalues and normalized bound-state wave functions are calculated analytically for a scalar 1/r-potential as well as for a mixed scalar and Coulomb 1/r-potential. Also continuum wave functions for positive and negative energies are derived. Similarly, we investigate the solutions of the Dirac equation for a scalar square-well potential. Relativistic wave functions for scalar Yukawa and exponential potentials are determined numerically. Finally, we also discuss solutions of the Dirac equation for scalar linear and quadratic potentials which are frequently used to simulate quark confinement. (orig.)

  5. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

  6. Supersymmetric approach for Killingbeck radial potential plus noncentral potential in Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Yunianto, M.; Pratiwi, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Killingbeck radial potential, which consists of harmonic oscillator, linier and Coulomb potentials, is combined with non-central potential. The solution of three dimensional Schrodinger equation for Killingbeck potential is combined with Poschl-Teller potential and Symmetrical Top non-central potentials are investigated using supersymmetry (SUSY) operator. The non-relativistic energy is obtained which is infuenced by potentials and the wave functions are produced by using SUSY operator. (paper)

  7. New mtDNA data reveal a wide distribution of the Japanese ginbuna Carassius langsdorfii in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Rylková, K.; Bohlen, Jörg; Šanda, R.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2013), s. 703-707 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : alien species * introduction * molecular genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.734, year: 2013

  8. MHC genes and parasitism in Carassius gibelio, a diploid-triploid fish species with dual reproduction strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Košař, M.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Vyskočilová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 122 (2013), s. 122 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gynogenesis * sexual reproduction * polyploid fish * MHC * coexistence * parasitism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/122

  9. Electrical Methods: Self-Potential (SP) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various potentials are produced in native ground or within the subsurface altered by our actions. Natural potentials occur about dissimilar materials, near varying concentrations of electrolytic solutions, and due to the flow of fluids.

  10. Potential medication dosing errors in outpatient pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Heather A; Stille, Christopher J; Smith, David; Hecht, Julia; Pearson, John; Stull, John; Debellis, Kristin; Andrade, Susan; Miller, Marlene; Kaushal, Rainu; Gurwitz, Jerry; Davis, Robert L

    2005-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of potential dosing errors of medication dispensed to children for 22 common medications. Using automated pharmacy data from 3 health maintenance organizations (HMOs), we randomly selected up to 120 children with a new dispensing prescription for each drug of interest, giving 1933 study subjects. Errors were defined as potential overdoses or potential underdoses. Error rate in 2 HMOs that use paper prescriptions was compared with 1 HMO that uses an electronic prescription writer. Approximately 15% of children were dispensed a medication with a potential dosing error: 8% were potential overdoses and 7% were potential underdoses. Among children weighing error rates were not lower at the site with an electronic prescription writer. Potential medication dosing errors occur frequently in outpatient pediatrics. Studies on the clinical impact of these potential errors and effective error prevention strategies are needed.

  11. Dual Eligibles and Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — About 25 percent of the hospitalizations for dual eligible beneficiaries in 2005 were potentially avoidable. Medicare and Medicaid spending for those potentially...

  12. A black potential for spin less particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, Ananya, E-mail: gananya04@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Hasan, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadhasan786@gmail.com [ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore 560017 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani@bhu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-07-03

    We consider the most general non-Hermitian Hulthen potential to study the scattering of spin-less relativistic particles. The conditions for CC, SS and CPA are obtained analytically for this potential. We show that almost total absorption occurs for entire range of incidence energy for certain parameter ranges of the potential and hence term this as ‘black potential’. Time reversed of the same potential shows perfect emission for the entire range of particle energy. We also present the classical analog of this potential in terms of waveguide cross section. - Highlights: • Relativistic scattering properties of a spin zero particle due to most general non-Hermitian Hulthen potential are discussed. • Analytical conditions for CC, CPA and SS are obtained. • Broadband CPA is obtained for entire range of incidence energy. • Non-Hermitian Hulthen potential is parametrized in such a way to show broadband CPA and/or CC. • Waveguide analog of such potential is presented.

  13. Deforming tachyon kinks and tachyon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Victor I.; Bazeia, Dionisio; Brito, Francisco A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate deformation of tachyon potentials and tachyon kink solutions. We consider the deformation of a DBI type action with gauge and tachyon fields living on D1-brane and D3-brane world-volume. We deform tachyon potentials to get other consistent tachyon potentials by using properly a deformation function depending on the gauge field components. Resolutions of singular tachyon kinks via deformation and applications of deformed tachyon potentials to scalar cosmology scenario are discussed

  14. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles

    2011-01-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  15. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    their heights at the touching distance. By varying the set of six parameters a variety of potentials can be generated and the versatile nature can account for various processes which renormalize the potential. The above potential has been used to calculate the half-lives of proton emitters with A = 105–171 using the exact.

  16. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The phenomenon of proton emission is treated as a process of asymmetric fission through a one-dimensional potential barrier developed due to combined effects of the Coulomb potential, centrifugal potential and various renormalization processes. The barrier is simulated to an asymmetric, smooth and analytically solvable ...

  17. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    barrier height should correspond to the Coulomb plus the centrifugal potentials. For. A = 105–171, the combined Coulomb and centrifugal potentials give rise to barriers of the order of 15 MeV [2]. But the earlier studies [13,14] show that inclusion of nuclear potential and various renormalization processes tend to reduce the ...

  18. The zero of potential : a persistent error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, H.C.

    Any point of an inanimate system or of a human body can be connected to earth to obtain zero potential. The processes inside the system are independent of this connection. It is only the potential differences which matter. An absolute value of the potential does not enter in the physical laws and,

  19. Predicting Child Abuse Potential across Family Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Brenda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined whether stress, family resources, and social support are correlates of the child abuse potential of mothers. Stress in family functioning appeared to be an important predictor of child abuse potential. Mothers of children with disabilities may be more inclined than other mothers to have elevated child abuse potential.…

  20. The electromagnetic potentials without the gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Augusto; Chubykalo, Andrey; Rodriguez, Alejandro Gutierrez; Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    In this note we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem lead to derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without making use of the gauge transformation. These potentials correspond to the potentials obtained by imposing so-called Coulomb condition (gauge) in the traditional approach. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by its instantaneous action at a distance, whereas another one propagates in the retarded form with the velocity of light. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities as well as the electric and magnetic fields. We show that the reality of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum-mechanics is also a property of these potentials in the classical electrodynamics. Equations for potentials obtained in our approach are already separated with respect to vector and scalar potentials, so there is no necessity in using the gauge transformations and, accordingly, in making use of either Lorentz or Coulomb condition. The vector potential and scalar potential introduced thus are uniquely defined. The scalar potential is a generator of the so called instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the solenoidal vector potential can propagate with the velocity of light and it is responsible for the retarded action of the electromagnetic field. (author)

  1. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  2. Sodium exchange process in lower vertebrates studies by means of 24Na. Their interpretation as a 'purification' of radioactive water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, J.

    1958-01-01

    Fresh-water fish and amphibians live in an aquatic medium which is very hypotonic with respect to their internal medium. By osmosis the water passes through their permeable teguments (gills, mucous membranes, skin). It is known from the work of Krogh (1937-1939) that this water is eliminated by the kidney, which emits a copious diluted urine. Yet however great the dilution, the urinary excretion results in a loss of salts for the organism. This loss is compensated, even in the absence of any nourishment, by active absorption of ions. Some recent workers have attempted, by using radioactive isotopes, to establish the balance between the input and output flows of ions through the permeable membranes in vivo, whereas chemical analytical methods only allow the net result of these exchanges to be obtained. We have attempted to present here a new method for the simultaneous measurement of the sodium flow takes over the whole animal. This method has been applied to the fresh-water fish Carassius auratus and to the frog Rana esculenta. In the course of this investigation we have considered interpreting it as a 'purification of radioactive water'. (author) [fr

  3. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  4. Occurrence of two new species of the genus Dipartiella (Raabe, 1959) Stein 1961 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) isolated for the first time from ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mandira; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2017-12-01

    During the parasitological survey of ornamental fish in India the authors identified two trichodinid ciliophorans for the first time in India, during the year 2014-16 and also revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for trichodinid infection. Two ciliophorans have been isolated and identified on the basis of wet silver nitrate impregnation technique followed by taxonomic description, morphometric variability and comparative data with its closely related species. Considering all the important features including diameter, structure of denticles, rays and ciliatures the authors are of the opinion that the identified species are new to science. Hence, the name Dipartiella indiana n. sp. and Dipartiella carassii n. sp. are being proposed here. Till date, only two species of the genus have been described from the edible fish, but no attention has been paid to ornamental fish. Moreover, The present study confirms the first report of this genus from ornamental fish species and added two more species under the genus Dipartiella (Raabe, 1959) Stein 1961 along with new host, locality and prevalence rates.

  5. Effect of acetazolamide on the otolith growth of goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiya, Yasuo

    1977-01-01

    In order to clarify the involvement of a functional carbonic anhydrase (CA) system in the otolith formation of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, acetazolamide, a specific CA inhibitor, was injected intraperitoneally every 3 or 4 days, and its inhibitory effect on the otolith growth was examined by means of a tetracycline labelling technique. Calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was also examined after a single injection of the drug. Given in multiple doses of 50 mg per Kg of body weight, acetazolamide did not reduce the growth rate of the otolith on either dorsal or ventral side. With multiple doses of 100 mg, however, the dorsal growth was significantly depressed by 17%. The ventral growth was not affected. Similarly, calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was effectively reduced (39%) only when a dose of 100 mg was given. These results suggest that, if involved, the enzyme-catalyzed hydration or hydroxylation of CO 2 is not indispensable to the carbonate formation of the otolith. (auth.)

  6. Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SITUACIÓN DE Menidia jordani (Pisces: Atherinopsidae EN EL EMBALSE LA GOLETA, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Navarrete-Salgado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza la situación del charal Menidia jordani (Pisces, Atherinopsidae en el embalse La Goleta, Estado de México y las variaciones poblacionales desde 1998, cuando se registró por primera vez en el embalse. Para ello se realizaron visitas en 1998, 2007 y 2008 durante las épocas secas y de lluvias. Los peces fueron capturados con un chinchorro charalero de 30.0 m de largo, 1.5 m de caída y 8.0 mm de abertura de malla, fijados con formalina al 10 %, llevados al laboratorio e identificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayor abundancia de M. jordani se registró en 1998 (3,000 peces·1000 m-2, mientras que la menor abundancia se presentó en 2008 (5 orgs.·1000 m-2. Se concluye que estas variaciones están en función de la presencia de especies exóticas como la carpa común (Cyprinus carpio y la carpa dorada (Carassius auratus, con las cuales compite, asimismo, la presencia de una especie carnívora (Micropterus salmoides afecta la población del charal en el embalse. El céstodo (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, influyó en la disminución de este pez y el vertido de aguas negras hacia este sistema afectaron también su abundancia.

  8. The Effects of Ghrelin on Energy Balance and Psychomotor Activity in a Goldfish Model: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goldfish (Carassius auratus has a number of merits as a laboratory animal, and we have extensively identified the mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates food intake in this species. For the first time, we have purified and characterized 11 molecular variants of ghrelin that are present in goldfish intestine and shown that 17-residue ghrelin, the predominant form with n-octanoyl modification, is biologically active and implicated in the regulation of food intake as an endogenous orexigenic factor. Ghrelin and its receptor system are present not only in peripheral tissues such as stomach and intestine, but also in the central nervous system. Recent studies have also revealed that a number of neuropeptides are widely distributed in the brain in key areas of emotional regulation, and their role as modulators of behavioral states is being increasingly recognized. Interestingly, administration of ghrelin induces an orexigenic effect and also modifies locomotor activity, suggesting the involvement of ghrelin in feeding control and regulation of energy balance. Information derived from studies of ghrelin has been increasing, and important results have been obtained from both fish and mammals. Here, we present an overview of the effects of ghrelin on energy balance and psychomotor activity in the goldfish as an animal model. The available data provide an insight into evolutionary background of ghrelin's multiple actions on energy homeostasis in vertebrates.

  9. Analysing codon usage bias of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and adaptation of this virus to the hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y P; Liu, Z X; Hao, L; Ma, J Y; Liang, Z L; Li, Y G; Ke, H

    2015-07-01

    The codon usage patterns of open reading frames (ORFs) in cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) have been investigated in this study. The high correlation between GC12 % and GC3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base component in the CyHV-3, while mutational pressure effect results from the high correlation between GC3 % and the first principal axis of principle component analysis (Axis 1) on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) value of the viral functional genes. However, the interaction between the absolute codon usage bias and GC3 % suggests that other selections take part in the formation of codon usage, except for the mutational pressure. It is noted that the similarity degree of codon usage between the CyHV-3 and goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), is higher than that between the virus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., suggesting that the goldfish plays a more important role than the common carp in codon usage pattern of the CyHV-3. The study of codon usage in CyHV-3 can provide some evidence about the molecular evolution of the virus. It can also enrich our understanding about the relationship between the CyHV-3 and its hosts by analysing their codon usage patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Estado De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Á. Yubi Armendáriz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones de los organismos en la naturaleza se basan en dos ciclos, uno de materia y el otro de energía, dichos ciclos dan origen a las cadenas tróficas las cuales dan origen a los tres niveles tróficos; autótrofos, herbívoros y carnívoros. Para el caso de los peces de agua dulce, los organismos jóvenes viven y se alimentan en la orilla y superficie del agua, para conocer lo que comen se analiza el tracto digestivo. Por lo cual el presente trabajo pretende determinar la trama trófica de los peces del embalse San Miguel Arco. Se capturaron los peces del embalse con un chinchorro de 30 metros de largo y 1/3 de pulgada, los organismos se fijaron con formalina al 10 %, los peces se identificaron al igual que el alimento que consumieron, con claves especializadas, a la abundancia de los grupos alimenticios se les aplicó el índice de Simpson. Se encontró que Chirostoma humboldtianum, es zooplanctófago especialista, Cyprinus carpio, y Carassius auratus son planctófagos generalistas y Poeciliopsis infans es planctófago especialista. La trama trófica se basa en zooplancton (Bosmina y Mastigodiaptomus además de zoobentos (Corixidae.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor alpha of teleosts: in silico characterization and homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- is known to be crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of TNF- protein of fish was analyzed using in silico approach. TNF- proteins selected from fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, zebra fish (Danio rerio, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, goldfish (Carassius auratus, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics with molecular weight, theoretical isoelectric point, extinction coefficient, aliphatic index, instability index, total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues, and grand average of hydropathicity were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. The “transmembrane region” and “TNF” domain were identified from protein sequences. The function prediction of proteins was also performed. Alpha helices and random coils were dominating in the secondary structure of the proteins. Three-dimensional structures were predicted and verified as good structures for the investigation of TNF- of fish by online server validation.

  12. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  13. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and organohalogen pollutants in liver of three freshwater fish species in Flanders (Belgium): relationships with biochemical and organismal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Philippe Tony [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: philippe.hoff@ua.ac.be; Van Campenhout, Karen [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van de Vijver, Kristin [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Antwerp University, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Moens, Lotte [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Huyskens, Geert [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Goemans, Geert [Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Duboislaan 14, B-1560 Groenendaal (Belgium); Belpaire, Claude [Institute for Forestry and Game Management, Duboislaan 14, B-1560 Groenendaal (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim de [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Antwerp University, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2005-09-15

    A perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) assessment was conducted on gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Flanders (Belgium). The liver PFOS concentrations in fish from the Ieperlee canal (Boezinge, 250-9031 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the Blokkersdijk pond (Antwerp, 633-1822 ng/g wet weight) were higher than at the Zuun basin (Sint-Pieters-Leeuw, 11.2-162 ng/g wet weight) and among the highest in feral fish worldwide. Eel from the Oude Maas pond (Dilsen-Stokkem) and Watersportbaan basin (Ghent) had PFOS concentrations ranging between 212 and 857 ng/g wet weight. The hepatic PFOS concentration was significantly and positively related with the serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and negatively with the serum protein content in eel and carp. The hepatic PFOS concentration in carp correlated significantly and negatively with the serum electrolyte concentrations whereas a significant positive relation was found with the hematocrit in eel. Although 13 organochlorine pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the liver tissue, only PCB 28, PCB 74, {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were suggested to contribute to the observed serological alterations in eel. - Hepatic perfluorooctane sulfonic acid contamination in Flanders (Belgium) might affect serological endpoints in feral carp and eel.

  14. Interatomic Potentials via the Effective Action Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamny, M.; Valiev, M.; Fernando, G. W.

    1998-03-01

    We present a method for the generation of interatomic potentials from first principles calculations using the marat>effective action formalism which leads to a systematic definition for effective two-body interatomic potentials. We do this by reducing the fully interacting system to an auxilliary system which interacts via a two-body interatomic potential. This definition can be trivially extended to higher order interatomic potentials. Unlike other approaches, our interatomic potentials are obtained from a sampling of configuration space pertaining to the thermodynamic environment of interest.

  15. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H

    1983-01-01

    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  16. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  17. The potential of solar power in the European Union; Das Potential der Sonnenenergie in der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    In the framework of this research programme, reports are presented on: Wind power in the European Union; The potential of photovoltaic power generation in the European Union; The potential of thermal solar power in buildings owned by the European Union; The potential of renewable biomass in the European Union. (HW) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des vorgelegten Forschungsprogramms wird berichtet ueber: - Windenergienutzung der EU - Potential der photovoltaischen Stromerzeugung der EU - Potential thermischer Solarenergie im Gebaeudebereich der EU - Potential erneuerbarer Biomasse in der EU. (HW)

  18. Calculation of baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential in resonance matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Hu Shouyang; Lu Zhongdao

    2006-01-01

    Based on the high energy heavy-ion collisions statistical model, the baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential are calculated for resonance matter with net baryon density and net strangeness density under given temperature. Furthermore, the relationship between net baryon density, net strangeness density and baryon chemical potential, strangeness chemical potential are analyzed. The results show that baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential increase with net baryon density and net strangeness density increasing, the change of net baryon density affects baryon chemical potential and strangeness chemical potential more strongly than the change of net strangeness density. (authors)

  19. Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni - Entamoeba histolytica coinfection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus Morbidade em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus devido à co-infecção Schistosoma mansoni - Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Santana Dolabella

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on Schistosoma mansoni-Entamoeba histolytica coinfection are scarce in the literature. In the present study, hamsters that had been infected for 70 days with Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain were inoculated via the portal vein with two strains of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica: ICB-EGG (highly virulent and ICB-RPS (non-virulent. The most evident result of coinfection was increased morbidity and mortality, in comparison with either of the infections alone. Histologically, there were no evident signs of interaction between these two infections. The morphological findings of schistosomal granuloma and amoebic abscesses in the liver were similar to those seen in the respective single-infection controls. However, there was severe wasting of the animals with both infections and greater numbers of amoebic lesions in their livers. The results obtained indicated that schistosomiasis aggravates the course of amoebiasis in hamsters.Dados sobre a co-infecção Schistosoma mansoni-Entamoeba histolytica são escassos na literatura. No presente estudo, hamsters com 70 dias de infecção por Schistosoma mansoni (cepa LE foram inoculados com trofozoítos de Entamoeba histolytica, cepa ICB-EGG (virulenta e cepa ICB-RPS (não virulenta, via veia porta. O mais evidente resultado da co-infecção foi o aumento da morbidade e mortalidade, quando comparado com os animais com somente uma das infecções. Histologicamente, não houve sinais evidentes da interação entre as duas infecções. O aspecto morfológico do granuloma esquistossomótico e do abcesso hepático amebiano são similares aos observados nos controles, com somente uma infecção. Entretanto, foi observado que os animais co-infectados apresentavam-se mais debilitados e com maior número de lesões amebianas no fígado. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a esquistossomose agrava o curso da infecção amebiana em hamsters.

  20. A parabolic model for dimple potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Melike Cibik; Uncu, Haydar; Deniz, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    We study the truncated parabolic function and demonstrate that it is a representation of the Dirac δ function. We also show that the truncated parabolic function, used as a potential in the Schrödinger equation, has the same bound state spectrum, tunneling and reflection amplitudes as the Dirac δ potential, as the width of the parabola approximates to zero. Dirac δ potential is used to model dimple potentials which are utilized to increase the phase-space density of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap. We show that a harmonic trap with a δ function at the origin is a limiting case of the harmonic trap with a symmetric truncated parabolic potential around the origin. Hence, the truncated parabolic is a better candidate for modeling the dimple potentials. (paper)