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Sample records for carassius auratus olfactory

  1. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  2. PARASITES INFECTIONS OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus L.

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    Emil Gjurčević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing fish from their natural environment, and placing them in aquariums, where large number is concentrated on small space, causes not only stress but increases the possibility of disease. In these unnatural conditions but often adequate for parasite reproduction, parasites can cause diseases leading to death. In our work we investigated parasites presence in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. kept in aquarium, from three different pet shops. The study showed presence of: Trypanoplasma sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Myxoboulus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. Considering the number of parasites found in examined fish, it can be possible that parasites can cause mortality in goldfish. Therefore, special caution has to be on quarantine and healthcare while importing especially exotic aquarium fish that may be infected with exotic parasites. In case of disease, proper treatment in due time has to be conducted.

  3. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio.

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    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio in this study. The genome sequence was 16,576 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is 31.61% A, 25.81% T, 26.62% G, 15.96% C, with an A+T bias of 57.42%. The complete mitogenome data provides useful genetic markers for the studies on the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  4. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

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    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  5. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

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    Fengjin CAI, Zhengjun WU, Nan HE, Zhenxing WANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. auratus recognizes P. clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. auratus recognize P. clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. clarkii previously fed with C. auratus (C. auratus diet cues and water from a tub containing unfed P. clarkii (P. clarkii cues. In the visual experiment, experienced C. auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. auratus responded to P. clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. auratus appears to recognize P. clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. auratus may recognize P. clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. auratus can recognize P. clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. auratus cannot [Current Zoology 57 (3: 330–339, 2011].

  6. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

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    Fengjin CAI; Zhengjun WU; Nan HE; Zhenxing WANG; Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana) and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. Clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. Auratus recognizes P. Clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus recognize P. Clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. Auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. Clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. Clarkii previously fed with C. Auratus (C. Auratus diet cues) and water from a tub containing unfed P. Clarkii (P. Clarkii cues). In the visual experiment, experienced C. Auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. Auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. Auratus responded to P. Clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. Auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. Auratus appears to recognize P. Clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. Auratus may recognize P. Clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. Clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. Clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. Auratus can recognize P. Clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. Clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. Auratus cannot.

  7. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

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    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  8. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting goldfish Carassius auratus auratus.

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    Lewisch, Eva; Soliman, Hatem; Schmidt, Peter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus 1758). The fish had been imported from China by an Austrian retailer. Nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. In valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. In sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. The polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a polar filament with 8 to 9 coils. Histological sections showed plasmodia of 0.2 to 4.0 mm diameter with the earlier developmental stages of the parasite in the periphery and the mature spores closer to the center. In the transmission electron microscope examination, the different developmental stages could be observed. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA identify this parasite as a new species of Thelohanellus, which we have named Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov.

  10. Identification of Triploid Individuals and Clonal Lines in Carassius Auratus Complex Using Microsatellites

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    Zhiyi Bai, Feng Liu, Jiale Li, Gen Hua Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carassius auratus complex in natural populations includes diploid triploid and polyploidy individuals. Diploid individuals belong to the species Carassius auratus whereas triploid and polyploidy individuals are from the subspecies Carassius auratus gibelio. Triploid individuals are all female and reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. Therefore the Carassius auratus complex is an ideal system for studying evolution of unisexual reproduction. Identification of triploid individuals and clonal lines is the first step towards understanding of the evolution of unisexual clonal lines. We examined the ability of 10 microsatellites in identifying triploid individuals in 94 individuals from Japan and China. In 40 confirmed triploid individuals and eight confirmed diploid individuals, all triploid and diploid individuals can be identified by genotyping 10 microsatellite, and four triploid clonal lines were identified. Using the 10 microsatellites we genotyped 46 adult individuals (40 females and six males from a natural population in China and found that all six males were diploid whereas the majority of females (36 of 40 were triploid and three triploid clonal lines were detected. In 18 diploid individuals from China, all individuals showed different genotypes, suggesting there is no diploid clonal line in diploid crucian carp. A phylogenetic analysis of 94 individuals from China and Japan showed that triploid individuals and clonal lines have originated recurrently.

  11. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  12. Immunotoxicity of bisphenol A to Carassius auratus lymphocytes and macrophages following in vitro exposure

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    YIN Da-qiang; HU Shuang-qing; GU Ying; WEI Li; LIU Shu-shen; ZHANG Ai-qian

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC).The reproductive toxicity of BPA has been extensively studied in mammals; however, relatively little information is available on the immunotoxic responses of fish to BPA. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA on the immune functions of lymphocytes and macrophages in Carassius auratus. The effects of BPA were compared with those of two natural steroid hormones, estradiol and hydrocortisone. Proliferation of the two types of cells in response to PHA was measured using colorimetric MTT assay. Macrophage respiratory burst stimulated by Con A was measured using chemiluminescence assay. Results showed that BPA (0.054-5.4 mg/L),estradiol (0.0002-2.0 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (5-50 mg/L) significantly induced Carassius auratus lymphocyte proliferation while higher doses of hydrocortisone (500-5000 mg/L) appeared to be inhibitory. BPA (0.005-50 mg/L), estradiol (0.005-800 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (0.005-500 mg/L) markedly enhanced macrophage proliferation, whereas higher doses of BPA (500-1000 mg/L)appeared to inhibit cell proliferation. Furthermore, higher dosage of BPA (50 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (50 and 500 mg/L) suppressed the macrophages respiratory burst while estradiol is stimulative all the doses tested (0.05-500 mg/L). In conclusion, BPA could have immunotoxicity to Carassius auratus and functional changes of lymphocyte and macrophage in Carassius auratus may be different between low and high dosages.

  13. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

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    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  14. Genetic variation and population history of three Carassius auratus populations in Huaihe River, China.

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    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yuanjun; Yang, Chengzhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the relationships of drainage history of Huaihe River with the genetic history of Carassius auratus along the river, we examined the genetic variations and population histories of three wild C. auratus populations in Huaihe River based on the D-loop gene. The results showed that their nucleotide and haplotype diversities were ranged from 0.00268 to 0.00651 and from 0.863 to 0.902, respectively, and their genetic distance was quite small. The analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that a frequent inter-population connection and large historic gene flows occurred among the three populations. Demographic analysis indicated that expansions had been happened in three populations. After investigating the historic process of the Huaihe River, we presumed that both nature and artificial factors may play important roles in shaping the genetic structure of the three populations. The present study also provided genetic information of C. auratus for further conservation of its germplasm resources.

  15. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  16. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

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    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  17. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldifsh (Carassius auratus)

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    Reza Tarkhani; Mohammad Reza Imanpoor; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Sayede Amene Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Methods:To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight usingANOVA. Results:Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of this hormone on growth factors ofCarassius auratus.

  18. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  19. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  20. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  1. Hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in Carassius auratus liver, exposed to pyrene.

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    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the hydroxy radical generation and oxidative stress in the liver of goldfish Carassius auratus under the effect of pyrene. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) of pyrene for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. Based on the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, the free radical which was generated in fish liver was identified as hydroxyl radical ((*)OH). The (*)OH signal intensity showed a significant increase compared with the control. The changes of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were detected. The reduced glutathione (GSH) level decreased significantly while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level was increased at higher concentration (0.005-0.1 mg/L), resulting in a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly at 0.005-0.1 mg/L pyrene. The results clearly showed that C. auratus was subjected to oxidative stress and damage when exposed to pyrene.

  2. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  3. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

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    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  4. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  5. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  6. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  7. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  8. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  9. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  10. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  11. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.

  12. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  13. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  14. In vivo Pharm acodynam ic Effect of Thiam phenicol in Serum of Carassius auratus on Aerom onas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Hongbo; Wang; Di; LU; Tongyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the in vitro pharmacodynamic effect of thiamphenicol( TAP) in serum of Carassius auratus on Aeromonas hydrophila. By combining the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro pharmacodynamics,the pharmacodynamic effect of TAP on Aeromonas hydrophila was studied,and the data were processed and analyzed by software Excel 2007,Kinetica3P97 and Kinetica4. 4. The results showed that oral administration of singly 30 mg /kg TAP assumed a rapid assimilation-quickly peaking-slowly dispelling trend in Carassius auratus. The related parameters were measured as follows: time of peaked plasma concentration of TAP( Tpeak) of 1.5 h,peak concentration( Cmax) of 37.172 μg/mL and absorption rate( ka) of 1.523 h,half-life period T1/2( ka) of 0.455 h,lag time( TL)of 0. 02 h,elimination half life T1/2( ke) of 16.712 h. The half maximal effective concentration( EC50) was 14.28 h. The PK-PD parameters were 32.41 h in AUC0- 24/ MICserumand 23. 23 in Cmax/MICserum. Employing an inhibitory Sigmoid Emax model,the administration dosage of TAP for preventing Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia was 8. 61- 46. 20 mg /kg in clinical application. Based on these,we proposed the optimal administration route for preventing and controlling the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia: delivering TAP at the ratio of 46. 20 mg /kg on diseased Carassius auratus by mixing with baits or oral administration,followed by delivering with baits at ratio of 8. 61 mg /kg for preventing the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia. The results provided references for applying thiamphenicol for preventing and controlling the bacterial septicemia in aquatic livestock.

  15. Effect of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids supplementation on sperm quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Zeinab Hanaee Kashani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA supplementation onsperm quality was studied in goldfish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758, for one year. Fish fedexperimental diets had no significant differences in sperm concentration, spermatocrit, motility durationand percent motility of each sperm (P>0.05. Fish fed with E100+HUFA had the highest spermconcentration and highest spermatocrit. Motility duration and percent motility of each sperm were notsignificantly different (P>0.05 although the control group had the lowest value.

  16. Behavioral and biochemical responses in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Sheng; Nie, Yang; Ma, Binni; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Sertraline is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. However, knowledge regarding relationships among molecular or biochemical endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of sertraline and ecologically important behavioral responses of fish is insufficient. The present study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration and possible adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of sertraline (4.36, 21.3 and 116 μg L(-1)) for 7 d. Bioconcentration factor values were in the range of 19.5-626 in liver, 6.94-285 in brain, 4.01-146 in gill and 0.625-43.1 in muscle during the entire period of exposure. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were selected as biochemical endpoints associated with MOAs. Swimming activity, shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were determined to assess behavioral responses. Fish plasma levels of sertraline exceeding human therapeutic doses were also predicted from external exposure concentrations. Significant enhancements in CAT, GPx, AChE and swimming activities and decreases in shoaling tendency, feeding rate and food consumption were observed when fish plasma levels exceeded human therapeutic thresholds. Shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were correlated with the activities of SOD, CAT and GST. A significant positive correlation between swimming activity and AChE activity was also observed. As such, our study provides important AOPs linking biochemical responses with ultimate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints.

  17. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  18. Characterization of Toll-like receptor gene expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during Dactylogyrus intermedius infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Liu, Lei; Qi, Xiaozhou; Chen, Weichao; Wang, Gaoxue; Ling, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first and best understood innate immune receptors, play a notable role in the innate immune system by sensing pathogenic agents and initiating appropriate immune responses. However, studies about the roles of fish TLRs in response to the infection of the ectoparasitic monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius have been surprisingly vacant. In the present study, cDNA fragments of five members of TLRs family in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were cloned and the expression patterns of nine TLRs in five tissues at different time points during D. intermedius infection were subsequently investigated. We found that the expressions of TLR4, TLR5, TLR20 and TLR22 were significantly elevated after infection at some time points, of which the transcription of TLR5 was progressively increased nearly in all tissues, whereas the mRNA levels of other TLRs (TLR2, 3, 7, 9 and 21) were down-regulated or showed no significant change compared with the control at most time points. Additionally, this paper was also conducted to explore the expression of above TLRs after re-infected with D. intermedius. The results showed a significant upregulation of TLR4, TLR5 and TLR22 in all tested tissues at these two time points, especially the levels of TLR4 and TLR22 expression, were even higher comparing with the first infection. Besides, tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that spleen featured the highest expressions of almost all the TLR-encoding genes among detected tissues. The informations obtained here could be helpful towards understanding the functions of TLRs in response to parasitic infection in goldfish and provide new insights for the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches against D. intermedius infection.

  19. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  20. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral DNA vaccines in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nana; Xu, Kun; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yuwan; Bai, Yichun; Zhang, Xiaohan; Han, Baoquan; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Oral delivery of DNA vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. Recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and DNAs to some species in vivo. However, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional DNAs for vaccination to fish is still unknown. In this study, red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring CMV-EGFP expression cassette. On day 5 post the first vaccination, EGFP expression in the hindgut was detected under fluorescence microscope. To further study whether the delivered gene could induce specific immune responses, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used as immunogen, and oral administrations were conducted with recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring pCMV-OVA mammalian gene expression cassette as gene delivery or pADH1-OVA yeast gene expression cassette as protein delivery. Each administration was performed with three different doses, and the OVA-specific serum antibody was detected in all the experimental groups by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA assay also revealed that pCMV-OVA group with lower dose (pCMV-OVA-L) and pADH1-OVA group with moderate dose (pADH1-OVA-M) triggered relatively stronger antibody response than the other two doses. Moreover, the antibody level induced by pCMV-OVA-L group was significantly higher than pADH1-OVA-M group at the same serum dilutions. All the results suggested that recombinant yeast can be used as a potential carrier for oral DNA vaccines and would help to develop more practical strategies to control infectious diseases in aquaculture.

  1. Efecto del anabólico acetato de trembolona sobre el crecimiento de Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae Anabolic effect induced by trenbolone acetate steroid on the Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae growth

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    Samuel Marañón Herrera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia anabólica del esteroide acetato de trembolona en juveniles de Carassius auratus de 60 días de edad, expuestos durante 120 días a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento. Cada dos semanas se registraron las siguientes biometrías: longitud total, longitud patrón, altura y peso. El beneficio del esteroide se caracterizó con un modelo que relacionó el peso en función del tiempo, acoplado a otros dos modelos: uno en donde se relaciona la talla con el tiempo y otro alométrico, que relacionó el peso con la talla. Los modelos estimados mostraron que el crecimiento de los peces tratados con el anabólico fue superior al de los peces del testigo y difieren significativamente (p0.05. El análisis de la variabilidad de los tres modelos demostró que las estimaciones describieron en forma adecuada el crecimiento, así lo confirma el coeficiente de determinación (r² que fluctúa entre el 72.9 y 93.5% y el análisis de la distribución de la talla y el peso con diagramas de caja. Se concluye que la aplicación del acetato de trembolona en Carassius auratus fue exitosa, al registrarse una sobrevivencia del 100% y funcionar como un eficiente agente anabólico, ya que se obtuvo una ganancia de biomasa del 48.0% y de talla del 41.3%, con respecto al testigo.The anabolic efficiency of steroid trenbolone acetate was evaluated in 60 days old juveniles of Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed during 120 days to steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg food. Total length, standard length, height and weight were registered every two weeks. The benefit of the steroid was characterized with a model that relates the weight as a function of time, coupled to other two models: one where size is related with time and an alometric one which correlates weight with size. The models showed that growth of steroid treated fish was superior to that of untreated (control fish, differing significantly (p 0.05. Analysis of the variability of the three models

  2. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  3. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp. in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubules and tubulardilation. Liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and focal areasof necrosis, haemorrhagia and hepatitis. In intestine, atrophy of epithelial cells and enteritis on thelamina propria and submucosal layer were seen. It was concluded that unfavourable environmentalcontamination of aquarium may induced several histopathological alterations in the tissues of goldfishand angelfishes.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  5. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  6. Assessing the anti-estrogenic activity of sodium pentachlorophenol in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing; LIU Zheng-tao; XU Zhang-fa

    2006-01-01

    Both pentachlorophenol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) had been studied widely because of their probable anti-estrogenic activity. Sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na), as a industrial product used in many fields, usually contains a trace of TCDD. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-estrogenic effect of PCP-Na in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (VTG) as the biomarker. The ID50 of PCP-Na was investigated and then a series of concentrations (0.001-0.5 μg/ml) of PCP-Na were evaluated to estimate the anti-estrogenic activity. Results showed that PCP-Na was cytotoxic for hepatocytes even at very low concentration <1.21 μg/ml, and it could not induce VTG at any concentrations tested.Since it failed to stimulate VTG production, the possibility of its anti-estrogenic effect was tested, and a well-known anti-estrogenic compound-tamoxifen was used as positive control. PCP-Na caused a reduction in VTG synthesis in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes at concentrations >0.1 μg/ml when co-exposure with 1 μg/ml 17β-estradiol (E2), making its anti-estrogenic activity approximately as potent as tamoxifen. Our results indicate that PCP-Na can act as negative modulators of estrogenic function in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes.

  7. 普安银鲫的生物学特性及养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of PUAN Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先中; 冉光鑫; 黄仕洪

    2015-01-01

    普安银鲫(PUAN Carassius auratus)是贵州省特有的天然雌核发育鱼类种质资源;它具有肉质好、生长快、杂食性、抗病力强、营养与药用价值高等特点。该文对普安银鲫形态特征、生活习性、摄食习性、繁殖习性等生物学特征进行了综述。并对普安银鲫养殖过程中池塘准备、放养密度、饲料投喂、水质管理,疾病防治等进行了简单介绍。%PUAN Carassius auratus was indigenous unique natural fish germplasm resources in Guizhou prov⁃ince;it has good meat,fast growth,omnivorous,disease resistance,high nutritional and medicinal value. In this paper,biological characteristics of PUAN Carassius auratus were reviewed,including morphological char⁃acteristics,living habits,feeding habits and breeding habits. Cultivation technology of PUAN Carassius aura⁃tus was introduced briefly,including breeding ponds during the preparation,stocking density,feed,feeding,wa⁃ter quality management and disease prevention.

  8. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish. PMID:28338019

  9. Study on Carassius Auratus Fresh-keeping with Microwave%鲫鱼微波保鲜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣

    2013-01-01

    采用微波处理鲫鱼,然后将处理好的鲫鱼冷藏在3℃和10℃,以其细菌菌落数、pH、感官值、TVBN值、TBA值变化,研究微波的保鲜效果。结果表明:经超声波处理,对鱼的保鲜期有所延长,3℃时功率为300 W、时间为30 s微波处理鲫鱼,可保藏16 d。10℃时功率为300 W、时间为45 s微波处理鲫鱼可保藏9 d。%Carassius auratus was treated with microwave,then stored under 3℃and 10℃.Germs,pH,sensory index, TVBN index, TBA index was measured to evaluated the fresh-keeping effect. It was proved that Fish was treated with microwave,the fish can be preserved longer . At the temperature of 3℃,the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 16 days under Power 300 W, Time:30 s;At the temperature of 10℃, the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 9 days under Power 300 W , Time:45 s.

  10. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  12. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiuping; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+), the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn(2+) exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn(2+), while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+) were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  13. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  14. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment.

  15. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  16. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  17. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and β-carotene on the semen quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, B; Kazemi, R; Alipour, A; Seidavi, A; Naseralavi, G; Ponce-Palafox, J T

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two carotenoids (astaxanthin and β-carotene) on the sperm quality of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758). For this purpose, six diets containing concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin and β-carotene were added to a basic carp diet. One group of fish was also fed with a control diet (no added carotenoids). Osmolality, spermatocrit value, and sperm concentration significantly increased in the treatment supplemented with 150 mg/kg of astaxanthin (296.6 ± 1.1 mOsm/kg; 29.2 ± 0.6%; 17.2 ± 0.4 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively) and β-carotene (295.2 ± 2.1 mOsm/kg; 32.5 ± 1.6%; 17.9 ± 0.5 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively). The highest concentration of astaxanthin (10.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg) was recorded in the treatment of A150 (P astaxanthin improves osmolality, motility, fertilization rate, and sperm concentration.

  19. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  20. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  1. Two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Nicola; Troskie, Brigitte E.; Nahorniak, Carol S.; Janet P Hapgood; Peter, Richard E.; Millar, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    In the goldfish (Carassius auratus) the two endogenous forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely chicken GnRH II ([His5,Trp7,Tyr8]GnRH) and salmon GnRH ([Trp7,Leu8]GnRH), stimulate the release of both gonadotropins and growth hormone from the pituitary. This control is thought to occur by means of the stimulation of distinct GnRH receptors. These receptors can be distinguished on the basis of differential gonadotropin and growth hormone releasing activities of naturally occurring...

  2. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  3. A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus from East Asia using Maxent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi’ao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and goldfish (Carassius auratus, two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

  4. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish.

  5. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  6. Protection of Carassius auratus Gibelio against infection by Aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-liang; SHUAI Jiang-bing; FANG Wei-huan

    2006-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgY) from egg yolk against Aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of White Leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of A. hydrophila. ELISA test using A. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (P/N=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (P/N=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (P/N=7.03). The antibody was purified by saturated ammonium sulphate with a recovery rate of 63.5%. The specific IgY inhibited the growth ofA. hydrophila at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml during the 18 h incubation. Pre-treatment of polyploid gibel carps Carassius auratus Gibelio with specific IgY had a protection rate of 60% (6/10) against challenge with A. hydrophila, while none of the fishes in the control groups receiving sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or non-specific IgY survived the challenge. Treatment of fishes with the specific IgY 4 h after the challenge also had lower mortality (70%, 7/10), a 30% reduction against the control PBS or non-specific IgY groups (10/10).These results indicate that specific IgY antibodies could be obtained easily from hens immunized with an inactivated A. hydrophila and could provide a novel alternative approach to control of diseases in fishes caused by this organism.

  7. Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigang Xia; Shijian Fu; Zhendong Cao; Jianglan Peng; Jing Peng; Tingting Dai; Lili Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern.Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish.However,the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown.We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0,0.5,2,8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr.The spontaneous swimming activity,fast-start swimming performance,critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS.PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity.Motion distance was reduced,and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS.However,no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters,such as latency time,maximum linear velocity,maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus,were observed after PFOS exposure.Unexpectedly,although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish,the Ucrit of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS.This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport.The overall results indicate that,in contrast to spontaneous activity,underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS,but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated.

  8. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  9. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  10. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC, triploid (abbreviated 3nCC and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  11. 对鲫鱼的急性毒性试验四种中药%Acute Toxicity Test of Four Chinese Herbs on Carassius Auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗喜东; 陈鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    Biological toxicity method was adopted to investigate the acute toxicity effect of four Chinese herbs(Cyrtomium fortune,Sophora,Toosendan and Elecampane) on carassius auratus by ob-serving and recording the death and toxic reaction of carassius auratus within 96 h. The results indi-cated that toxicities of the four Chinese herbs decreased in the following sequence:Cyrtomium for-tune>Toosendan>Sophora>Elecampane. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of these four Chinese herbs were 2.254, 10.239, 36.363 g/L and 47.539 g/L, respectively, and their corresponding safe concentration (SC) were 0.294,1.539,8.575 g/L and 10.076 g/L,respectively. Therefore,once these four Chinese herbs were used in culture of carassius auratus,their dosages must be controlled within each safety concentration range.%为研究贯众、苦参、川楝子、土木香等4种中药对鲫鱼的急性毒性作用,我们采用生物毒性方法,观察和记录了投药96 h内鲫鱼的死亡情况和毒性反应. 结果显示:4种中药的毒性大小依次为贯众>川楝子>苦参>土木香,24 h的半致死质量浓度(LC50)分别为2.254、10.239、36.363、47.539 g/L,安全质量浓度(SC)分别为0.294、1.539、8.575、10.076 g/L. 结论:在鲫鱼养殖中使用上述中药时应在其安全质量浓度范围内进行.

  12. Effects of La(III) and Ca(II) on isolated Carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man; Gao, Jia-Ling; Sun, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    The effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from Carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (Δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. La(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (IC50) being 71.2 μmol L(-1). Similarly, Ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the IC50 of Ca(2+) was much higher than that of La(3+). In the spectroscopic experiments, La(3+) and Ca(2+) induced fish liver mitochondrial swelling and decreased membrane potential (Δψ), and the induction ability of La(3+) was stronger than that of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the effects of La(3+) and Ca(2+) on fish liver mitochondria differ, and La represents toxic action rather than Ca analogy.

  13. Discovery of a male-biased mutant family and identification of a male-specific SCAR marker in gynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Wang; Huiling Mao; Jinxia Peng; Xiyin Li; Li Zhou; Jianfang Gui

    2009-01-01

    Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a uniquely gynogenetic species with a minor ratio of males in natural habitats, but its male origin and sex determination mechanisms have been unknown. In this study, a male-biased mutant family was discovered from the gynogenetic gibel carp, and a male-specific SCAR marker was identified from the mutant family. Normal spermatogenesis was observed in the male testes by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Nearly identical AFLP profiles were observed between males and females, but a male-specific 86 bp AFLP fragment was screened by sex-pool bulked segregant analysis and individual screening. Based on the male-specific AFLP frag-ment, a total of 579 bp sequences were cloned by genome walking. Subsequently, a male-specific SCAR marker was designed, and the male-specific DNA fragment was confirmed to be steadily transmitted to the next generation and consistently detected only in males.

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  15. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  16. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.

  17. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  19. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  20. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  1. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance.

  2. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  3. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  4. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  5. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment.

  6. Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesci, Alessio; Salvo, Andrea; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Gervasi, Teresa; Palombieri, Deborah; Bruno, Maurizio; Pergolizzi, Simona; Cicero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.

  7. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.

  8. 四溴双酚A的鲫鱼血清蛋白生物标志物研究%Biomarkers of Serum Protein to Tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰超; 杨苏文; 徐范范; 丁志山; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Carassius auratus as test subject, acute toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), potential biomarkers of serum protein and toxicity target organ histopathology were studied.Results showed that 96 h-LC50 of Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA was 3.13 mg/L, and serum proteins of Carassius auratus can be divided into 11 components exposure to different concentrations TBBPA at different times.There were differences within protein components with time and concentration existed.Component 11 with clear bands and the largest amplitude first decreased then increased, and reached the highest value at low concentration on the 16th day, while it reached the highest value on the 2nd day at high concentration.The molecular weight of Component 11 was 24 kDa, may be the solution of polymer of calcitonin factor in coriouscles of stannius of Carassius auratus.The histopathological results indicated that Carassius auratus liver and kidney showed time-dose-dependent of pathological damage synchronously.The protein component 11 which responds sensitively on the concentration and time of TBBPPA inducing as well as easier to be recognized and identified can be used as the potential biomarkers in Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA.%以鲫鱼为供试生物,对四溴双酚A(TBBPA)的急性毒性、血清蛋白潜在生物标志物以及相应的毒性靶器官组织病理进行了研究,结果表明TBBPA对鲫鱼96h的半致死浓度LC50是3.13 mg/L,TBBPA诱导下鲫鱼血清蛋白可区分为11个组分,各组分随时间和浓度的变化规律存在差异.组分11条带清晰,表达量变化幅度最大,在低浓度TBBPA暴露下表达量先降低后升高,第16天达到最高;高浓度时表达量在第2天达到最高.组分11的分子量为24 kDa,可能为鲫鱼斯坦尼小体(CS)中降血钙因子的解聚物.组织病理切片结果显示,鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏均表现出时间-剂量依赖性,且与组分11的诱导差异性表达呈现相应的病理损伤.

  9. Distribution and bioaccumulation of tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus tissues and its pathological effect%四溴双酚A在鲫鱼不同器官中的分布、富集及病理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苏文; 徐范范; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and bioaccumulation of TBBPA in different Carassius auratus tissues exposed to varied TBBPA concentrations were measured and analyzed. The corresponding pathological effects were also assessed. Results indicated that the concentrations of TBBPA increased firstly, then decreased in Carassius auratus liver and kidney at high as well as low dose group. Indicating that both the fish liver and kidney had a strong capacity of bioaccumulation. Nevertheless, the concentrations of TBBPA showed a similarity only at high dose in gill and muscle. The bioaccumulation capacity of the gill and muscle was comparatively lower. Pathological observations revealed that the pathological damage was time-dose-dependent in the liver, kidney and gill. Under the same TBBPA concentration, the gonad damage caused by TBBPA to the male was more serious than that to the female.%研究了将鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)长期暴露于不同浓度的四溴双酚A(TBBPA)后的器官组织分布和浓缩富集系数,同时对不同暴露时间的鲫鱼不同器官病理切片进行了观察.结果显示,各浓度组鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏的TBBPA含量都表现出先升高后下降的趋势,鳃和肌肉中TBBPA含量只有在高浓度时呈现相同的趋势.病理切片显示鲫鱼肝脏、肾脏和鳃等器官组织均表现出时间-剂量依赖性的病理损伤,在相同暴露浓度下,雄鱼的性腺损伤程度高于雌鱼.

  10. 纳米和微米ZnO对鲫鱼的毒性效应研究%Toxicity of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正雪; 刘林; 郭红岩; 尹颖

    2014-01-01

    Nano ZnO has attracted increasing concerns because of its widespread use and unique toxic potential.While,so far most researches focused on the concentration effects but not the size effects of Nano ZnO.The purpose of this study was to compare the toxic effects of Nano ZnO and Micro ZnO to Carassiusauratus.Fourteen days after the intraperitoneal injection of Nano ZnO(1,12.5,50 mg ZnO/kg)and Micro ZnO(12.5 mg ZnO/kg),the distribution and toxic effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassiusauratus liver and brain were studied.The particle size of both Nano and Micro ZnO was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).And the free radicals (·OH )generation was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).Several antioxidant biomarkers such as superoxide dysmutase (SOD),glutathione S-transferases(GST),glutathione(GSH)and malondialdehyde(MDA)were measured,and the effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Zn content in liver and brain of C.auratus were also detected.We found that both Nano and Micro ZnO could induce the production of·OH.As compared to Micro ZnO,exposure to 12.5 mg ZnO/kg Nano ZnO caused more accumulation of ·OH in the liver of C.auratus.Accordingly,Nano ZnO induced the synthesis of MDA and suppressed the SOD activities in the liver and brain of C.auratus.Further,Nano ZnO effects on GSH were much higher than those of Micro ZnO,suggesting more severe oxidative stress caused by Nano ZnO under the same concentration.The contents of Zn in both liver and brain of C.auratus exposed to Nano ZnO were also much higher than those exposed to Micro ZnO.However,there was no linear relationship between the increased concentrations of Nano ZnO and the induction of ·OH and MDA and the inhibition of SOD activities.Overall,the results indicated that Nano ZnO could be more effectively taken into the brain and liver of Carassius auratus than Micro ZnO,resulting in more toxic effects,but the toxic effects of Nano ZnO didn’t have a linear relationship with the

  11. Analysis on the Muscle Nutrition Component of Carassius auratus (A form)%普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉的营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 安苗; 范兴刚; 刘贵林; 黄仕洪; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reference for developing animal industry or other basic researches of Carassius auratus. In this paper, the nutritive composition in muscle of C. auratus (A form) was quantitatively analyzed by biochemical method. The results showed that water content was (78. 28 + 0.15)%, crude protein content was (16. 79±0. 30)%, crude fat content was (0. 74 + 0. 02) %, crude ash content was (0. 98 + 0. 05)%. The muscle of C. auratus (A form) consisted of 17 kinds of amino acids, the gross amount was 20. 08% , and the gross amount of essential amino acids was 8. 21%. The ratio of the essential amino acids to the total amino acids was 40. 89%. The ratio of the content of the essential amino acids to that of the non-essential amino acids was 69. 19%. The proportion of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the standards of FAO/WHO. The'contents of EPA and DHA in fatty acids were 0. 48% and 2. 15% respectively. This research indicated that C. auratus(A form) was a kind of cultured fishes, which had high protein, low fat, abundant amino acids, delicious taste and high nutritive value.%为普安银鲫的推广养殖或其他基础研究提供参考依据,应用生化分析方法对普安银鲫A型鱼的肌肉营养成分进行了定量分析.结果表明:普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中水分为(78.28±0.15)%,粗蛋白含量为(16.79±0.30)%,粗脂肪含量为(0.74±0.02)%,粗灰分含量为(0.98±0.05)%.普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中含有17种氨基酸,总量为20.08%,必需氨基酸总量为8.21%,必需氨基酸与总氨基酸比值为40.89%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸比值为69.19%,其必需氨基酸的构成比例符合FAO/WHO标准;脂肪酸中的EPA与DHA含量分别为0.48%和2.15%.普安银鲫A型鱼是一种高蛋白、低脂肪、氨基酸含量丰富、味道鲜美、营养价值高的养殖鱼类.

  12. Genetic basis and breeding application of clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes in polyploid Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A unisexual species is generally associated with polyploidy, and reproduced by a unisexual reproduction mode, such as gyno- genesis, hybridogenesis or parthenogenesis. Compared with other unisexual and polyploid species, gibel carp (Carassius au- ratus gibelio) has a higher ploidy level of hexaploid. It has undergone several successive rounds of genome polyploidy, and experienced an additional, more recent genome duplication event. More significantly, the dual reproduction modes, including gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, have been demonstrated to coexist in the polyploid gibel carp. This article reviews the genetic basis concerning polyploidy origin, clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes, and outlines the progress in new va- riety breeding and gene identification involved in the reproduction and early development. The data suggests that gibel carp are under an evolutionary trajectory of diploidization. As a novel evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) biology model, this work highlights future perspectives about the functional divergence of duplicated genes and the sexual origin of vertebrate animals.

  13. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV.

  14. Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs.

  15. Preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (Carassius auratus) vitellogenin and its application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bing, Xin; Yu, Kun; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) represents a good model to detect the estrogenic effects of chemicals, and vitellogenin (Vtg) is a vital indicator of estrogenic activity. The heterologous anti-carp Vtg antibody has previously been used for goldfish Vtg detection. Here, we report the preparation of an anti-goldfish Vtg antibody to improve the sensitivity and specificity of goldfish Vtg immunoassays. Vtg was purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced goldfish by gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. It was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of ~460 kDa and separated into three major polypeptides corresponding to ~130, ~106, and ~81 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A polyclonal antibody against goldfish Vtg was raised in rabbits and found to be specific for goldfish Vtg through immunoelectrophoresis and Western blot. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of plasma Vtg, with a detection limit of 3.6 ng/mL and a detection range from 7.8 to 250 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were 2.4-6.8% and 6.7-10.8%, respectively. Additionally, we qualitatively and quantitatively detected the induction of Vtg in male fish exposed to 0.01, 0.01, and 1.00 mg/L monocrotophos pesticide by Western blot and ELISA. The homologous sandwich ELISA based on the anti-goldfish Vtg antibody could provide a valuable tool for the study of estrogenic effects of exogenous chemicals on goldfish.

  16. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  17. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  18. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  19. 饲料中鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响%Influence of Additive Amount of Fish Oil on Growth and Body Color of Carassius auratus red variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李明云; 贾福怀

    2015-01-01

    为研究鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响,在喂养红鲫鱼的饲料中分别添加质量分数0%、2.5%、5%、10%的鱼油,投喂49 d,并将其与空白组分别进行对照.结果表明:添加2.5%的鱼油喂养红鲫鱼对红鲫鱼的生长最佳.随着鱼油喂养量的不断增加,红鲫鱼体重和体长的增加率呈一定的下降趋势.以观赏鱼的红度、白度、黄度作为重要的评判标准,5%鱼油添加量更有助于提高红鲫鱼的红度值,降低白度值和黄度值.%In order to investigate the impact of fish oil on growth and body color of Carassius auratus red variety, the diet of Carassius auratus red variety is added with fish oil of different concentration level (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and fed for 49 days. The results show that 2.5%additional fish oil is the best diet for the growth of Carassius auratus red variety. The more the fish oil feeding is given, the more slowly the weight and length of Carassius auratus red variety increase. Body color is an important factor for ornamental fish, which is standardized with the degree of red, white, yellow. It is found that 5%fish oil helps increase the red color index of Carassius auratus red variety, while reduce that of white and yellow.

  20. Effects of Cardiac Glycosides from Nerium indicum on Juvenile Carassius auratus%夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)皂甙对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)幼鱼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 戴灵鹏; 郑祥河; 席启斐; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of cardiac glycosides of N. Indicum on non-target organism, the effects of different concentration of cardiac glycosides(0, 5.89, 20.12 mg·L-1 and 80.76 mg·L-1) on mortality, specific growth rate, glycogen and protein content, SOD activity as well as micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus were investigated during exposure for 14 d and its recovery response after 7 d by using semi-static test method. The results showed that fish did not die when the concentration of cardiac glycosides ≤20.12 mg·L-1 during 14 d exposure periods. However, with 80.76 mg·L-1, 100% of the fish died within 5 d. When cardiac glycosides concentration reach to 20.12 mg·L-1, the specific growth rate, glycogen and protein contents decreased gradually while the SOD activity increased first and then decreased during the whole experiment. After a recovery period of 7 d, the inhibition of specific growth rate and SOD activity were weakened gradually and the glycogen and protein content were no significant difference between control and treatment group. In addition, the result of micronucleus test showed that cardiac glycosides did not significantly affect the micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus. These results suggested that cardiac glycosides was low toxicity and no genotoxicity found, which supports that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. However, higher concentration of cardiac glucosides seriously impaired the normal physiological metabolism, resulting in the growth inhibition of C. Auratus, even caused fish death in the end.%为了评价夹竹桃皂甙对非靶标生物的潜在危害,采用半静态法研究了不同浓度(0、5.89、20.12 mg·L-1和80.76 mg·L4)的夹竹桃皂甙对鲫鱼幼苗的死亡情况、特定生长率、糖原、蛋白质含量、SOD酶活性和微核率的影响.结果表明,当夹竹桃皂甙处理浓度≤20.12 mg·L-1时,处

  1. The interactive effects of ammonia exposure, nutritional status and exercise on metabolic and physiological responses in gold fish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and starvation (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling) in gold fish (Carassius auratus). Both groups of fish were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days. Measurements of weight gain (%), oxygen consumption (MO2), ammonia excretion rate, ammonia quotient (AQ), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit), plasma and muscle ammonia accumulation, plasma lactate, liver and muscle glycogen, lipid and protein content were done at various time intervals during the experimental periods. Overall, ammonia excretion rates, plasma ammonia accumulation and AQ were significantly affected by food regime in ammonia free water. HEA, the additional challenge in the present study, significantly altered all the studied parameters among fed and starved groups in days-dependent manner. Results show that weight gain (%), MO2, Ucrit, protein content in liver and muscle, and glycogen content in muscle among starved fish under HEA were considerably reduced compared to control and fed fish. Additionally a remarkable increase in plasma ammonia level, muscle ammonia, lactate accumulation and AQ was seen. However in fed fish, MO2, ammonia excretion rate, AQ and lactate level augmented after exposure to HEA. These results indicate that starved fish appeared more sensitive to HEA than fed fish. Furthermore, as expected, the toxic effect of ammonia exposure in both feeding treatments was exacerbated when imposed to exhaustive swimming (swum at 3/4th Ucrit). Such effects were more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that starvation can instigate fish more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise. Therefore, it was evident from our study that feeding ameliorates ammonia handling and reduces its toxicity during both routine and exhaustive swimming. Moreover, recovery was

  2. 伊维菌素在鲫体内的药代动力学%The pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    以0.4 mg/kg的给药剂量进行口灌和肌肉注射给药,研究伊维菌素(IVM)在鲫体内的药代动力学.两种给药方式下,鲫组织中的IVM药-时曲线大都呈现多峰现象.肌肉注射给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.445 mg/L、Tmax=48h、t1/2z=524.2 h、MRT(0-∞)=788h、AUC(0-∞)=289.2(mg/L)·h;口灌给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.264 mg/L、Tmax=8h、t1/2z=15,3.9 h、MRT(0-∞)=269.78 h、AUC(0-∞)=83.77(mg/L)·h.两种给药方式相比,口灌组鲫对药物的吸收和清除均较快,而肌肉注射组鲫各组织中的药物浓度高,AUC值也较大.两种给药方式下,IVM在鲫各组织中AUC(0-600)值呈现相同的排列顺序,由大到小分别为性腺、血液、肾脏、肝胰脏、肌肉.IVM在鲫性腺和肾脏中均具有一定的蓄积作用,其主要表现为药物浓度高,MRT值大,且清除率低于血药的清除率,其中卵巢的积蓄作用最为明显.25℃的水温条件下,肌肉注射给药后,鲫休药期应不低于25 d;口灌给药后,鲫的休药期应不低于15 d.休药期与水温条件和给药剂量有关,因此在养殖生产过程中的休药期要根据实际情况适当调整.%Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus was studied following a single oral or intramuscular administration at dose of 0.4 mg/kg. After following these two different administration routes, IVM concentration-time cruves in most tissues of C. Auratus exhibited multi-peak phenomenon. After intramuscular administration, non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows :Cmaxi =0.445 mg/L,Tmax=48 h, =524.2 h, MRT(0.., = 788 h and AUC(0-x\\, =289. 2(mg/L) · h. After oral administration,non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows:Cmax =0.264 mg/L,Tmax = 8 h,tl/2z =153. 9 h.MRT(0-)., =269. 78 h,and AUC(0.., =83. 77(mg/L) · h. Comparing parameters of these two administration routes, we found that the rate of absorption and elimination following the oral

  3. 金鱼Dmrt2基因表达分析%Expression of Dmrt2 gene in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江山; 陈晓武; 施志仪; 李倩

    2012-01-01

    Dmrt2,dsx and mab-3 related transcription factor 2 are members of a gene family of putative transcription factors which contain a common zinc finger-like DNA binding motif,DM domain.The full-length cDNA of Dmrt2a gene was obtained from total RNA isolated from the liver of goldfish by the technology of RACE(Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends).The complete cDNA of goldfish Dmrt2a is 1 755 bp and its ORF(opening reading frame) includes 1 500 bp which codes 499 amino acid residues.Dmrt2a in goldfish shares high homology with Dmrt2a genes from other fishes via phylogenesis analysis.The sequence homologies between deduced goldfish Dmrt2a peptide and that from zebrafish,takifugu,medaka and tilapia are 85%,61%,58% and 58%,respectively.SYBR Green I Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis was used to assess the expression of Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b at mRNA level.The Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b genes were expressed from early embryo stage to juveniles of 15 days post hatching(dph).Dmrt2a was expressed highly in embryos,reached a peak at 24 hours post fertilization(hpf),and decreased at 36 hpf;Dmrt2b was expressed lowly in embryos and increased obviously after hatching.In adult goldfish,Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b genes were expressed highly in ovary and testis,and had a low expression in intestine,kidney,liver,heart and brain.%采用荧光定量PCR技术检测了Dmrt2基因的两个亚型Dmrt2a和Dmrt2b在金鱼(Carassius auratus)不同发育时期以及不同组织中的表达情况,用RACE技术克隆得到金鱼Dmrt2a cDNA序列的全长为1 755 bp,5'和3'非编码区长分别为188 bp和67 bp,推测的开放阅读框可编码499个氨基酸的多肽。分子系统进化分析表明金鱼Dmrt2a与其它鱼类Dmrt2a基因聚成一支,与斑马鱼(Daniorerio)、红鳍东方鲀(Takifugu rubripes)、青鳉(Oryzias latipes)、罗非鱼(Oreochromis Niloticus)Dmrt2a的同源性分别为85%、61%、58%、58%。荧光定量PCR结果揭示,Dmrt2a在精巢中表达量

  4. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素%Determination of Trace Microcystins in Meat of Carassius Auratus by SPC-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房祥军; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 穆宏磊; 毛金林

    2011-01-01

    建立固相萃取-高效液相色谱法(SPE-HPLC)测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素的方法.鲫鱼肉经90%甲醇水溶液提取,反相硅胶萃取柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱法进行测定.以乙腈-水-三氟乙酸(体积比35:65:0.05)为流动相,经Zorbax Eclipse C18柱(4.6mm×250mm i.d.5μm)分离,外标法定性、定量分析,结果表明微囊藻毒素LR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0μg/mL,鲫鱼肉中检出限25 ng/g.微囊藻毒素RR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0 μg/mL,在鲫鱼肉中的检出限20ng/g.此方法准确,灵敏度高,专属性好,可作为监测淡水水产品微囊藻毒素污染的分析方法.%Objective:An analytical method for the analysis of trace microcystins(MCYST) in meat of Carassius auratus was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE)for enrichment and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)for detection. Methods:Meat of Carassius auratus were extracted by 90% methanol aqueous solution. The microcystins were determined by the method of HPLC after SPE purification。 The mobile phase is consist of 35% acetonitrile,65%water contained 0.05% TFA。 The microcystins were separated and determined on a Zorbax Eclipse C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) by the method of external standard method. Results: the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-LR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-LR in meat of Carassius auratus was 25 ng·g-1; the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-RR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-RR in meat of Carassius auratus was 20 ng·g-1. This method is precision sensitive and specific and can be used for food satety hazard evaluation and microcystin pollution supervision in fresh water aquatic products.

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) FROM YILI RIVER OF SINKIANG DISTRICT%新疆伊犁河鲫鱼遗传多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋白; 郑宇; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    为了解我国西北地区野生鲫鱼的遗传多样性,鲫鱼样品从新疆伊犁河中采用小型拖网捕获.通过解剖观察性腺鉴定性别;采用碘化丙啶(PI)染色,经流式细胞仪测定血细胞核DNA含量;采用非变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,考马斯亮蓝染色分析血清转铁蛋白多态性.结果表明:新疆伊犁河鲫鱼群体为具雌、雄的两性个体的群体;伊犁河鲫鱼血细胞核DNA平均含量为(5.315±0.215)pg/个细胞核,血细胞核DNA含量约为二倍体彩鲫DNA含量的1.53倍,与银鲫血细胞核DNA含量相当;在所采集的鲫鱼样品中共发现9种转铁蛋白表现型,由7个等位基因调控,等位基因频率依次为Tfa0.063、Tfb0.063、Tff0.095、Tfg0.169、Tfc0.174、Tfe0.175和Tfd0.270.基因型频率分别为Tfcd0.043、Tfcdf0.043、Tfabdg0.043、Tfdef0.087、Tfee0.13、Tfde0.13、Tfdf0.13、Tfabeg0.13和Tfcdg0.26.综合分析,伊犁河现存野生鲫鱼为银鲫,且具有两性融合生殖能力.伊犁河鲫鱼表现出的遗传特性可能与该特定水环境有关.%Studies about genetic diversity of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) have been executed for many years. However, the samples usually come from the area of Heilong River in northeast, Yangtze River and Yellow River in the middle part of China, rarely from the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. This study aim at accumulating evidences for realizing genetic diversity and finding some characteristic marks of genetic diversity of crucian carp in the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. The sampled crucian carps (Carassius auratus) captured with townet from Yili River of Sinkiang district. Their sex was identified according to the gland at the anatomical level. DNA content of blood corpuscle was mensurated with Phoenix Flow Systems after blood corpuscle was dyed with propidium iodide (PI) solution. Transferrin (Tf) in blood serum was measured with non-denatualization polyacrylamide gel

  6. Toxicity and accumulation of zinc pyrithione in the liver and kidneys of Carassius auratus gibelio: association with P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Fu, Gui-Hong; Liu, Teng-Fei; Hu, Kun; Li, Hao-Ran; Fang, Wen-Hong; Yang, Xian-Le

    2017-02-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent; therefore, it is widely used in industry and civilian life. It is discharged into the aquatic environment with industrial and civilian waste water. Carassius sp. is one of the most widely distributed and farmed fish in China. The effects of aquatic ZPT on Carassius sp. remain unknown. In this study, we determined the acute toxicity of ZPT on Carassius sp. The results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50 96 h) of ZPT on Carassius sp. cultivated in freshwater or water with 1.5 or 3 ‰ salinity was 0.163, 0.126, and 0.113 mg/L, respectively. ZPT has a higher affinity to the liver than the kidney, with a prolonged tissue residual time. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette transporter, was found to be induced in the liver and kidney tissues of these Carassius spp. after ZPT treatment, based on the determination of its mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The ZPT accumulation and magnitude of P-gp induction were also affected by the salinity of the cultivation water. These results suggest that aquatic ZPT is potentially toxic to Carassius sp. We speculate that P-gp induction may play a protective role for Carassius sp. Our findings provide a basis for assessing the potential risk of ZPT to aquatic animals including Carassius sp.

  7. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  8. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 Dokularında Bor Akümülasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, model bir balık türü olabilen Japon balığının (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 karaciğer ve kas dokusundaki, yem ve su kaynaklı bor birikiminin dağılımı incelenmiştir. Her bir uygulama için her bir akvaryuma 12 adet birey. Uygulamalarda, akvaryum gruplarının suyuna belirli oranlarda (1 mg/L, 10 mg/L ve 20 mg/L borik asit ve borik asit emdirilmesi ile elde edilen yemlerden (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg ve 10 mg/kg verilmiştir. Dokulardaki bor birikimi mikrodalga yaş yakma ile çözündürme işleminin ardından indüktif olarak eşleştirilmiş kütle spektroskopisi (ICP-MS tekniği ile belirlenmiştir. Japon balıklarının farklı dokularında belirlenen maksimum bor konsantrasyonu 20mg/L sulandırılmış borik asit uygulamasında karaciğer dokusunda (1.78±0.02 mg/kg tespit edilmiştir. Ancak 1 mg/kg yem uygulamasında kas dokusunda birikim olmadığı gözlemlenmiştir. Borlu su grupların için Transfer faktör (TF en düşük dozda en yüksek oranda iken doz miktarı arttıkça TF azalmış ve neredeyse 0.1’e yakın bir sabitlik göstermiştir. Bor ilaveli yem kullanılan deney gruplarında TF en düşük dozda (1 mg/kg 0 iken yemde kullanılan borun doz miktarı arttıkça (5 mg/kg TF değerinin yaklaşık 0.06’ya kadar çıktığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada önemli iki tespit ortaya konulmuştur; bor birikiminde hedef organlardan biri karaciğer iken kas dokusunun birikim açısından hedef olmadığı ve yem ile alınan borun dokularda birikiminin düşük olmasıdır.

  9. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF KAISO IN GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS%鲫Kaiso 基因cDNA 的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海炎; 黄万旭; 罗琛

    2013-01-01

    -tional repressor, plays an important role in timing the expression of methylated genes during early embryogenesis in amphibian and zebrafish. To investigate the reproductive and developmental functions of DNA methylation in goldfish (Carassius auratus), an important cultural fish, we cloned its full-length Kaiso cDNA by reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The spatiotemporal expression pattern of goldfish Kaiso was examined by whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The entire Kaiso cDNA was 3145 bp long, including a 132 bp long 5'-UTR, a 1117 bp long 3'-UTR and a 1896 bp long open read frame, which encoded a protein with 631 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment of Kaisos of Carassius auratus, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed that the structure of goldfish Kaiso protein also consisted a highly-conserved BTB/POZ domain at the N-terminal and zinc finger domains at the C-terminal. Whole-mount in situ hybridization examination showed that Kaiso was ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis but tissue-specifically expressed from bud stage onward. qRT-PCR examination revealed that high abundance maternal Kaiso mRNA existed in the eggs. During embryogenesis, the level of Kaiso mRNA gradually decreased during cleavage and remained low from late blastula stage to early gastrula stage, and then gradually increased from late gastrula stage and reached to the highest level at bud stage. These results suggested that the Kaiso transcripts detected in cleavage stage might be the maternal mRNA and the transcription of zygotic Kaiso might start at late blastula stage. qRT-PCR analysis of different adult tissues revealed that the transcriptional levels of Kaiso in the muscle, retina, heart and brain were much higher than those in the kidney, pancreas and liver. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Kaiso suggested that

  10. Segregation patterns of microsatellite markers indicate triploid Cara-ssius auratus generate aneuploid sperm%微卫星分离模式显示雄性三倍体鲫产生非整倍体精子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊; 曹顶臣; 鲁翠云; 李超; 孙效文

    2014-01-01

    三倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)行天然雌核发育,其自然种群中却有较高比例的雄性个体,这些雄性个体的性腺发育正常,能产生有活力的精子。而且其精子的DNA含量约为体细胞的一半,显示三倍体鲫精子发生过程中可能经历了均等的减数分裂。流式细胞术虽然能够较准确地测定细胞群的平均DNA含量,但是却很难检测到单个精子中的个别染色体增减,要明确回答雄性三倍体鲫产生的精子是否为整倍体需要定量地检测单个精子的遗传组成。本研究用微卫星标记检测以雌性鲤(Cyprinus carpio)与雄性三倍体鲫为亲本构建的杂种家系的基因型,结果发现母本鲤的多态位点在子代中呈孟德尔分离,父本三倍体鲫具有三套鲫基因组,其等位基因在子代中呈随机分离。上述研究结果提示:三倍体鲫起源于二倍体鲫的同源加倍,而非二倍体鲫和鲤的种间杂交;三倍体鲫通过染色体的随机分离产生非整倍体的精子,其精子发生过程中没有均等的减数分裂。三倍体鲫行雌核发育生殖,却可能并非起源于种间杂交且群体中的雄性个体可育,因而是单性生殖鱼类中的一个特例。%Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) is an important aquaculture species, in which diploid, triploid and tetraplo-id forms coexist. Diploid crucian carp reproduce sexually, while both triploid and tetraploid crucian carp reproduce via gynogenesis. Because only females passed their genome to the next generation, gynogenetic fishes are usually all fe-male and reproduce clonally. However, there are unusual high proportion of males in natural populations of triploid crucian carp. These males have normally developed testis, which can generate viable sperm. Additionally, DNA content of sperm was about half of that of somatic cell, which indicated that meiosis has occurred during spermatogenesis of triploid crucian carp. The average DNA

  11. 丁酸钠对鲫鱼生长和肠细胞增殖的影响%Effects of sodium butyrate on growth and intestinal cell proliferation of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      以初始体质量(6.02±0.16) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为研究对象,在鲫鱼基础饲料中分别添加0.0 g/kg、1.0 g/kg、2.5 g/kg、5.0 g/kg、7.5 g/kg的包膜丁酸钠,配制5种等氮等能的实验饲料,研究不同浓度包膜丁酸钠通过促进鲫鱼肠细胞增殖对其生长作用的影响。实验在室内养殖系统中进行,每水族缸饲喂30尾,每处理组3个重复,以鱼体质量3%~5%投喂量,日投喂3次,试验持续7周。实验结果表明:在饲料中添加丁酸钠对鲫鱼有明显的促生长作用,显著提高了鲫鱼前肠绒毛高度/隐窝深度的比值以及肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达。当丁酸钠添加量为2.5 g/kg 时,鲫鱼增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和肥满度最高,显著高于对照组(P<0.05),比对照组分别提高了25.76%、16.46%、28.91%和8.37%;与对照组相比,丁酸钠添加量达到2.5 g/kg时,鲫鱼干物质与蛋白质表观消化率、前肠绒毛高度、肠道 CREB 基因和 CDX2基因的相对表达量显著升高,分别比对照组提高8.36%、6.21%、34.22%、51.11%和42.13%(P<0.05)。上述研究表明饲料中添加适量的丁酸钠可能通过显著提高鲫鱼肠绒毛高度和肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达量,从而促进其生长,适宜添加量为2.5 g/kg。%A 7-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and expression of intestinal development related genes in Carassius auratus. The grade levels of sodium butyrate at 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg were added to the basic diets respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to a group of 30 fishes per tank in triplicates. The fish were fed three times daily by hand at a rate of 3% –5% of body weight for seven weeks. The results showed that dietary sodium butyrate significantly affected growth, foregut villus height and crypt depth, and the expression

  12. Preliminary study on the influence of ivermectin on blood component of Carassius auratus%伊维菌素对鲫血液成分影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ivermectin on Carassius auratus blood component was studied after oral administration at ivermectin doses of 3. 0, 1.0 and 0. 4 mg/kg. The results showed that RBC, WBC, HCT and HGB in Carassius auratus blood had no obvious difference among control group and treatment groups. The contents of PLT in treated fish were obviously higher than those in untreated fish. The contents of PLT increased quickly at 8 ~ 16 h after administration, and began to decrease at 24 h, and the fluctuation was greater than that in control group. The contents of Ca2+ , Tbil, ALP, ALT and ALB didn' t be affected by ivermectin. While the contents of TP in blood of fish administrated with 3. 0 or 1. 0 mg/kg ivermectin were lower than untreated fish, and with the increase of dose, the greater the influence was, while 0. 4 mg/kg ivermectin didn' t affect the content of TP obviously. Some adverse reactions were observed including darkened color, loss of appetite, and balance in treated fishes with the increasing dose. There was external hemorrhage in kidneys when the fish in group of 3. 0 mg/kg was dissected.%采用三种给药剂量(3.0、1.0、0.4 mg/kg)研究伊维菌素对鲫(Carassius auratus)血液指标的影响,结果显示:各实验组鲫血液中红细胞(RBC)、白细胞(WBC)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血红蛋白(HGB)与对照组间均无显著性差异;但血小板(PLT)指标则显著高于对照组,且在给药后8~16h快速上升、24 h后开始下降,波动幅度亦显著高于对照组.三种口灌剂量对鲫血液中钙离子(Ca2+)、总胆红素(Tbil)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和白蛋白(ALB)含量均无明显影响;而3.0、1.0 mg/kg的口灌剂量组鲫血液中总血清蛋白(TP)含量较对照组有下降,且剂量越大影响越大,而0.4 mg/kg组TP含量变化不大.随着剂量的增大,鲫体色逐渐变深,食欲减退、身体失衡,3.0 mg/kg组的鲫解剖后显示肾脏出血迹象.

  13. Solution structure of the Z-DNA binding domain of PKR-like protein kinase from Carassius auratus and quantitative analyses of the intermediate complex during B-Z transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Ree; Park, Chin-Ju; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Jin-Wan; Kwon, Mun-Young; Lee, Janghyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Choi, Byong-Seok; Lee, Joon-Hwa

    2016-04-07

    Z-DNA binding proteins (ZBPs) play important roles in RNA editing, innate immune response and viral infection. Structural and biophysical studies show that ZBPs initially form an intermediate complex with B-DNA for B-Z conversion. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of Z-DNA binding and B-Z transition is still lacking, due to the absence of structural information on the intermediate complex. Here, we report the solution structure of the Zα domain of the ZBP-containing protein kinase from Carassius auratus(caZαPKZ). We quantitatively determined the binding affinity of caZαPKZ for both B-DNA and Z-DNA and characterized its B-Z transition activity, which is modulated by varying the salt concentration. Our results suggest that the intermediate complex formed by caZαPKZ and B-DNA can be used as molecular ruler, to measure the degree to which DNA transitions to the Z isoform.

  14. 鲫幼鱼(Carassius auratus)标准代谢个体差异与力竭后代谢特征及行为的关联%Correlations between standard metabolic rate and metabolic characteristics after exhaustive exercise, and behavior in the juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令清; 付世建; 曹振东

    2016-01-01

    为考察鲫(Carassius auratus)幼鱼标准代谢的个体差异与运动力竭后代谢特征和行为的关系,在(25.0±0.5)℃条件下测定80尾鲫幼鱼标准代谢率(SMR),筛选出40尾实验鱼[体重(13.54±0.20)g,体长(8.05±0.07) cm],其中包括20尾高SMR个体和20尾低SMR个体,测定运动至力竭实验鱼的最大代谢率(MMR),并计算代谢空间(AS=MMR-SMR)、相对代谢空间(FAS)和过量耗氧(EPOC)总量,随后测定单尾鱼的快速启动行为[反应时间(RT)、最大线速度(Umax)、最大线加速度(Amax)和120ms移动距离(S120)]以及个性行为(勇敢性和活跃性).结果显示鲫幼鱼的SMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈负相关,而与MMR不相关;MMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈正相关;协方差分析显示高SMR个体组的代谢恢复速率与低SMR个体组无显著差异.鲫幼鱼的SMR与快速启动行为的RT呈正相关,与Amax呈负相关,而与Umax和S120均不相关.在快速启动行为中,鲫幼鱼的RT与Umax、Am120和S120均呈负相关,而Amax与S120和S120呈正相关.鲫幼鱼的SMR与其勇敢性指标如潜伏期(L)、曝露时间(ET)和探头频率(AF)以及活跃性指标如运动时间比(PTM)、撞墙频率(FHW)均不相关,但鲫幼鱼的PTM与FHW和ET呈正相关.研究表明在实验室条件下鲫幼鱼的能量代谢特征、快速启动和个性行为存在明显的个体差异现象,并且部分表型特征之间存在权衡,提示这些权衡可能是鲫幼鱼的生理、行为与栖息环境相互作用的综合结果.

  15. The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lümanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus%“绿满园”对柑桔红蜘蛛的田间防治效果及对金鱼的毒性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔虎平; 王金亮; 江庆红; 云月利; 王维; 彭宇

    2013-01-01

    测定“绿满园”水剂对柑桔红蜘蛛Panonychus citri的田间防治效果及对非靶标生物金鱼Carassius auratus 的急性毒性.结果表明,64%“绿满园”水剂800倍和1 000倍稀释液在施药后7d和15d对柑桔红蜘蛛的防治效果均极显著地高于对照杀螨剂:15%扫螨净和57%炔螨特,其中以800倍稀释液防治效果最好,15d的防效达97.21%,800倍和1 000倍稀释液的防治效果差异不明显.金鱼的死亡率随“绿满园”浓度的升高和染毒时间的延长逐渐增加.“绿满园”水剂对金鱼的急性毒性小于阿维菌素.%The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lumanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus were carried out. The results showed that, 15 days after spraying, the controlling roles of 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of 64% "Lumanyuan" to P. citri was obviously higher than 15% pyridaben and 57% propargite. 800 fold dilution of "Lumanyuan" had the best controlling role to P. citri and the controlling effect was 97. 21%. There was no significant difference on controlling effects between 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of "Lumanyuan" to P. citri. The mortalities of C. auratus increased with the rise of the concentration and treatment time of "Lumanyuan" and "Lumanyuan" has lower acute toxicity to C. auratus than avermectin.

  16. 饲料中添加螺旋藻对改良鲫生长和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of Spirulina platensis on muscle nutritive components and growth of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少林; 陈平原; 吕子君; 蓝宗坚; 邹记兴

    2015-01-01

    The control group used tilapia feed for based diet, the test group fed with based diet supple-mented with 1%Spirulina platensis is for 100 days, The growth of Carassius auratus and quality of flesh were determined.The results showed that ingestion of 1%S.platensis increased growth gain rates and the flesh quality.Compared with the control group, the growth gain rates of test group was increased 20.15%, and the total delicious amino acid and essential amino acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid, amino acid score was also higher than control group.It was concluded that 1%S.platensis could increase fish growth, and be good for its flesh quality.%以改良鲫( Carassius auratus)为试验对象,以罗非鱼料为基础日粮对照,以在基础日粮中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻为试验处理,进行了100 d的养殖试验.并就螺旋藻对改良鲫的生长性能和鲫鱼肌肉营养成分的影响进行了研究.结果表明,与对照组相比,质量分数1%的螺旋藻处理组鱼平均每天内禀增质量率提高20.15%,鲜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸质量分数、亚麻酸和棕榈酸质量分数、氨基酸各项评分均显著提高.由此认为,饲料中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻对促进改良鲫生长和改善肌肉营养成分有一定的效果.

  17. THE GROWTH-PROMOTING EFFECT AND MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE MICROBIAL PEPTIDE SOYBEAN ON CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS%活性菌肽豆蛋白对鲫(Carassius auratus)促生长的作用效果及机理分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臻; 谢帝芝; 周毅; 赵琼; 王赏初; 孙浪; 鲁双庆

    2013-01-01

    Using different feeding formulas, the effects of common soybean, fermented soybean and active microbial peptide soybean meals on growth appearance of crucian carp Carassius auratus were studied. The results indicat that the relative body weight growth rate was higher in active microbial peptide soybean group (41.87%) than control and fer-mented soybean group (19.11%higher);the serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) levels of active microbial peptide soybean group were the highest with following fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group. Realtime-PCR indicated that IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) gene expressions were the highest in active microbial peptide soybean group, lower in fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group; GHR showed no significant difference between fermented soybean group and active microbial peptide soybean group, but both two groups were higher than control group. Thus, active microbial peptide soybean may regulate GH, IGF-I, T3 and T4 in serum as well as GHR and IGFs gene expression in liver to affect growth in C. auratus.%  采用不同饲料配方投喂,研究了普通豆粕(对照组)、发酵豆粕和活性菌肽豆蛋白配合饲料对鲫(Carassius auratus)生长性状影响的研究。结果表明,活性菌肽豆蛋白组的相对体重生长率高于对照组41.87%(P<0.01)和发酵豆粕组19.11%;血清中的三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)、胰岛素样生长因子-I(IGF-I)和生长激素(GH)含量活性菌肽豆蛋白组最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,而对照组最低;实时定量 PCR检测显示: IGFs(IGF-I和 IGF-II)基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组中最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,对照组的表达量最低。GHR基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组和发酵豆粕组间无显著性差异,但明显高于对照组。因此,活性菌肽豆蛋白可能通

  18. 异育银鲫幼鱼对饲料中维生素K需求的研究%DIETARY VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元慧; 朱晓鸣; 韩冬; 杨云霞; 金俊琰; 解绶启

    2013-01-01

    以不同维生素K水平(0.13、2.15、3.25、6.40、12、17.20和23.20 mg/kg饲料)的7种精制饲料喂养初始体重约为(2.17±0.01) g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)10周,每个处理3个重复,研究异育银鲫对维生素K的需求量.结果显示:饲料中维生素K的添加可以明显降低摄食率,饲料中维生素K含量为2.15 mg/kg时,摄食率出现最大值,之后显著下降(P0.05).饲料中维生素K的含量从0.13 mg/kg升至3.25 mg/kg时,饲料效率显著升高(P0.05),在12 mg/kg时达到最大值,并且与特定生长率呈正相关关系(SGR = 0.01 FE + 0.95,R2 = 0.95).血液红细胞数目随着饲料维生素K含量的增加先显著升高(P0.05).血红蛋白含量、血球容积比、血清钙含量与血液中红细胞数目表现出相似的趋势,均在不添加维生素K组出现最低值,但是差异不显著(P>0.05).肝体比、肥满度及鱼体生化组成均不受饲料维生素K水平的影响(P>0.05).分别对饲料效率、红细胞数目进行折线回归得出异育银鲫幼鱼对维生素K的最适需求量为3.73-6.72 mg/kg饲料.%A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine vitamin K requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Purified diets with seven levels (0.13, 2.15, 3.25, 6.40, 12, 17.20 and 23.20 mg/kg diet) of supplemental vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB) were fed to C. gibelio (mean weight 2.17±0.01 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish. The results showed that fish fed with the diet supplemented with 2.15 mg vitamin K/kg had significantly higher feeding rate (FR) than fish fed with diets supplemented with 12 mg vitamin K/kg (PO.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary vitamin K levels and reached the highest value when dietary vitamin K content was 12 mg/kg (P>0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) was the highest in fish fed with diet supplemented with ≥3.25 mg vitamin K/kg, intermediate with 2.15 mg vitamin K

  19. Effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus%Cd和Pb对鲫鱼超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 段辉国; 唐正义

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to present our findings on the effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in the hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus, which is a kind of enzyme that tends to catalyze the destruction of the O2-free radical to form oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As is known, SOD is a kind of chemical compound widely existing in nature to prevent cellular damage by excessive oxygen free radicals generated in the process of metabolism . As a matter of fact, the activity of SOD can be affected by the metal ions, especially, the heavy metal ones, e.g. Cd and Pb. In our research, we have discovered that the concentrative effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD from hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus through our toxicity tests. Statistically speaking, after 24 h, 48 h or 96 h of post-exposure treatments in the presence of Cd2+ (0.5 mg/L, 2.0 mg/L, 6.0mg/L) , Pb2+ (10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L) or both of them, the activity of SOD would have changed . The results have thus shown that within the experimental doae range, the activities of SOD were found to have accelerated by 0.5 mg/L of Cd2+ . However, high concentrations of Cd2+ , Pb2+ and the mixture tend to obviously suppress the activities of SOD. What is more, synergetic effect of the toxicity can be detected in the presence of both Cd2+ and Pb2+ . Such results prove to be useful for the evaluation of the risk of Cd2+ and Pb2+ , in monitoring the environmental pollution .%为了解不同浓度Cd2+、Pb2+及其联合胁迫对超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响,以鲫鱼为材料,采用急性毒性试验研究了质量浓度为0.5 mg/L、2.0 mg/L、6.0 mg/L的Cd2+溶液和10 mg/L、20 mg/L、40 mg/L的Pb2+溶液及其混合液作用下,24 h、48 h、96 h后鲫鱼肝胰脏SOD活性的变化.结果表明,0.5 mg/L的Cd2+对鲫鱼肝胰脏的SOD活性有促进作用,其余各浓度组的Cd2+和Pb2+对SOD有抑制作用;Cd2+和Pb2+的联合作用比单独作用对SOD的影响大.

  20. Effect of echinacea purpurea extract on growth and anti-oxidant responses in carassius auratus var.pengze%紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫生长和抗氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京花; 李志华; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.pengze)生长和抗氧化反应的影响.选取体重为(7.50±0.15)g的彭泽鲫作为试验动物,在其饲料中分别按0.1%、0.2%、0.4%、0.8%的不同比例添加紫锥菊提取物,经过60 d的饲养,测定其生长及血清中抗氧化酶活力等的变化.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物显著增加彭泽鲫的相对增重率(P<0.05);显著降低鲫鱼血清中的羟自由基(·OH)(P<0.05),降低丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高其血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活力,同时降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力.该研究阐明了紫锥菊提取物对鲫鱼生长及抗氧化反应的影响,为紫锥菊在水产养殖中的研究与应用提供基础数据.

  1. 异育银鲫鳃出血病流行病学调查和研究%Epidemiological Investigation and Survey of Gill Hemorrhagic Disease in Silver Prussian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霆; 丁正峰; 朱春艳; 薛中仪; 顾伟; 孟庆国; 王文

    2014-01-01

    2011-2013年,江苏省局部地区发生新型异育银鲫鳃出血病,给养殖业造成较大经济损失。为查明病因,了解发病历史、发病季节、发病症状及危害对象,通过在江苏省宝应县开展水产流行病学调查,结合组织病理学、回归感染试验、分子生物学诊断等研究方法,证实异育银鲫鳃出血病病原为鲤科疱疹病毒-Ⅱ型,由于该病害会导致异育银鲫养殖重大损失,因此需要引起国内相关养殖业主、科研工作者更多关注。%Gill hemorrhagic disease as a new type disease in silver prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) caused by Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV‐2) makes harmful in silver prussian carp aquaculture .In present paper ,we make an epidemiological investigation on this new disease in Baoying county ,an important aquaculture area in Jiangsu province .The past records of disease ,epidemic seasons ,hosts suffered from the disease ,symptoms and pathological changes ,molecular biological detection ,and challenged infection are described ,therefore ,some valuable information are provided to the fishers and related researchers for understanding of the disease .

  2. 萍乡肉红鲫的性腺发育研究%GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL WILDNESS TRIPLOID MUTANT PINGXIANG RED-TRANSPARENT CRUCIAN CARP, CARASSIUS AURATUS L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 盛军庆; 洪一江; 王军花; 刘田欣; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    萍乡肉红鲫(Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp,Carassius auratus L.)是在江西省萍乡地区分布的天然三倍体鲫突变体经人工选育后获得的遗传性状基本稳定的后代,具有两性生殖和雌核生殖两种生殖方式.研究以F5代萍乡肉红鲫为材料,自孵化后每满1个月开始取性腺,观察了其卵巢1周年性成熟和精巢的发育过程,结果表明萍乡肉红鲫的性腺为1年成熟类型.卵巢发育进程町以分为6个时期,卵母细胞发育相应可分为6个时相.统计了卵巢成熟系数周年变化,体重为95 g左右的雌性萍乡肉红鲫,其成熟卵巢的成熟系数约为(11.73±2.8)%,成熟的卵母细胞内充满卵黄,相对怀卵量为(3018±310)粒/g.萍乡肉红鲫精巢属于小叶型,在精小叶中可观察到不同发育阶段的生殖细胞.由精原细胞分裂而来的仞级精母细胞经分裂增殖,产生次级精母细胞并最终发育成为精子.萍乡肉红鲫的精巢发育程序与普通鲫鱼和鲤鱼相似,卵巢和精巢的发育过程基本同步,孵化后50日龄内性腺分化不明显,到70日龄左右开始出现雌雄分化,3月龄发育为第1期,4-5月龄发育为第2期,6-7月龄发育至第3期,7-10月龄可见第4期卵巢,1年即可成熟产卵,精巢可排出精液.结果表明,该鲫鱼突变体的性腺发育与普通二倍体鲤(鲫)鱼的性腺发育方式类似.%The Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp, Carassius auratus ( L. ) , which was approved for a new kind of breed by the National Fisheries thoroughbred Examining Committee in January 2008, is a wildness natural triplod crucian carp mutant distributed in the area of Pingxiang in Jiangxi Province. It takes bi-sexual and gynogenetic reproduction mode which is similar to the Silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). In response to this particular genetic traits of the species, this study aimed to master its gonadal development process and understand its gonadal development rules

  3. 饲料中组合色素对红草金鱼体色的影响%Effects of combinated dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云生; 陈世金; 李静; 陈龙胜; 卢文轩; 邵祖勇; 何吉祥

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus, a series of feeding experi-ments were conducted from July to October 2014 (90 days). For the first 45 days, larva fish (averaged 18. 5 ± 1. 2 g) were fed with diets supplemented with red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal at different levels (5%, 8%, 11%, 13%, 16%) respectively. For each treatment group, 30 fish were fed at the same feeding level (4%), and 2 of the 30 fish were randomly sampled every 15 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. For each sampled fish, squama and tail fin were collected and mixed. Results from the total carotenoids absorbance analysis of the well mixed organs showed a proper level of red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal, which was 8%, 5%, and 16%, respectively. For the next 45 days, another series of feeding experiments were conducted with the same feeding environment. Treatments of dieta-ry pigment included 8% of red pepper meal, 5% of spirulina, 16% of corn gluten meal, and the combination of them (one third for 8% of red pepper meal, one third for 5% of spirulina, and one third for 16% of corn gluten meal). Each treatment group contained 30 fish, and the sampling method was the same as above experiments. At the end of the experi-ment, the collected organs were scanned under UV light (470 nm). Scanned maps indicated a better staining result of fish fed with combination of pigments than that of the other groups, suggesting that combinated dietary pigments, were more ef-ficiently in improving the body color of red Carassius auratus than the single dietary pigment.%为研究组合色素对红草金鱼( red Carassius auratus)的增色效果, 在基础饲料中分别添加红辣椒粉、 螺旋藻、 玉米蛋白粉3种着色剂, 制成粗蛋白质含量均为33. 6%饲料, 投喂初始均重( 18. 5 ± 1. 2 ) g的红草金鱼. 每种着色剂设5个水平(5%、 8%、 11%、 13%、 16%), 每水平30尾鱼× 3重复,

  4. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  5. 浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属污染水平与金属硫蛋白基因表达%Heavy Metal Levels and Metallothionein mRNA Expressions in Wild Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus auratus) from Hun River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳强; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 林进; 陈浩; 赵兴茹

    2012-01-01

    为揭示浑河重金属污染的潜在生态风险,分析测定了浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属的残留水平以及肝和鳃组织中金属硫蛋白基因表达.对鱼体各组织中Cr、Cd、Pb、Cu和Zn含量的分析结果显示,各组织重金属含量的排序为肠>肝>鳃>肌肉,且Zn含量最高(17.49~ 176.01 mg·kg-1,以湿体质量计算),Cd含量最低(N.D.~0.57 mg· kg 1,以湿体质量计算).均值综合污染指数评价结果显示,浑河野生鲫鱼受到重金属的轻微污染,且从上游至下游呈现逐渐升高的趋势,其中,Cr、Pb和Zn对均值综合污染指数贡献较大.利用实时定量PCR方法分析鲫鱼肝组织金属硫蛋白基因表达发现,中、下游鲫鱼肝组织的金属硫蛋白基因表达水平较上游有所升高,且与肌肉组织综合污染指数具有较好相关性(R2=0.71),这表明金属硫蛋白基因可作为监测环境重金属污染的敏感标志物.%the metallothionein gene can be used as a promising biomarker for monitoring the heavy metal contamination. Hun River; heavy metal; crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus); average pollution index; metallothionein

  6. 盾叶薯蓣提取物对鱼类指环虫的杀灭效果%Ethanol extract of plant Dioscorea zingiberensis against dactylogyrid Dactylogyrus intermedius found in goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 李军; 赵良炜; 周状; 申烨华; 田渭花

    2009-01-01

    The parasiticidal effect of ethanol extracts from a plant Dioscorea zingiberensis on dactylogyrid Dactylogy-rus intermedius found in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied to search for parasiticidal substances by standard laboratory procedures compared with the other four drugs mebendazole,abamectin,ivermectin and praziquantel. The bioassay -oriented procedure showed that the active compounds concentrated in the alcoholic extract,with LC_(50), val-ue of 53.47 mg/L(24 h) ,34.05 mg/L(48 h) , and 19. 34 mg/L(96 h). The anthelmintic efficacy of the alcoholic extract was found to be 99.55% with the concentration of 17.0 mg/L (48 h). For mebendazole,99.01% of the dactylogyrid were killed with 3.4 mg/L (48 h) drugs, and 95. 39% killed by praziquantel at a rate of 6.2 mg/L. It is suggested that the ethanol extracts of Dioscorea zingiberensis be a promising and effective Chinese herbal medi-cine to control dactylogyrids.%以寄生在金鱼Carassius auratus鳃部的中型指环虫Dactylogyrus intermedius为指示寄生虫,采用活体感染、活体杀虫的方法,研究了用不同溶剂(石油醚(沸程60~90 ℃)、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、乙醇和水)分别对盾叶薯蓣Dioscorea zingiberensis进行提取,其5种提取物的杀虫活性.结果表明,盾叶薯蓣的杀虫活性部位是乙醇提取物.将乙醇提取物与甲苯咪唑、伊维菌素、阿维菌素和吡喹酮4种原料药的杀虫效果进行比较,结果表明:盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物的最高杀虫浓度为17.0 mg/L,平均最高杀虫率为99.37%;其次是甲苯咪唑和吡喹酮,最高杀虫浓度分别为3.4、6.2 mg/L时,平均最高杀虫率分别为99.01%和95.39%;而伊维菌素、阿维菌素对中型指环虫无明显的杀灭作用.盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物对斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio 的24、48、96 h的半致死浓度(LC_(50))分别为53.47、34.05、19.34 mg/L.

  7. 微囊藻毒素在银鲫肠道中的累积及其病理学影响%Intestinal Accumulation and Pathological Effects of Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 雷和花; 侯杰; 龙萌; 苏玉晶; 吴宁

    2014-01-01

    银鲫(Carassius auratus),杂食性鱼类,是我国淡水主养品种之一.在富营养化湖泊中,它能以有毒微囊藻为主要食物,导致微囊藻毒素(MCs)在其组织中大量累积.为研究MCs在肠道内累积和代谢特征及其对肠道的毒性影响,分别以50和200 μg MC-LReq·kg-1剂量的MCs粗提液(主要含MC-RR和MC-LR)对银鲫进行腹腔注射,并在注射后1、3、12、24、48和168 h后取样.MCs的含量用LC-MS和HPLC进行定性和定量测定,结果发现,高低两剂量组银鲫肠中MCs的含量均在注射后1h达最大值(分别为2.8和181.4 ng·g-1 DW),然后随暴露时间的延长迅速下降.相对于毒素的累积,MCs诱导的银鲫肠组织损伤具滞后性,注射后48 h内,高低两剂量组肠道的病理变化呈时间-剂量依赖性的增长,病理特征表现为肠上皮细胞排列紊乱,甚至出现坏死、溶解和脱落,杯状细胞数目显著增多,微绒毛结构破坏并伴随淋巴细胞浸润.实验结果表明,单次染毒后MCs在鲫肠道中迅速累积后降解,并造成时间-剂量依赖性组织损伤,且低剂量组的损伤是可逆的.

  8. Hematologic Studies of Three Types of Carassius auratus%3种类型普安鲫鱼的血液学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤君; 安苗; 黄良; 胡飞; 邵娅

    2012-01-01

    By extracting blood from the tail vein, the blood corpuscle kind and number of C. auratus A, B and C were determined, also the hemoglobin and plasma glucose contents were determined to figure out red blood cell and part of physiological and biochemical indexes of blood. The results showed that the blood corpuscle was composed of red blood cell, hrombosis cell and white blood cell, the white cell included neutrophil, small lymphocyte, large lymphocyte and monocyte. Compared to the three kinds of fish each other, the red blood cell of type A was the biggest and type B was the smallest. The number of red blood cell was maximum in type C and minimum in type B. The plasma glucose content of Type A was the highest value, the second was type B, and the lowest was type C. Hemoglobin content of type C was the highest, and the second was the type A, type B was the minimum.%为弄清3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞及血液的部分生理生化指标,丰富普安鲫的基础生物学资料,采用尾静脉取血法,对A型、B型和C型普安鲫鱼的血细胞数量、大小、分类及血红蛋白和血浆葡萄糖含量进行了测定.结果表明:3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞均包含红细胞、白细胞和血栓细胞,其中,白细胞又包含淋巴细胞(大淋巴细胞和小淋巴细胞)、嗜中性粒细胞(未发现嗜酸性粒细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞)和单核细胞.红细胞大小,A型普安鲫鱼最大,C型次之,B型最小;红细胞数,C型普安鲫鱼最多,A型次之,B型最少;血浆葡萄糖含量,A型最高,B型次之,C型最低;血红蛋白含量,C型最高,A型次之,B型最低.

  9. 氟甲喹对异育银鲫细胞色素CYP450主要药酶的影响%Effects of flumequine on cytochrome P450 enzymes in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 房文红; 汪开毓; 孙贝贝; 胡琳琳; 周帅; 周俊芳

    2011-01-01

    在分析了氟甲喹腹腔注射后对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)主要药酶活性影响的基础上,从蛋白表达和mRNA转录水平探究了氟甲喹对CYP1A(EROD)的诱导机制.以氟甲喹剂量35 mg/kg一次性腹腔注射异育银鲫24 h后,肝微粒体的7-乙氧基异吩唑酮-O-脱乙基酶(EROD)活性为54.33 pmol/(mg·min).显著高于对照组的34.00pmol/(mg·min)(P<0.01),而红霉索-N-脱甲基酶(ERND)[177.98 pmol/(mg·min)]、氨基比林-N-脱甲基酶(APD)[934.40 pmol/(mg·min)]及7-乙氧基香豆素-O-脱乙基酶(ECOD)[9.84 pmol/(mg·min)]与对照组[分别为140.90pmol/(mg·min)]、850.71 pmol/(mg·min)和8.93 pmol/(mg·min)]相比无显著性差异;除肾组织中ERND活性高于肝脏外,其他CYP亚型药酶活性(APD、EROD和ECOD)均以肝组织中最高.Western-blotting印迹表明,实验组肝脏中CYP1A蛋白含量明显高于对照组,与酶活(EROD)相符合;而肾、肠中没有检测到特异性条带.半定量RT-PCR结果显示,CYPiAmRNA在肝、肾和肠均有表达,但实验组与对照组并无明显差异.体外实验中,不同浓度的氟甲喹与微粒体共孵育,未见EROD活性与浓度、时间的依赖关系.综上推测,氟甲喹对鲫鱼肝CYP1A的诱导是在翻译后水平,可能是加强蛋白的稳定性.本研究旨在为氟甲喹在鱼类中的合理应用提供科学依据.%The effects of flumequine on activities of several microsomal P450 monooxygenases of allogynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were determined and the induction of fluemquine on CYP1A was further explored at the level of protein expression and mRNA transcription. After 24 h following a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 35 mg/kg, the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver of the Crucian carp was 54.33 pmol/(mg.min), which was significantly higher than that of the control carps [34.00 pmol/(mg.min)](P<0.01). It was revealed that flumequine could significantly induce EROD

  10. Effect of Water Pollution onActivitiy of CAT and LDH of Carassius auratus in Yongcheng Coal Collapse Area%永煤塌陷区水污染对鲫鱼过氧化氢酶和乳酸脱氢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 郑娜; 李壹

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution in Yongcheng coal collapse area towards the activitiy of blood catalase (CAT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Carassius auratus of Yongcheng coal collapse area was selected as the research object and that from a relatively pollution-free Tianmu lake of Shangqiu was used as the control. The results showed that compared to Tianmu lake,the activity of blood CAT and LDH of Yongcheng coal collapse area decreased significantly (P<0.01). The result suggested that the normal physiological process was inhibited by low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution.%2010年5月,选择永城煤矿塌陷区天然鱼塘的野生鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为对象,以相对无煤矿污染的商丘市天沐湖为对照,研究了永城煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼血液过氧化氢酶(CAT)和血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性的影响.结果表明,永城煤矿塌陷区鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.600)极显著高于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.411)(P<0.01),塌陷区鲤鱼血清中LDH的OD值(0.310)极显著低于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.421)(P<0.01),说明煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼的正常生理过程有明显的抑制.

  11. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Crucian Carp (Car-assius auratus) of Luan River%滦河流域鲫鱼体内重金属分布及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霖; 孙然好; 武大勇

    2015-01-01

    The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and river sediment samples were collected from the Luan River in this study. The concentration of heavy metals in fish and sediment was measured for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As by ICP-MS. The concentration of heavy metals decreased in the order of Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd. Moreover, the heavy metal concentration differed among different parts of the fish body. Specifically, the concentrations of Cu and Cr were high in liver whereas those of Zn, Pb and Cd were high in gill. As concentration depended on the sample sites. Generally, the heavy metal concentration in downstream was high than that in upstream. The results indicated that the concentration of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the muscle of crucian carp excessed lots of food safety limits, including the national limited quantity of poisonous and harmful contents of the national pollution-free aquatic products (NY 5073—2006), limited quantity of contaminants in foods (GB 2762—2012), and tolerance limit of zinc in foods (GB 13106—1991). The excess value of heavy metal concentration is Cr(3.34)>Pb(2.24)>Cd(1.15). Finally, the con-sumption risk was assessed based on US EPA’ s target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The results indicated that As had the highest health risk whereas Cr showed the least risk. All THQ values of 6 heavy metals were less than 1. However, the fish consumption in downstream might have risks with the evidence of high TTHQ values of com-bined heavy metals in Suhe River (TTHQ=1.263) and Douhe River (TTHQ=1.381). This study indicated that the high risk of As, Pb, and Zn should be paid more attention in the regular fish consumption.%采集滦河流域鲫鱼样本并分析重金属元素(Cu、Zn、Cr、Pb、As、Cd)在其体内的分布特征及食用风险。实验结果表明鲫鱼体内重金属含量由高到低顺序为Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>As>Cd,蓄积器官主要为肝脏和鳃部,Cu和Cr主要蓄积在肝脏,Zn、Pb、Cd主要富集在鳃部,As的蓄积器官随地域

  12. THE CONTRAST BETWEEN TWO SUSTAINED-RELEASE HORMONES CARRIERS IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)%鱼类两种缓释催产激素载体临床性能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹相菡; 温海深; 倪蒙; 步艳; 迟美丽; 钱煜; 张冬茜; 丁玉霞

    2013-01-01

    采用组织切片技术和RT-PCR技术研究了海藻酸钠微球和壳聚糖微球作为缓释激素载体在临床上对金鱼基础生物学指标以及CYP19A、GH基因mRNA表达的影响,以检测两种缓释激素载体对鱼类生殖和生长的影响.研究结果表明:缓释材料埋植0、7、14、30、48d后,雌性和雄性金鱼处理组与对照组(埋植0.7%生理盐水组)比较,海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组在基础生物学方面没有出现显著性差异;不同处理组中实验鱼性腺组织切片卵巢和精巢的发育均处于同一时期(按照Мейен分期原则);海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组中,各次采样组的CYP19A基因表达均没有出现明显性差异;海藻酸钠微球埋植组GH基因各次取样时间均未出现显著性差异,雌性金鱼壳聚糖微粒埋植组GH基因的表达在0、7、14、30采样后显著上升(P<0.05),埋植48d差异消失,雄性金鱼壳聚糖埋植组未出现明显差异.综合显示:作为缓释载体,海藻酸钠微球在临床上的性能较壳聚糖微球更为稳定,而壳聚糖微球对雌性金鱼的GH基因mRNA表达的促进作用更为明显.%CYP19A and GH gene expression and basic biological indicators were studied after implantation Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres by RT-RCR technique and tissue section technique in male and female goldfish (Carassius auratus , variation). These indicators were used to detect the effects caused by these two sustained-release hormones carriers in both the reproductive and growth of goldfish. The study result show that there was no significant difference in basic biological indicators between control group and experimental group in the 0, 7, 14, 30, 48 days after implantation both Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres separately. The goand appearance of the fish in different groups are in the same period, and the germ cells were in the same phase

  13. 不同营养状况对鲫鱼偏好游泳速度的影响%Preferred swimming behavior in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) at different nutrition status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青怡; 曾令清; 付世建

    2016-01-01

    为考察不同营养状况对鲤科鱼类偏好游泳速度的影响,本研究以鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为实验对象,(25±1.0)℃条件下设置3个不同营养状况实验组:对照组(禁食48 h)、饱食组(饱食)和饥饿组(饥饿14 d),将单尾实验鱼置于梯度流速选择仪(流速范围为11.86~65.45 cm/s,等距离划分为5个流速区域,从第一到第五流速区域流速连续增加)中拍摄1 h,采用Ethovision XT9软件分析视频资料并计算实验鱼在不同流速区域平均进入频次(F,次)、单次进入停留时间(T, s/次)和平均停留时间百分比(Pt,%)等流速选择行为指标。结果显示,对照组和饱食组的F值随水流速度上升而增加,对照组的T值不同流速区域间无差异(P>0.05),而饱食组第三和第四流速区域T值均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),因此两实验组第三和第四流速区域的 Pt 均显著大于其他流速区域,其偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。饥饿组流速偏好行为出现表型分化, I型实验鱼在第一流速区域Pt和T值显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),各流速区域的F值均显著小于其他实验组(P<0.05),故I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为11.86~15.18 cm/s。而II型实验鱼则与对照组相似,在第三和第四流速区域Pt均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),故II型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。结果表明,饱食不影响鲫鱼的偏好游泳速度,可能是饱食不影响鲫鱼的游泳能力所致,但饱食组在各流速区域间的出入频次减少而停留时间有所增加。饥饿后鲫鱼偏好游泳速度出现表型分化, I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度降低,而II型实验鱼则无明显变化, I型和II型实验鱼偏好游泳速度的差异可能是由于在饥饿条件下二者能量节约和游泳功能维持的策略不同。%Fish usually alter their swimming behavior to adapt to changes in food resources in their natural habitats. In this study, we investigated

  14. Effect of Starvation and Re-feeding on Blood Physiological and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Carassius auratus gibelio%饥饿后再投喂对异育银鲫血液生理和非特异性免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董学兴; 吕林兰; 黄金田; 王爱民; 於叶兵

    2011-01-01

    The effect of starvation periods and re-feeding on blood physiological and non-specific immune parameters in Carassius auratus gibelio (15.6 ±0.84) were studied. Compared to the control, the content of blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased during starvation (P<0.01). The starvation led an initial significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity followed by increased. The phosphatase (ACP) activity was not effected in short-term starvation, however prolong the starvation, ACP activity increased, but then sharp declined (P<0.01). The content of blood glucose and MDA, the activity of SOD and ACP were significantly increased in short-term starvation group after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and Hb, ACP activity also increased, however, SOD activity and content of MDA were significantly declined in middle-term starvation (P<0.05) after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and MDA were remarkable declined compared to control, but ACP activity was gradually restored to the control level in long-term starvation after re-feeding. The results showed that short-term hunger and then re-feeding could enhance metabolism and non-specific immune function of Carassius auratus gibelio.%对体重(15.6±0.84)g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)进行了不同时间的饥饿处理和再投喂恢复生长试验.研究饥饿和再投喂后对其血液生理指标和非特异性免疫指标的影响.研究发现,饥饿使血糖和MDA含量极显著降低(P<0.01),随饥饿时间的延长,SOD活性显著下降后逐渐升高,短期饥饿对ACP活性无显著影响,进一步延长饥饿时间则先升高后显著下降(P<0.01);恢复投喂后,短期饥饿组血糖浓度、SOD和ACP活性均显著上升,中期饥饿组血糖、血红蛋白含量和ACP活性逐渐上升,SOD活性和MDA含量显著下降(P<0.05),长期饥饿组血糖和MDA含量显著低于对照组(P<0.01),ACP活性逐渐恢复到对照水平.结果表

  15. Effect of fish-scale protein hydrolysates-based films on preservation of crucian carp(Carassius auratus)%鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的涂膜剂对鲫的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯风; 罗永康; 冯启超; 姚磊

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的复合涂膜剂对鲫4 ℃贮藏过程中其鲜度指标变化和保鲜效果的影响.实验将去鳞、去内脏并洗净后的鲫分别于4℃的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液和添加了迷迭香的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液中浸泡1.5min,沥干后用保鲜膜包好于4℃条件下贮藏.通过测定鱼体贮藏过程中细菌总数、TBA值、TVB-N值、K值、重量损失、感官评分等鲜度指标的变化规律,评价了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物对鲫在4℃贮藏条件下保鲜作用效果.结果表明,涂有鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的细菌总数、TVB-N值、K值、TBA值、重量损失在10 d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,在4℃条件下能延长鲫贮藏期8d左右;涂有添加了迷迭香提取物的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的TVB-N值、K值、重量损失在4-6d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,但不能有效延长鱼体的贮藏期.鱼鳞蛋白经过胃蛋白酶在一定条件下酶解后,其产物对鱼体具有较好的保鲜效果,是一种良好的鱼体生物保鲜涂膜材料,但不适宜与迷迭香提取物联合使用.%Crucian carpi Carassius auratus)is a main freshwater fish species and has been widely used as a raw material for food productions. The output of crucian carp reached 1 955 500 tons in 2009 in China,but a considerable number of them spoiled because of lacking good preservation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method of preservation of fish. During the last decade, there has been a developing interest in edible or biodegradable films based on biopolymers, which can be used to cover the body of fish to prolong the shelf life of fish products. Fish scale is easier to obtain compared to other materials and is always abandoned. It is economical to make a kind of fish-scale film obtained from fish scales by hydrolysis and the film itself can be antibacterial and antioxidant

  16. Clning, Identification and Characterization of Interferon System Genes in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)%鱼类干扰素系统基因的克隆鉴定及其特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义兵; 桂建芳

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) system is the first line ofdefense against virus invasion in vertebrate. So far relative little was known concerning IFN system genes other than in mammals.In fish, nearly 40-year evidence available for existence of IFN system mainly lies in the observation that fish and fish cells are much earlier known to produce molecules with IFN-like activity as measured by a cell protection test, and that IFN-inducible gene, Mx homologue,has been identified in a limited number of fish species in the latest years. Previously we reported that UV-inactivated GCHV was able to induce high level of IFN-like molecule for establishment of antiviral state in cyprinid fish cell lines, such as crucian carp (Carassius auratus L. ) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells. In the current study, in order to better understand innate immune mechanisms of fish cells responsive to virus infection, an ideal cell model system for identifying fish antiviral-relevant genes was firstly established, and on the basis of induction and characterization of CAB IFN, a subtractive cDNA library accumulating an enhanced mRNA level of fish antiviral-relevant genes was also constructed. Secondly, a subset of fish IFN system genes and some unidentified ESTs that were found no similarity by BLASTX were retrieved by screening of the library, and expression analysis demonstrated that they were IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well. Thirdly, according to the latest research of mammals, 19 full-length cDNAs of fish IFN system genes were cloned, including crucian carp IFN, IFN signal transduction factor STAT1, IFN regulatory factor IRF7, putative IFN antiviral effectors Mx1, Mx2, PKR, Viperin, IFI56, and some ISGs with function unknown, including IFI58, ISG15-1, ISG15-2, Gigl, Gig2 and so on. Finally, further studies on the characterization of structure, expression, induction and evolution of some important relevant genes reveal that several mechanisms in fish innate immune following virus infection, including

  17. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  18. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  19. 额尔齐斯河银鲫寄生指环虫18SrDNA序列测定及系统发育研究%18 s rDNA Sequence Determination and Phylogenetic Study of Parasitic Dactylogyrus in Carassius auratus gibelio in Ergis River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温卫栋; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 郝翠兰; 王新; 岳城

    2015-01-01

    Dactylogyrus is the dominant population of monogenean parasites in Cyprinidae fishes .Identification and research on the phylogenetic relationship of parasitic Platyhelminthes in fish have long been dependent on morpho -logical features.With the development of molecular biological techniques , molecular phylogenetics has solved the problems with which traditional morphological identification and phylogenetic relationship research have been con -fronted and the 18S rDNA gene has been widely applied to classification of animal fauna and phylogenetic analysis . Research on parasitic Dactylogyrus in fish in Ergis River has been concerned primarily with population dynamics and adding new records and only a few studies have been reported on molecular identification and phylogenetic a -nalysis.The objectives of this study were as follows:1) To determine the 18S rDNA sequence of Dactylogyrus spe-cies infecting Carassius auratus gibelio in the Ergis River and to confirm morphological identification of Dactylogyrus species.2) To carry out phylogenetic analysis of 19 Dactylogyrus species based on their 18S rDNA sequences.Par-asite samples were collected from the gills of Carassius auratus gibelio captured in Ergis River from 2009 to 2014 and identified as Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus extensus by morphological identification .DNA extraction, amplification of the 18S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR products were conducted .A comparison of the 18S rDNA sequence for D.vastator obtained in our study with the 18S rDNA sequence in GenBank revealed a DNA se-quence homology of 99.36%(457/460) and a base conversion rate of 0.65%(3/460).The same comparison for D.extensus revealed a DNA sequence homology of 100% (472/472).The genetic distances of 18S rDNA se-quences for the 19 Monogenean species from 3 families and 8 genera were calculated and analyzed by MEGA 4.1 software.Results indicate the following genetic distances:0.006-0.238 among the 3 families;0.097-0.182 be

  20. 饲料中补充番茄红素对鲫鱼抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of lycopene supplement on the antioxidant capacity of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妤; 杨鸢劼; 王建美; 单志萍

    2011-01-01

    Effects of lycopene supplements on antioxidant capacity were studied in Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus, with average length 22.4±1.13 cm and weight 180.60 ± 37.23 g. Fish were fed a commercial diet supplemented with Lycopene at levels of 0.50%,0.75%, 1.00%, and with 1.5% fish oil as the control in cages for 50 days. That is, four diets contained Lycopene at 0, 75, 112.5, and 150 mg.kg-1 for a control diet and other three diets containing Lycopene. Twenty fish was randomly taken from each. cage. As biomarkers, T-SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, NO, and OH were measured in blood serum. The experimental data were presented in mean ± standard deviation (SD). Duncan test was performed for the multiple comparisons among four diets using SPSS 11.5 version. The study shows: The levels ofT-SOD in fish blood serum were 8.49, 43.33, and 48.57 U.mL-1 higher in fish fed with three diets added lycopene than that of the control. The levels of T-SOD were significantly higher (P<0.05) in fish fed with diet added 112.5 and 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene than that of the control. The levels of MDA in the blood serum of fish fed with diets were 3.75, 4.55, and 2.70 nmol·mL-1 lower than that of control. But, no significant difference was found in levels of MDA in fish fed diets added 75.0, 112.5, 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene oil and the control. The levels of GSH-Px activity in the blood serum of fish fed with three lycopene diets were 99.32, 138.77,122.61 U higher compared to the control. The GSH-Px activity in blood serum of fish fed diets added lycopene was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The levels of NO in fish fed diets adding lycopene were 12.83, 8.30, and 13.02 μmol·mL-1 higher than that of control. The levels of NO in fish fed 75 and 150 mg·kg-1 lycopene were significantly different (P<0.05) than that of control fish. The activities of .OH in fish fed lycopene were 318.50, 290.91, and 277.99 U·mL-1 lower than that of control. The activity of.OH was

  1. Protective effects of schisandrins extracts on injuried primary cultured hepatocytes induced by t-BHP in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel%五味子提取物对用t-BHP损伤的异育银鲫原代肝细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍; 贾睿; 丁炜东; 殷国俊

    2011-01-01

    The activities of inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), malondisldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) in cell culture supernatants and the survival rate of the injuried hepatocytes in vitro induced by t-BHP and then exposed to various concentrations of Schisandrins extracts (0.1,0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL) before (defense), after (treatment) and both before and after (defense-treatment)the culture were determined in the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel to study on the protective and antioxidant effects of the Schisandrins extract. The model of acute hepatopancreatic damage was found to be established by exposure to 1 mmoL/L t-BHP for 2 h. The extracts were found to reduce the injury of hepatopancrease by increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), restraining the lipid peroxidation production-malondisldehyde (MDA), inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), to release and to remarkably improve the survival of the hepatocytes (P<0.05, or P<0.01 ) in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes injured by t-BHP induction. It is concluded that the Schisandrins extracts possess direct protective effect on primary hepatocyte injury induced by t-BHP, which is primarily involved in the scavenging oxygen free radicals and anti-oxidative activity of CMPS. The biochemical indicators showed that the protection of the extracts were significantly better in the defense-treatment group (DT) than that in the defense group (D) and treatment group (T) .%以叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)诱导异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibel原代培养肝细胞损伤模型,采用不同的给药顺序,通过检测肝细胞培养上清液中谷丙转氨酶(ALT/GPT)、微量丙二醛(MDA)、谷光甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量以及肝细胞的增殖活性,研究了五味子提取物对急性肝细胞损伤的保护作用.结果表明:以浓度为1 mmoL/L的t-BHP作用肝细胞2

  2. Identification and biological characteristics of a pathogenic Saprolegnia sp.from the egg of Pengze crucian carp(Carassius auratus pengzesis)%彭泽鲫卵源致病性水霉的鉴定及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文伟; 曹海鹏; 王浩; 张世奇; 杨先乐

    2011-01-01

    Three filamentous fungal strains were isolated form Carassius auratus eggs with Saprolegniasis, and strain JL1 was proved to be pathogenic to Carassius auratus eggs by artificial infection.Therefore, morphology and growth characteristics of strain JL1 were studied, and the phylogenetic analysis based on its ITS rDNA sequence was further conducted. The experimental results showed that the hyphae of strain JL1 was aseptate, transparent and seldom branched. Its zoosporangia were often clavate and renewed internally. Primary zoospore was multi-row arrangement in zoosporangia and discharged in Saprolegnia fashion. Spherical oogonia was attached by monoclinous or diclinous antheridium hyphae. The ITS rDNA sequences of strain JL1 was naturally clustered with ITS rDNA sequences of Saprolegnia sp. submitted to GenBank with 99% of homology, and had closest relationship with Saprolegnia sp. H (accession number: EF460351). Combined morphological characterization with phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequence, strain JL1 was identified as Saprolegnia sp.. In addition, strain JL1 could grow at 5℃-30℃ and pH 4-11, its optimum growing temperature and pH were 25 ℃-30℃ and 6-9, respectively. Strain JL1 was sensitive to sodium chloride, its growth could be completely inhibited by 2% NaCI, which could serve as a foundation for the Saprolegniasis control.%从患病的彭泽鲫卵上分离3 株丝状真菌,经人工感染试验证实其中1 株丝状真菌JL1 对彭泽鲫卵具有致病性,并进一步研究了其形态与生长特性,开展了ITS rDNA 序列分析.实验结果表明,菌株JL1 菌丝为透明管状结构,中间无横隔,分枝较少; 游动孢子囊多数呈棒状,游动孢子呈多排排列,发育成熟后从孢子囊中释放出来,并迅速游离; 藏卵器呈球形,与雄器同枝或异枝.菌株JL1 的ITS rDNA 序列与GenBank 基因库中水霉属菌株自然聚类,同源性高达99%,与Saprolegnia sp.H (登录号:EF460351)的亲缘关系

  3. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Full-length cDNA Encoding Glucokinase from Pengze Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus var.Pengze)%彭泽鲫葡萄糖激酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程汉良; 姬南京; 彭永兴; 申欣; 吴陈晨; 许建和; 董志国

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA coding glucokinase (GK) was cloned from Pengze crucian carp ( Carassius au-ratus var. Pengze) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA sequence obtained is of 2 050 bp length with a 1 431 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 476 amino acids. The GK protein has a calculated molecular weight of 53. 78 ku and isolectric point of 5.14. The main domains of GK, such as ATP-binding domain, glucose-binding amino acids, hexokinases signature, N-linked glycosy-lation sites, cell attachment sequence and glycosaminoglycan attachment site for the Pengze crucian carp are basically conservative compared with other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence has a high similarity to GK of other species, and the percent identity compared with common carp, human and rat are 98.1% , 79. 8% and 79.1% , respectively. Tissue distribution of GK mRNA in brain, white muscle, spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue arid liver of Pengze crucian carp was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method using β-actin gene as internal control. The result showed that the expression level of GK mRNA in liver was significantly higher than that in spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue and brain (P <0. 05). GK mRNA did not be detected in white muscle.%本试验采用RT-PCR和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)方法克隆获得了彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.Pengze)葡萄糖激酶(GK)基因全长cDNA序列.结果表明,该cDNA全长2 050 bp,含1个1 43l bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码476个氨基酸,GK蛋白计算分子量为53.78 ku,等电点为5.14.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列的ATP结合位点、葡萄糖结合位点、己糖激酶标签序列、N-连接糖基化位点、细胞黏附序列和糖胺聚糖黏附位点等主要功能位点与其他脊椎动物相比基本保守.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列与建鲤、人和鼠GK氨基酸序列相似百分比分别为98.1%、79.8%和79.1%.以β-actin为内标,采用半定量RT-PCR方法对GK基因在彭泽鲫大脑、白

  4. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、内源酶活性和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Lipid Sources on Body Lipid Deposition, Endogenous Enzyme Activities and Fatty Acid Composition of Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 王爱民; 刘文斌; 於叶兵; 封功能; 杨文平; 齐志涛

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲料中不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、脂类代谢酶活性、消化酶活性和鱼体组织中脂肪酸组成的影响.选择尾均重(6.04±0.05)g的健康异育银鲫鱼种525尾,驯养1周后,随机分为5组,每组3个重复,每个重复35尾鱼.在基础饲料中分别添加4%的鱼油、豆油、猪油、花生油和混合油(鱼油:豆油:猪油=3:4:3),制成5种等氮等能试验饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明,鱼油组肝胰脏中粗脂肪含量显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),各组间腹脂率以及肌肉中脂肪含量没有显著差异(P>0.05).鱼油组肝胰脏脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶活性显著高于猪油组和花生油组(P<0.05),鱼油组和豆油组肠道和肝胰脏中蛋白酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),但与花生油组和混合油组无显著差异(P>0.05).豆油组和混合油组肝胰脏脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),且混合油组肠道脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),其他各组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05).各组间肝胰脏和肠道中淀粉酶活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),但肠道淀粉酶活性普遍高于肝胰脏淀粉酶活性.鱼油组肌肉和肝胰脏中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05).异育银鲫肌肉和肝胰脏中亚油酸(C18:2n-6)含量均以豆油组最高,鱼油组最低,且上述2组间差异显著(P<0.05).结果显示,鱼油能提高肝胰脏中脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶的活性,从而降低鱼体脂肪沉积,而猪油的作用相反;饲料中脂肪酸组成影响异育银鲫鱼体组织中脂肪酸的组成.%This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on body lipid deposition, fatty acid composition, and activities of lipid metabolism enzymes and digestive enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. Five hundred and twenty-five healthy Carassius auratus gibelio with an average initial weight of

  5. Effects of Spermatozoa of Different Species on Survival and Growth of Offsprings in Fangzheng Silver Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus gibelio)%同源与异源精子对方正银鲫子代存活、生长及性别的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹顶臣; 贾智英; 鲁翠云; 徐伟; 常玉梅; 梁利群; 吴学农

    2012-01-01

    5月中下旬繁殖季节,用方正银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)的卵子分别与麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)(方正银鲫♀×麦穗鱼♂,简称FM)、方正银鲫(方正银鲫♀×方正银鲫♂,FF)和荷包红鲤(Cyprinus carpio)(方正银鲫♀×荷包红鲤♂,FH)的精子进行人工授精,孵出的仔鱼在网箱中饲养,测定和统计各组子代的存活率、绝对增重率和性比等。结果表明:FF子代的成活率(91.15±1.78%)极显著地高于FM(87.50±2.13%)和FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01),FM和FH之间差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(20.17±4.33 g)、FH(23.13±3.58 g)子代的出池体质量显著高于FF(18.90±3.82 g)(P〈0.05),无论雌性还是雄性子代,组间差异均极显著(P〈0.01),而组内、性别间生长差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(99%)、FF(73%)和FH(99%)子代的雌性百分比明显偏向雌性(P〈0.01),且组间差异极显著,异源精子受精后子代中雌鱼比例明显增高(P〈0.01)。本研究结果证明:银鲫生长性状中存在"异精效应",异源精子对子代的存活率和性别比例有显著影响,对生产中积极利用异源精子提供了数据支持。%The eggs of Fangzheng silver crucian carp(Carassius auratus auratus) as gynogenetic crucian carp were activated by homogenous and by heterogeneous(common carp Cyprinus carpio and topmouth gudgeon Pseudoroashora parva) sperm,forming three offsprings Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× Fangzheng silver crucian carp♂(FF),Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× common carp ♂(FH) and Fangzheng silver crucian carp♀× topmouth gudgeon♂(FM).The fry of the three offsprings were reared in net cages disposed in a pond,and the survival,growth and sexual ratio were compared.The survival of FF((91.15±1.78)%) fry was shown to be very significantly higher than that in FM(87.50±2.13%)and FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01).The juveniles in FM(20.17±4.33 g) and FH(23.13

  6. 诃子抗嗜水气单胞菌活性组分分离及其对鲫鱼的毒性试验%Isolation of Active Component from Terminalia chebula Against Ameromonas hydrophila and Acute Toxicity Experiment on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丰; 陈军; 王扬; 朱凝瑜; 孟庆辉

    2011-01-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and pure compound from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The ethyl acetate extract shows a promising antibacterial activity against Ameromonas hydrophila (when the concentrations is set for 4 mg.L^-1, diameter of inhibition zone is 18 mm). Based on these findings, the ethyl acetate extract is fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation which produces an active compound (white crystal) showing potent activity. The active compound exhibit significant activity against Ameromonas hydrophila with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in the process afore are regulated for 2.8 mg.L^-1 and 5.6 mg.L^-1, respectively. The acute toxicities (LCs0) of the active compound for Carassius auratus is found to be 220.7 mg-L^-1, the safety concentration 85.2 mg·L^-1. The structure is not fully explored at this point and the research on it will be further embarked on.%研究以抑菌圈直径大小作为评价指标,利用提取分离技术对诃子进行抗嗜水气单胞茵活性成分分离追踪,并对诃子的抗菌活性单体进行安全评价.结果显示,诃子的抗嗜水气单胞茵的活性部位为乙酸乙酯萃取部位,其浓度为4mg·L^-1时,抑茵圈直径为18mm.活性部位经多次柱层析分离,得到一白色针状晶体.抑菌试验结果显示,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC)分别为2.8mg-L^-1和5.6mg·L^-1.急性毒性实验结果显示,活性单体对鲫鱼的96h半致死浓度为220.7mg·L^-1,其安全浓度为85.2mg·L^-1,但其化学结构还有待于进一步研究.

  7. EFFECTS OF pH STRESS ON CORTISOL AND NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO%水体pH胁迫对异育银鲫皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文祥; 谢骏; 宋锐; 邹红; 吴山功; 王桂堂

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pH stress on cortisol and non-specific immunity of Carassius auratus gibelio were investigated.Acidity and Alkalinity of the aquaculture water were maintained at pH 6.0, 7.4, 8.5 and 9.5, where pH 7.4 was used as control. pH value of the aquaculture water was adjusted by HCl (1 N) or NaOH (1 N). Fish blood was sampled at 0, 14 and 30 days during the experiment. Leucocytes isolated by 55% percoli were used for determination of phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity by flow cytometry, and the plasma was used to survey the cortisol concentration and lysozyme activity. Fish weight was measured when pH stress protocol finished. The fish was then challenged by the bacteria Flavobacterium columnare, and dead fish was recorded after 7 days of the challenge. Under the stress of pH 6.0, phagocytosis of leucocytes decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day, but no significant differences were found in respiratory burst activity and cortisol level. There were significant differences in lysozyme activity and growth between pH 6.0 and control group. No fish died from the bacteria challenge. Under pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, the cortisol concentration increased significantly, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day. The challenge of bacteria resulted in fish death. The results suggested that non-specific immunity and growth of the carp was heavily affected by the pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of fish leucocytes determined by flow cytometry could assess the influence of stress on fish health.%实验比较了不同pH胁迫对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响.3个实验组水质的pH分别为6.0、8.5、9.5,对照组是pH为7.4的曝气自来水.分别在实验的第0、14和30天采血,血浆用于测定皮质醇含量和溶菌酶活性;分离的白细胞,采用流式细胞术测定吞噬活性

  8. Analysis of different gene expression profiles of sex differentiation-related genes between male and female pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze) under different culture modes%不同养殖模式下雌核发育彭泽鲫雌雄鱼性别分化相关基因的表达差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑尧; 陈家长; 邴旭文; 王在照

    2015-01-01

    将同一批经雌核发育产生的F1彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var. pengze)仔鱼(Pcc)分别置于实验室和池塘进行养殖,结果发现,与池塘养殖雄鱼比例极少相比,实验室养殖中出现了高比例的雄鱼。实验室养殖 PccF1雄雌比例为(43.6±3.0)%,而池塘养殖PccF1雌雄比为(4.7±1.2)%。本研究比较了不同养殖模式下雌雄鱼性腺分化相关基因的表达,结果发现除Pcc-vasa、Pcc-esr1和Pcc-esr2b外,实验室养殖PccF1精巢中性腺分化、受体、类固醇合成酶类基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量。对于池塘养殖的 PccF1,除 Pcc-amh、Pcc-dmrt1b、Pcc-dmrt1c、Pcc-foxl2、Pcc-vasa 和 Pcc-esr2b 外,精巢中性腺分化和受体基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量;但精巢中绝大部分类固醇合成酶类基因的表达量极显著低于卵巢(P<0.01)。实验室和池塘养殖 PccF1雌雄出现差异表达的基因主要是类固醇合成酶类及调控芳香化酶的转录因子,这些基因的差异表达可能与雌雄激素的合成或调控相关,从而导致不同养殖模式出现不同比例的雄鱼。%Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze, Pcc) is naturally gynogenic, and gynogenic Pcc pro-duced by artificial breeding can theoretically produce solely female offspring. In laboratory culture, a higher proportion of male fish occurred in F1 progenies compared with pond culture conditions. A higher proportion of males was found in the F1 progeny under laboratory culture (43.6%) compared with pond (4.7%) conditions. To determine the cause of this variant sex ratio, ovarian gene expression profiles were detected and compared between the male and female F1 progenies for different culture conditions. Results showed that expressions of most testicular sex differentiation-related, steroid receptor, and steroidogenic genes in PccF1 offspring were significantly higher than those

  9. 异育银鲫各组织器官中细胞色素P450药酶活性的比较%Comparative Activity of microsomal cytochrome P450 in various tissues and organs in allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娴; 胡琳琳; 房文红; 汪开毓; 胡晓

    2011-01-01

    The activities and tissue distribution of cytochrome P450 drug - metabolizing enzyme were studied in liver, kidney, gill and muscle of allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Microsomal P450 and b5 contents were determined by the method of CO differential spectroscopy in liver,kidney,gill,intestine and muscle microsomes. Both cytochrome P450 and cytocorome b5 contents were found to be the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome. The activities of CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP2E were evaluated by microsomal N - demethylation of aminopyrine ( APD), erythromycin (ERND) and 4 - aniline - hydroxylation (AH) as probe specific reactions. The activities of APD ( 1. 668 ± 0. 104) and ERND (0.941 ± 0. 061 ) nmol/( min · mg)were the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome [ (0.245 ± 0.011 ), and (0. 078 ± 0.019) nmol/( min · mg)]. The maximal AH activity (0. 052 ± 0. 009)nmol/( min · mg) was observed in liver microsome, but not be detected in muscle microsome, indicating that the above -mentioned cytochrome P450 isoenzymes were available in main tissue microsoms in the crucian carp, and the APD, ERND and AH activities were different in different tissues, the maximal activities being observed in liver microsome.%对异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibelio肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠和肌肉等组织器官中细胞色素P450(CYP450)主要药酶活性进行检测,研究其在异育银鲫各组织中的分布.结果显示:以CO还原差示光谱法测得异育银鲫肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠、肌肉微拉体的细胞色素P450及b5含量均以肝胰脏微粒体中最高,其次为肾、鳃、肠微粒体,肌肉中最低.以氨基比林N-脱甲基、红霉素N-脱甲基、苯胺-4-羟化反应分别作为CYP2B、CYP3A和CYP2E的探针反应,测得氨基比林N-脱甲基酶(APD)及红霉素N-脱甲基酶(ERND)活性在上述组织中分布差异性类似,均表现为肝胰脏微粒体中最高,分别为(1.668±0

  10. Screening and homology analysis of EST-SSRs makers related to body weight and body width in Carassius auratus%鲫体重和体厚相关的EST-SSRs标记筛选及同源基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭薇; 郑先虎; 匡友谊; 崔晓亮; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    300 EST-SSRs markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 181 progenies from a normal Carassius auratus F2 family, and two growth traits ( body weight and body width) were conducted single marker regression analysis. 38 EST-SSRs markers were found to be closely related to growth traits, 26 of them were significantly associated with growth traits (P<0. 05) , the other 12 markers had a highly significant correlation with growth traits (P<0. 01) ; In these 38 markers, 27 markers were related with body weight, 25 markers were related with body width, and 14 markers were related with both body weight and width. Meanwhile, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. Furthermore, by using BLAST online in NCBI, the homology identity of these 38 EST-SSRs markers was determined. Results showed that, 10 markers had significant similarity with the sequences in GenBank ( E < e-20). JE594 was highly homologous (95%) to the gene encoding membrane-associated ring finger protein of Danio rerio; JE3165 was highly homologous (78% ) to the gene encoding muscleblind-like protein of D. rerio; JE6996 was highly correlated (98% ) with the gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase of D. rerio; JE4984 was highly correlated (84% ) with the gene encoding protein phosphatase 1 of D. rerio. These loci may be used for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement.%利用300个EST-SSRs标记对普通二倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)自交F2代的181个个体进行基因型检测,并对其体重、体厚两种经济性状进行单标记回归分析.Permutation检验(10 000次)结果显示,38个标记与所检测的经济性状相关,其中26个标记达到显著性相关(P<0.05),12个标记达到极显著性相关(P<0.01).在38个相关标记中,有27个标记与体重相关,25个标记与体厚相关,14个标记与体重、体厚均相关.对同一标记的不同基因型之间进行多重比较,找到了与两种经济性状相关的

  11. Medication regimen for prevention of drug resistance using enroflox-acin against Aeromonas hydrophilain crucian carp Carassius auratus%恩诺沙星控制嗜水气单胞菌性鲫败血症的防耐药用药方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娟; 权可艳; 王浩; 胡鲲; 杨先乐; 吕利群

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to increasing problems caused by bacterial re-sistance. Given this, there is an urgent need to develop a medication regimen that prevents the formation of drug resistant bacteria. We estimated a number of pharmacodynamic (including mutant prevent concentration and mu-tant selection window) and pharmacokinetic parameters for the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin. Our objective was to develop a medication regimen against hemorrhagic septicemia in crucian carp(Carassius auratus), a disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.125 μg/mL, the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of enrofloxacin on the pathogenic bacterial strains was observed up to (1.67±0.42) h, (2.03±0.17) h, and (2.38±0.06) h at 2MIC, 4MIC, and 8MIC, respectively, the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) was 1.125 μg/mL, and the mutant selection window was between 0.125 and 1.125 μg/mL. We developed integrated enrofloxacin concentration-time curves for the serum of crucian carp following administration of a range of doses. Enrofloxacin persisted in the serum at concentrations above the MPC for 5 h at a dose of 5 mg/kg;9.5 h at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 23 h at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The serum PK/PD parameters AUC24/MIC and Cmax/MIC were 137.22 and 15.05, respectively, at a dose of 5 mg/kg, 285.25 and 41.43, respectively, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 426.25 and 52.32, respectively, at a dose of 20 mg/kg.The drug remained in the plasma with a concentration>MPC for (24-PAE) h and AUC24/MIC≥100 or Cmax/MIC>8. Our results suggest that hemorrhagic septicemia can be controlled using a dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg enrofloxacin, at intervals of 24 h.The proposed withdrawal time in crucian carp should not be less than 25 d. The methods described in this study also can be used for developing dose guidelines for other anti-bacterial drugs to prevent selection for drug-resistance.%  为了合理地使用抗生素,制定

  12. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Butler

    Full Text Available Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of

  13. Effects of Glucose and Vitamin C Inhabitation on Activities of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase,Fatty Acid Synthase and Carnitine Palmitoyltransferases Ⅰduring Embryo Development of Carassius auratus gibelio%葡萄糖、维生素 C浸泡对普安银鲫胚胎发育中乙酰辅酶 A羧化酶、脂肪酸合成酶及肉毒碱棕榈酰转移酶Ⅰ活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋左玉; 姚俊杰; 安苗; 熊铧龙; 朱忠胜

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the changes of activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACC ) , fatty acid synthase ( FAS) , and carnitine palmitoyltransferaseⅠ ( CPTⅠ) , and the effects of glucose and vitamin C inhabitation on them during embryo development of Carassius auratus gibelio ( C. auratus) , glucose solution and vitamin C solutions with different concentrations were used for hatching. The concentrations of glucose were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L, respectively, and the concentrations of vitamin C were 0, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/L, respec-tively. Membrane break time and hatching rate were recorded to decide the optimal concentrations of glucose and vitamin C. Solutions without addition ( control group) and with optimal concentrations of glucose ( glucose group) or vitamin C ( vitamin C group) were used for hatching, and the characteristics of changes of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠactivities were analyzed during embryo development. The results showed as follows:1) mem-brane break time was the shortest, and hatching rate was the highest when the concentrations of glucose and vi-tamin C were 15 g/d and 30 mg/L, respectively. 2) The specific activity and total activity of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ showed increasing tends during embryo development of C. auratus. 3) The specific activities and total activities of ACC and FAS in glucose group were significantly higher than those in control group at mid-gas-trul, crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) , and the specific activity an total activity of CPTⅠ was significantly higher than that in control group at crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) . 4) The total activities of ASS and FAS in vitamin C group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, the inhabitation in solutions with appropriate concentrations of glucose ( 15 g/L) and vitamin C ( 30 mg/L) can promote synthesis and secretion of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ during embryo development of C. auratus, and form new metabolic levels to

  14. 4种添加剂对异育银鲫生长、消化酶活性及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of four additives on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant ability of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉祥; 李海洋; 胡王; 潘庭双; 蒋业林; 吴明林

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred allogynogenetic crucian carp with initial weight 31g were divided into five groups and each group with triplicates randomly. The control group was fed with basal diet, the treated-groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 1% Chinese herbal medicines (group I), the compound of 1% Chinese herbal medicines plus 0.1% synbiotics (group II), 0.1% synbiotics (group III) , 2% small peptide (group IV), respec tively. After 60 d feeding, the growth, digestive enzymes activities, and antioxidant ability of the carp were inves tigated, and the results showed as follows. (1) GroupIII and group IV significantly increased WGR(weight gain rate) but decreased FCR(feed conversion rate) (P0.05). (2) Group III and group Ivsignificantly increased the intestinal protease and amylase activities (P0.05); only group II significantly increased the protease activities (P0.05), except the group II significantly increased the activities of SOD(P0.05). In this study, group III increased the growth and antioxidant ability of the carps all together; group I and group II were benificial to the increase of antioxidant ability, and the group IV was priority to the growth of the carp.%以基础饲料为对照,分别在基础饲料中添加1%绿康源(试验Ⅰ组)、1%绿康源+0.1%合生素(试验Ⅱ组)、0.1%合生素(试验Ⅲ组)、2%小肽(试验Ⅳ组),连续投喂300尾初始体重31g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio) 60 d后,测定试验鱼生长,肠消化酶活性及血清、肝胰脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明:(1)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组增重率(WGR)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数(FCR)显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).(2)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组的肠蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),脂肪酶活性与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组中仅后者肠蛋白酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(3)除试验

  15. Determination of the Cd in the Tissues of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water%煤矸石污染水域和天然水域Cd元素在鲫鱼组织中的沉积规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 张辽; 闫明

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue is the solid waste emissions in the process of coal mining and coal washing, which contains a lot of heavy metal: Cadmium (Cd), pose a serious threat to food security and human health. Study on the rule of the deposition of Cd in the tissues of fish from gangue pollution water of Yongcheng, Shangqiu. which can lay foundation for further study on harm to fish from Cd pollution and on food safety assessment of fish from the coal gangue polluted water. Methods:Cd was determined by using the flame atomic absorption method. Results: (1) The concentration of Cd in the gills, heart, muscle of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) from the coal mining subsidence area, were 1.0630±0.2784μg·g-1, 8.6389±3.2301μg·g-1, 1.1461±0.2046μg·g-1, which were higher than the tissues of crucian carp in natural pollution-free waters. The concentration of Cd in the gills, muscle were significantly higher than the control group (Pheart>muscle>gills. However, there was no significant difference between each tissues. In polluted water, the sedimentary rule of Cd in the crucian carp was: heart>muscle>liver>gills. Heart was much higher than in the other tissues. (3) An adult can be safe to eat the fish meat weekly from the two waters were respectively 823 g, 365 g; if more than these content, there would be a potential health threat. Conclusion: The concentration of Cd in gills, muscle of crucian carp in polluted waters was much higher than not polluted waters, Cd are more likely to deposited in the heart of crucian carp. If the consumption of fish meat from coal gangue pollution water is more than 365 g weekly, there will be a health threat.%煤矸石是采煤和洗煤过程中排放的固体废物,其中含有大量的重金属元素 Cd,煤矸石的无序排放不仅对环境造成了污染,而且也对人体健康和食品安全构成了严重的威胁。研究商丘永城采煤塌陷区煤矸石污染水域Cd在鱼体中的沉积规律,可为进

  16. Protein to energy ratios in goldfish (Carassius auratus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristielle Nunes Souto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dietary digestible protein to energy ratio is critical for the success of fish farming. Considering that it provides the proper development of the animals, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for goldfish fingerlings. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg. The growth parameters evaluated were daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, protein productive value (PPV and energy retention ratio (ERR and specific growth rate (SGR. Regardless FI, all the parameters were affected by protein and energy levels and interaction between both factors was observed. The second-order polynomial equation best fitted to the DWG, SGR, FCR, PER and ERR with estimated requirement values of 38.81, 38.85, 41.05, 41.80 and 39.39% DP, respectively, at the 3,200 kcal/kg. A second-order polynomial model was significant only for the ERR data at the 3,600 kcal/kg with an estimated requirement value of 36.45% DP. Generally, fish fed diets containing 3,200 kcal/kg had better growth performance than fish fed 3,600 kcal/kg (P<0.01, indicating a higher feed efficiency. A 3,200 kcal/kg diet seems to be the proper DE level for meeting goldfish requirement for highest weight gain. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of DP levels between 38.0-40.0% in diets for goldfish with 3,200 kcal/kg or a dietary protein to energy ratio between 119-125 mg/kcal DE.

  17. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of sily-marin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in crucian carp Carassius auratus%水飞蓟素对四氯化碳致鲫肝(细胞)损伤的保护和抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾睿; 曹丽萍; 杜金梁; 徐跑; 殷国俊

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of silymarin (SM) against carbon tetrachlo-ride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in crucian carp (carassius auratus) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 100, 300, and 600 μg/mL silymarin were added to carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), or both before and after(pre- and post-treatment) incubation of the hepatocytes with 8 mmol/L CCl4 in culture medium. We then measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In vivo, crucian carp were fed a diet containing one of three concentrations of silymarin [0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg (diet)] for 60 d. Each fish was then given a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30%in arachis oil), and 72 h after the injection, we collected blood and liver samples from each fish. We measured the serum biochemical indices and liver tissue indices described above. Silymarin improved cell viability and decreased GPT, GOT, LDH, MDA, and SOD activ-ity. Administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly decreased GPT, GOT, and LDH activity, increased levels of total protein and albumin in the serum, and increased SOD, glu-tathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and MDA formation in liver tissue. However, these parameters, except for LDH, were not significantly altered in fish fed 0.1 g silymarin per kg diet. Our data suggest that silymarin exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish, which is likely re-lated to its antioxidant activity. We suggest that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent against fish liver diseases.%  为了评价水飞蓟素(Silymarin, SM)对鲫(Cyprinus carpio)肝(细胞)的保护和抗氧化作用,分别从体外和体内两个方面探讨其作用效果。在体外,利用8

  18. 鲫血髓过氧化物酶的表达及其与血药浓度的关联性%Correlation of the relative expression of myeloperoxidase and prazi-quantel concentration in blood of the crucian carp,Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾飞; 马荣荣; 肖艳翼; 朱凤娇; 杨先乐; 胡鲲

    2016-01-01

    为了研究在吡喹酮代谢过程中,鲫血髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase, MPO) mRNA表达与血药浓度的相关性,以体重为(80±10.5) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为试验动物,单剂量(10 mg/kg)口灌吡喹酮(praziquantel, PZQ)后,在鲫血液中选取β-actin为内参基因,通过设计特异性引物,利用荧光定量PCR,分析了不同时间点鲫血MPO mRNA水平的相对表达量的变化;利用高效液相色谱法(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)测定了吡喹酮在鲫鱼体内的血药浓度,分析两者之间的相关性。结果显示,吡喹酮能够迅速进入血液,并被快速消除,药时数据符合二室开放模型。在1 h时,血液中吡喹酮的浓度达到最大值,为2.85mg/mL,96 h后血液中检测不到吡喹酮;灌药后,MPO基因表达量随时间呈先升后降趋势,在1 h时髓过氧化物酶表达量最高。此外,0.25 h、0.5 h、1 h、3 h与6 h组与对照组差异性极显著(P0.05)。相关性分析发现, MPO mRNA相对表达量与血液中吡喹酮的浓度之间相关系数r=0.96,为高度相关,并且推测MPO可能参与吡喹酮的氧化代谢。结论认为:(1) MPO mRNA相对表达量的升高与外源性药物吡喹酮的摄入有关。(2)血液中吡喹酮的残留量与MPO mRNA相对表达量线性相关。本研究旨在提供一种从分子水平评价水产动物体内药物残留的新思路。%The leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is widely present in animals, and is involved in various physiological responses in vivo. When the body is stimulated and the stress reaction is produced, MPO content increases rapidly, showing strong oxidation activity and destruction of invading microorganisms, and enhancing immunity. The strong oxidizing property of MPO has an immense influence on the oxidative metabolism of drugs. Praziquantel (PZQ) is a quinoline pyrazine derivative, and widely used in aquaculture as an anti-parasite drug. In this experiment, PZQ was used as a model drug

  19. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫的生长、体组成和肌肉脂肪酸的影响%DIETARY LIPID SOURCES FOR GIBEL CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO:GROWTH PERFORMANCE, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE FATTY ACID PROFILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家林; 韩冬; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 解绶启

    2011-01-01

    A 12-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) to evaluate their ability by utilize different dietary lipids. Ten diets were supplemented with 8% of either fish oil (FO), coconut oil (CNO), corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), 1 : 1 fish oil-coconut oil (FCNO), 1 : 1 fish oil-corn oil (FCO), 1 '. 1 fish oil-linseed oil (FLO) or 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 fish-coconut-corn-linseed oil mixture (MIX). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 3.53 g, 30 ini.) in a recirculation system at (24±1)℃ .Weight gain were the highest in SO and CNO group, followed RO and the lowest in FO, CO and LO group, when used as a single lipid source. Compared to total replacement of fish oil, coconut oil, corn oil or linseed oil substitute 50% fish oil led to a higher weight gain, respectively. Neither the plasma biochemistry nor the lipid and moisture contents in different tissues of gibel carp showed significant difference between groups (P>0.05). Fatty acid composition of muscle in fish generally reflected the composition of the diet. Fish fed CO and SO had higher 20:4n-6, while relative higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was detected in fish fed LO. These results suggested that gibel carp had ability to desaturate and elongate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to highly unsaturated fatty acid. In conclusion, soybean oil, coconut oil and rapeseed oil were good alternative lipid sources for gibel carp.%配制了十种等氮等能的饲料饲喂3.53 g 的异育银鲫幼鱼12 周,探讨异育银鲫对不同脂肪源的利用效果.十种饲料中分别添加8%的鱼油(FO)、椰子油(CNO)、玉米油(CO)、亚麻油(LO)、大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、1∶1 鱼油-椰子油(FCNO)、1∶1 鱼油-玉米油(FCO)、1∶1 鱼油-亚麻油(FLO)和1∶1∶1∶1 鱼油-椰子油-玉米油-亚麻油混合油(MIX).每组饲料三个平行,每个平行30 尾.实验在循环水养殖系统中进行,水温控制在(24±1)℃.结果

  20. Effect of dietary oil sources on growth performance, body composition,the serum biochemical indices, fatty acids composition and lipid metabolism of Carassius auratus gibelio%不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长性能、机体成分、血清生化指标、体组织脂肪酸组成及脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘波; 戈贤平; 刘文斌; 谢骏; 高启平; 顾夕章

    2012-01-01

    试验以异育银鲫为研究对象,分别以日粮中添加5.4%鱼油、5.4%豆油、5.4%菜籽油、5.4%亚麻油为脂肪源,选择健康、规格、体质量基本一致的异育银鲫336尾,随机分为4组,每组3个重复、在可控温循环流水圆形蓄养槽内进行为期64 d的投喂试验,探讨不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长、体成分及血清生化指标的影响.试验结果表明:豆油组及菜籽油组增重率、特定生长率显著高于鱼油组,豆油组肥满度显著低于鱼油组及亚麻油组,各试验组末均体质量、饲料系数、肝体比及脏体比均没有显著差异(P>0.05);各组间肌肉水分、粗脂肪、粗蛋白及粗灰分均无显著差异(P>0.05);不同饲料脂肪源对鱼体肌肉脂肪酸组成有显著影响,并且鱼体脂肪酸的组成与饲料脂肪酸的组成有很大相关性,其中鱼油组与菜籽油组有极显著相关性(P<0.01),豆油组显著相关(P<0.05);鱼油组的血清谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶及碱性磷酸酶活性显著高于其它组(P<0.05);各试验组间胰岛素、皮质醇、总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、白球比、血糖、胆固醇及甘油三酯均无显著差异(P>0.05);各组肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅰ (CPT-Ⅰ)、肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅱ(CPT-Ⅱ)、脂肪酶、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)及脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)均无显著差异(P>0.05).因此,日粮中添加一定量的豆油、菜籽油或亚麻油同样能取得良好的生长效果,为以后生产中以菜籽油或亚麻油替代豆油或鱼油提供了理论依据,节约了生产成本.%This study focused on evaluating the effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth, body composition, serum biochemical indices, and activities of lipometabolism enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. The growth experiment was conducted to test four dietary lipids (soybean oil, rapeseed oil, linseed oil, and fish oil) on C. auratus gibelio. The fish with initial body weight

  1. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  3. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  4. Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, E A; Couper, G S; Huprikar, S V; Mellow, A M; Moody, R R

    1976-11-15

    The pharmacological action of mescaline on goldfish was studied with the Bitterman-Agranoff shock-avoidance test. In short term experiments with high mescaline doses an increase in learning rates was observed. Similar results were obtained with apomorphine and L-dopa. However, when the fish were exposed to smaller mescaline doses (or to fluphenazine) for 3 days, their ability to avoid electric shock was reduced. Apparently, mescaline induced a release of dopamine which stimulated central dopaminergic systems. Subsequently, MAO destroys the liberated dopamine. Thus, the ensuing dopamine deficit appears to be responsible for the marked changes in behavior in the chronic experiment.

  5. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  6. Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol on thermoregulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R N; Crawshaw, L I; Wallace, H L

    2000-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol (EtOH) on selected temperature (T(sel)) and activity in goldfish were evaluated. Blood and brain EtOH concentrations ([EtOH]) and brain oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) were quantified at crucial ambient oxygen pressures. Below a threshold value near 31 Torr, T(sel) decreased as a function of environmental PO(2). T(sel) of 15 degrees C-acclimated fish was approximately 10 degrees C at the onset of anoxia and changed little over 2 h. Activity showed a similar response pattern. Brain [EtOH] was significantly elevated above control levels after 1 h anoxia. In normoxic water, T(sel) remained different in previously anoxic and normoxic control fish for approximately 20 min. Blood [EtOH] of previously anoxic fish remained significantly elevated ([EtOH] >4.0 micromol/g blood), and activity was significantly depressed at 20 min. Brain PO(2) reached normal levels in <3 min. We conclude that [EtOH] (brain or blood) and brain PO(2) are not proximal causes of either behavioral anapyrexia (hypothermia) or inactivity in goldfish exposed to oxygen-depleted environments.

  7. Optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaluei, F; Imanpoor, M R; Shabani, A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-04-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0 °C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8 °C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8 °C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, viability of chilled embryos in GFACF medium was slightly, but non-significantly, higher than in Dettlaff's solution. Supplementation of the GFACF medium with antibiotics, Hepes or BSA increased the viability of chilled embryos, but the tested vitamin E analogue Trolox, vitamin C or Tris concentration had no effect on embryo viability. The outcome of this series of experiments shows that heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos could be chilled for 60 h in GFACF supplemented with 25 mm Hepes, 100 U/ml penicillin, 10 μg/l streptomycin and 1 g/l BSA in such a way that embryonic development does not proceed, and viability is not lost.

  8. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Dactylogyrus vastator and D. intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2016-05-01

    Goldfish is known to be parasitized by at least seven species of Dactylogyrus and considered as one of the most common hosts. Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus intermedius are the dominant species living on the gills of goldfish. However, little information on morphometric characterization is available, which easily causes misidentification. The purpose of this study is to provide comprehensive morphometric and molecular characterization of D. vastator and D. intermedius collected form a fish farm in Henan, China. The characterization was presented based on the high-resolution images and standard molecular markers (18S ribosomal DNA subunit and the internal transcribed spacer region), as well as a total of 10 point-to-point morphometrics characters. In addition, a detailed comparison of morphometric and phylogenetic characterization in D. vastator versus D. intermedius was performed. The results demonstrated that all parameters measured differed significantly between these two species of Dactylogyrus, whereas molecular comparison showed subtle differences between them in nucleotide divergence and genetic distances. These findings suggested that these two species of Dactylogyrus can be distinguished more easily based on morphometric measurements than molecular data for 18S ribosomal DNA + internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1).

  9. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  10. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Diagnostic Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya MN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of sinonasal tract arising from the olfactory neuro epithelium. The olfactory neuroblastomas presenting with divergent histomorphologies like, epithelial appearance of cells, lacking a neuro fibrillary background and absence of rosettes are difficult to diagnose. Such cases require immunohistochemistry to establish the diagnosis. We describe the clinical features, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of grade IV Olfactory neuroblastoma in a 57 year old man

  11. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippili Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs are found in the olfactory bulb and olfactory nasal mucosa. They resemble Schwann cells on light and electron microscopy, however, immunohistochemical staining can distinguish between the two. There are less than 30 cases of olfactory groove schwannomas reported in the literature while there is only one reported case of OEC tumor. We report an OEC tumor in a 42-year-old male and discuss the pathology and origin of this rare tumor.

  12. Olfactory system and demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D; Murcia-Belmonte, V; Clemente, D; De Castro, F

    2013-09-01

    Within the central nervous system, the olfactory system represents one of the most exciting scenarios since it presents relevant examples of long-life sustained neurogenesis and continuous axonal outgrowth from the olfactory epithelium with the subsequent plasticity phenomena in the olfactory bulb. The olfactory nerve is composed of nonmyelinated axons with interesting ontogenetic interpretations. However, the centripetal projections from the olfactory bulb are myelinated axons which project to more caudal areas along the lateral olfactory tract. In consequence, demyelination has not been considered as a possible cause of the olfactory symptoms in those diseases in which this sense is impaired. One prototypical example of an olfactory disease is Kallmann syndrome, in which different mutations give rise to combined anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, together with different satellite symptoms. Anosmin-1 is the extracellular matrix glycoprotein altered in the X-linked form of this disease, which participates in cell adhesion and migration, and axonal outgrowth in the olfactory system and in other regions of the central nervous system. Recently, we have described a new patho-physiological role of this protein in the absence of spontaneous remyelination in multiple sclerosis. In the present review, we hypothesize about how both main and satellite neurological symptoms of Kallmann syndrome may be explained by alterations in the myelination. We revisit the relationship between the olfactory system and myelin highlighting that minor histological changes should not be forgotten as putative causes of olfactory malfunction.

  13. Effect of different concentrations of permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants on the hatching rate of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fardin Shaluei; Mohamad Reza Imanpoor; Ali Shabani; Mohamad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxicity of various cryoprotective agents(CPAs) to goldfish embryos. Methods: Heart-beat embryos were immersed in: five permeable CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol (MeOH), 1,2- propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (Gly), ethylene glycol (EG), and two non-permeable CPAs: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sucrose in concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% for 5, 15, or 30 min. The viability of the embryos after the treatments was estimated from hatching rates. Results: The results showed that the toxicity to goldfish embryos of the five permeable CPAs were in the following sequence: PG 0.05). In this experiment none of the concentrations tested for sucrose reduced the hatching rate, but embryos exposed to PVP did not tolerate concentration 20%, at 30 min exposure. Conclusion: These finding will be advantageous for designing optimized Cryo-media for cryopreservation of goldfish embryos.

  14. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offiine HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; WANG Yan-hong; WU Ren-an; WANG Shi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offiine combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  15. Orexins and receptor OX2R in the gastroenteric apparatus of two teleostean species: Dicentrarchus labrax and Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Livia; Castaldo, Luciana; de Girolamo, Paolo; Lucini, Carla; Paolucci, Marina; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Varricchio, Ettore; Arcamone, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Orexin A and B peptides and the receptor OX2R were studied in sea bass and goldfish gastroenteric tract by immunoblotting combined with densitometric analysis using NIH Image J software and immunohistochemical techniques. These teleost species present a different gut organization and diverse feeding habits. Immunoblotting experiments showed one band of 16 kDa corresponding to prepro-orexin, and one band of 38 kDa corresponding to the OX2R receptor. Immunohistochemical localization of OXA and OXB was observed in the enteric nervous system throughout the gastroenteric tract of both species. OXA and OXB immunoreactive cells were found in the gastric and intestinal regions of sea bass, and were mainly found in the basal region of folds in intestinal bulb, and in the midgut and hindgut of goldfish. The distribution of OX2R was mainly detected in the mucosa of the gastroenteric tract of sea bass and goldfish. This distribution suggests an endocrine action of OXA and OXB in the gastrointestinal tract as well as involvement in the peripheral control of food intake and digestive processes in both species. This study might also serve to determine the productive factors in breeding and as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Anat Rec, 299:1121-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nickel induces hyperglycemia and glycogenolysis and affects the antioxidant system in liver and white muscle of goldfish Carassius auratus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-06-01

    The toxicity of nickel to mammals is well studied, whereas information on nickel effects on fish is scant. Goldfish exposure to 10-50 mg L(-1) of waterborne Ni(2+) for 96 h showed reduced glycogen levels by 27-33% and 37-40% in liver and white muscle, respectively, accompanied by substantial increases in blood glucose levels (by 15-99%). However, indices of oxidative damage to proteins (carbonyl proteins) and lipids (lipid peroxides) were largely unaffected by nickel exposure. In liver, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were not affected by Ni(2+) treatment, while catalase activity was elevated by 26%. In white muscle, however, substantial increases in SOD (by 38-147%) and GPx (by 2.5-5.5-fold) activities appeared to compensate for decreased catalase activity (by 59-69%) in order to resist Ni-induced oxidative perturbations. Both hepatic and muscular glutathione reductase activities were suppressed by 10-30% and 12-21%, respectively, after goldfish exposure to all Ni(2+) concentrations used. However, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was remarkably enhanced (by 1.6-5.4-fold) in white muscle of Ni-exposed fish, indicating a strong potential increase in NADPH production under Ni exposure. Thus, the exposure of goldfish to 10-50 mg L(-1) of Ni(2+) for 96 h induces glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia, showing some similarities with a hypoxia response, and leads to a substantial activation of defense systems against reactive oxygen species in liver and white muscle in tissue-specific and concentration-dependent manner.

  17. Effects of enrofloxacin on cytochromes P4501A and P4503A in Carassius auratus gibelio (crucian carp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Li, X-C; Sun, B-B; Fang, W-H; Zhou, S; Hu, L-L; Zhou, J-F

    2012-06-01

    Currently, although enrofloxacin (EF) as a widely used veterinary medicine has begun to apply to treating fish bacterial infections, the researches on the effects of EF on their main drug metabolic enzymes are limited. To investigate the effects of EF on fish cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A and 3A, the enzymatic activities and expressions (mRNA and protein) of crucian carp CYP1A and CYP3A after EF administration were examined. For CYP1A, in the in vivo experiments, EF exhibited potent inhibition on the CYP1A-related ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as CYP1A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels, at 24 h after administration with different EF dosages (3, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg); Furthermore, CYP1A enzymatic activity and expressions at both protein and mRNA levels decreased more with increasing EF dosages. Additionally, the in vitro experimental results showed that, after incubated with microsomes, EF did not change the EROD activity through interacting directly with CYP1A. For CYP3A, the in vitro and in vivo experimental results demonstrated that EF could inhibit the CYP3A-related erythromycin N-demethylase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while it did not suppress CYP3A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels after administration with EF for a short period (no more than 24 h); however, after injection with EF at a high dose (10 mg/kg) for a long period, the CYP3A protein and mRNA reached their lowest levels at 96 and 48 h, respectively. These results indicate that EF can suppress CYP1A expressions in a dose-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting further its catalytic activity; meanwhile, both the interactions of EF with CYP3A and the expressions decrease (protein and mRNA) caused by EF contribute to the CYP3A inhibition.

  18. Dactylogyrus intermedius parasitism enhances Flavobacterium columnare invasion and alters immune-related gene expression in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Dong-liang; Chi, Cheng; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-xue

    2015-09-17

    The monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius and the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare are 2 common pathogens in aquaculture. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of prior parasitism by D. intermedius on the susceptibility of goldfish to F. columnare and to explore the potential immune mechanisms related to the parasite infection. A F. columnare challenge trial was conducted between D. intermedius-parasitized and non-parasitized goldfish. The F. columnare load in gill, kidney, spleen and liver were compared. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β2, TNF-α1, TGF-β, iNOS-a, C3 and Lyz) in gill and kidney of D. intermedius-only infected and uninfected control fish were evaluated. D. intermedius-parasitized goldfish exhibited higher mortality and significantly higher loads (3051 to 537,379 genome equivalents [GEs] mg(-1)) of F. columnare, which were 1.13 to 50.82-fold higher than non-parasitized fish (389 to 17,829 GEs mg(-1)). Furthermore, the immune genes IL-1β2, TNF-α1, iNOS-a and Lyz were up-regulated while the TGF-β and C3 were down-regulated in the gill and kidney of parasite-infected fish compared to the non-parasitized controls. The down-regulation TGF-β and C3 was especially noteworthy, as this might indicate the suppression of the host immune functions due to the parasitism by D. intermedius. Taken together, these data demonstrate that parasite infection can enhance bacterial invasion and presents a hypothesis, based on gene expression data, that modulation of host immune response could play a role.

  19. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF ROYAL INSECTICIDE ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEXES AT CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the royal insecticide influences the energetic metabolism, the breathing rhythm, the blood sugar and the number of red blood cells at the Prussian carp individuals. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 0.00125, 0.0025 and 0.005 ml/l royal insecticide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 0.005 ml/l grew by 50.81% in 168 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 216.66 ml oxygen/kilo/hour compared to 143.66 oxygen ml/kilo/hour. The blood sugar was the single physiological biomarker which decreased, so that the lowest value was 48 mg/dl, 29.62% approximately lower compared to the witness value (68.2 mg/dl at a concentration of 0.00125 ml/l.

  1. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  2. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno;

    2014-01-01

    nitric oxide (NO) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cardiac performance was examined both under basal (constant preload and afterload) and loading conditions, i.e. preload-induced increases in stroke volume (SV) and hence cardiac output at constant afterload (the Frank–Starling response). Hypoxic...... to filling pressure increases; the maximum SV = 1.08 ± 0.09 mL/kg body mass was obtained at 0.4 kPa. Acute hypoxia increased this sensitivity, SV reaching the maximum value (1.45 ± 0.12 mL/kg body mass) at 0.25 kPa. NOS inhibition by L-NMMA reduced the Frank–Starling response under normoxia......, but was ineffective under acute hypoxia, where NO may come from nitrite reduction. In both conditions, sGC inhibition induced a reduction of the cardiac response to preload. Moreover, under acute hypoxia, NO scavenging significantly reduced the Frank–Starling response. The hypoxia-induced hemodynamic patterns were...

  3. Recombinant glycoprotein 63 (Gp63) of Trypanosoma carassii suppresses antimicrobial responses of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladiran, Ayoola; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that proteins secreted by Trypanosoma carassii play a role in evasion of fish host immune responses. To further understand how these parasites survive in the host, we cloned and expressed T. carassii glycoprotein 63 (Tcagp63), and generated a rabbit polyclonal antibody to the recombinant protein (rTcagp63). Tcagp63 was similar to gp63 of other trypanosomes and grouped with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei gp63 in phylogenetic analysis. We showed that rTcagp63 down-regulated Aeromonas salmonicida and recombinant goldfish TNFα2-induced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Macrophages treated with rTcagp63 also exhibited significant reduction in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-A, TNFα-1 and TNFα-2. Recombinant Tcagp63 bound to and was internalised by goldfish macrophages. The Tcagp63 may act by altering the signalling events important in downstream monocyte/macrophage antimicrobial and other cytokine-induced functions. We believe that this is the first report on downregulation of antimicrobial responses by trypanosome gp63.

  4. Light-dark cycle and feeding time differentially entrains the gut molecular clock of the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisembaum, Laura G; Velarde, Elena; Tinoco, Ana B; Azpeleta, Clara; de Pedro, Nuria; Alonso-Gómez, Angel L; Delgado, María J; Isorna, Esther

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how photocycle and feeding-time cues regulate the daily expression of Per1a, Per2a, Per3, and Cry3 in the goldfish hindgut. For this purpose, we studied the daily rhythmicity of these genes in fish maintained under different lighting conditions and under different feeding regimes (scheduled or not). We also studied whether the timing of just one meal is able to reset the hindgut molecular clock. In a first experiment, randomly fed fish were divided into four groups and kept under different light conditions for 30 d: 12 h light and 12 h dark (12L:12D), an inverted photoperiod (12D:12L), constant darkness (24D), and constant light (24L). In a second study, fish maintained under 24L were divided into four groups fed at different time points for 35 d: (1) fish scheduled-fed once a day (at 10:00 h); (2) fish fed with a 12-h shifted schedule (at 22:00 h), (3) fish fed at 10:00 h throughout the experiment, except the last day when fed at 22:00 h; and (4) a randomly fed group of fish. Fish were sacrificed every 6 h throughout a 24-h cycle. In both experiments, gPer1a, gPer2a, gPer3, and gCry3 transcripts were quantified using Real Time-qPCR in the hindgut. Results show the clock genes gPer1a, gPer2a, and gCry3 are synchronized by both zeitgebers, the photocycle and feeding regime, in goldfish hindgut. Moreover, such clock genes anticipate light-on and food delivery, when these cues appear in a cyclic manner. In the absence of both zeitgebers, gCry3 and gPer2a rhythmicity disappeared. In contrast, the gPer1 rhythm was maintained under 24L and random feeding conditions, but not always, suggesting that food when randomly supplied is able to reset the clock depending on other factors, such as the energetic and metabolic conditions of the fish. The expression of gPer2a was not activated during the light phase of the cycle, suggesting the hindgut of goldfish is a non-direct photosensitive organ. In contrast to the other three genes, gPer3 expression in the goldfish hindgut seemed to be dependent on the timing of the last food delivery, even in the presence of a photocycle. This gene was the only one that maintained daily rhythms under both constant lighting conditions (24D and 24L), although with lower amplitude than when a photocycle was present. This indicates that, although the acrophase (peak time) of the gPer3 expression rhythm seems to be driven by feeding time, there is an interaction of both zeitgebers, food and light, to regulate its expression. In conclusion, present data indicate: (1) the hindgut of goldfish can be synchronized in vivo by both the photocycle and feeding time; (2) food is a potent signal that entrains this peripheral oscillator; and (3) both environmental cues seems to target different elements of the molecular clock.

  5. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  6. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  7. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kensaku eMori; Hiroyuki eManabe; Kimiya eNarikiyo; Naomi eOnisawa

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory senso...

  8. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post‐mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen...... anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...... by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed...

  9. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  10. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…

  11. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pe...

  12. [The effect of magnetic fields on the activity of proteinases and glycosidases in the intestine of the crucian carp Carassius carassius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V; Krylov, V V

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated by the example of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) that a 1-hour stay of fish in a combined magnetic field with resonance parameters for calcium ions decreases the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of their intestinal enzymes. It has been found that a 1-hour exposure to a combined magnetic field with resonance parameters for potassium ions has almost no effect on the activity of proteinases, but it decreases the amylolytic activity. It has been noted that the activity of proteases and glycosidases is lower under hypomagnetic conditions. Upon the inversion of the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, the proteolytic activity of the intestinal mucosa in C. carassius decreases, while the amylolytic activity becomes higher compared to the control. Possible effects of magnetic fields on the activity of digestive hydrolases in fish are discussed.

  13. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kensaku; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Onisawa, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness may require neuronal circuit mechanisms for the "binding" of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron-olfactory bulb-olfactory cortex-orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  14. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex and orbitofrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness requires neuronal circuit mechanisms for the ‘binding’ of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron – olfactory bulb – olfactory cortex – orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex.

  15. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

  16. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  17. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  18. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions...... and odor-decoding processes. However, this type of explanation does not entirely justify the role olfactory receptors have played during evolution, since they are also expressed ectopically in different organs and/or tissues. Homologous olfactory genes have in fact been found in such diverse cells and....../or organs as spermatozoa, testis and kidney where they are assumed to act as chemotactic sensors or renin modulators. To justify their functional diversity, homologous olfactory receptors are assumed to share the same basic role: that of conferring a self-identity to cells or tissues under varying...

  19. Orientation in birds. Olfactory navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, F

    1991-01-01

    Research work on the olfactory navigation of birds, which has only recently attracted attention, has shown that many wild species rely on an osmotactic mechanism to find food sources, even at a considerable distance. The homing pigeon, the only bird to have been thoroughly investigated with respect to olfactory navigation, has been found to rely on local odours for homeward orientation, and to integrate olfactory cues perceived during passive transportation with those picked up at the release site. It is possible to design experiments in which birds are given false olfactory information, and predictions about the effects of this can be made and tested. Pigeons are able to home from unfamiliar sites because they acquire an olfactory map extending beyond the area they have flown over. The olfactory map is built up by associating wind-borne odours with the direction from which they come; this was shown by experiments which aimed to prevent, limit or alter this association. One aim of the research work has been to test whether pigeons flying over unfamiliar areas also rely or can learn to rely on non-olfactory cues, depending on their local availability, and/or on the methods of rearing and training applied to them. Various evaluations have been made of the results; the most recent experiments, however, confirm that pigeons do derive directional information from atmospheric odours. A neurobiological approach is also in progress; its results show that some telencephalic areas are involved in orientation and olfactory navigation. The lack of any knowledge about the distribution and chemical nature of the odorants which allow pigeons to navigate hinders progress in this area of research.

  20. The progress of olfactory transduction and biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ChunSheng; WANG LiJiang; ZHOU Jun; ZHAO LuHang; WANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    Olfaction is a very important sensation for all animals. Recently great progress has been made in the research of olfactory transduction. Especially the novel finding of the gene superfamily encoding olfactory receptors has led to rapid advances in olfactory transduction. These advances also promoted the research of biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors and some obvious achievements have been obtained due to their potential commercial prospects and promising industrial applications. This paper briefly introduces the biological basis of olfaction, summarizes the progress of olfactory signal transduction in the olfactory neuron, the olfactory bulb and the olfactory cortex, outlines the latest developments and applications of biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors. Finally, the olfactory biosensor based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is addressed in detail based on our recent work and the research trends of olfactory biosensors in future are discussed.

  1. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jing; NI Dao-feng; WANG Jian; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). Methods We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. Results An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. Conclusions We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrephysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  2. Vitellogenin mRNA Expression in Wild Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus auratus)from Hun River%浑河流域野生鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋双双; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 赵艳民; 李子成; 陈浩; 赵兴茹; 刘代成

    2013-01-01

    为揭示浑河流域水环境内分泌干扰物对水生态的潜在风险,利用兼并引物扩增获得鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原(Vtg)和核糖体蛋白L-7(RPL-7)基因部分碱基序列(分别为825和450 bp),建立以RPL-7为内参基因、定量鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的实时定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)方法,并将该方法用于定量浑河野生鲫鱼肝组织Vtg基因表达分析.结果显示:与上游对照点(S1)相比,7月下游各点(S4~S8)雄鱼、S4和S6点雌鱼肝组织的Vtg mRNA表达水平皆显著升高(P <0.05);11月在雄鱼中未检出Vtg mRNA的有效表达,雌鱼也仅在S2和S3点的表达水平升高(P<0.05).研究表明,浑河流域野生鲫鱼尤其是在7月明显受到了环境雌激素类物质的影响.另外,qRT-PCR方法能够灵敏检测出鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的时空差异.

  3. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  4. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene on modulating vitellogenin expression in primary culture of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yong; C. K. C. Wong; XU Ying; M. H. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the precursor of yolk protein. Its expression and secretion are estrogen-regulated and are crucial for oocyte maturation. An in vitro xenoestrogen screening model was established by measuring Vtg induction in cultured primary hepatocytes from crucian carp. Vtg production was detected by biotin-avidin sandwich ELISA method while Vtg and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA induction were measured by semi- quantitative PCR-primer dropping technique. Vtg and Vtg mRNA were dose-dependently induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.2-200 ng/mL) in hepatocytes of crucian carp. Co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with either 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD, 0.1-4 pg/mL) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5-1000 ng/mL) resulted in a reduction of Vtg production and an increment of CYP1A1 mRNA expression both in a dose dependent manner, indicating the anti-estro-genic effects of the compounds. However, at lower tested concentrations, TCDD (0.1, 0.2 pg/mL), B[a]P (5 ng/mL) seemed to have a potentiating effect on Vtg expression and secretion, although by their own these compounds had no observable estrogenic effect on Vtg induction. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulators, 1 nmol/L-1 μmol/L), and β-naphtho-flavone (β-NF, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducing compounds, 2.5-1000 ng/mL) also were employed to study the possible interactions in DES-induced Vtg expression. In co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with β-NF or tamoxifen, the decrease in Vtg production did parallel induction of CYP1A1 for β-NF, but tamoxifen inhibited Vtg induction did not parallel induced CYP1A1 expression in all test concentrations. On the contrary, it was found that in co-treatment of the TCDD-induced hepatocytes with DES, TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA production was inhibited by DES also. These results implicated a possible cross talk between estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways in the hepatocytes.

  5. [Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalikova, O V; Eliseĭkina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them.

  6. Freshness Variation of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) during Chilled Storage%鲫鱼在冷藏过程中的鲜度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖枫; 康怀彬; 辛利

    2007-01-01

    本实验利用感官评价、化学(TVBN值和pH值)和微生物(细菌总数)指标的分析,研究了鲫鱼在真空包装和非真空包装两种条件下贮藏于3±1℃时新鲜度的变化.实验结果表明贮藏在真空包装条件下能够延缓鲫鱼的腐败变质,贮藏过程中感官评分呈下降趋势,表明在两种贮藏条件下鲫鱼的新鲜度随时间延长而降低.贮藏过程中TVBN值都有升高,而非真空包装组样品中细菌生长的速度要高于真空包装组.%The quality changes of crucian carp stored in two different conditions: vacuum packing and non-vacuum packing,both at temperature of 3 ±1 ℃, were evaluated by sensory assessment, chemical(total volatile basic nitrogen and pH) and microbial (total viable counts) analysis. Storage in vacuum packing was more effective than non-vacuum packing, in delaying spoilage of the crucian carp. It was observed that the appearance score decreased with storage time, indicating the progressive loss of freshness in both vacuum packing and non-vacuum packing storage conditions. There was an increase in total viable counts over the period of storage. Bacteria grew more quickly in non-vacuum packing samples than in vacuum packing ones.

  7. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the early previtellogenic oocyte without zona radiata. In these oocytes, mercury accumulates into an ooplasmic region that seems to correspond to the Balbiani body (32-65 microm oocyte diameter), throughout the cytoplasm (84-116 microm oocyte diameter) and in the cortical cytoplasm (approximately 180 microm oocyte diameter). The second mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the late previtellogenic oocyte with cortical alveoli (229-330 microm oocyte diameter). Ultrastructural observations have shown grains of silver-enhanced mercury inside coated vesicles, the cortical lysosome-like bodies or multivesicular bodies and cortical alveoli. Immunohistochemistry reaction for caspase-3 was positive in nuclei of the early previtellogenic oocyte and Balbiani body.

  8. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  9. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-11-21

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure.

  10. THE INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEUS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ACETAMIPIRID INSECTICIDE ON THE GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS AFTER THE TIME TREATMENT OF 24 AND 72 HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajl Rizani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of environmental, pollution by mutagen substances are created micronucleus, which are genetically defects, which may cause mutation and cancerous diseases. Based in this fact, we have attempted to do a research, which will prove that genetically damages are as result of environment pollution. Our research is based in Micronucleus-test method, according to Schmid. This method is used to be observed micronucleus, as mentioned above are created as result of environment pollution in blood of living organism. As we expected, during the research with this method, we have faced in genetically damage as aftermath of our environment pollution for research. For the research we have decided fish (goldfish, whereas environment pollution is created referring to our needs about research. The result is astonishing. As higher is level of pollution the higher will be the number of micronucleus, more precisely number of genetically damages. We have used 50 fish for our research diffused in five aquariums, distinguished by dose and day of treatment with insecticide. As our environmental pollutant for research we used acetamipirid insecticide in goldfish. The research has resulted what has proved by Schmid with Micronucleus-Test method, which proved the presence of genetic damages harmonized with the amount of pollution. Our research opens the way for safe research in environment polluting to see real situation on the ground and the ability to make managerial policies to prevent pollution, moreover to prevent many diseases caused by such pollution.

  11. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  12. Comprobación in vivo de la capacidad antibacterial de Oedogonium capillare contra Vibrio fluvialis en pez Dorado Carassius auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana López Simeón; Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero

    2007-01-01

    El uso de antibióticos de forma indiscriminada para el control de infecciones de origen bacteriano en cultivos de organismos acuáticos, administrados de forma sistemática, ha provocado la presencia de plásmidos-R en cepas bacterianas de alto riesgo para la acuicultura, por lo que es importante estudiar nuevas alternativas naturales no solamente para prevenir las infecciones bacterianas, también para evitar el uso de antibióticos. El alga Oedogonium capillare presentó, en estudios previos in v...

  13. Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptable concentrations for growth of the fish. Growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian carp were closely related to water quality of their living environment. The RAS had improved the growth performance and quality of Allogynogenetic crucian carp.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-CYPERMETHRIN ON GLUTAMIC- PYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE (GPT) AND GLUTAMIC-OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE (GOT) ACTIVITIES FROM CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) SERUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are considered as possible sub-stitutesfor some organophosphate carbamates or organochlo-rine insecticides,and have been used extensivelyfor morethantwo decades[1].Pyrethroids are preferred over otherinsecticides because of their easy degradation into non-toxic or less toxic metabolites under natural conditions.Consequently,there has recently beena dramatic increaseinthe use of pyrethroid pesticides to control insect pests.However,synthetic pyrethroids were also reported to bemore toxi...

  15. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism.

  16. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  17. Olfactory signaling in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The detection of volatile chemical information in insects is performed by three types of olfactory receptors, odorant receptors (ORs), specific gustatory receptor (GR) proteins for carbon dioxide perception, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) which are related to ionotropic glutamate receptors. All receptors form heteromeric assemblies; an OR complex is composed of an odor-specific OrX protein and a coreceptor (Orco). ORs and GRs have a 7-transmembrane topology as for G protein-coupled receptors, but they are inversely inserted into the membrane. Ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors) and ORs operate as IRs activated by volatile chemical cues. ORs are evolutionarily young receptors, and they first appear in winged insects and seem to be evolved to allow an insect to follow sparse odor tracks during flight. In contrast to IRs, the ORs can be sensitized by repeated subthreshold odor stimulation. This process involves metabotropic signaling. Pheromone receptors are especially sensitive and require an accessory protein to detect the lipid-derived pheromone molecules. Signaling cascades involved in pheromone detection depend on intensity and duration of stimuli and underlie a circadian control. Taken together, detection and processing of volatile information in insects involve ionotropic as well as metabotropic mechanisms. Here, I review the cellular signaling events associated with detection of cognate ligands by the different types of odorant receptors.

  18. Which solvent for olfactory testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, C M; Goodenough, P C; Wolstenholme, C R; Murty, G E

    2004-12-01

    The physical properties of any carrier can deteriorate over time and thus alter the results in any olfactory test. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically potential solvents as a clean odourless carrier for olfactory testing. Sweet almond oil, pure coconut oil, pure peach kernel oil, dipropylene glycol, monopropylene glycol, mineral oil and silicone oil were studied. The experimentation was conducted in two parts. First, an olfactory device was used to conduct air through the solvents on a weekly basis using a cohort of six volunteers to assess the perceived odour of each solvent at weekly intervals. Secondly a cross-reference test was performed using small bottled solutions of phenylethyl-alcohol and 1-butanol in 10-fold dilutions to compare any perceived difference in concentrations over a period of 8 weeks. We concluded that mineral oil is the most suitable carrier for the purpose of olfactory testing, possessing many desirable characteristics of an olfactory solvent, and that silicone oil may provide a suitable alternative for odorants with which it is miscible.

  19. Olfactory dysfunction in Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C; Jinich, S

    1996-01-01

    Down's Syndrome subjects over 40 years old show neuropathology similar to that of Alzheimer's disease. The olfactory system is particularly vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease, both anatomically and functionally. Several measures of sensory and cognitive functioning were studied in the older Down's Syndrome patient, with the hypothesis of significant olfactory dysfunction. Participants were 23 Down's subjects, and 23 controls. The Dementia Rating Scale showed mean scores of 103 for Down's subjects and 141 for controls. Down's subjects showed significant deficits in odor detection threshold, odor identification, and odor recognition memory. Normal performance in a taste threshold task, similar to the olfactory threshold task in subject demands, suggested that the Down's syndrome subjects' poor performance was not due to task demands. Deficits in olfaction may provide a sensitive and early indicator of the deterioration and progression of the brain in older subjects with Down's Syndrome.

  20. Olfactory system oscillations across phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    Neural oscillations are ubiquitous in olfactory systems of mammals, insects and molluscs. Neurophysiological and computational investigations point to common mechanisms for gamma or odor associated oscillations across phyla (40-100Hz in mammals, 20-30Hz in insects, 0.5-1.5Hz in molluscs), engaging the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapse between excitatory principle neurons and inhibitory interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), antennal lobe (AL), or procerebrum (PrC). Recent studies suggest important mechanisms that may modulate gamma oscillations, including neuromodulators and centrifugal input to the OB and AL. Beta (20Hz) and theta (2-12Hz) oscillations coordinate activity within and across brain regions. Olfactory beta oscillations are associated with odor learning and depend on centrifugal OB input, while theta oscillations are strongly associated with respiration.

  1. Aging in the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Arie S; Rodriguez-Gil, Diego J; Imamura, Fumiaki; Greer, Charles A

    2014-02-01

    With advancing age, the ability of humans to detect and discriminate odors declines. In light of the rapid progress in analyzing molecular and structural correlates of developing and adult olfactory systems, the paucity of information available on the aged olfactory system is startling. A rich literature documents the decline of olfactory acuity in aged humans, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using animal models, preliminary work is beginning to uncover differences between young and aged rodents that may help address the deficits seen in humans, but many questions remain unanswered. Recent studies of odorant receptor (OR) expression, synaptic organization, adult neurogenesis, and the contribution of cortical representation during aging suggest possible underlying mechanisms and new research directions.

  2. Olfactory dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou YM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yong-ming Zou, Da Lu, Li-ping Liu, Hui-hong Zhang, Yu-ying Zhou Department of Neurology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a common neurodegenerative disorder with the earliest clinical symptom of olfactory dysfunction, which is a potential clinical marker for AD severity and progression. However, many questions remain unanswered. This article reviews relevant research on olfactory dysfunction in AD and evaluates the predictive value of olfactory dysfunction for the epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical features of AD, as well as for the conversion of cognitive impairment to AD. We summarize problems of existing studies and provide a useful reference for further studies in AD olfactory dysfunction and for clinical applications of olfactory testing. Keywords: olfactory dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, olfactory testing, progress

  3. An Olfactory Cinema: Smelling Perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While technological improvements from the era of silent movies to that of sound cinema have altered and continued to affect audience’s cinematic experiences, the question is not so much how technology has increased possibility of a sensory response to cinema, rather, it is one that exposes how such technological changes only underscore the participation of our senses and the body in one’s experience of watching film, highlighting the inherently sensorial nature of the cinematic experience. This paper aims to address the above question through an olfactory cinema, by close analysis of Perfume: The Story of a Murderer (2006 by Tom Tykwer. What is an olfactory cinema, and how can such an approach better our understanding of sensorial aspects found within a cinema that ostensibly favours audio-visual senses? What can we benefit from an olfactory cinema? Perhaps, it is through an olfactory cinema that one may begin to embrace the sensual quality of cinema that has been overshadowed by the naturalized ways of experiencing films solely with our eyes and ears, so much so that we desensitize ourselves to the role our senses play in cinematic experiences altogether

  4. Olfactory training in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Haehner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory function. It has been hypothesized that olfactory training should produce both an improved sensitivity towards the odors used in the training process and an overall increase of olfactory function. METHODS: We recruited 70 subjects with PD and olfactory loss into this single-center, prospective, controlled non-blinded study. Thirty-five patients were assigned to the olfactory training group and 35 subjects to the control group (no training. Olfactory training was performed over a period of 12 weeks while patients exposed themselves twice daily to four odors (phenyl ethyl alcohol: rose, eucalyptol: eucalyptus, citronellal: lemon, and eugenol: cloves. Olfactory testing was performed before and after training using the "Sniffin' Sticks" (thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol, tests for odor discrimination, and odor identification in addition to threshold tests for the odors used in the training process. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, trained PD patients experienced a significant increase in their olfactory function, which was observed for the Sniffin' Sticks test score and for thresholds for the odors used in the training process. Olfactory function was unchanged in PD patients who did not perform olfactory training. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that olfactory training may increase olfactory sensitivity in PD patients.

  5. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF receptor 1 antagonist, on fright reaction and endocrine stress response in crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, Stine; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind

    2008-01-01

    and stress reactions in non-mammalian vertebrates are largely unknown. Crucian carp displays the olfactory-mediated fright reaction, a stereotypic behavioral response to waterborne cues from damaged skin of conspecifics. This reaction shows several similarities to basic components of avoidance behavior......The corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors show striking homogeneity throughout the vertebrate subphylum. In mammals, the CRF1 receptor (CRFR1) plays an important role in mediating behavioral and endocrine responses to fear and stress. The specific roles of this receptor subtype in fear...... in mammals. In the present study, we applied the non-peptide CRFR1 antagonist, antalarmin, to crucian carp 1 h before exposure to conspecific skin extract. This treatment resulted in a suppression of the fright reaction. After skin extract exposure, antalarmin treatment also lead to lower plasma cortisol...

  6. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  7. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae; a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing, with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high. Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days. The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  8. The study of genetic diversity within Carassius genera, based on sequencing some mitochondrial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Liliana IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the genetic diversity within Carassius genera, studying individuals from isolated aquatic populations in Romania, by analysing the sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome b (Cyt b, mitochondrial control region (D-loop and cytochrome c oxidase I (COX I. The nucleotide sequence variation of the three genes were used to study the mtDNA divergence for Carassius genera individuals and to examine the phylogenetic relationships within analyzed populations.Based on the alignment of cytochrome b gene sequences from individuals belonging to Carassius genera from analyzed populations, 21 haplotypes have been identified: two of them were found in four of the six analyzed populations and one in two of studied populations. Regarding the D-loop sequences there were identified 20 haplotypes: four of them were found in two or more populations. Following COX I sequence alignment, from individuals of the Carassius genera, in the six populations were identified 22 haplotypes, but only one was found in four of the analyzed populations. Phylogeographic aspects of the D-loop showed that there are common haplotypes between Buzău (Buzău River, Buzău County, Romania, Sofroneşti (Sofroneşti Lake, Vaslui County, Romania Delta (Fortuna Lake, Danube Delta, Romania and Băile Felix (Bihor County, Romania populations, and for COX I between Buzău (Buzău River, Buzău County, Romania, Tăuteşti (Tăuteşti Lake, Iaşi County, Romania, Delta (Fortuna Lake, Danube Delta, Romania and Băile Felix (Bihor County, Romania populations. From the analysis of all sequences, it was found that the rate of occurrence of transitions is greater than the occurrence of transversions.

  9. Centrifugal innervation of the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Shinji; Yamamoto, Noboru

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been known for decades that the mammalian olfactory bulb receives a substantial number of centrifugal inputs from other regions of the brain, relatively few data have been available on the function of the centrifugal olfactory system. Knowing the role of the centrifugal projection and how it works is of critical importance to fully understanding olfaction. The centrifugal fibers can be classified into two groups, a group that release neuromodulators, such as noradrenaline, serotonin, or acetylcholine, and a group originating in the olfactory cortex. Accumulating evidence suggests that centrifugal neuromodulatory inputs are associated with acquisition of odor memory. Because the distribution of the terminals on these fibers is diffuse and widespread, the neuromodulatory inputs must affect diverse subsets of bulbar neurons at the same time. In contrast, knowledge of the role of centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortical areas is limited. Judging from recent morphological evidence, these fibers may modify the activity of neurons located in sparse and discrete loci in the olfactory bulb. Given the modular organization of the olfactory bulb, centrifugal fibers from the olfactory cortex may help coordinate the activities of restricted subsets of neurons belonging to distinct functional modules in an odor-specific manner. Because the olfactory cortex receives inputs from limbic and neocortical areas in addition to inputs from the bulb, the centrifugal inputs from the cortex can modulate odor processing in the bulb in response to non-olfactory as well as olfactory cues.

  10. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  11. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  12. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  13. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  14. Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.

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    Christophe Verbeurgt

    Full Text Available Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems, containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men. Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were

  15. Olfactory neuroblastoma: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    USLU, GONCA HANEDAN; CANYILMAZ, EMINE; ZENGIN, AHMET YASAR; MUNGAN, SEVDEGUL; YONEY, ADNAN; BAHADIR, OSMAN; GOCMEZ, HUSEYIN

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ON) is a rare type of malignant neoplasm originating from the olfactory neuroepithelial cells of the nasal cavity. ON is also known as esthesioneuroblastoma or neuroendocrine carcinoma. The malignancy accounts for <3% of tumors originating in the nasal cavity. Through the nasal cavity, ON may infiltrate the sinuses, the orbit and the cranium. The tumor is characterized by a pattern of slow growth and local recurrences. Treatment options are surgical excision or surgery combined with a radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy combination treatment. The present study reports the case of a 69-year-old patient with a mass in the nasal cavity who was treated by combined surgical excision and RT. The literature for ON and the treatment of the tumor are also discussed. PMID:26788185

  16. Study on the Ultrastructure of Sphereovirus and Cell Pathology in Hormonal Cell of Adenohypophysis of Carassius Auratus%金鱼(Carassius auratus)腺垂体激素细胞中的球形病毒及其细胞病理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明; 汝少国; 孙修勤; 邴欣; 范瑞青; 谢嘉琳

    2003-01-01

    利用电镜技术,在金鱼腺垂体促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞中发现了一种球形病毒及其发生基质.该病毒在细胞核中形成不规则形态的包涵体,病毒粒子直径为80~100 nm,呈中等电子密度,无囊膜.病毒侵染造成了促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞的核膜溶解,染色质变性解体,内质网膨胀以及线粒体内嵴与外膜的溶解.此外,病毒的增殖导致了腺垂体中大量促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞的凋亡.

  17. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

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    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  18. Roles of olfactory system dysfunction in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Slotnick, Burton M

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory system is involved in sensory functions, emotional regulation and memory formation. Olfactory bulbectomy in rat has been employed as an animal model of depression for antidepressant discovery studies for many years. Olfaction is impaired in animals suffering from chronic stress, and patients with clinical depression were reported to have decreased olfactory function. It is believed that the neurobiological bases of depression might include dysfunction in the olfactory system. Further, brain stimulation, including nasal based drug delivery could provide novel therapies for management of depression.

  19. Real-time PCR validation of visually identified snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P J; Wakefield, C B; Fairclough, D V; Jackson, G; Travers, M J; Snow, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a total of 212 eggs were visually identified as snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Real-time PCR confirmed visual identification in 69% of cases but corroboration varied widely among plankton samples. The use of molecular tools to support visual identification prior to adopting daily egg production stock assessment methods should be considered.

  20. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  1. Houseflies : Effects of age on olfactory responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelling, FJ; den Otter, CJ; Sommeijer, MJ; Francke, PJ

    1998-01-01

    The olfactory system of sexually immature 1-day-old flies is already functional. No clear differences exist between the responses of their olfactory cells and those of sexually mature flies to amylacetate, S-methylphenol, 2-pentanone and R(+)-limonene. However, the sensitivity to 1-octen-3-ol is low

  2. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  3. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  4. Detection of Olfactory Dysfunction Using Olfactory Event Related Potentials in Young Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Fabrizia; De Salvo, Simona; De Cola, Maria Cristina; Russo, Margherita; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia; Ciurleo, Rosella

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies reported olfactory dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The estimate of the incidence of olfactory deficits in multiple sclerosis is uncertain; this may arise from different testing methods that may be influenced by patients' response bias and clinical, demographic and cognitive features. Aims To evaluate objectively the olfactory function using Olfactory Event Related Potentials. Materials and Methods We tested the olfactory function of 30 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (mean age of 36.03±6.96 years) and of 30 age, sex and smoking–habit matched healthy controls by using olfactory potentials. A selective and controlled stimulation of the olfactory system to elicit the olfactory event related potentials was achieved by a computer-controlled olfactometer linked directly with electroencephalograph. Relationships between olfactory potential results and patients' clinical characteristics, such as gender, disability status score, disease-modifying therapy, and disease duration, were evaluated. Results Seven of 30 patients did not show olfactory event related potentials. Sixteen of remaining 23 patients had a mean value of amplitude significantly lower than control group (p<0.01). The presence/absence of olfactory event related potentials was associated with dichotomous expanded disability status scale (p = 0.0433), as well as inversely correlated with the disease duration (r = −0.3641, p = 0.0479). Conclusion Unbiased olfactory dysfunction of different severity found in multiple sclerosis patients suggests an organic impairment which could be related to neuroinflammatory and/or neurodegenerative processes of olfactory networks, supporting the recent findings on neurophysiopathology of disease. PMID:25047369

  5. Detection of olfactory dysfunction using olfactory event related potentials in young patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caminiti

    Full Text Available Several studies reported olfactory dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. The estimate of the incidence of olfactory deficits in multiple sclerosis is uncertain; this may arise from different testing methods that may be influenced by patients' response bias and clinical, demographic and cognitive features.To evaluate objectively the olfactory function using Olfactory Event Related Potentials.We tested the olfactory function of 30 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (mean age of 36.03±6.96 years and of 30 age, sex and smoking-habit matched healthy controls by using olfactory potentials. A selective and controlled stimulation of the olfactory system to elicit the olfactory event related potentials was achieved by a computer-controlled olfactometer linked directly with electroencephalograph. Relationships between olfactory potential results and patients' clinical characteristics, such as gender, disability status score, disease-modifying therapy, and disease duration, were evaluated.Seven of 30 patients did not show olfactory event related potentials. Sixteen of remaining 23 patients had a mean value of amplitude significantly lower than control group (p<0.01. The presence/absence of olfactory event related potentials was associated with dichotomous expanded disability status scale (p = 0.0433, as well as inversely correlated with the disease duration (r = -0.3641, p = 0.0479.Unbiased olfactory dysfunction of different severity found in multiple sclerosis patients suggests an organic impairment which could be related to neuroinflammatory and/or neurodegenerative processes of olfactory networks, supporting the recent findings on neurophysiopathology of disease.

  6. Preliminary Modeling and Simulation Study on Olfactory Cell Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    This paper introduced olfactory sensory neuron's whole-cell model with a concrete voltage-gated ionic channels and simulation. Though there are many models in olfactory sensory neuron and olfactory bulb, it remains uncertain how they express the logic of olfactory information processing. In this article, the olfactory neural network model is also introduced. This model specifies the connections among neural ensembles of the olfactory system. The simulation results of the neural network model are consistent with the observed olfactory biological characteristics such as 1/f-type power spectrum and oscillations.

  7. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

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    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  8. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  9. Imaging the olfactory tract (Cranial Nerve no.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, Thierry P. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Universite catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, 1200-Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Thierry.Duprez@uclouvain.be; Rombaux, Philippe [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Universite catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, 1200-Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Philippe.Rombaux@uclouvain.be

    2010-05-15

    This review paper browses pros and cons of the different radiological modalities for imaging the olfactory tract and highlights the potential benefits and limitation of more recent advances in MR and CT technology. A systematic pictorial overview of pathological conditions affecting olfactory sense is given. Techniques for collecting quantitative data on olfactory bulb volume and on olfactory sulcus depth are described. At last, insights into functional imaging of olfactory sense are shown.

  10. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

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    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  11. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

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    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  12. [Graphic method of recording olfactory disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariliak, R A; Kitsera, A E

    1976-01-01

    The authors present a method of recording results of threshold olfactometry for substances of different neuroreceptive response (olfactory, olfactive-trigeminal and olfactive-glossopharyngeal) in the form of olfactograms. The use of a unit for comparative evaluation of the olfactory function (deciodor) made it possible to get a unit horizontal zero line on the olfactogram. The authors demonstrate olfactograms of patients with various olfactory disorders. They consider that the method of graphic recording results of comparative threshold olfactometry is a valuable differential-diagnostic test.

  13. Linking nutrient inputs, phytoplankton composition, zooplankton dynamics and the recruitment of pink snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in a temperate bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kerry P.; Longmore, Andrew R.; Hamer, Paul A.; Lee, Randall; Swearer, Stephen E.; Jenkins, Gregory P.

    2016-12-01

    Survival of larval fish is often linked to production of preferred prey such as copepods, both inter- and intra-annually. In turn, copepod production depends not only the quantity of food, but also on the nutritional quality, edibility and/or toxicity of their micro-algal food. Hence, larval fish survival can become de-coupled from levels of nutrient input depending on the resulting composition of the plankton. Here we use a plankton dynamics model to study nutrient input, phytoplankton composition and copepod, Paracalanus, production in relation to interannual variation in recruitment of snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The model was able to simulate the ratio of diatoms to flagellates in the plume of the main river entering Port Phillip Bay. Interannual variability in the copepod, Paracalanus, abundance during the C. auratus spawning period over 5 years was accurately predicted. The seasonal peak in Paracalanus production depended on the timing and magnitude (match-mismatch) of nutrient inputs and how these were reflected in temporal change in the diatom:flagellate ratio. In turn, the model-predicted Paracalanus abundance was strongly related to inter-annaul variability in abundance of snapper, C. auratus, larvae over 7 years. Years of highest larval C. auratus abundance coincided with a matching of the spawning period with the peak in Paracalanus abundance. High freshwater flows and nutrient inputs led to an early seasonal dominance of diatoms, and consequently reduced abundances of copepods over the C. auratus spawning period with correspondingly low abundances of larvae. Conversely years of very low rainfall and nutrient input also led to low phytoplankton and copepod concentrations and larval C. auratus abundances. Highest abundances of larval C. auratus occurred in years of low to intermediate rainfall and nutrient inputs, particularly when pulses of nutrients occurred in the spring period, the latter supporting the match

  14. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alister U.; Sanchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Collado, Paloma; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odors and whether they can be investigated under anesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odor smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odor under anesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes) electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odor was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odor during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odor. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50%) of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odors prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odor many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odors as well as in evoked glutamate and GABA

  15. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  16. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems

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    Alino eMartinez-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical cortex. We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis, short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica and rats (Rattus norvegicus by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines. In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  17. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies' view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical "cortex." We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  18. Cladistic Analysis of Olfactory and Vomeronasal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system...

  19. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alino eMartinez-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system...

  20. Dimorphic olfactory lobes in the arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas; Reisenman, Carolina E

    2009-07-01

    Specialized olfactory lobe glomeruli relating to sexual or caste differences have been observed in at least five orders of insects, suggesting an early appearance of this trait in insect evolution. Dimorphism is not limited to nocturnal species, but occurs even in insects that are known to use vision for courtship. Other than a single description, there is no evidence for similar structures occurring in the Crustacea, suggesting that the evolution of dimorphic olfactory systems may typify terrestrial arthropods.

  1. Cladistic Analysis of Olfactory and Vomeronasal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2010-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical “cortex.” We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses. PMID:21290004

  2. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a Carassius female with 206 chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knytl, M; Kalous, L; Symonová, R; Rylková, K; Ráb, P

    2013-01-01

    A single female with 206 chromosomes and another 26 females with 156 chromosomes identified as Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, and 5 individuals with 100 chromosomes identified as crucian carp, C. carassius, were sampled during field survey in one locality in the upper Elbe River. To identify the origin of females with high chromosome numbers, comparative karyotype analysis, GISH, with whole C. carassius DNA as probe and phylogenetic positions of sampled individuals revealed by cytochrome b mitochondrial marker were performed. GISH showed consistently bright labeling of 50 chromosomal elements out of 206, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of C. carassius. The position of these females with high chromosome numbers in a reconstructed phylogenetic tree was within the clade of C. gibelio, documenting its affiliation to C. gibelio mitochondrial, i.e. maternal lineage. Our findings indicated that the mother of the female with high chromosome numbers was a gynogenetically reproducing 156-chromosome C. gibelio female and the father a bisexually reproducing C. carassius male. We, therefore, hypothesized that the C. gibelio × C. carassius allopolyploid female with 206 chromosomes arose by a mechanism of sperm genome addition to an unreduced egg of the mother.

  3. Olfactory marker protein expression is an indicator of olfactory receptor-associated events in non-olfactory tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor (OR-associated events are mediated by well-conserved components in the olfactory epithelium, including olfactory G-protein (Golf, adenylate cyclase III (ACIII, and olfactory marker protein (OMP. The expression of ORs has recently been observed in non-olfactory tissues where they are involved in monitoring extracellular chemical cues. The large number of OR genes and their sequence similarities illustrate the need to find an effective and simple way to detect non-olfactory OR-associated events. In addition, expression profiles and physiological functions of ORs in non-olfactory tissues are largely unknown. To overcome limitations associated with using OR as a target protein, this study used OMP with Golf and ACIII as targets to screen for potential OR-mediated sensing systems in non-olfactory tissues. Here, we show using western blotting, real-time PCR, and single as well as double immunoassays that ORs and OR-associated proteins are co-expressed in diverse tissues. The results of immunohistochemical analyses showed OMP (+ cells in mouse heart and in the following cells using the corresponding marker proteins c-kit, keratin 14, calcitonin, and GFAP in mouse tissues: interstitial cells of Cajal of the bladder, medullary thymic epithelial cells of the thymus, parafollicular cells of the thyroid, and Leydig cells of the testis. The expression of ORs in OMP (+ tissues was analyzed using a refined microarray analysis and validated with RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Three ORs (olfr544, olfr558, and olfr1386 were expressed in the OMP (+ cells of the bladder and thyroid as shown using a co-immunostaining method. Together, these results suggest that OMP is involved in the OR-mediated signal transduction cascade with olfactory canonical signaling components between the nervous and endocrine systems. The results further demonstrate that OMP immunohistochemical analysis is a useful tool for identifying expression of ORs, suggesting OMP

  4. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  5. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system.

  6. Olfactory processing and odor specificity: a meta-analysis of menstrual cycle variation in olfactory sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinec Nováková Lenka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-correlated variation in olfactory threshold, with women becoming more sensitive to odors mid-cycle, is somewhat supported by the literature but the evidence is not entirely consistent, with several studies finding no, or mixed, effects. It has been argued that cyclic shifts in olfactory threshold might be limited to odors relevant to the mating context.

  7. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  8. Functional olfactory sensory neurons housed in olfactory sensilla on the ovipositor of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Felix Klinner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory systems evolved to detect and identify volatile chemical cues, in many cases across great distances. However, the precision of copulatory and oviposition behaviors suggest that they may be guided by olfactory cues detected by sensory systems located on or near the ovipositor. Here we present evidence of a small number of functional olfactory sensilla on the ovipositor of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. Gene expression analysis of isolated ovipositor tissue indicated active transcription of gustatory and both classes of olfactory receptor genes. Expression of the olfactory co-receptor ORCo and the antennal ionotropic co-receptors IR8a and IR25a suggests that functional olfactory proteins may be present in the sensory structures located on the ovipositor. Scanning electron microscopy identified five to nine porous sensilla on each of the anal papillae of the ovipositor. Furthermore, HRP immunostaining indicated that these sensilla are innervated by the dendrite-like structures from multiple neurons. Finally, we functionally characterized neural responses in these sensilla using single sensillum recordings. Stimulation with a panel of 142 monomolecular odorants revealed that these sensilla indeed house functional olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. While it remains to be determined what role these chemosensory sensilla play in odor and gustatory guided behaviors, our data clearly demonstrate an olfactory function for neurons present in M. sexta ovipositor sensilla.

  9. Relation of the volume of the olfactory bulb to psychophysical measures of olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Patricia Portillo; Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate whether changes in olfactory bulb volume relate to changes in specific olfactory functions. We studied currently available peer-reviewed articles on the volume of the human olfactory bulb that also included a psychophysical measure of olfactory function. In the present review, we observed a very clear and consistent correlation between general olfactory function and olfactory bulb (OB) volume. We were not able to find a clear relationship between a specific smell component and OB volume, even when analyzing pathologic conditions separately. In some cases, changes were observed for different subtests, but these changes did not significantly correlate with OB volume or had only a borderline correlation. In other cases, we found contradictory data. Several factors may contribute to the difficulties in finding correlations with the different components of smell: (1) the OB volume may be influenced by information from olfactory receptor neurons (bottom-up effect), information from central nervous system (top-down effect) and by direct damage; (2) most pathologic conditions affect more than one area of the olfactory pathway; (3) small sample sizes of hyposmic subjects were used. We believe that it is necessary to do further studies with larger numbers of subjects to answer the currently investigated question.

  10. Microanatomy and surgical relevance of the olfactory cistern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Sen; Zheng, He-Ping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fa-Hui; Jing, Jun-Jie; Wang, Ru-Mi

    2008-01-01

    All surgical approaches to the anterior skull base involve the olfactory cistern and have the risk of damaging the olfactory nerve. The purpose of this study was to describe the microanatomical features of the olfactory cistern and discuss its surgical relevance. In this study, the olfactory cisterns of 15 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected using a surgical microscope. The results showed that the olfactory cistern was situated in the superficial part of the olfactory sulcus, which separated the gyrus retus from the orbital gyrus. In coronal section, the cistern was triangular in shape; its anterior part enveloped the olfactory bulbs and was high and broad; its posterior part was medial-superior to internal carotid artery and was also much broader. There were one or several openings in the inferior wall of the posterior part in 53.4% of the cisterns. The olfactory cistern communicated with the surrounding subarachnoind cisterns through these openings. The middle part of the olfactory cistern gradually narrowed down posteriorly. Most cisterns were spacious with a few fibrous trabeculas and bands between the olfactory nerves and cistern walls. However 23% of the cisterns were narrow with the cistern walls tightly encasing the olfactory nerve. There were two or three of arterial loops in each olfactory sulcus, from which long, fine olfactory arteries originated. The olfactory arteries coursed along the olfactory nerve and gave off many terminal branches to provide the main blood supply to the olfactory nerve in most cisterns, but the blood supply was in segmental style in a few cisterns. Moreover, the veins of the cistern appeared to be more segmental than the olfactory arteries in most cisterns. These results suggested that most olfactory cisterns are spacious with relatively independent blood supply, and it is reasonable to separate the olfactory tract with its independent blood supply from the frontal lobe by 1-2 cm in the subfrontal approach, the

  11. Histopathology and pathophysiology ofCarassius auratusgibelio infected byMyxobolus pharynae%异育银鲫咽碘泡虫病组织病理与病理生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振伟; 陆宏达; 操艮萍; 刘俊杰; 毛毛

    2016-01-01

    咽碘泡虫(Myxobolus pharynae)病是近几年发生在江苏省盐城地区的大丰、射阳和滨海以及周边地区,引起养殖异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)大批死亡的一种黏孢子虫病,咽碘泡虫只特异地寄生在异育银鲫的咽部组织内,为了阐明该病对鱼体的损伤作用,我们对不同患病时期的异育银鲫的组织病理和疾病中期的病理生理进行研究。组织病理结果表明:疾病初期病鱼咽部略有轻度充血,咽碘泡虫以营养体阶段寄生在咽部黏膜下层的组织中,并开始形成由成纤维细胞包裹的小孢囊,其他组织器官无病理损伤现象;疾病中期由于小孢囊数量增加和囊内营养体分裂增殖并逐步发育为成熟孢子后体积增大,构成的大孢囊使咽部显著膨大,包裹小孢囊的结缔组织囊壁充血,逐步萎缩而变薄,成纤维细胞核固缩坏死,咽部黏膜层中的上皮细胞淡染、核固缩坏死,味蕾失去应有的结构,鳃组织细胞在鳃小片间严重增生,肾部分区域出现细胞坏死,肾小球肿胀,肾小管上皮细胞出现滴状玻璃样变性,肝、脾、肠和前肾无病理变化现象;疾病后期小孢囊囊壁、黏膜下层和黏膜层组织细胞进一步坏死崩解,出现孔洞,成熟孢子、坏死组织和血液一并流出孔洞,病鱼肠腔中有许多来自坏死的咽部组织细胞和成熟孢子,其他组织器官病理变化与疾病中期相似。疾病中期病鱼的病理生理分析结果表明:病鱼红细胞数量和大小、血红蛋白浓度、血栓细胞数量、血清总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、血糖、谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶和碱性磷酸酶都分别极显著低于健康鱼(P0.05)。由于咽碘泡虫的寄生部位鱼咽部严重膨大堵塞口咽腔并引发鳃组织增生、肾的损伤和贫血等变化,进一步发展为咽部组织坏死破裂出现孔洞流血,导致病鱼无法摄食

  12. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  13. Perceptual and neural olfactory similarity in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerrieri

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether or not neural activity patterns recorded in the olfactory centres of the brain correspond to olfactory perceptual measures remains unanswered. To address this question, we studied olfaction in honeybees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We conditioned bees to odours and tested generalisation responses to different odours. Sixteen odours were used, which varied both in their functional group (primary and secondary alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and in their carbon-chain length (from six to nine carbons. The results obtained by presentation of a total of 16 x 16 odour pairs show that (i all odorants presented could be learned, although acquisition was lower for short-chain ketones; (ii generalisation varied depending both on the functional group and the carbon-chain length of odours trained; higher generalisation was found between long-chain than between short-chain molecules and between groups such as primary and secondary alcohols; (iii for some odour pairs, cross-generalisation between odorants was asymmetric; (iv a putative olfactory space could be defined for the honeybee with functional group and carbon-chain length as inner dimensions; (v perceptual distances in such a space correlate well with physiological distances determined from optophysiological recordings of antennal lobe activity. We conclude that functional group and carbon-chain length are inner dimensions of the honeybee olfactory space and that neural activity in the antennal lobe reflects the perceptual quality of odours.

  14. Perceptual and Neural Olfactory Similarity in Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether or not neural activity patterns recorded in the olfactory centres of the brain correspond to olfactory perceptual measures remains unanswered. To address this question, we studied olfaction in honeybees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. We conditioned bees to odours and tested generalisation responses to different odours. Sixteen odours were used, which varied both in their functional group (primary and secondary alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and in their carbon-chain length (from six to nine carbons.The results obtained by presentation of a total of 16 x 16 odour pairs show that (i all odorants presented could be learned, although acquisition was lower for short-chain ketones; (ii generalisation varied depending both on the functional group and the carbon-chain length of odours trained; higher generalisation was found between long-chain than between short-chain molecules and between groups such as primary and secondary alcohols; (iii for some odour pairs, cross-generalisation between odorants was asymmetric; (iv a putative olfactory space could be defined for the honeybee with functional group and carbon-chain length as inner dimensions; (v perceptual distances in such a space correlate well with physiological distances determined from optophysiological recordings of antennal lobe activity. We conclude that functional group and carbon-chain length are inner dimensions of the honeybee olfactory space and that neural activity in the antennal lobe reflects the perceptual quality of odours.

  15. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  16. Forty years of olfactory navigation in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna

    2013-06-15

    Forty years ago, Papi and colleagues discovered that anosmic pigeons cannot find their way home when released at unfamiliar locations. They explained this phenomenon by developing the olfactory navigation hypothesis: pigeons at the home loft learn the odours carried by the winds in association with wind direction; once at the release site, they determine the direction of displacement on the basis of the odours perceived locally and orient homeward. In addition to the old classical experiments, new GPS tracking data and observations on the activation of the olfactory system in displaced pigeons have provided further evidence for the specific role of olfactory cues in pigeon navigation. Although it is not known which odours the birds might rely on for navigation, it has been shown that volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere are distributed as fairly stable gradients to allow environmental odour-based navigation. The investigation of the potential role of olfactory cues for navigation in wild birds is still at an early stage; however, the evidence collected so far suggests that olfactory navigation might be a widespread mechanism in avian species.

  17. Nonneoplastic changes in the olfactory epithelium--experimental studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the olfactory mucosa has increased in recent years, since it has been shown to possess a considerable amount of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity and a wide variety of chemicals have been identified as olfactory toxins. Many chemicals induce lesions of a general nature in the olfactory mucosa, i.e., inflammation, degeneration, regeneration, and proliferation, whereas others cause more specific effects. Changes in the olfactory mucosa with reference to chemicals tha...

  18. Olfactory region schwannoma: Excision with preservation of olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory region schwannomas are rare, but when they occur, they commonly arise from the meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve and may present without involvement of the olfaction. A 24 year old lady presented with hemifacial paraesthesias. Radiology revealed a large olfactory region enhancing lesion. She was operated through a transbasal with olfactory preserving approach. This manuscript highlights the importance of olfactory preservation in such lesions.

  19. Changes in the neural representation of odorants after olfactory deprivation in the adult mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D; Pottackal, Joseph; Turkel, Daniel J; McGann, John P

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory sensory deprivation during development has been shown to induce significant alterations in the neurophysiology of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), the primary sensory inputs to the brain's olfactory bulb. Deprivation has also been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the adult olfactory system, but the physiological consequences of these changes are poorly understood. Here we used in vivo synaptopHluorin (spH) imaging to visualize odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release from ORNs in adult transgenic mice that underwent 4 weeks of unilateral olfactory deprivation. Deprivation reduced odorant-evoked spH signals compared with sham-occluded mice. Unexpectedly, this reduction was equivalent between ORNs on the open and plugged sides. Changes in odorant selectivity of glomerular subpopulations of ORNs were also observed, but only in ORNs on the open side of deprived mice. These results suggest that naris occlusion in adult mice produces substantial changes in primary olfactory processing which may reflect not only the decrease in olfactory stimulation on the occluded side but also the alteration of response properties on the intact side. We also observed a modest effect of true sham occlusions that included noseplug insertion and removal, suggesting that conventional noseplug techniques may have physiological effects independent of deprivation per se and thus require more careful controls than has been previously appreciated.

  20. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  1. Olfactory comfort awareness (OCA). A new unit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally known that the perceived air quality has a great impact on the well-being of room occupants. Engineers tend to rely completely on measuring the absence of pollutants aiming for objectively clean air, but neglect the subjective awareness of room occupants or how they perceive indoor air quality. Neurophysiological and psychological research has shown that the hedonic value often plays the key role in determining that perception. It has to be understood that not only thermal conditions but also the sense of olfaction play major roles. This lack of awareness of the interactions between thermal and olfactory conditions frequently accounts for the dissatisfaction rate. This paper will concentrate on demonstrating the influence of the hedonic value on room occupants and on how to achieve air that from an olfactory perspective is perceived to be natural. This is different from the commonly known, perceived ''artificial'' air. Furthermore, it will show how important it is to evaluate healthy buildings not only for the absence of negative odors as expressed by the olf and decipol units. Olfactory comfort goes far beyond this scale and, therefore, it is necessary to introduce a new unit called olfactory comfort awareness OCA. OCA is a score between -10 and 10 that expresses the grade of olfactory comfort the room occupants perceive. This measure does not replace the well-accepted decipol unit but complements it, emphasising the importance not only of the absence of negative influencing odorants, but also the importance of olfactory comfort as measurement by the new unit. (Orig.)

  2. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  3. Interneurons in the human olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2016-02-01

    The principal olfactory structures display Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology at early stages of the disease. Consequently, olfactory deficits are among the earliest symptoms. Reliable olfactory tests for accurate clinical diagnosis are rarely made. In addition, neuropathological analysis postmortem of olfactory structures is often not made. Therefore, the relationship between the clinical features and the underlying pathology is poorly defined. Traditionally, research into Alzheimer's disease has focused on the degeneration of cortical temporal projection neurons and cholinergic neurons. Recent evidence has demonstrated the neurodegeneration of interneuron populations in AD. This review provides an updated overview of the pathological involvement of interneuron populations in the human olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Shh-proteoglycan interactions regulate maturation of olfactory glomerular circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Laura; Witt, Rochelle M; Galligan, Meghan; Greer, Paul L; Eisner, Adriana; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Datta, Sandeep R; Segal, Rosalind A

    2014-12-01

    The olfactory system relies on precise circuitry connecting olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and appropriate relay and processing neurons of the olfactory bulb (OB). In mammals, the exact correspondence between specific olfactory receptor types and individual glomeruli enables a spatially precise map of glomerular activation that corresponds to distinct odors. However, the mechanisms that govern the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular circuitry are largely unknown. Here we show that high levels of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling at multiple sites enable refinement and maintenance of olfactory glomerular circuitry. Mice expressing a mutant version of Shh (Shh(Ala/Ala)), with impaired binding to proteoglycan co-receptors, exhibit disproportionately small olfactory bulbs containing fewer glomeruli. Notably, in mutant animals the correspondence between individual glomeruli and specific olfactory receptors is lost, as olfactory sensory neurons expressing different olfactory receptors converge on the same glomeruli. These deficits arise at late stages in post-natal development and continue into adulthood, indicating impaired pruning of erroneous connections within the olfactory bulb. In addition, mature Shh(Ala/Ala) mice exhibit decreased proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), with particular reduction in neurogenesis of calbindin-expressing periglomerular cells. Thus, Shh interactions with proteoglycan co-receptors function at multiple locations to regulate neurogenesis and precise olfactory connectivity, thereby promoting functional neuronal circuitry.

  5. Subjective and objective olfactory abnormalities in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marie; Zopf, Yurdagül; Elm, Cornelia; Pechmann, Georg; Hahn, Eckhart G; Schwab, Dieter; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thuerauf, Norbert Joachim

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is still unknown, but the involvement of the olfactory system in CD appears possible. No study to date has systematically assessed the olfactory function in CD patients. We investigated the olfactory function in CD patients in active (n = 31) and inactive disease (n = 27) and in a control group of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (n = 35). Subjective olfactory testing was applied using the Sniffin' Sticks test. For olfactory testing, olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) were obtained with a 4-channel olfactometer using phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) was employed as control stimulus, and chemosomatosensory event-related potentials (CSSERPs) were registered. Results of the Sniffin' Sticks test revealed significantly different olfactory hedonic judgment with increased olfactory hedonic estimates for pleasant odorants in CD patients in active disease compared with healthy subjects. A statistical trend was found toward lower olfactory thresholds in CD patients. In objective olfactory testing, CD patients showed lower amplitudes of OERPs and CSSERPs. Additionally, OERPs showed significantly shorter N1- and P2 latencies following stimulation of the right nostril with H(2)S in CD patients in inactive disease compared with controls. Our study demonstrates specific abnormalities of olfactory perception in CD patients.

  6. Sphenoid esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the hindmost olfactory filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Mami; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2015-04-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Typically, ENBs are found in the olfactory cleft with extension to the ethmoid sinuses or anterior skull base. Here we report a case of ENB located in the sphenoid sinus, which had been considered as an ectopic ENB. However, endoscopic resection revealed the continuity of the tumor with the hindmost olfactory filament. The present case suggests that an ENB in the sphenoid sinus was not ectopic, but arose from the normal olfactory neuroepithelium. This continuity of the ENB with this filament indicated that the tumor was not ectopic, and that there was possible tumor invasion into the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche. Therefore, pathological examination of the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche may be necessary in case of sphenoid ENBs.

  7. Olfactory perception, communication, and the nose-to-brain pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2004-10-30

    The present paper's aim is of to give an overview about the basic knowledge as well as actual topics of olfaction--with a special regard on behavior. We summarize different functions of the nose and the olfactory system in human physiology and psychology. We will first describe the functional anatomy of the olfactory system in man. Afterwards, the function of the olfactory system will be viewed from an evolutionary and phylogenetic perspective. We will further outline the main features of olfactory perception, and will show how olfactory perception is influenced by learning. Olfactory signals are relevant stimuli that affect communication. Consequently, the role of the olfactory system in social interaction and mood will be described and gender differences will be addressed. Finally, the function of the nose as an interface to the brain, including implications for pharmacology, will be discussed.

  8. Encoding olfactory signals via multiple chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minghong

    2007-01-01

    Most animals have evolved multiple olfactory systems to detect general odors as well as social cues. The sophistication and interaction of these systems permit precise detection of food, danger, and mates, all crucial elements for survival. In most mammals, the nose contains two well described chemosensory apparatuses (the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ), each of which comprises several subtypes of sensory neurons expressing distinct receptors and signal transduction machineries. In many species (e.g., rodents), the nasal cavity also includes two spatially segregated clusters of neurons forming the septal organ of Masera and the Grueneberg ganglion. Results of recent studies suggest that these chemosensory systems perceive diverse but overlapping olfactory cues and that some neurons may even detect the pressure changes carried by the airflow. This review provides an update on how chemosensory neurons transduce chemical (and possibly mechanical) stimuli into electrical signals, and what information each system brings into the brain. Future investigation will focus on the specific ligands that each system detects with a behavioral context and the processing networks that each system involves in the brain. Such studies will lead to a better understanding of how the multiple olfactory systems, acting in concert, offer a complete representation of the chemical world.

  9. Nanobiosensors based on individual olfactory receptors

    CERN Document Server

    Pajot-Augy, E

    2008-01-01

    In the SPOT-NOSED European project, nanoscale sensing elements bearing olfactory receptors and grafted onto functionalized gold substrates are used as odorant detectors to develop a new concept of nanobioelectronic nose, through sensitive impedancemetric measurement of single receptor conformational change upon ligand binding, with a better specificity and lower detection threshold than traditional physical sensors.

  10. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  11. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Olfactory functions are not systematically evaluated following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed at comparing two smell tests that are used in a clinical setting. RESEARCH DESIGN: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Alberta Smell...

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  13. Harmful effects of cadmium on olfactory system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondier, Jean-Robert; Michel, Germaine; Propper, Alain; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-10-01

    The inhalation of certain metals can result in olfactory epithelial injury, an altered sense of smell, and direct delivery of the metal from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and other parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to examine whether mice given an intranasal instillation of cadmium would develop altered olfactory function and to assess whether cadmium may be transported directly from the olfactory epithelium to the central nervous system. To evaluate cadmium's ability to induce anosmia and on the basis of olfactory epithelium sensitivity to metals, the aim of this study was first to study cadmium effects on the olfactory function and secondly to check whether cadmium may be transported from the nasal area to the central nervous system. After an intranasal instillation of a solution containing CdCl2 at 136 mM, we observed in treated mice: (1) a partial destruction of the olfactory epithelium, which is reduced to three or four basal cell layers followed by a progressive regeneration; (2) a loss of odor discrimination with a subsequent recovery; and (3) a cadmium uptake by olfactory bulbs demonstrated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but not by other parts of the central nervous system. Cadmium was delivered to the olfactory bulbs, most likely along the olfactory nerve, thereby bypassing the intact blood-brain barrier. We consider that cadmium can penetrate olfactory epithelium and hence be transported to olfactory bulbs. The olfactory route could therefore be a likely way to reach the brain and should be taken into account for occupational risk assessments for this metal.

  14. Anatomical specializations for enhanced olfactory sensitivity in kiwi, Apteryx mantelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Eisthen, Heather L; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Parsons, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The ability to function in a nocturnal and ground-dwelling niche requires a unique set of sensory specializations. The New Zealand kiwi has shifted away from vision, instead relying on auditory and tactile stimuli to function in its environment and locate prey. Behavioral evidence suggests that kiwi also rely on their sense of smell, using olfactory cues in foraging and possibly also in communication and social interactions. Anatomical studies appear to support these observations: the olfactory bulbs and tubercles have been suggested to be large in the kiwi relative to other birds, although the extent of this enlargement is poorly understood. In this study, we examine the size of the olfactory bulbs in kiwi and compare them with 55 other bird species, including emus, ostriches, rheas, tinamous, and 2 extinct species of moa (Dinornithiformes). We also examine the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium to determine if any neural specializations beyond size are present that would increase olfactory acuity. Kiwi were a clear outlier in our analysis, with olfactory bulbs that are proportionately larger than those of any other bird in this study. Emus, close relatives of the kiwi, also had a relative enlargement of the olfactory bulbs, possibly supporting a phylogenetic link to well-developed olfaction. The olfactory bulbs in kiwi are almost in direct contact with the olfactory epithelium, which is indeed well developed and complex, with olfactory receptor cells occupying a large percentage of the epithelium. The anatomy of the kiwi olfactory system supports an enhancement for olfactory sensitivities, which is undoubtedly associated with their unique nocturnal niche.

  15. Local neurons play key roles in the mammalian olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Carleton, Alan; Lagier, Samuel; de Chevigny, Antoine; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few decades, research exploring how the brain perceives, discriminates, and recognizes odorant molecules has received a growing interest. Today, olfaction is no longer considered a matter of poetry. Chemical senses entered the biological era when an increasing number of scientists started to elucidate the early stages of the olfactory pathway. A combination of genetic, biochemical, cellular, electrophysiological and behavioral methods has provided a picture of how odor information is processed in the olfactory system as it moves from the periphery to higher areas of the brain. Our group is exploring the physiology of the main olfactory bulb, the first processing relay in the mammalian brain. From different electrophysiological approaches, we are attempting to understand the cellular rules that contribute to the synaptic transmission and plasticity at this central relay. How olfactory sensory inputs, originating from the olfactory epithelium located in the nasal cavity, are encoded in the main olfactory bulb remains a crucial question for understanding odor processing. More importantly, the persistence of a high level of neurogenesis continuously supplying the adult olfactory bulb with newborn local neurons provides an attractive model to investigate how basic olfactory functions are maintained when a large proportion of local neurons are continuously renewed. For this purpose, we summarize the current ideas concerning the molecular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to encode and process information in the main olfactory bulb. We discuss the degree of sensitivity of the bulbar neuronal network activity to the persistence of this high level of neurogenesis that is modulated by sensory experience. Finally, it is worth mentioning that analyzing the molecular mechanisms and organizational strategies used by the olfactory system to transduce, encode, and process odorant information in the olfactory bulb should aid in

  16. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  17. Sensory acceptability and fatty acid profile of fish crackers made from Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, our aim was to consider the production of fish crackers using Carassius gibelio and to investigate the fatty acid profile and sensory quality of the fish crackers. Fish cracker mixture with a ratio 3.5:1.5 (minced fish/wheat starch was obtained. Based on the total minced fish and starch level, 1.75% salt, 0.25% black pepper, 2% sunflower oil, 1% baking powder and 10% cold water (4 °C were added and stirred until a homogenous mixture was obtained. The mixture was compressed in an extractor and baked. The moisture content of minced fish (CMF, cracker dough (CD and crackers (CCr was 77.73 ± 0.14%, 63.10 ± 2.18% and 7.95 ± 0.67% respectively. The n6/n3 ratio of crackers was 2.61 ± 0.20, PUFA/SFA ratio 2.28 ± 0.06 and DHA/EPA ratio 1.81 ± 0.01. The overall acceptability score obtained by the sensory evaluation of panelists was very high (8.09 ± 0.25.

  18. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  19. Utilization and Quality of Fish Fingers from Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish fingers were produced from Carassius gibelio and evaluated through nutritional parameters. The fish finger nutritional composition changed with pre-frying process. The moisture, crude fat, crude protein and crude ash contents of fish fingers were determined as 56.543 ± 0.113, 10.507 ± 0.116, 15.577 ± 0.382 and 2.027 ± 0.133, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially C 18:1 ω-9 and C18: 2 ω-6 increased with pre-frying process. The values of pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N changed significantly (P<0.05 between fresh fish meat and pre-frying fingers. Scores for flavor, texture, color, odour and general acceptability of frying fish fingers were determined as 8.235 ± 0.207, 8.412 ± 0.193, 8.294 ± 0.206, 8.353 ± 0.170 and 8.471 ± 0.151, respectively.

  20. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer; Karstensen, Helena G; Siebner, Hartwig; Tommerup, Niels; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin' Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals.

  1. Neural sensitivity to odorants in deprived and normal olfactory bulbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco B Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Early olfactory deprivation in rodents is accompanied by an homeostatic regulation of the synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb (OB. However, its consequences in the neural sensitivity and discrimination have not been elucidated. We compared the odorant sensitivity and discrimination in early sensory deprived and normal OBs in anesthetized rats. We show that the deprived OB exhibits an increased sensitivity to different odorants when compared to the normal OB. Our results indicate that early olfactory stimulation enhances discriminability of the olfactory stimuli. We found that deprived olfactory bulbs adjusts the overall excitatory and inhibitory mitral cells (MCs responses to odorants but the receptive fields become wider than in the normal olfactory bulbs. Taken together, these results suggest that an early natural sensory stimulation sharpens the receptor fields resulting in a larger discrimination capability. These results are consistent with previous evidence that a varied experience with odorants modulates the OB's synaptic connections and increases MCs selectivity.

  2. Study on the quality changes of Carassius Auratus during storage between refrigeration and partial freezing%鲫鱼在冷藏和微冻贮藏下品质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越华; 俞所银; 任青; 包建强

    2013-01-01

    Sensory assessment,pH,2-th iobarbituric acid value (TBA),volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N),K value and aerobic plate count were used as the assessment standards for the sake of studying the quality change of Crucian which were stored by the way of refrigeration (4℃) and partial freezing (-3℃).Results showed that the sensory assessment had reached the upper limit after 8d and 24d stored at 4℃ and-3℃ respectively.The TBA value stored at 4℃ on the 14th day was 1.29mg/100g,however it was 1.58mg/100g at-3℃ on the 30th day.The TVB-N value stored for 8days at 4℃ was 18.76mg/100g,meanwhile,it reached 18.52mg/100g when stored at-3℃ at 24th day.At 4℃ stored for 8d and-3℃ stored for 24d,the K value were 56.7% and 53.2% separately.The aerobic plate count of Crucian stored for 12d at 4℃ was 7.02lg cfu/g,at-3℃ on the 30th day it reached 5.78lg cfu/g.Talking all indicators of changes,the shelf life were 8d and 24d respectively at 4℃ and-3℃ condition.Compared with refrigeration,the partial freezing conditions would increase the shelf life obviously.%以感官品质、pH、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)、总挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)和鲜度指标K值、细菌总数为指标,研究鲫鱼在冷藏(4℃)和微冻(-3℃)贮藏中品质的变化规律.结果表明,鲫鱼在4℃和-3℃贮藏条件下,分别在第8d和第24d达到感官品质接受上限.4℃条件下第14d TBA值为1.29mg/100g,-3℃贮藏条件下第30d TBA值为1.58mg/100g.4℃条件下贮藏8d TVB-N值为18.76mg/100g,-3℃贮藏24d TVB-N值为18.52mg/100g.4℃贮藏8d和-3℃贮藏24d的鲫鱼K值分别为56.7%和53.2%.4℃贮藏12d细菌总数为7.02lg cfu/g,3℃贮藏30d为5.78lg cfu/g.综合各指标变化,4℃和-3℃条件下鲫鱼的货架期分别为8d和24d,与冷藏相比,微冻能明显的延长鲫鱼的货架期.

  3. Transparent crucian carp Carassius auratus, a fish model suitable for study in vivo%透明鲫——一个适合活体研究的鱼类模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯彬; 汪学杰; 常藕琴; 刘春; 王芳; 马必勇; 梁慧丽; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解鲫成体透明的原因,探讨该性状的应用特性,为透明鲫作为水生实验动物材料系统开发提供基础.方法 对透明鲫进行繁殖,并观察其后代性状,了解透明性状的遗传规律;体视镜观察透明鲫色素细胞的种类与分布,并与鲫比较;组织切片和压片确认微孢子虫对透明鲫的感染,并观察感染症状的变化.结果 鲫的透明性状可以遗传,大部分后代表现为通体透明,心、肝、肾、肠、鳔、鳃、脊椎等组织器官肉眼清晰可见.与正常鲫比较,透明鲫的主要色素细胞为黄色素细胞,并未发现虹彩色素细胞,黑色素细胞的数量也大为减少.微孢子虫对鱼体的感染过程可直观观察,病原的扩散和空间分布能实时获得,具普通鱼类无法比拟的应用优势.结论 虹彩色素细胞的缺失是鲫透明突变的结构基础.由于透明鲫内部器官可直接观测,无需依靠解剖或复杂仪器系统,在同一动物身上可能获得一系列的动态试验数据,或可作为模型材料广泛应用于生命科学不同领域.%Objective To better understand the mechanism of transparency in adult crucian carp, explore its application and provide more evidence to support it as a novel aquatic animal model. Methods The transparent crucian carp was bred,and the phenotype of offsprings was examined to learn the inheritance of the transparent character. A stereo-microscope was used to examine the types and patterns of chromatophores in transparent and common crucian carps. The fish infected with microsporidia were closely monitored. Tissue sections and wet-mounted squashes were prepared to observe the parasites in muscle tissues, and tissue sections were used to characterize the pathological changes under the light microscope. Results The transparent fish were healthy and fertile, showing a inherent character. The mutants manifested as entire transparent body. The main internal organs, such as heart, liver, gut, kidney, swim bladder, gills, and spinal cord, in living fish were visible by naked eye. Compared with common crucian carp, the main chromatophores in the transparent fish was xanthophore, loss of iridophore, and the number of melanophore was reduced. The process of microsporidia infection in transparent mutants can be directly visualized in vivo, and the dynamic, spatial pattern of pathogen invasion could be acquired in a real-time manner, superior to other conventional fish models. Conclusions The absence of iri-dophores underlies the transparent mutant of crucian carp histologically. The changes of internal organs in transparent fish can be observed directly, do not require anatomical or other delicate instruments. A series of dynamic data are likely to be observed from a single transparent fish, therefore, it is expected to be widely used in life science studies.

  4. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  5. 转青鱼生长激素基因异源四倍体鲫鲤%Black Carp GH Gene Transgenic Allotetraploid Hybrids of Carassius auratus red var.(♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯浩; 傅永明; 骆剑; 吴慧; 刘筠; 刘少军

    2011-01-01

    The ecological risk is the “bottleneck” for commercialization of transgenic fish. The sterile transgenic triploid fish derived from hydrating the transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is one of the keys to solve this problem.The “all fish” gene construct (pbcAbcGHc) containing Black Carp B-actin gene promoter and cDNA of growth hormone (GH) gene from the same species was introduced into the fertilized eggs of the allotetroploid fish through microinjection. The contrast cultivation results show that the weight and body length of PO of the transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days were much larger than those of the controls. PCR assay was applied among 60 transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days and the integration ratio of the exogenous transplant gene in the genome of the caudal fin is 90%. The transplant gene could be detected in 13 of 20 samples from the sperm of the male transgenic tetraploid fish.The RT-PCR result demonstrates that the transcription of exogenous GH gene could be found in the muscle, liver,kidney and oval of the biggest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed PO of the Black Carp GH gene transgenic tetraploid fish with outstanding growth rate, which made the solid foundation for the pure line establishment of the transgenic tetraploid fish and for developing the sterile transgenic triploid fish.%生态安全性是转基因鱼走向市场的瓶颈,通过转基因四倍体鱼同转基因二倍体鱼杂交获得不育的转基因三倍体鱼是解决该问题的有效途径之一.本研究构建了青鱼β-actin基因启动子和青鱼生长激素(GH)基因精确连接的"金鱼"基因pbcAbcGHc;并采用显微注射法将pbcAbcGHc 导入异源四倍体鲫鲤受精卵.对照养殖结果表明,150日龄的转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤原代(P0)的体重及体长明显大于对照组.选择60尾P0代转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,采用PCR方法检测出外源青鱼GH基因在P0代转基因四倍体尾鳍基因组DNA中的整合率为90%;对20尾雄性P0代转基因四倍体精液样本的PCR检测发现,13个样本具有外源青鱼GH基因的整合.在一尾生长速度显著的P0代转基因四倍体鲫鲤的肌肉、肝脏、肾脏和卵巢组织中可检测到外源青鱼GH基因的转录.本研究成功获得了具有明显生长优势的P0代转青鱼GH基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,为建立转青鱼GH基因异源四倍体鲫鲤纯系和研制不育的转基因三倍体鱼奠定了基础.

  6. Effects of Roxarsone on Na+-K+-ATPase Activity and DNA Damage in Carassius auratus%洛克沙胂对鲫鱼两种生态毒理学指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 李浩; 张斌

    2009-01-01

    采用静态试验法,将鲫鱼暴露于4、16、64 mg·L-1洛克沙胂中48、96、144 h后,检测了鱼鳃、.肾脏和肝的Na+-K+-ATP酶活性.结果表明,在同一组织中,随着处理浓度的提高.洛克沙胂对鲫鱼各组织Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制作用增强.对于不同组织.同一处理浓度的洛克沙胂对鲫鱼鳃中Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制作用更为明显,其次是肝和肾(P<0.01).在同一浓度下,洛克沙胂对鲫鱼各组织Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制率呈明显的时间-效应关系,暴露时间越长,抑制率越高(P<0.01).此外,单细胞凝胶电泳试验(SCGE)结果表明,鲫鱼暴露于0.5、1、2 mg·L-1洛克沙胂中72 h能引起鲫鱼肾细胞明显的DNA损伤,并在设定剂量范围内呈现一定的剂量-效应关系;同时,鲫鱼肾细胞于体外暴露于1、10、100、500、1 000mg·L-1洛克沙胂3、6、12 h后,可引起严重的DNA损伤.

  7. 洛克沙胂在鲫鱼体内的残留及消除动力学研究%Studies on the residue and elimination of roxarsone in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永学; 陈杖榴; 刘志昌; 陈展飞

    2004-01-01

    本文对洛克沙胂在鲫鱼体内的砷残留及消除动力学进行了研究,鲫鱼在室内水池洛克沙胂溶液10 mg/L(以As计)中连续暴露15天进行富集残留试验后转入清水中进行消除试验.采用微波消解处理和氢化物-原子荧光光度法测定鱼鳃、肌肉、血清和内脏中总砷含量.结果表明,砷在鱼体内的表现为吸收和分布较快,肌肉和血清中总砷水平仅为0.3~0.4 mg/kg,内脏中残留最高达30.25 mg/kg.洛克沙胂在鲫鱼组织中消除符合一级速率动力学过程,消除半衰期(t1/2)为2.5~2.8 h,鱼鳃中砷浓度在初始2 h内下降快,此后消除较慢,t1/2为9.45 h.

  8. 二倍体鲫鲤F2产生不同倍性卵子的证据%Evidence of Different Ploidy Eggs Produced by Diploid F2 Hybrids of Carassius auratus (♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 孙远东; 罗凯坤; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    在检测到鲫鲤F2产生3种不同大小(直径分别为0.13 cm,0.17cm和0.2 cm)类型的卵子基础上,进行了F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)及F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)的交配实验.通过染色体计数和流式细胞仪分析,在F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)后代中获得了四倍体、三倍体、二倍体鱼;在F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)后代中获得了四倍体和三倍体鱼.这两个交配组合后代中出现的不同倍性的鱼类为证明鲫鲤F2能产生三倍体、二倍体和单倍体卵子提供了进一步证据.F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)中雄性四倍体鱼的存在说明在四倍体后代中存在基因型为XXXY的个体.对上述两个交配组合后代的四倍体鱼和三倍体鱼的性腺结构观察表明:四倍体鱼是可育的,而三倍体鱼是不育的.作者认为鲫鲤F2能够产生二倍体和三倍体卵子与核内复制机制和生殖细胞的融合有关.%Based on the presence of three types of eggs with different diameters 0.13, 0.17 and 0.2 cm, we made two crosses: F2 (♀)by × diploid red crucian carp (♂), and F2 (♀) × F10 tetraploid (♂). The ploidy levels of the progeny of the two crosses were examined chromosome counting and DNA content measurement by flow cytometer. In the offspring of the former cross, tetraploids, triploids, and diploid were obtained. In the progeny of the latter cross, tetraploids and triploids were observed. The production of the different ploidy level fish in the progeny of the two crosses provided a further evidence that F2 might generate triploid, diploid and XXXY probably existed in the tetraploid progeny. The gonadal structures of the tetraploids and triploids indicated that both female and male tetraploids were fertile and the triploids were sterile. We concluded that the formations of different ploidy level eggs from F2 were contributed by endoreduplication and fusion of germ cells.

  9. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe;

    2010-01-01

    and nitrite on the O2 consumption rate and isometric twitch force development in electrically paced ventricular preparations during hypoxia, and measured O2 affinity and nitrite reductase activity of the purified heart Mbs of both species. Upon hypoxia (9% O2), O2 consumption and developed force decreased...

  10. Distribution and elimination of enrofloxacin in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio%恩诺沙星在异育银鲫体内的组织分布及消除规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方星星; 刘秀红; 丁相卿; 赵文婷; 刘文斌; 陆承平

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of enrofloxacin ( EF) in tissues was investigated after single intravenous (i. v. ) and oral ( p. o. ) administration of 10 mg·kg‐1 body weight in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp at 24-26 ℃. The tissue concentration of EF was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography( HPLC). A two-compartment model kinetics was observed following i. v. administration. The plasma concentration-time data following p. o. administration showed a double peak-shaped curve, indicating the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation of EF in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. The absorption of EF was very good with a bio-availability( F) of 86%. After both administrations, the distribution of drug was extensive, the AUC in kidney, muscle, Hepatopancreas,gill and blood was 624.2,965.9,721.8,298.0,239.6 μg·h·mL‐1 and 465-3,343.1,542.9,411.4,205.9 μg·h·mL‐1, respectively;the Cmax in five tissues was 33.48,16.91,26.44,18.71 μg·g‐1 and 15.30 μg·mL‐1 ,9.20,5.39,7.78,6.88 u.g·g‐' and 4.50 μg·mL‐l,respectively. The depletion time of EF was considerably long,the Tl/2β of drug in five tissues was 169.0,141.4, 113.4,36.7,63.5 h and 27. 3,49. 2,77.0,38.5,62. 7 h,respectively. Conclusion: EF administered p. o. at a dose of 10 mg·kg‐1 might offer a good option for the treatment of infectious diseases in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,while its relatively long T1/2β indicated a long withdrawal period.%在24 ~26℃水温条件下,以10mg·kg-1剂量,用高效液相色谱法检测组织中药物浓度,研究静脉注射和口服给药后恩诺沙星在健康异育银鲫组织内的代谢分布规律.结果表明:静脉注射后,药物在组织中代谢动力学特征符合二室模型;口服给药后,药物吸收良好,生物利用度(F)为86%,组织药物浓度-时间曲线呈现双峰,推测是由于药物在异育银鲫体内的肠肝循环作用所致.静脉注射和口服两种给药方式下,恩诺沙星在异育银鲫体内均具有良好的组织分布,肾脏、肌肉、肝胰脏、鳃和血液5种组织中的药物浓度时间曲线下总面积(AUC)分别为624.2、965.9、721.8、298.0、239.6μg·h·mL-1和465.3、343.1、542.9、411.4、205.9μg·h·mL-1,最大药物浓度(Cmax)分别为33.48、16.91、26.44、18.71μg·g-1和15.30μg·mL-1,9.20、5.39、7.78、6.88μg·g-1和4.50μg·mL-1;药物在各组织中消除时间较长,消除半衰期(T1/2β)分别为169.0、141.4、113.4、36.7、63.5h和27.3、49.2、77.0、38.5、62.7h.结论:恩诺沙星以10mg·kg-1剂量单次口服给药,对细菌引起的异育银鲫病可以起到较好的治疗作用,但需注意药物残留问题.

  11. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  15. Neurogenesis in the adult olfactory bulb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Pignatelli; Cristina Gambardella; Ottorino Belluzzi

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis is the process by which cells divide, migrate, and subsequently differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Significant rates of neurogenesis persist into adulthood in two brain regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Cells of the subventricular zone divide and migrate via the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into granule and periglomerular cells. With the discovery of large-scale neurogenesis in the adult brain, there have been significant efforts to identify the mechanisms that control this process as well as the role of these cells in neuronal functioning. Although many questions remain unanswered, new insights appear daily about adult neurogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, and the fates of the progeny. In this review we highlight the main studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, neuronal migration to the olfactory bulb, neuronal integration into the existing bulbar network and shortly discuss the functional meaning of this process.

  16. Radiologic findings of olfactory neuroblastoma (Esthesioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB also known as esthesioblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm originating from olfactive epitelium, usually locate in the olfactory region of the nasal cavity and anterior skull base. Few cases have been published in the literature yet. Detailed radiologic and histopathological examination is necessary for diagnosis and staging ONB. Prognosis is favorable especially for locally advanced tumors; regional and distant metastasis has been accepted as indicators of poor prognosis. Surgery and radiotherapy are the main therapeutic modalities in use today. We reported the x-ray graphic, B Mod-Doppler Ultrasound (US and Computed Tomography (CT findings of 64 years-old male with ONB in this presentation. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 532-534

  17. Olfactory Decoding Method Using Neural Spike Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyung-jin YOU; Hyun-chool SHIN

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a travel method for inferring the odor based on naval activities observed from rats'main olfactory bulbs.Mufti-channel extmcellular single unit recordings are done by microwire electrodes(Tungsten,50μm,32 channels)innplanted in the mitral/tufted cell layers of the main olfactory bulb of the anesthetized rats to obtain neural responses to various odors.Neural responses as a key feature are measured by subtraction firing rates before stimulus from after.For odor irderenoe,a decoding method is developed based on the ML estimation.The results show that the average decoding acauacy is about 100.0%,96.0%,and 80.0% with three rats,respectively.This wait has profound implications for a novel brain-madune interface system far odor inference.

  18. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  19. Olfactory dysfunction in persian patients suffering from parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad Fatehi; Askar Ghorbani; Hamid Noorolahi; Mehdi Shams; Akbar Soltanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Background Looking in literature reveals that aging is accompanied by olfactory dysfunction and hyposmia/anosmia is a common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders. Olfactory dysfunction is regarded as non-motor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). The main goal of this study was to examine the extent of olfactory dysfunction in Persian PD patients. Methods We used seven types of odors including rosewater, mint, lemon, garlic which were produced by Barij Essence Company in Ira...

  20. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Paris V, Faculte de Medecine, Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France)

    2006-02-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  1. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of selected olfactory tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, J Lee; Bressler, Linda; Propp, Jennifer M; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Martin, Iman K; Dolecek, Therese A; McCarthy, Bridget J

    2010-10-01

    Olfactory tumors, especially olfactory neuroblastomas (ON) and carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation (CND), are extremely rare, and little descriptive epidemiologic information is available. The objective of this study was to more fully describe selected olfactory tumors using a large population-based cancer incidence database. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 registries limited-use data were reviewed from 1973 to 2006 for selected nasal cavity (C30.0) and accessory sinus (C31.0-31.9) tumors. Frequencies, incidence rates, and relative survival rates were estimated using SEER*Stat, v6.5.2. The majority of cases were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while the incidence of ON was greater than CND. For ON, the incidence was highest in the 60-79 year age group, while for SCC, the incidence was highest in the 80+ year age group. For CND, the incidence leveled off in the oldest age groups. Survival rates were highest for ON (>70% alive at 5 years after diagnosis) and poorest for CND (44% alive at 5 years). Adjuvant radiation therapy did not improve survival over surgery alone in ON. In SCC, survival was worse in patients who received adjuvant radiation compared to patients who had surgery alone. Our analysis confirms some previously published information, and adds new information about the incidence and demographics of ON and CND. In addition, our analysis documents the lack of benefit of adjuvant radiation in ON. It is not feasible to conduct prospective trials in patients with these rare diseases, and the importance of registry data in learning about olfactory tumors is emphasized.

  3. Olfactory metaphors in the online environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ţenescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze the main aspects of the olfactory metaphor in online perfume reviews and to identify its main characteristics in the non-specialized perfume discourse. Using as a starting point the approach whose overall view is guided by conceptual metaphor theory, we will identify, analyze and classify the main elements of the metaphorical schema associated with the olfactory metaphor related to fragrance perception and description. We will illustrate this category by examples taken from a corpus of excerpts of online non-specialized perfume discourse. Managing the issue of perception and description of fragrance in the online environment allows us an orientation of the research by multiple approaches of the semantics of perfume-speak: the recognition of essential aspects of perfume imaginary, with a focus on the olfactory metaphor in our research corpus; the analysis of sensory impressions and representations in online non-specialized discourse about fragrance. Our main aim is to organize conceptualizations of perfume notes into several categories, following the model inspired by the research of Lakoff and Johnson (Metaphors we live by, 1980.

  4. Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation.

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    In Jun Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal's ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments-a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing.

  5. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  6. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  7. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Peregrin

    Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  8. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  9. cDNA cloning of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and expression of the active region as myofibril-bound serine proteinase inhibitor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Long; Cao, Min-Jie; Shi, Chao-lan; Wei, Xiao-Nan; Li, Huan; Du, Cui-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) (EC 5.3.1.9) can act as a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) inhibitor (MBSPI) in fish. In order to better understand the biological information of the GPI and its functional domain for inhibiting MBSP, the cDNA of GPI was cloned from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) with RT-PCR, nested-PCR and 3'-RACE. The result of sequencing showed that the GPI cDNA had an open reading frame of 1662bp encoding 553 amino acid residues. After constructing and comparing the three-dimensional structures of GPI and MBSP, the middle fragment of crucian carp GPI (GPI-M) was predicted as a functional domain for inhibiting MBSP. Then the crucian carp GPI-M gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the recombinant GPI-M (rGPI-M) with molecular mass of approximately 21kDa in the form of inclusion bodies. The rGPI-M was obtained at an electrophoresis level purity of approximately 95% after denaturation and dialysis renaturation.

  10. Destruction of the main olfactory epithelium reduces female sexual behavior and olfactory investigation in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, M.J.; Bakker, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexu...

  11. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  12. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman,Bernardo; Ferreira,Lydia Masako; Bôas, Flaviane Cássia Vilas [UNIFESP; Mariano, Mario

    2004-01-01

    To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of gra...

  13. On the record of pug-headedness in snapper, Pagrus auratus (Forster, 1801 (Perciformes, Sparidae from New Zealand

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    Laith JAWAD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pug-headedness in the snapper Pagrus auratus is reported for the first time from New Zealand, based on a specimen (aged 2+ collected from Whangarei Harbour. Severe damage to the underlying bones of the mouth and snout regions was noted. The mouth of the specimen was virtually closed. Several factors were attributed to the cause of these anomalies among which are genetic and epigenetic causes.

  14. Environmental toxicants-induced immune responses in the olfactory mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Imamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are the receptor cells for the sense of smell. Although cell bodies are located in the olfactory mucosa of the nasal cavity, OSN axons directly project to the olfactory bulb that is a component of the central nervous system (CNS. Because of this direct and short connection from this peripheral tissue to the CNS, the olfactory system has attracted attention as a port-of-entry for environmental toxicants that may cause neurological dysfunction. Selected viruses can enter the olfactory bulb via the olfactory mucosa, and directly affect the CNS. On the other hand, environmental toxicants may induce inflammatory responses in the olfactory mucosa, including infiltration of immune cells and production of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, these inflammatory responses cause the loss of OSNs that are then replaced with newly generated OSNs that re-connect to the olfactory bulb after inflammation has subsided. It is now known that immune cells and cytokines in the olfactory mucosa play important roles in both degeneration and regeneration of OSNs. Thus, the olfactory system is a unique neuroimmune interface where interaction between nervous and immune systems in the periphery significantly affects the structure, neuronal circuitry, and immunological status of the CNS. The mechanisms by which immune cells regulate OSN loss and the generation of new OSNs are, however, largely unknown. To help develop a better understanding of the mechanisms involved, we have provided a review of key research that has investigated how the immune response in the olfactory mucosa affects the pathophysiology of OSNs.

  15. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

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    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  16. Recovery of Olfactory Function in Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction Patients after Acupuncture Treatment

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    Qi Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA in postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD patients who were refractory to standardized treatment and to compare the results with the impact observed in an observation group. Methods. Fifty patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with PVOD and were refractory to standardized treatment were included: 25 were treated with TCA and 25 patients were simply observed. A subjective olfactory test was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT. The effects of TCA were compared with the results obtained in the observation group. Results. Improved olfactory function was observed in eleven patients treated with TCA compared with four patients in the observation group. This study revealed significantly improved olfactory function outcomes in patients who underwent acupuncture compared with the observation group. No significant differences in olfaction recovery were found according to age, gender, or duration of disease between the two groups; however, hyposmic patients recovered at a higher rate than anosmic patients. Conclusion. TCA may aid the treatment of PVOD patients who are refractory to drugs or other therapies.

  17. Olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: a GPS study on birds released with unilateral olfactory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-02-15

    A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.

  18. The Presentation of Olfactory-Trigeminal Mixed Stimuli Increases the Response to Subsequent Olfactory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, Ute; Poncelet, Johan; Baum, Daniel; Baki, Ramona; Sinding, Charlotte; Warr, Jonathan; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (1) the addition of trigeminal stimuli to an olfactory stimulus and (2) the congruence in the odorous mixture after repeated odor presentation. Twenty-five normosmic volunteers were enrolled and presented stimulation blocks, consisting of three habituation stimuli (H) (orange odor), one dishabituation (DH) (control condition, orange odor; congruent condition, orange odor + CO2; incongruent condition, orange odor + l-isopulegol), and one dishabituated stimulus (D) (orange odor). Olfactory event-related potentials were analyzed. Response amplitudes differed significantly in the incongruent condition (N1P2 between H3 and D; peak to peak N1P2 at electrode positions Cz, Fz, and Pz; response amplitudes between H3 and DH). The addition of CO2 modified the perception of orange odor, pronouncing a fruity note, whereas the addition of l-isopulegol as a DH pronounced the l-isopulegol note. This study provides evidence that incongruent trigeminal-olfactory stimulants increase the response to subsequent olfactory stimulus.

  19. The mitosis and immunocytochemistry of olfactory ensheathing cells from nasal olfactory mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-bo; TANG Tian-si; GONG Ai-hua; SHENG Wei-hua; YANG Ji-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To culture olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) of rats in vitro and to investigate its morphology, mitosis and immunocytochemistry, and to explore if the OECs could be a new donation for transplantation. Methods: OECs were harvested from olfactory mucosa of Sprague Dawleys rats based on the differing rates of attachment of the various cell types, followed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nerve growth factor (NGF), anti-low affinity receptor for NGF (NGFRp75), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and S-100 immunocytochemistry. The morphological changes and mitosis were observed under a phase contrast microscope at different culture time.Results: Three morphologically distinct types of cells, bipolar,multipolar and flat morphology were present in the primary culture of adult rat olfactory mucosa. Mitosis was characterized by a retraction of all processes, forming a sphere that divided into spherical daughter cells, the daughter cells sent out their processes. The OECs were immunoreactive for GFAP, NGFRp75, S-100, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. Conclusions: The OECs from nasal olfactory mucosa cultivated in the medium with fetal bovine serum could survive, divide, differentiate, and express the neurotrophin. It may become an accessible source for autologous grafting in spinal cord injury.

  20. Self-Ratings of Olfactory Function Reflect Odor Annoyance Rather than Olfactory Acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Kyvik, Kirsten;

    2008-01-01

    Kingdom rated their sense of smell and annoyance caused by ambient smells (e.g., smells of foods) using seven categories, and performed odor identification and evaluation task for six scratch-and-sniff odor stimuli. RESULTS:: The self-rating of olfactory function correlated with the self-rating of odor...

  1. Neuropeptide S facilitates mice olfactory function through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the olfactory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Shao

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, piriform cortex (Pir, ventral tenia tecta (VTT, the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt. The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.

  2. Dietary sodium protects fish against copper-induced olfactory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizishirazi, Ali; Dew, William A; Bougas, Berenice; Bernatchez, Louis; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to low concentrations of copper impairs olfaction in fish. To determine the transcriptional changes in the olfactory epithelium induced by copper exposure, wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed to 20 μg/L of copper for 3 and 24h. A novel yellow perch microarray with 1000 candidate genes was used to measure differential gene transcription in the olfactory epithelium. While three hours of exposure to copper changed the transcription of only one gene, the transcriptions of 70 genes were changed after 24h of exposure to copper. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the effect of exposure duration on two specific genes of interest, two sub-units of Na/K-ATPase. At 24 and 48 h, Na/K-ATPase transcription was down-regulated by copper at olfactory rosettes. As copper-induced impairment of Na/K-ATPase activity in gills can be ameliorated by increased dietary sodium, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used to determine if elevated dietary sodium was also protective against copper-induced olfactory impairment. Measurement of the olfactory response of rainbow trout using electro-olfactography demonstrated that sodium was protective of copper-induced olfactory dysfunction. This work demonstrates that the transcriptions of both subunits of Na/K-ATPase in the olfactory epithelium of fish are affected by Cu exposure, and that dietary Na protects against Cu-induced olfactory dysfunction.

  3. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  4. The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged in recent years as an excellent paradigm for studying the principles and mechanisms of information processing in neuronal circuits. We discuss here the organizational principles of the olfactory circuit that make it an attractive model for experimental manipulations, the lessons that have been learned, and future challenges.

  5. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing ...

  6. Comparison of the canine and human olfactory receptor gene repertoires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quignon, P; Kirkness, E; Cadieu, E; Touleimat, N; Guyon, R; Renier, C; Hitte, C; Andre, C; Fraser, C; Galibert, F

    2003-01-01

    Background: Olfactory receptors (ORs), the first dedicated molecules with which odorants physically interact to arouse an olfactory sensation, constitute the largest gene family in vertebrates, including around 900 genes in human and 1,500 in the mouse. Whereas dogs, like many other mammals, have a

  7. Construction of odor representations by olfactory bulb microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Like other sensory systems, the olfactory system transduces specific features of the external environment and must construct an organized sensory representation from these highly fragmented inputs. As with these other systems, this representation is not accurate per se, but is constructed for utility, and emphasizes certain, presumably useful, features over others. I here describe the cellular and circuit mechanisms of the peripheral olfactory system that underlie this process of sensory construction, emphasizing the distinct architectures and properties of the two prominent computational layers in the olfactory bulb. Notably, while the olfactory system solves essentially similar conceptual problems to other sensory systems, such as contrast enhancement, activity normalization, and extending dynamic range, its peculiarities often require qualitatively different computational algorithms than are deployed in other sensory modalities. In particular, the olfactory modality is intrinsically high dimensional, and lacks a simple, externally defined basis analogous to wavelength or pitch on which elemental odor stimuli can be quantitatively compared. Accordingly, the quantitative similarities of the receptive fields of different odorant receptors (ORs) vary according to the statistics of the odor environment. To resolve these unusual challenges, the olfactory bulb appears to utilize unique nontopographical computations and intrinsic learning mechanisms to perform the necessary high-dimensional, similarity-dependent computations. In sum, the early olfactory system implements a coordinated set of early sensory transformations directly analogous to those in other sensory systems, but accomplishes these with unique circuit architectures adapted to the properties of the olfactory modality.

  8. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  9. Destruction of the main olfactory epithelium reduces female sexual behavior and olfactory investigation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-05-01

    We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexually experienced male was significantly reduced in ZnSO4-treated female mice. Vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by ZnSO4 treatment: nasal application of male urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of ZnSO4 as well as SAL-treated female mice. Likewise, soybean agglutinin staining, which stains the axons of vomeronasal neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB was similar in ZnSO4-treated female mice compared to SAL-treated female mice. By contrast, a significant reduction of Fos in the main olfactory bulb was observed in ZnSO4-treated females in comparison to SAL-treated animals, confirming a substantial destruction of the MOE. These results show that the MOE is primarily involved in the detection and processing of odors that are used to localize and identify the sex and endocrine status of conspecifics. By contrast, both the main and accessory olfactory systems contribute to female sexual receptivity in female mice.

  10. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception.

  11. Neural circuits mediating olfactory-driven behavior in fish

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    Florence eKermen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The fish olfactory system processes odor signals and mediates behaviors that are crucial for survival such as foraging, courtship and alarm response. Although the upstream olfactory brain areas (olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb are well studied, less is known about their target brain areas and the role they play in generating odor-driven behaviors. Here we review a broad range of literature on the anatomy, physiology and behavioral output of the olfactory system and its target areas in a wide range of teleost fish. Additionally, we discuss how applying recent technological advancements to the zebrafish (Danio rerio could help in understanding the function of these target areas. We hope to provide a framework for elucidating the neural circuit computations underlying the odor-driven behaviors in this small, transparent and genetically amenable vertebrate.

  12. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

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    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  13. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population

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    Keller Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. Results We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19–75. We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different

  14. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

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    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury.

  15. Olfactory ensheathing glia are required for embryonic olfactory axon targeting and the migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons

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    Perrine Barraud

    2013-06-01

    Kallmann's syndrome is caused by the failure of olfactory axons and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons to enter the embryonic forebrain, resulting in anosmia and sterility. Sox10 mutations have been associated with Kallmann's syndrome phenotypes, but their effect on olfactory system development is unknown. We recently showed that Sox10 is expressed by neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. Here, we demonstrate that in homozygous Sox10lacZ/lacZ mouse embryos, OEC differentiation is disrupted; olfactory axons accumulate in the ventromedial olfactory nerve layer and fewer olfactory receptor neurons express the maturation marker OMP (most likely owing to the failure of axonal targeting. Furthermore, GnRH neurons clump together in the periphery and a smaller proportion enters the forebrain. Our data suggest that human Sox10 mutations cause Kallmann's syndrome by disrupting the differentiation of OECs, which promote embryonic olfactory axon targeting and hence olfactory receptor neuron maturation, and GnRH neuron migration to the forebrain.

  16. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

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    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  17. The evaluation of olfactory function in individuals with chronic halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Cayonu, Melih; Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Salihoglu, Murat; Tekeli, Hakan; Cayonu, Sibel; Akpinar, Meltem Esen; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Halitosis and olfactory dysfunction may disrupt an individual's quality of life remarkably. One may ask whether halitosis has effects on olfactory functions or not? Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the olfactory abilities of subjects with chronic halitosis evaluated using the measurements of volatile sulfur compounds. This study was carried out in 77 subjects, with a mean age of 40.1±13.3 years, ranging from 18 to 65 years. Forty-three participants were diagnosed as halitosis according to the gas chromatography results and constituted the halitosis group. Also, a control group was created from individuals without a complaint of halitosis and also who had normal values for volatile sulfur compounds. Each subject's orthonasal olfactory and retronasal olfactory functions were assessed using "Sniffin' Sticks" and retronasal olfactory testing. The results showed that odor threshold scores were lower in participants with halitosis compared with controls. Also, hyposmia was seen more common in the halitosis group than in controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between odor threshold scores and volatile sulfur compounds levels, particularly with hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide levels. The results suggest that the chronic presence of volatile sulfur compounds may have a negative effect on olfactory function.

  18. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

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    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  19. Cellular basis for the olfactory response to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Bruce; Xu, Jiang; Audige, Valery; Lischka, Fritz W; Rawson, Nancy E

    2010-03-17

    Smokers regulate their smoking behavior on the basis of sensory stimuli independently of the pharmacological effects of nicotine (Rose J. E., et al. (1993) Pharmacol., Biochem. Behav.44 (4), 891-900). A better understanding of sensory mechanisms underlying smoking behavior may help to develop more effective smoking alternatives. Olfactory stimulation by nicotine makes up a considerable part of the flavor of tobacco smoke, yet our understanding of the cellular mechanisms responsible for olfactory detection of nicotine remains incomplete. We used biophysical methods to characterize the nicotine sensitivity and response mechanisms of neurons from olfactory epithelium. In view of substantial differences in the olfactory receptor repertoire between rodent and human (Mombaerts P. (1999) Annu. Rev. Neurosci.22, 487-509), we studied biopsied human olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), cultured human olfactory cells (Gomez G., et al. (2000) J. Neurosci. Res.62 (5), 737-749), and rat olfactory neurons. Rat and human OSNs responded to S(-)-nicotine with a concentration dependent influx of calcium and activation of adenylate cyclase. Some rat OSNs displayed some stereoselectivity, with neurons responding to either enantiomer alone or to both. Freshly biopsied and primary cultured human olfactory neurons were less stereoselective. Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists had no effect on the responses of rat or human OSNs to nicotine. Patch clamp recording of rat OSNs revealed a nicotine-activated, calcium-sensitive nonspecific cation channel. These results indicate that nicotine activates a canonical olfactory receptor pathway rather than nicotinic cholinergic receptors on OSNs. Further, because the nicotine-sensitive mechanisms of rodents appear generally similar to those of humans, this animal model is an appropriate one for studies of nicotine sensation.

  20. Histopathological changes caused by the metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) in the gut of the gibel carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, K

    2005-01-01

    Metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) were found in the gut of some gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) specimens from a Hungarian water reservoir. Location of metacestodes in the freshly opened gut was marked with disseminated, red-coloured, pinhead-sized nodules in the anterior part of the intestine. In histological sections, metacestodes were found in a hole inside the propria layer of the intestinal folds. The worms were in direct contact with the host tissue without being encapsulated as a result of host reaction. In some specimens with extruded rostellum the rostellar hooks were bored into the host tissue and suckers grabbed pieces of the surrounding connective tissue. Around the worms, congested capillaries and formation of macrophages were seen in the lysed connective tissue.

  1. Olfactory schwannoma: A report of two cases and literature review

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    Zheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial schwannoma is a kind of benign intracranial tumors, derived from neuron myelin sheath, growing slowly and curable. Olfactory schwannoma is an exceedingly rare kind of schwannoma, whose origin is still uncovered. Although several theories have been put up for pathogenesis of olfactory schwannoma, till now, none of these hypotheses has been widely accepted and acknowledged officially. Up to date, only 46 cases of olfactory schwannoma were reported across numerous institutes worldwide. Here we gathered two cases from Department of Neurosurgery in Beijing Tiantan Hospital across two years collection.

  2. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  3. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  4. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D

    2005-01-01

    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  5. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Verónica Rivera; Martínez-Pérez, José Antonio; Molina, Jacob Rubio; Emiliano, Rafael; Zuñiga, Quintanar; López, Jonathan Franco

    2013-03-01

    Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical), and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta's length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05) for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001) showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05) and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05).

  6. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  7. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  8. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Valverde, Joanna Gardel; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Plácido-Pereira, Rosa Maria; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2013-05-01

    The lack of an adequate model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection is a limiting factor for studying American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a promising model because besides being highly susceptible to dermotropic Leishmania infection, the lesions are very similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans. However, different Leishmania isolates or species and/or protocols have resulted in different outcomes, whereas no study has evaluated the reproducibility of L. braziliensis infection in this model. The natural history of L. braziliensis infection in 34 hamsters was evaluated by using a single parasite isolate in 8 independent experiments under similar experimental conditions. Clinical, histological and immunological analyses were performed. The hamsters presented skin ulcers similar to those observed in ATL. The intra-experiment lesion increment tended to show an intermediary variance. Histological analysis of infected skins showed granulomatous reaction, scarce amastigotes, and Schaumann's bodies. Blood lymphocytes proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. The severity of the infection was positively correlated to spleen weight, and the titres of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies. Our findings indicate that the hamster is an appropriate model for immunopathogenesis studies of CL caused by L. braziliensis, supporting its use in clinical, vaccine and chemotherapy experimental protocols.

  9. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  10. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  11. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  12. SNP genotypes of olfactory receptor genes associated with olfactory ability in German Shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Geng, G-J; Zhang, W; Cui, L; Zhang, H-X; Zheng, J-L

    2016-04-01

    To find out the relationship between SNP genotypes of canine olfactory receptor genes and olfactory ability, 28 males and 20 females from German Shepherd dogs in police service were scored by odor detection tests and analyzed using the Beckman GenomeLab SNPstream. The representative 22 SNP loci from the exonic regions of 12 olfactory receptor genes were investigated, and three kinds of odor (human, ice drug and trinitrotoluene) were detected. The results showed that the SNP genotypes at the OR10H1-like:c.632C>T, OR10H1-like:c.770A>T, OR2K2-like:c.518G>A, OR4C11-like:c.511T>G and OR4C11-like:c.692G>A loci had a statistically significant effect on the scenting abilities (P dogs (P T, OR10H1-like:c.770A>T, OR4C11-like:c.511T>G and OR4C11-like:c.692G>A (P dogs with genotype CC at the OR10H1-like:c.632C>T, genotype AA at the OR10H1-like:c.770A>T, genotype TT at the OR4C11-like:c.511T>G and genotype GG at the OR4C11-like:c.692G>A loci did better at detecting the ice drug. We concluded that there was linkage between certain SNP genotypes and the olfactory ability of dogs and that SNP genotypes might be useful in determining dogs' scenting potential.

  13. Histone acetylation in the olfactory bulb of young rats facilitates aversive olfactory learning and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-J; Okutani, F; Murata, Y; Taniguchi, M; Namba, T; Kaba, H

    2013-03-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Specifically, histone-associated heterochromatin undergoes changes in structure during the early stages of long-term memory formation. In keeping with the classical conditioning paradigm, young rats have been shown to exhibit aversion to an odor stimulus initially presented during foot shock. We previously showed that synaptic plasticity at the dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb (OB) underlies this aversive olfactory learning. However, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are not well characterized. Therefore, we examined whether intrabulbar infusion of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates olfactory learning in young rats. TSA infusion during odor-shock training enhanced a conditioned odor aversion in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged the learned aversion. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the level of histone H4 acetylation significantly increased until 4 h after odor-shock training in both mitral and granule cells in the OB, whereas histone H3 acetylation returned to the control level at 2 h after the training. We also obtained evidence that TSA infusion elevated acetylation of histone H4 or H3. Furthermore, in vitro electrophysiological analysis using slices of the OB revealed that application of TSA significantly enhanced the long-term potentiation induced in synaptic transmission from mitral to granule cells at dendrodendritic synapses. Taken together, these results provide evidence that histone H4 and H3 acetylation in the OB is an epigenetic mechanism associated with aversive olfactory learning in young rats.

  14. Intramodal Olfactory Priming of Positive and Negative Odors in Humans Using Respiration-Triggered Olfactory Stimulation (RETROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Hensel, Sonja Maria; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Priming describes the principle of modified stimulus perception that occurs due to a previously presented stimulus. Although we have begun to understand the mechanisms of crossmodal priming, the concept of intramodal olfactory priming remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, we applied positive and negative odors using respiration-triggered olfactory stimulation (RETROS), enabling us to record the skin conductance response (SCR) and breathing data without a crossmodal cueing error and measure reaction times (RTs) for olfactory tasks. RT, SCR, and breathing data revealed that negative odors were perceived significantly more arousing than positive ones. In a second experiment, 2 odors were applied during consecutive respirations. Here, we observed intramodal olfactory priming effects: A negative odor preceded by a positive odor was rated as more pleasant than when the same odor was preceded by a negative odor. Additionally, a longer identification RT was found for the second compared with the first odor. We interpret this as increased "perceptual load" due to incomplete first odor processing while the second odor was presented. Furthermore, intramodal priming can be considered a possible reason for the increase of identification RT. The use of RETROS led to these novel insights into olfactory processing beyond crossmodal interaction by providing a noncued unimodal olfactory test, and therefore, RETROS can be used in the experimental design of future olfactory studies.

  15. Intermittency coding in the primary olfactory system: a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Memming; Bobkov, Yuriy V; Ache, Barry W; Príncipe, José C

    2014-01-15

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of the visual and acoustic sensory input are indispensable attributes for animals to perform scene analysis. In contrast, research in olfaction has focused almost exclusively on how the nervous system analyzes the quality and quantity of the sensory signal and largely ignored the spatiotemporal dimension especially in longer time scales. Yet, detailed analyses of the turbulent, intermittent structure of water- and air-borne odor plumes strongly suggest that spatio-temporal information in longer time scales can provide major cues for olfactory scene analysis for animals. We show that a bursting subset of primary olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) in lobster has the unexpected capacity to encode the temporal properties of intermittent odor signals. Each bORN is tuned to a specific range of stimulus intervals, and collectively bORNs can instantaneously encode a wide spectrum of intermittencies. Our theory argues for the existence of a novel peripheral mechanism for encoding the temporal pattern of odor that potentially serves as a neural substrate for olfactory scene analysis.

  16. Interactions with the young down-regulate adult olfactory neurogenesis and enhance the maturation of olfactory neuroblasts in sheep mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïna eBRUS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available New neurons are continuously added in the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb of mammalian brain. While numerous environmental factors controlling survival of newborn neurons have been extensively studied, regulation by social interactions is less documented. We addressed this question by investigating the influence of parturition and interactions with the young on neurogenesis in sheep mothers. Using Bromodeoxyuridine, a marker of cell division, in combination with markers of neuronal maturation, the percentage of neuroblasts and new mature neurons in the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus was compared between groups of parturient ewes which could interact or not with their lamb, and virgins. In addition, a morphological analysis was performed by measuring the dendritic arbor of neuroblasts in both structures. We showed that the post-partum period was associated with a decrease in olfactory and hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In the olfactory bulb, the suppressive effect on neuroblasts was dependent on interactions with the young whereas in the dentate gyrus the decrease in new mature neurons was associated with parturition. In addition, dendritic length and number of nodes of neuroblasts were significantly enhanced by interactions with the lamb in the olfactory bulb but not in the dentate gyrus. Because interactions with the young involved learning of the olfactory signature of the lamb, we hypothesize that this learning is associated with a down-regulation in olfactory neurogenesis and an enhancement of olfactory neuroblast maturation. Our assumption is that fewer new neurons decrease cell competition in the olfactory bulb and enhance maturation of those new neurons selected to participate in the learning of the young odor.

  17. Keloid heterograft in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch Heteroenxerto de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Bernardo Hochman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of keloid heterograft in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample is formed by 18 male hamsters, heterogenic ones, aged between 10 and 14 weeks. Keloid fragments were obtained from keloid scars of the breast region of adult female mulatto patient. Each hamster received keloid fragments into both of its pouches, in a total of 36 grafted fragments. Animals were distributed into 6 groups for having their grafts assessed in the days 5, 12, 21, 42, 84, and 168. A macroscopic assessment is performed by comparing the pouch containing the grafted fragment, at each time point, with the same pouch in the immediate post surgical moment through a comparison of standardized photographs. Under microscope, the presence of blood vases is considered within the conjunctive tissue of the grafted fragment, as a criterion of its integration. Other events, as keratin secretion, the presence of cellular infiltrated, epithelium and keloid collagen fibers aspects are also analyzed. RESULTS: Macroscopy reveals intensive vascularization of the pouch up to 12 days from the transplantation and the presence of constant dark brown pigmentation on the grafted keloid fragments. In microscopy, the integration of keloid fragments is considered by the presence of blood capillary vases within conjunctive tissue. The presence of intensive cellular inflammatory type infiltrated up to 12 days is also observed, as well as the remaining of keloid epithelium up to 21 days, and the appearing of melanocytes from the day 42. CONCLUSION: Hamster cheek pouch represents, a priori, an experimental model for the investigation of keloid.OBJETIVO: Investigar a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, heterogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloidianas da região mam

  18. Nogo-A expression in injured spinal cord following human olfactory mucosa-derived olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Qiang Li; Xijing He; Weixiong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of olfactory bulb-derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) promotes motor functional recovery in rats with acute spinal cord injury, possibly by Nogo-A expression changes at the injury site. The present study transplanted OECs derived from the olfactory mucosa (OM) of rats. OM-derived OEC (OM-OEC) transplantation significantly reduced the increase of Nogo-A protein and mRNA expression caused by spinal cord injury, supporting the hypothesis that OM-OECs improve spinal cord regeneration by reducing Nogo-A expression.

  19. Olfactory groove meningiomas: approaches and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Tahara, Adriana; Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; Simm, Renata; Silva, Arnaldo Neves da; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Pedro Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) account for 4.5% of all intracranial meningiomas. We report 21 patients with OGMs. Tumors were operated on using three surgical approaches: bifrontal (7 patients), fronto-pterional (11 patients) and fronto-orbital (3 patients). Total tumor removal (Simpson Grade 1) was achieved in 13 patients and Simpson II in 8 patients. Perioperative mortality was 4.76%. The average size of the OGM was 4.3+/-1.1cm. The overall recurrence rate was 19%. We preferred to use the pterional approach, which provides quick access to the tumor with less brain exposure. It also allows complete drainage of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid, providing a good level of brain relaxation during surgery. However, for long, thin tumors, hemostasis can be difficult using this approach.

  20. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Nizar Hamidon, Mohd; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible.

  1. Inhibition by somatostatin interneurons in olfactory cortex

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    Adam M Large

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST interneurons onto pyramidal cells, parvalbumin (PV interneurons and other interneuron classes. As a first step, we characterized the anatomical distributions and intrinsic properties of SST and PV interneurons in four transgenic lines (SST-cre, GIN, PV-cre and G42 that are commonly interbred to investigate inhibitory connectivity. Surprisingly, the distributions SST and PV cell subtypes targeted in the GIN and G42 lines were sparse in piriform cortex compared to neocortex. Moreover, two-thirds of interneurons recorded in the SST-cre line had electrophysiological properties similar to fast spiking (FS interneurons rather than regular (RS or low threshold spiking (LTS phenotypes. Nonetheless, like neocortex, we find that SST-cells broadly inhibit a number of unidentified interneuron classes including putatively identified PV cells and surprisingly, other SST cells. We also confirm that SST-cells inhibit pyramidal cell dendrites and thus, influence dendritic integration of afferent and recurrent inputs to the piriform cortex. Altogether, our findings suggest that somatostatin interneurons play an important role in regulating both excitation and the global inhibitory network during olfactory processing.

  2. Organization of olfactory centres in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabinina, Olena; Task, Darya; Marr, Elizabeth; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Alford, Robert; O'Brochta, David A.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region. We present detailed anatomical maps of olfactory innervations in the AL and the SEZ, identifying glomeruli that may respond to human body odours or carbon dioxide. Our results pave the way for anatomical and functional neurogenetic studies of sensory processing in mosquitoes. PMID:27694947

  3. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional....... The stronger recruitment of the occipital cortex during odor detection demonstrates a preferential access of olfactory stimuli to this area when vision is lacking from birth. This finding expands current knowledge about the supramodal function of the visually deprived occipital cortex in congenital blindness...

  4. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  5. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examin...... in bilateral mOFC and anterior insula. Our data provide a neurological underpinning for the reduced taste perception in congenitally olfactory impaired individuals....

  6. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

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    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  7. Synaptic clusters function as odor operators in the olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Migliore, Michele; Cavarretta, Francesco; Marasco, Addolorata; Tulumello, Eleonora; Michael L Hines; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    How the olfactory bulb organizes and processes odor inputs through fundamental operations of its microcircuits is still controversial. To reveal these operations we hypothesize that one of the key mechanisms underlying odor coding is the interaction among spatially restricted and well-defined clusters of potentiated mitral–granule cell synapses. These experimentally observed clusters selectively gate the propagation of neuronal activity within the olfactory bulb and extensively contribute to ...

  8. Deep sequencing of the murine olfactory receptor neuron transcriptome.

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    Ninthujah Kanageswaran

    Full Text Available The ability of animals to sense and differentiate among thousands of odorants relies on a large set of olfactory receptors (OR and a multitude of accessory proteins within the olfactory epithelium (OE. ORs and related signaling mechanisms have been the subject of intensive studies over the past years, but our knowledge regarding olfactory processing remains limited. The recent development of next generation sequencing (NGS techniques encouraged us to assess the transcriptome of the murine OE. We analyzed RNA from OEs of female and male adult mice and from fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-sorted olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs obtained from transgenic OMP-GFP mice. The Illumina RNA-Seq protocol was utilized to generate up to 86 million reads per transcriptome. In OE samples, nearly all OR and trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR genes involved in the perception of volatile amines were detectably expressed. Other genes known to participate in olfactory signaling pathways were among the 200 genes with the highest expression levels in the OE. To identify OE-specific genes, we compared olfactory neuron expression profiles with RNA-Seq transcriptome data from different murine tissues. By analyzing different transcript classes, we detected the expression of non-olfactory GPCRs in ORNs and established an expression ranking for GPCRs detected in the OE. We also identified other previously undescribed membrane proteins as potential new players in olfaction. The quantitative and comprehensive transcriptome data provide a virtually complete catalogue of genes expressed in the OE and present a useful tool to uncover candidate genes involved in, for example, olfactory signaling, OR trafficking and recycling, and proliferation.

  9. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  10. Go contributes to olfactory reception in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Roman Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seven-transmembrane receptors typically mediate olfactory signal transduction by coupling to G-proteins. Although insect odorant receptors have seven transmembrane domains like G-protein coupled receptors, they have an inverted membrane topology and function as ligand-gated cation channels. Consequently, the involvement of cyclic nucleotides and G proteins in insect odor reception is controversial. Since the heterotrimeric Goα subunit is expressed in Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons, we reasoned that Go acts together with insect odorant receptor cation channels to mediate odor-induced physiological responses. Results To test whether Go dependent signaling is involved in mediating olfactory responses in Drosophila, we analyzed electroantennogram and single-sensillum recording from flies that conditionally express pertussis toxin, a specific inhibitor of Go in Drosophila. Pertussis toxin expression in olfactory receptor neurons reversibly reduced the amplitude and hastened the termination of electroantennogram responses induced by ethyl acetate. The frequency of odor-induced spike firing from individual sensory neurons was also reduced by pertussis toxin. These results demonstrate that Go signaling is involved in increasing sensitivity of olfactory physiology in Drosophila. The effect of pertussis toxin was independent of odorant identity and intensity, indicating a generalized involvement of Go in olfactory reception. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Go is required for maximal physiological responses to multiple odorants in Drosophila, and suggest that OR channel function and G-protein signaling are required for optimal physiological responses to odors.

  11. The olfactory system as a puzzle: playing with its pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, D; Gómez, C; Muñoz-Castañeda, R; Baltanás, F; Alonso, J R; Weruaga, E

    2013-09-01

    The mammalian olfactory bulb (OB) has all the features of a whole mammalian brain but in a more reduced space: neuronal lamination, sensory inputs, afferences, or efferences to other centers of the central nervous system, or a contribution of new neural elements. Therefore, it is widely considered as "a brain inside the brain." Although this rostral region has the same origin and general layering as the other cerebral cortices, some distinctive features make it very profitable in experimentation in neurobiology: the sensory inputs are driven directly on its surface, the main output can be accessed anatomically, and new elements appear in it throughout adult life. These three morphological characteristics have been manipulated to analyze further the response of the whole OB. The present review offers a general outlook into the consequences of such experimentation in the anatomy, connectivity and neurochemistry of the OB after (a) sensory deprivation, mainly by naris occlusion; (b) olfactory deinnervation by means of olfactory epithelium damage, olfactory nerve interruption, or even olfactory tract disruption; (c) the removal of the principal neurons of the OB; and (d) management of the arrival of newborn interneurons from the rostral migratory stream. These experiments were performed using surgical or chemical methods, but also by means of the analysis of genetic models, some of whose olfactory components are missing, colorless or mismatching within the wild-type scenario of odor processing.

  12. Genetic control of wiring specificity in the fly olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Luo, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Precise connections established between pre- and postsynaptic partners during development are essential for the proper function of the nervous system. The olfactory system detects a wide variety of odorants and processes the information in a precisely connected neural circuit. A common feature of the olfactory systems from insects to mammals is that the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor make one-to-one connections with a single class of second-order olfactory projection neurons (PNs). This represents one of the most striking examples of targeting specificity in developmental neurobiology. Recent studies have uncovered central roles of transmembrane and secreted proteins in organizing this one-to-one connection specificity in the olfactory system. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how this wiring specificity is genetically controlled and focus on the mechanisms by which transmembrane and secreted proteins regulate different stages of the Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly in a coordinated manner. We also discuss how combinatorial coding, redundancy, and error-correcting ability could contribute to constructing a complex neural circuit in general.

  13. Quality Coding by Neural Populations in the Early Olfactory Pathway: Analysis Using Information Theory and Lessons for Artificial Olfactory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Gutierrez-Galvez, Agustin; Marco, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the ability of the early olfactory system to detect and discriminate different odors by means of information theory measurements applied to olfactory bulb activity images. We have studied the role that the diversity and number of receptor neuron types play in encoding chemical information. Our results show that the olfactory receptors of the biological system are low correlated and present good coverage of the input space. The coding capacity of ensembles of olfactory receptors with the same receptive range is maximized when the receptors cover half of the odor input space - a configuration that corresponds to receptors that are not particularly selective. However, the ensemble’s performance slightly increases when mixing uncorrelated receptors of different receptive ranges. Our results confirm that the low correlation between sensors could be more significant than the sensor selectivity for general purpose chemo-sensory systems, whether these are biological or biomimetic. PMID:22719851

  14. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  15. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Malcolm

    Full Text Available Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ, partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ, and areas outside (Outside the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP, Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002. Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58% that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL. HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  16. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  17. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  18. Mechanisms Explaining Nursery Habitat Association: How Do Juvenile Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) Benefit from Their Nursery Habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M.; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T.; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D.; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species. PMID:25803443

  19. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Wang

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 34 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, Aqua

  20. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinliang; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Hanbo; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 34 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, AquaOBP4/C5, AquaCSP7

  1. Olfactory cleft computed tomography analysis and olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Preeti; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Storck, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Volumetric analysis of the olfactory cleft by using computed tomography has been associated with olfaction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, existing studies have not comprehensively measured olfaction, and it thus remains unknown whether correlations differ across specific dimensions of odor perception. Objective: To use comprehensive measures of patient-reported and objective olfaction to evaluate the relationship between volumetric olfactory cleft opacification and olfaction. Methods: Olfaction in patients with CRS was evaluated by using “Sniffin' Sticks” tests and a modified version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders. Olfactory cleft opacification was quantified by using two- and three-dimensional, computerized volumetric analysis. Correlations between olfactory metrics and olfactory cleft opacification were then calculated. Results: The overall CRS cohort included 26 patients without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) (68.4%) and 12 patients with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) (31.6%). Across the entire cohort, total olfactory cleft opacification was 82.8%, with greater opacification in the CRSwNP subgroup compared with CRSsNP (92.3 versus 78.4%, p < 0.001). The percent total volume opacification correlated with the total Sniffin' Sticks score (r = −0.568, p < 0.001) as well as individual threshold, discrimination, and identification scores (p < 0.001 for all). Within the CRSwNP subgroup, threshold (r = −0.616, p = 0.033) and identification (r = −0.647, p = 0.023) remained highly correlated with total volume opacification. In patients with CRSsNP, the threshold correlated with total volume scores (r = −0.457, p = 0.019), with weaker and nonsignificant correlations for discrimination and identification. Correlations between total volume opacification and the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders were qualitatively similar to objective olfactory findings in both CRSwNP (r = −0.566, p = 0.070) and CRSsNP (r = −0.310, p

  2. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2011-02-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowed us to deliver airborne stimuli in a precise and reproducible fashion. The system provides a 1% tolerance in stimulus reproducibility and an exact control of odor concentration and concentration gradient on a millisecond time scale. Using this novel setup, we recorded and analyzed the in-vivo response of OSNs to a wide range of time-varying odor waveforms. We report for the first time that across trials the response of OR59b OSNs is very precise and reproducible. Further, we empirically show that the response of an OSN depends not only on the concentration, but also on the rate of change of the odor concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) Encoding Manifold in a concentration-concentration gradient space provides a quantitative description of the neuron's response. We then use the white noise system identification methodology to construct one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) cascade models of the sensory neuron for a fixed mean odor concentration and fixed contrast. We show that in terms of predicting the intensity rate of the spike train, the 2D LNP model performs on par with the 1D LNP model, with a root mean-square error (RMSE) increase of about 5 to 10%. Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be

  3. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia eMohedanoMoriano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex, vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala, mixed (e.g., the medial amygdala and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing.

  4. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  5. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  6. Expression of olfactory signaling genes in the eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Pronin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To advance our understanding how the outer eye interacts with its environment, we asked which cellular receptors are expressed in the cornea, focusing on G protein-coupled receptors. METHODS: Total RNA from the mouse cornea was subjected to next-generation sequencing using the Illumina platform. The data was analyzed with TopHat and CuffLinks software packages. Expression of a representative group of genes detected by RNA-seq was further analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology and fluorescent microscopy. RESULTS: We generated more than 46 million pair-end reads from mouse corneal RNA. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the mouse corneal transcriptome reconstructed from these reads represents over 10,000 gene transcripts. We identified 194 GPCR transcripts, of which 96 were putative olfactory receptors. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of several olfactory receptors and related genes, including olfactory marker protein and the G protein associated with olfaction, Gαolf. In situ hybridization showed that mRNA for olfactory marker protein, Gαolf and possibly some olfactory receptors were found in the corneal epithelial cells. In addition to the corneal epithelium, Gαolf was present in the ganglionic and inner nuclear layers of the retina. One of the olfactory receptors, Olfr558, was present primarily in vessels of the eye co-stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating expression in arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: Several species of mRNA encoding putative olfactory receptors and related genes are expressed in the mouse cornea and other parts of the eye indicating they may play a role in sensing chemicals in the ocular environment.

  7. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities or explosive traces in landmine fields face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells or toxic and illicit substances. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae.

  8. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings.

  9. Management of intracranial invasive olfactory neuroblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-wei; ZHANG Ming-shan; QI Ji; ZHANG Jun-ting; LI Gui-lin; LUO Lin; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Background Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumor that often arise from the nasal cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and treatments of intracranial invasive ONB.Methods Between July 2001 and August 2005, 5 patients with intracranial invasive ONB were treated in our department. Their clinical features, radiological and pathological characteristics, and surgical treatments were analyzed.Among the 5 patients, 1 received transnasal biopsy, and 4 were operated through the transfrontal or extended bifrontal approaches to reconstruct the skull base. After the operation, all the patients received radiotherapy, and one received chemotherapy. They were followed up for 6 to 45 months.Results The ONB was resected totally in the 4 patients. In all the patients, nasal obstruction was alleviated without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The visual acuity was improved in 3 patients, who had a decreased visual acuity before the operation. Two patients had metastasis into the lumbosacral spinal canal 6 and 8 months after the operation, one of them received a second operation and the other died.Concluslon ONB has no specific symptoms. Intracranial ONB should be resected as far as possible, and treated by radiotherapy afterthe operation.

  10. Anterior Interhemispheric Approach for Olfactory Groove Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Hidayat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the surgical technique with bifrontal interhemispheric approach for total removal of tumor in olfactory groove meningioma (OGM. Methods: This study described a case of a 38-year-old woman with bilateral blindness, anosmia, and behaviour changes. Imaging studies show a tumor mass in midfrontal base. Surgery using a bifrontal interhemispheric approach was performed and total removal was achieved and postoperative computed tomography (CT scan was performed to confirm the result. Histopathological findings established a diagnosis of meningioma. Results: A coronal skin incision behind the hairline was utilized. The scalp was elevated, taking care to reserve the vascularized pericranium medial to the linea temporalis of each side, and preserving the 2 supraorbital nerves. Eight burr holes were used, with the two initial holes made on each side of the orbitotemporal region, and the other four holes at the midline. A bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The tumor was first detached from its attachment with bipolar cautery and debulked. During this step, the main tumor feeder arteries from the anterior and posterior ethmoidal artery were interrupted, and the tumor devascularized. Total tumor removal through surgical intervention was achieved and confirmed by head CT-scan postoperatively. Conclusions: This case report supports the suitability of the bifrontal interhemispheric approach for OGM resection with additional radiation therapy.

  11. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  12. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

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    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  13. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults...

  14. Metabolic activation of the olfactory toxicant, dichlobenil, in rat olfactory microsomes: comparative studies with p-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C; Brittebo, E B

    1995-03-18

    The tissue-specific toxicity of the herbicide, dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile), in the olfactory mucosa is related to a cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent metabolism, depletion of glutathione and covalent binding of metabolites. Pretreatment of mice with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) protected against the dichlobenil-induced necrosis. Addition of DEDTC abolished the covalent binding of [14C]-dichlobenil to rat olfactory microsomes, whereas P4502E1-substrates such as ethanol, acetone or p-nitrophenol (NP) had no effect. The NP-hydroxylation in olfactory microsomes was > 6 times higher than that in liver microsomes and was markedly decreased following addition of dichlobenil, DEDTC or metyrapone. In liver microsomes of acetone-treated rats the NP-hydroxylation was markedly decreased following addition of DEDTC, whereas metyrapone and dichlobenil had no effect. In acetone-treated rats, the NP-hydroxylation and the metabolic activation of [14C]-dichlobenil in olfactory microsomes were decreased to 50 and 73% of untreated controls, respectively, whereas in liver microsomes these activities increased > 6 and 3.5-fold, respectively. An antibody to P4502E1 had no effect on the NP-hydroxylation or metabolic activation of [14C]-dichlobenil in olfactory microsomes, whereas the NP-hydroxylation in liver microsomes of acetone-treated rats was markedly decreased. In conclusion, the results do not support a major role for P4502E1 in the metabolic activation of dichlobenil or hydroxylation of NP in rat olfactory microsomes and suggest that these catalytic activities in the olfactory mucosa may represent a common form of P450.

  15. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michelle T; Peace, Shane T; Cleland, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system-particularly olfactory bulb-comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal) and cumulative (adult appetitive) odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  16. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  17. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  18. Odorant-stimulated phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, K.; Corey, E.A.; Kuck, F.; Wetzel, C.H.; Hatt, H.; Ache, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has revived interest in the idea that phosphoinositides (PIs) may play a role in signal transduction in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). To provide direct evidence that odorants indeed activate PI signaling in ORNs, we used adenoviral vectors carrying two different fluorescently tagged probes, the pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phospholipase Cδ1 (PLCδ1) and the general receptor of phosphoinositides (GRP1), to monitor PI activity in the dendritic knobs of ORNs in vivo. Odorants mobilized PI(4,5)P2/IP3 and PI(3,4,5)P3, the substrates and products of PLC and PI3K. We then measured odorant activation of PLC and PI3K in olfactory ciliary-enriched membranes in vitro using a phospholipid overlay assay and ELISAs. Odorants activated both PLC and PI3K in the olfactory cilia within 2 sec of odorant stimulation. Odorant-dependent activation of PLC and PI3K in the olfactory epithelium could be blocked by enzyme-specific inhibitors. Odorants activated PLC and PI3K with partially overlapping specificity. These results provide direct evidence that odorants indeed activate PI signaling in mammalian ORNs in a manner that is consistent with the idea that PI signaling plays a role in olfactory transduction. PMID:19781634

  19. Multidimensional representation of odors in the human olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, A; Ferdenzi, C; Sezille, C; Rouby, C; Bensafi, M

    2016-06-01

    What is known as an odor object is an integrated representation constructed from physical features, and perceptual attributes mainly mediated by the olfactory and trigeminal systems. The aim of the present study was to comprehend how this multidimensional representation is organized, by deciphering how similarities in the physical, olfactory and trigeminal perceptual spaces of odors are represented in the human brain. To achieve this aim, we combined psychophysics, functional MRI and multivariate representational similarity analysis. Participants were asked to smell odors diffused by an fMRI-compatible olfactometer and to rate each smell along olfactory dimensions (pleasantness, intensity, familiarity and edibility) and trigeminal dimensions (irritation, coolness, warmth and pain). An event-related design was implemented, presenting different odorants. Results revealed that (i) pairwise odorant similarities in anterior piriform cortex (PC) activity correlated with pairwise odorant similarities in chemical properties (P physical, olfactory and trigeminal features is based on specific fine processing of similarities between odorous stimuli in a distributed manner in the olfactory system. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2161-2172, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Environmental temperature modulates olfactory reception in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fernando; Riveron, Jacob; Alcorta, Esther

    2011-12-01

    Sensory systems, including the olfactory system, are able to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In nature, changes in temperature modify the volatility and concentration of odorants in the air. If the olfactory system does not adapt to these changes, it could relay wrong information about the distance to or direction of odor sources. Recent behavioral studies in Drosophila melanogaster showed olfactory acclimation to temperature. In this report, we investigated if temperature affects olfaction at the level of the receptors themselves. With this aim, we performed electroantennograms (EAGs) and single sensillum recordings (SSRs) to measure the response to several odorants in flies that had been submitted to temperature treatments. In response to all tested odorants, the amplitude of the EAGs increased in flies that had been exposed to a higher temperature and decreased after cold treatment, revealing that at least part of the reported change in olfactory perception happens at reception level. SSRs of odorant stimulated basiconic sensilla ab2 and ab3 showed some changes in the number of spikes after heat or cold treatment. However, the number and shape of spontaneous action potentials were unaffected, suggesting that the observed changes related specifically to the olfactory function of the neurons.

  1. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  2. Bilateral Synchronous Ectopic Ethmoid Sinus Olfactory Neuroblastoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Soriano, Elena; Alfonso, Carolina; Yebenes, Laura; Garcia-Polo, Julio; Lassaletta, Luis; Gavilan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Olfactory neuroblastoma Symptoms: Left nasal obstruction • occasional left epistaxis • headache Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Nasal endoscopic examination • neck palpation • CT • bilateral endoscopic resection • MRI • PET-CT • postoperative radiotherapy Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a rare malignant head and neck cancer thought to originate from the olfactory epithelium. It typically invades contiguous structures at presentation. We report a very rare case of multifocal and ectopic ONB. Case Report: A 41-year-old man presented with left nasal obstruction and occasional left epistaxis associated with headache. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and computed tomography suggested bilateral polypoid masses. Histopathological diagnosis after endoscopic resection established bilateral olfactory neuroblastoma of the ethmoid sinuses. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy. He remains free of disease 4 years after treatment. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the second documented case of multifocal ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Clinicians should consider ONB in the differential diagnosis of bilateral synchronous nasal and paranasal masses to avoid delayed diagnosis. Endoscopic resection of ONB could be an option in selected cases. PMID:27097989

  3. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  4. Neuronal basis of innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schneider

    Full Text Available The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine - the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline - in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b. Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse, the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system.

  5. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  6. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryon Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS, with an unconditioned stimulus (US. The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB, can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.

  8. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well. PMID:25482234

  9. Infection of Wolbachia may improve the olfactory response of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu; WANG YuFeng

    2009-01-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia infects various insects and is primarily known for its ability to manipulate host reproduction.Recent investigations reveal that Wolbachia also affects the activity of somatic cells.We here demonstrated by trap method and T-maze that Wolbachia infection had signifi-cant impact on the olfactory response of Drosophila simulans.Wolbachia-infected flies took shorter time to enter the food trap and were more sensitive to odorant in T-maze than those uninfected controls,The time of olfactory response was relative to Wolbachia density in flies.Wolbachia density in 15-day-old flies that were caught in a shorter time (less than 60 min) by food trap was significantly higher than those taken in a longer time (more than 100 min).Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript of an important odorant receptor gene or83b in flies with fast olfactory response was sig-nificantly more than those with slow olfactory response.These results suggest that Wolbachia might Increase olfactory response of flies by regulating the expression of olfaction-related genes in hosts.

  10. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboti, L; Peretto, P; Marchis, S De; Fasolo, A

    2011-10-19

    The olfactory system is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP) staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB). Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents.

  11. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oboti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB. Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents.

  12. Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory system and neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallarda, B W; Lledo, P-M

    2012-12-01

    The olfactory system is unique in many respects-two of which include the process of adult neurogenesis which continually supplies it with newborn neurons, and the fact that neurodegenerative diseases are often accompanied by a loss of smell. A link between these two phenomena has been hypothesized, but recent evidence for the lack of robust adult neurogenesis in the human olfactory system calls into question this hypothesis. Nevertheless, model organisms continue to play a critical role in the exploration of neurodegenerative disease. In part one of this review we discuss the most promising recent technological advancements for studying adult neurogenesis in the murine olfactory system. Part two continues by looking at emerging evidence related to adult neurogenesis in neurodegenerative disease studied in model organisms and the differences between animal and human olfactory system adult neurogenesis. Hopefully, the careful application of advanced research methods to the study of neurodegenerative disease in model organisms, while taking into account the recently reported differences between the human and model organism olfactory system, will lead to a better understanding of the reasons for the susceptibility of olfaction to disease.

  13. Machine-learned pattern identification in olfactory subtest results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Hummel, Thomas; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The human sense of smell is often analyzed as being composed of three main components comprising olfactory threshold, odor discrimination and the ability to identify odors. A relevant distinction of the three components and their differential changes in distinct disorders remains a research focus. The present data-driven analysis aimed at establishing a cluster structure in the pattern of olfactory subtest results. Therefore, unsupervised machine-learning was applied onto olfactory subtest results acquired in 10,714 subjects with nine different olfactory pathologies. Using the U-matrix, Emergent Self-organizing feature maps (ESOM) identified three different clusters characterized by (i) low threshold and good discrimination and identification, (ii) very high threshold associated with absent to poor discrimination and identification ability, or (iii) medium threshold, i.e., in the mid-range of possible thresholds, associated with reduced discrimination and identification ability. Specific etiologies of olfactory (dys)function were unequally represented in the clusters (p pattern recognition. PMID:27762302

  14. The source of spontaneous activity in the main olfactory bulb of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josif Stakic

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vivo, most neurons in the main olfactory bulb exhibit robust spontaneous activity. This paper tests the hypothesis that spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons drives much of the spontaneous activity in mitral and tufted cells via excitatory synapses. METHODS: Single units were recorded in vivo from the main olfactory bulb of a rat before, during, and after application of lidocaine to the olfactory nerve. The effect of lidocaine on the conduction of action potentials from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb was assessed by electrically stimulating the olfactory nerve rostral to the application site and monitoring the field potential evoked in the bulb. RESULTS: Lidocaine caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of the olfactory nerve evoked field potential that was recorded in the olfactory bulb. By contrast, the lidocaine block did not significantly alter the spontaneous activity of single units in the bulb, nor did it alter the field potential evoked by electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. Lidocaine block also did not change the temporal patters of action potential or their synchronization with respiration. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous activity in neurons of the main olfactory bulb is not driven mainly by activity in olfactory receptor neurons despite the extensive convergence onto mitral and tufted cells. These results suggest that spontaneous activity of mitral and tufted is either an inherent property of these cells or is driven by centrifugal inputs to the bulb.

  15. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.; Meijerink, J.; Smid, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna of insects serve to encode odors in action potential activity conducted to the olfactory lobe of the deuterocerebrum. We performed an analysis of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito An

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  3. A subtype-specific critical period for neurogenesis in the postnatal development of mouse olfactory glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kato

    Full Text Available Sensory input is essential for the normal development of sensory centers in the brain, such as the somatosensory, visual, auditory, and olfactory systems. Visual deprivation during a specific developmental stage, called the critical period, results in severe and irreversible functional impairments in the primary visual cortex. Olfactory deprivation in the early postnatal period also causes significant developmental defects in the olfactory bulb, the primary center for olfaction. Olfactory bulb interneurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone, suggesting that the olfactory system has plasticity even in adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of transient neonatal olfactory deprivation on the addition of interneurons to the glomerular layer of the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We found that the addition of one subtype of interneurons was persistently inhibited even after reopening the naris. BrdU pulse-chase experiments revealed that the neonatal olfactory deprivation predominantly affected an early phase in the maturation of this neuronal subtype in the olfactory bulb. Subjecting the mice to odor stimulation for 6 weeks after naris reopening resulted in significant recovery from the histological and functional defects caused by the olfactory deprivation. These results suggest that a subtype-specific critical period exists for olfactory bulb neurogenesis, but that this period is less strict and more plastic compared with the critical periods for other systems. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of postnatal neurogenesis and a biological basis for the therapeutic effect of olfactory training.

  4. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  5. Deletion of Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase Perturbs the Postnatal Maturation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Olfactory Cilium Ultrastructure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Mengdi; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Yanfen; Storm, Daniel R.; Wang, Zhenshan

    2017-01-01

    Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice (Adcy3-/-) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates (Adcy3+/+), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age. The full effects of sensory deprivation on OSNs may not also be exhibited in such age. In the present study, following a comparison of postnatal OSNs in seven-, 30-, and 90-day-old Adcy3-/- mice and wild-type controls (Adcy3+/+), we observed that the absence of Adcy3 leads to cumulative defects in the maturation of OSNs. Upon aging, Adcy3-/- OSNs exhibited increase in immature cells and reduction in mature cells along with elevated apoptosis levels. The density and ultrastructure of Adcy3-/- cilia were also disrupted in mice upon aging. Collectively, our results reveal an indispensable role of Adcy3 in postnatal maturation of OSNs and maintenance of olfactory cilium ultrastructure in mice through adulthood. PMID:28154525

  6. Neuronal circuits and computations: pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rainer W; Wiechert, Martin T

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal circuits in the olfactory bulb transform odor-evoked activity patterns across the input channels, the olfactory glomeruli, into distributed activity patterns across the output neurons, the mitral cells. One computation associated with this transformation is a decorrelation of activity patterns representing similar odors. Such a decorrelation has various benefits for the classification and storage of information by associative networks in higher brain areas. Experimental results from adult zebrafish show that pattern decorrelation involves a redistribution of activity across the population of mitral cells. These observations imply that pattern decorrelation cannot be explained by a global scaling mechanism but that it depends on interactions between distinct subsets of neurons in the network. This article reviews insights into the network mechanism underlying pattern decorrelation and discusses recent results that link pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb to odor discrimination behavior.

  7. Impaired olfactory function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseoglu, Sezen Bozkurt; Koseoglu, Sabri; Deveer, Ruya; Derin, Serhan; Kececioglu, Mehmet; Sahan, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder which affects 6.6% of women of child-bearing age. Although olfactory dysfunction is frequent in the population and it negatively affects quality of life, neither physicians or patients consider this important. This case-control study included 30 patients diagnosed with PCOS, and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Sniffin' sticks tests (BurghartGmbH, Wedel, Germany) were used to analyze olfactory functions, and the Beck Depression Inventory was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The total odor score was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group (pdepression score was higher in the PCOS group (pDepression Score. Patients with PCOS have impaired olfactory function. This might be related to depressive disorders that are also observed in those patients.

  8. Behavioural responses to olfactory cues in carrion crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Claudia A F; Heiss, Rebecca S; Baglione, Vittorio; Canestrari, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. The present study investigates whether carrion crows (Corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. During our experiment, carrion crows were observed less often close to the conspecific scent compared to a control side. Because conspecific scent was extracted during handling, a stressful procedure for birds, we interpreted the general avoidance of the 'scent' side as disfavour against a stressed conspecific. However, males, unlike females, showed less avoidance towards the scent of a familiar individual compared to an unfamiliar one, which might reflect a stronger interest in the information conveyed and/or willingness to provide social support.

  9. Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly control olfactory bulb output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki K; Gillet, Shea N; Peters, Andrew J; Isaacson, Jeffry S; Komiyama, Takaki

    2013-12-04

    In the olfactory bulb, odor representations by principal mitral cells are modulated by local inhibitory circuits. While dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells are typically thought to be a major source of this modulation, the contributions of other inhibitory neurons remain unclear. Here we demonstrate the functional properties of olfactory bulb parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells) and identify their important role in odor coding. Using paired recordings, we find that PV cells form reciprocal connections with the majority of nearby mitral cells, in contrast to the sparse connectivity between mitral and granule cells. In vivo calcium imaging in awake mice reveals that PV cells are broadly tuned to odors. Furthermore, selective PV cell inactivation enhances mitral cell responses in a linear fashion while maintaining mitral cell odor preferences. Thus, dense connections between mitral and PV cells underlie an inhibitory circuit poised to modulate the gain of olfactory bulb output.

  10. Effect of flumethrin on survival and olfactory learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Flumethrin has been widely used as an acaricide for the control of Varroa mites in commercial honeybee keeping throughout the world for many years. Here we test the mortality of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana after treatment with flumethrin. We also ask (1 how bees react to the odor of flumethrin, (2 whether its odor induces an innate avoidance response, (3 whether its taste transmits an aversive reinforcing component in olfactory learning, and (4 whether its odor or taste can be associated with reward in classical conditioning. Our results show that flumethrin has a negative effect on Apis ceranàs lifespan, induces an innate avoidance response, acts as a punishing reinforcer in olfactory learning, and interferes with the association of an appetitive conditioned stimulus. Furthermore flumethrin uptake within the colony reduces olfactory learning over an extended period of time.

  11. Methodological Considerations in Conducting an Olfactory fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Vedaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is a complex chemosensory processing in human and animals that allows them to connect with the environment as one of their chief sensory systems. In the field of functional brain imaging, many studies have focused on locating brain regions that are involved during olfactory processing. Despite wealth of literature about brain network in different olfactory tasks, there is a paucity of data regarding task design. Moreover, considering importance of olfactory tasks for patients with variety of neurological diseases, special contemplations should be addressed for patients. In this article, we review current olfaction tasks for behavioral studies and functional neuroimaging assessments, as well as technical principles regarding utilization of these tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

  12. Appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Thum, Andreas S

    2013-02-18

    In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain. Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable). Drosophila larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning--presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative

  13. Functional MRI of the olfactory system in conscious dogs.