WorldWideScience

Sample records for carassius auratus juveniles

  1. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  2. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  3. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  4. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  5. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G.

    2014-01-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels

  6. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E.G. [Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ∼ 60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. - Highlights: • The Carassius auratus fish scale can be divided into 3 layers rather than 2. • The functions of these three individual layers were firstly analyzed. • The fish scale shows a high cytocompatibility. • The fish scale can guide cells migration along the scale ridge channels.

  7. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  8. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  9. Carassius auratus gibelio—the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2010), s. 176-180 ISSN 2075-1117 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/55/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : invasive alien fish * Carassius auratus gibelio * sex ratio * ploidy status * impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  11. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L; Action des hormones neurohypophysaires sur les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-06-25

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [French] Nous avons mesure les echanges de sodium de Carassius auratus a l'aide de radiosodium 24. L'action d'extraits neuro-hypophysaires d'origine diverse a ete comparee a celle d'injection temoin de chlorure de sodium isotonique, aussi bien sur les flux d'entree et de sortie de sodium que sur l'excretion urinaire. De ces experiences faites in vivo, nous pouvons tirer les conclusions suivantes: 1 - L'extrait neurohypophysaire de Carassius auratus provoque une augmentation du flux d'entree de sodium au niveau de la branchie de cet animal alors que le flux de sortie reste inchange. Cet extrait semble plus actif qu'une dose d'ocytocine egale a son activite ocytocique propre. Parmi les hormones neurohypophysaires de mammiferes, seule l'ocytocine (a forte dose) produit une action analogue a celle decrite ci-dessus. L'extrait de Rana esculenta reste sans action. Nous en avons conclu a l'existence dans la neurohypophyse de Carassius auratus d'un facteur hormonal agissant au niveau de la branchie pour controler l'osmoregulation de ce poisson. 2 - Les extraits neurohypophysaires de Carassius auratus entrainent chez l'animal une augmentation de la diurese et de la concentration de sodium de l'urine. Cependant cette action reste discrete et fugace. Les hormones de mammiferes, et les extraits neurohypophysaires d'amphibiens restent sans action. 3 - D'autres auteurs ont montre que chez les amphibiens, l'action des hormones neurohypophysaires se traduit a la fois par une augmentation du transport actif de sodium a travers la peau et par un desequilibre de la balance hydrique (augmentation du

  12. Effects of various feeding patterns of Bacillus coagulans on growth performance, antioxidant response and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway in juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yebing; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Aimin; Yang, Wenping; Lv, Fu; Liu, Fei; Liu, Bo; Sun, Cunxin

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various Bacillus coagulans feeding patterns on growth, antioxidant parameter and Nrf2 pathway in juvenile gibel carp. The similar size of gibel carp (initial weight: 14.33 ± 0.15 g) were subjected to three levels of B. coagulans supplementation (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) and two feeding modes (supplementing B. coagulans continuously or for two days of B. coagulans after 5 days of a basal diet) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. The fish that were continuously fed 500 mg/kg B. coagulans (P2) and those fed the first basal diet for 5 days followed by 500 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg B.coagulans for 2 days (P4 or P5) showed higher weight gain rate and specific growth rate than the other groups. Blood respiratory burst (RB), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and anti-superoxide anion free radical (AFASER) activities in the P4 group were higher than those of the control. White blood cell count (WBC), RB activity, MPO activity, and glutathione (GSH) content in the P5 group were also higher than those of the control. A similar higher trend was observed in the gene expressions of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), NFE2-related factor (Nrf2), Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein(Keap1) in the P4 and NOX2, NRF2, CNC homolog 1 (Bach1), peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) in the P5 group compared with the control. Additionally, we observed a significantly lower level of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a higher level of MPO, higher GPX activity, and increased NRF2 and Prx2 expression were all observed in the P2 treatment group compared with the control. Furthermore, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the P2, P3, and P4 groups was lower than that of the control. These results indicate that a diet supplemented with appropriate levels of B.coagulans could improve the growth, immune response, and antioxidant capability of gibel carp. We concluded that the pattern of two days of 500 or 1000 mg/kg B

  13. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  14. Action of neuro-hypophysis hormones on sodium exchanges of Carassius auratus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, Monique

    1960-01-01

    This academic work reports the use of radio-sodium as indicator of sodium exchanges to simultaneously measure the gill input flow and the output gill and urinary flows. This technique has been applied in the case of a common soft water fish (Carassius auratus L.) to study the possible action of neuro-hypophysis extracts on these flows, and the action of these hormones on urinary excretion [fr

  15. Erythrocyte profile of diploid and triploid silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2006), s. 203-207 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Carassius auratus * complete red blood count * erythrocyte nuclear dimensions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol75/75-203.pdf

  16. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  17. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-04-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate.

  19. Many branches, one root: First evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2010), s. 36-41 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Goldfish * Carassius auratus * Phylogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.044, year: 2010

  20. In vivo and in vitro activities of the seed extract of Piper guineense Schum. and Thonn. against skin and gill monogenean parasites of gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Wang, M; Simon, J E; Obiekezie, A I; Morah, F

    2004-10-01

    Methanol extracts of the seeds of Piper guineense (Piperaceae) were active against gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus L. Pisces Cyprinidae) monogenean parasites. The seed extract of P. guineense was administered at different concentrations (0.5-2.0 mg/L) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. There was a higher efficacy of the effects of the extracts against fish parasites under in vitro situations than under in vivo. Three major compounds (piperanine, N-isobutyl (E,E)-2,4 decadienamide and Deltaalpha,beta-dihydrowasanine) were identified from the seed extract of Piper guineense by LC-MS analysis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Enzymatic complex in diets for gold fish fingerlings (Carassius auratusComplexo enzimático na dieta de alevinos de kinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Augusto Signor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the enzymatic complex supplementation in diets for goldfish fingerlings (Carassius auratus, 240 fish weighing initially 1,36 ± 0,02g, randomly distributed in 20 tanks with 150L, in four treatments and five replications, with twelve fish in each experimental unit were used. The fish were fed at 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 and 5:00 p.m. with diets containing different inclusion levels (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% of enzymatic complex (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, ?-glucanase and phytase, and formulated with 32,36% of digestible protein and 3.023kcal of digestible energy kg-1. There were no differences observed (P>0,05 in the mean final weight, weight gain, total length, standard length, survival and carcass composition. However, the fish apparent feed conversion was impaired by the supplementation of enzymatic complex with 0,099% in diet. The use of enzymatic complex does not provides benefits in the productive performance for goldfish fingerlings. Objetivando avaliar a suplementação de complexo enzimático em dietas de alevinos de kinguios (Carassius auratus, foram utilizados 240 peixes com peso inicial de 1,36 ± 0,02g, distribuídos aleatoriamente, em 20 tanques de 150L, em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, com 12 peixes em cada unidade experimental. Os peixes foram arraçoados as 8h, 11h, 14h e 17h, com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% de complexo enzimático (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, b-glucanase e fitase, e formuladas para conter 32,36% de proteína digestível e 3.023kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, sobrevivência e composição de carcaça. No entanto, a conversão alimentar aparente dos peixes alimentados com rações contendo 0,099% do complexo enzimático foi inferior em relação aos alimentados com as demais dietas. Conclui-se que a utiliza

  2. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  3. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  4. Complete genome sequence and architecture of crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Tao; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-12-01

    Crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) was isolated from diseased crucian carp with acute gill hemorrhages and high mortality. The CaHV genome was sequenced and analyzed. The data showed that it consists of 275,348 bp and contains 150 predicted ORFs. The architecture of the CaHV genome differs from those of four cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV1, CyHV2, SY-C1, CyHV3), with insertions, deletions and the absence of a terminal direct repeat. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA polymerase sequences of 17 strains of Herpesvirales members, and the concatenated 12 core ORFs from 10 strains of alloherpesviruses showed that CaHV clustered together with members of the genus Cyprinivirus, family Alloherpesviridae.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  6. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  7. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  8. Variation in myelin lipid composition induced by change in environmental temperature of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivonchick, D.P.; Roots, B.I.

    1976-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 30/sup 0/C, and the lipid and protein composition of brain and spinal cord myelin was determined. Goldfish myelin contains less galactolipid, but more protein and phospholipid than mammalian and bird myelin. Phosphatidyl choline was the predominant phospholipid in both brain and spinal cord myelin. Fish myelin also showed a greater plasmalogen content with an average ethanolamine plasmalogen/total phosphatidyl ethanolamine ratio of 0.84. Total brain and myelin lipids, with the exception of plasmalogens, showed a resistance to change with thermal acclimation. Differences between brain and spinal cord myelin protein and phospholipids were not observed. It is suggested that temperature acclimation in poikilotherms may be used as a tool in the study of membrane adaptability.

  9. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  10. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat? for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.; Lewbart, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production i...

  12. Changes of ploidy and sexuality status of "Carassius auratus" populations in the drainage area of the River Dyje (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Lusk, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 165-171 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Carassius auratus * goldfish * ploidy status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...... was registered, and virus could not be re-isolated from goldfish or carp bath-challenged with any of the isolates in the panel....

  14. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  15. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup.

  19. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  20. Tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Yang, Fan; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Ruichen

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) can induce obesogen response. However, little is known about the adverse effects of TBT on food intake and energy metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/L (1 and 10 ng/L as Sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). After exposure for 54 d, TBT increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. The patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line with potential orexigenic effects, with increased expression of neuropeptide Y and apelin, and decreased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Interestingly, the energy metabolism indicators (oxygen consumption, ammonia exertion and swimming activity) and the serum thyroid hormones were all significantly increased at the 2.44 ng/L TBT group in fish. However, no changes of energy metabolism indicators or a decrease of thyroid hormones was found at the 24.4 ng/L TBT group, which indicated a complex disrupting effect on metabolism of TBT. In short, TBT can alter feeding and energy metabolism in fish, which might promote the obesogenic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  2. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  3. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zeng, Lingbing; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Ma, Jie; Fan, Yuding

    2013-09-27

    An epizootic with severe mortality has emerged in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, in China since 2009, and caused huge economic loss. The signs and epidemiology background of the disease were investigated. Parasite examination, bacteria and virus isolation were carried out for pathogen isolation. The causative pathogen was obtained and identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) by experimental infection, electron microscopy, cell culture, PCR assay and sequence alignment, designated as CyHV-2-JSSY. Experimental infection proved the high virulence of CyHV-2-JSSY to healthy gibel carp. Electron microscopy revealed that the viral nucleocapsid was hexagonal in shape measuring 110-120 nm in diameter with a 170-200 nm envelope. The virus caused significant CPE in Koi-Fin cells at the early passages, but not beyond the fifth passages. Sequence alignment of the partial viral helicase gene (JX566884) showed that it shared 99-100% identity to the published sequences of other CyHV-2 isolates. This study represented the first isolation and identification of CyHV-2 in cultured gibel carp in China and laid a foundation for the further studies of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Repair of UVC induced DNA lesions in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdonas, E.; Zukas, K.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of UVC (254 nm) irradiation induced DNA single-strand breaks generated during the excision repair of UV induced DNA damage in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio were studied using alkaline comet assay. Nucleotide excision repair recognised DNA lesions such as UVC induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and produced DNA single-stranded breaks that were easily detected by comet assay. After irradiation of erythrocytes with 58 j/m 2 UVC dose, there was an increase in comet tail moment (CTM) at 2 hours post-radiation, whereas at 4 hours post-radiation CTM decreased and did not differ significantly from the control level (P=0,127). When erythrocytes were exposed to 173 J/m 2 UVC dose, the excision repair delayed in the beginning (0 hours), reached maximum level at 2 hours post-radiation (CTM-54,8) and showed slightly decreased level at 4 hours post-radiation (CTM=18,5). (author)

  6. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  7. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  8. Fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus was studied in Lake Trasimeno by analysing the selectivity of the equipment that can be used to control this invasive species. Sampling was conducted monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 by means of electrofishing, fyke-nets and gill-nets of different-sized mesh (22, 25, 28, 35, 40, 50, 70 and 80 mm. The average value of the CPUEs of goldfish caught was 10175.48 g·10−2·m−2 for gill-nets, 246.97 g·h−1 for fyke-nets and 606.50 g·min−1 for electrofishing. The efficiency of electrofishing was not uniform in all periods of the year, the mean CPUEs being highest in spring, when specimens of reproductive age were preferentially caught. Gill-nets yielded abundant catches of goldfish in all seasons, and displayed good sampling efficiency even in winter. With regard to the selectivity of gill-nets, estimated optimum selection lengths for each mesh size were: 11.92 cm, 13.55 cm, 15.18 cm, 18.97 cm, 21.68 cm, 27.10 cm, 37.94 cm and 43.36 cm. The results of this research demonstrate that the various fishing techniques can be effectively combined with the aim of controlling the goldfish population in Lake Trasimeno.

  9. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  10. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo (Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries)

    1983-07-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 ..mu..g/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of /sup 45/Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in /sup 45/Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled /sup 45/Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer.

  11. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  12. Efeito da densidade de estocagem do quinguio, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae, em suas fases iniciais de desenvolvimento Stocking density effect on goldfish, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae fry, during its initial development phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Rodrigues Schamber

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem sobre o desenvolvimento do quinguio, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae em suas fases iniciais. Foram utilizados 300 larvas (Lt = 7,00 mm, distribuídas em 20 aquários (12-L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,50; 1,00; 1,50 e 2,00 larvas/L e cinco repetições. A alimentação utilizada foi à base de náuplios de Artemia sp. (fornecida de forma proporcional a densidade e ração com 40% de proteína bruta (fornecida à vontade. Observou-se aumento linear (p0,001 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora os valores de pH tenham apresentado redução linear (pThis experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the goldfish, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae development, during its initial phases. 300 fry (Lt.: 7.00 mm were distributed in 20 12-liter aquariums. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments (0.50; 1.00; 1.50 and 2.00 fry/liter and five replications. Food consisted of Artemia sp nauplii (supplied proportionally to density and rations with 40% raw protein, given ad libitum. While the biomass per aquarium linear increase (p0.001. On the other hand, quadract effect (p 0.001 by the different stocking densities. The physical-chemical parameters rates remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although pH values suffered linear decrease (pCarassius auratus fry culture can use such density during its initial development phases.

  13. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) as standard fish in bioassays and their reaction to potential reference toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were compared for their suitability as standard bioassay fish. Both species showed the same variability of bioassay results when tested with four toxicants. Fathead minnows are recommended on the basis of their small size and on their capability for use in complete life cycle tests. On the basis of minimum variability of bioassay results, sodium chloride was superior for use as a reference toxicant. Both sodium chloride and pentachlorophenol seemed capable of detecting abnormal fish. On the basis of seven listed criteria either sodium chloride or pentachlorophenol would be acceptable as a reference toxicant.

  14. Physiological and condition-related traits in the gynogenetic-sexual Carassius auratus complex: different investments promoting the coexistence of two reproductive forms?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Hyršl, P.; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 154 (2015), s. 154 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carassius auratus * gene expression * growth Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  15. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68±5.73 μg/g) followed by the liver (0.80±0.16 μg/g) and muscle (0.47±0.16 μg/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28±0.19 μg/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues

  16. Effects of neutral phytase on growth performance and phosphorus utilization in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin-Zheng; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Dai, Bin-Yang; Qian, Li-Chun

    A feeding trial was conducted for nine weeks to investigate the effects of partially replacing Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 with neutral phytase on the growth performance, phosphorus utilization, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, bone and carcass mineral composition, and digestive-enzyme-specific activity in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The diets prepared with 0.8%, 0%, and 1.8% Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (1%=1 g/100 g) supplements were regarded as the P 1 E 0 , negative control (NC), and positive control (PC) groups, respectively; the other three experimental diets were prepared with the addition of 200, 300, and 500 U/kg of neutral phytase, respectively, based on the P 1 E 0 group. Three hundred and eighty-four fish ((1.50±0.01) g) were randomly distributed in the six treatments with four replicates each. The fish were initially fed with 2%-3% diets of their body weight per day, with feeding twice daily (08:00 and 16:00), under a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle at the temperature of (27.56±0.89) °C. The results showed that supplemental phytase at different levels in the diet improved the final body weight, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, phosphorus utilization, and protein efficiency ratio of crucian carp (PPhytase supplementation increased the mineral content in serum (P), bone (P, Ca), and carcass (P, Ca, Zn, Na, and Mg) (Pphytase-supplemented diets (Pphytase improved the growth performance, phosphorus utilization as well as nutrient utilization in crucian carp, and it can be considered an important nutritional replacement for Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .

  17. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  18. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus.

  19. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  20. Continuous flow bioassay method to evaluate the effects of outboard motor exhausts and selected aromatic toxicants on fish. [Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenniman, G. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Hartung, R.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous flow bioassay system was designed to measure the effects of outboard motor exhaust (OME) emissions and selected volatile and evaporative aromatic toxicants on goldfish (Carassius auratus). Continuous flow bioassays were run for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 720 h to determine lethal concentrations for 50 percent of individuals (LC 50's) for leaded OME, non-leaded OME, toluene, xylene, and 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene, the three individual compounds having been identified as significant aromatic components of OME. The 96 h LC-50's for these substances were found to be 171, 168, 23, 17, and 13 ppm, respectively. The values of 171 and 168 ppm for the two OME's are given in terms of gallons of fuel burned per million gallons of water. The continuous flow bioassay method was demonstrated to be a more reliable indicator of the effects of OME pollutants on aquatic organisms than is the static bioassay method.

  1. Lethal and mutagenic effects of radiation and chemicals on cultured fish cells derived the erythrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Zoology)

    1983-01-01

    GEM 199 cells derived from an eryhtrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which had a high plating efficiency, were used to investigate the lethal and mutational effects of radiations (UV and ..gamma..-rays) and chemicals (4NQO and MNNG). The cells were more resistant to rays than mammalian cells and CAF-MM1 cells derived from the normal fin tissue of goldfish. They were also more resistant to UV-irradiation than CAF-MM1 cells. Photoreactivation after UV-irradiation was present in GEM 199 cells for both survival and mutation. The initial shoulder of the survival curve of UV-irradiated cells was reduced greatly by caffeine, suggesting a high activity of the post-replication repair. The spontaneous mutation frequency to ouabain resistance was 1-5x10/sup -6/ clones per viable cell. MNNG was effective in inducing ouabain-resistant mutation, while 4NQO and ..gamma..-rays did not induce mutation.

  2. Uptake and release kinetics of 134Cs by goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137Cs by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in controlled aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Reddy, S.J.; Kelber, O.; Urich, K.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and release kinetics of 134 Cs by Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137 Cs by Zebra Fish (Brachydanio rerio) from aquatic media of different ionic compositions and temperature was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of radiocesium in the case of Brachydanio rerio is observed to be strongly dependent on the potassium ion concentration of the aquatic medium, but in the case of Carassius auratus this dependence is quite weak. The biological half-lives of the cesium isotopes incorporated into the fish investigated in the present work vary from 19 to 80 days and are influenced by the temperature and the ionic composition of the aquatic medium. (author) 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  3. Probiotic potential of Bacillus velezensis JW: Antimicrobial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria and immune enhancement effects on Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanglei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Fan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Lijun; Zha, Jiwei; Wang, Gaoxue

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the probiotic potential of B. velezensis JW through experimental and genomic analysis approaches. Strain JW showed antimicrobial activity against a broad range of fish pathogenic bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Vibrio Parahemolyticus. Fish (Carassius auratus) were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 10 7 , and 10 9  cfu/g of B. velezensis JW for 4 weeks. Various immune parameters were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of post-feeding. Results showed that JW supplemented diets significantly increased acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. The mRNA expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney of C. auratus was measured. Among them, the interferon gamma gene (IFN- γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed higher expression after 3 and 4 weeks of feeding (P velezensis JW has the potential to be developed as a probiotic agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  5. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-06-01

    Accumulation and excretion Of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from radioactive diets (killifish, Oryzias latipes, meats accumulated {sup 137}Cs in the radioactive freshwater) or control diets (killifish meats mixed {sup 137}CsCl) were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in concentration ratio, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency in proportion to the rearing time. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing by administration of non-radioactive commercial diets after the accumulation above for 7 days, demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and followed a gradual decreasing tendency (the biological half lives were about 1.5 days and 52 days, respectively). As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera is more rapid than that for the muscle. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the relative contribution by ingestion of the radioactive diets in the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in natural environmental fish was comparatively higher in comparison with uptake of the radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater. With regard to the difference between the radioactive diets and the control diets, the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in whole body of the fish from the radioactive diets was less than that from the control diets to rearing 5 days, but afterward was not different. The difference of the accumulation between these diets will be attributable to that of the metabolic turnover between these diets. (author)

  6. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  7. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  9. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meixia; Luo, Weiwei; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou

    2018-01-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b), signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2) and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7) were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp. PMID:29538345

  10. Morphological, histological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus kingchowensis and Thelohanellus cf. sinensis infecting gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Yang

    2018-06-26

    A Myxobolus species and a Thelohanellus species infecting Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782) were redescribed by their morphological, histological and molecular characterization. In the present study, the Myxobolus species infecting the muscle was identified as Myxobolus kingchowensis Chen et Ma, 1998 by the morphological and molecular data. Histologically, mature spores of M. kingchowensis were observed in the intercellular and connective tissue of muscle, though the plasmodia were not found. In addition, scattered spores also occurred in the intercellular of haematopoietic cells, intraepithelial of the renal tubules and interior of the melano-macrophage centres. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. kingchowensis clustered in the clade of muscle-infecting Myxobolus species, further supporting muscle as the infection site of M. kingchowensis. The present Thelohanellus species infecting the gills was identified conspecific as Thelohanellus sinensis reported in Sun (2006) (mark it as T. sinensis-Sun)based on spore morphology, biological traits (host specificity and organ specificity), and molecular data. However, compared with the original description of T. sinensis Chen et Hsieh, 1960, the present Thelohanellus species and T. sinensis-Sun both infecting the gills of gibel carp are distinguishable from the original description in the host and infection site, which made the validity of T. sinensis-Sun dubious. Due to the absence of molecular data in the original description of T. sinensis, we suggest marking the present species and T. sinensis-Sun as T. cf. sinensis to avoid the confusion until T. sinensis is obtained from the type host and type infection site.

  11. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis.

  12. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus. Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b, signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2 and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7 were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp.

  13. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Fan

    Full Text Available Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut of goldfish (Carassius auratus after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+. And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L, bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+, the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut, rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle. The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG increased significantly, and after Zn(2+ exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP were the main target for Zn(2+, while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+ were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  14. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Responses of Medullary Lateral Line Units of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, to Amplitude-Modulated Sinusoidal Wave Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the responses of brainstem lateral line units in goldfish, Carassius auratus, to constant-amplitude and to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal water motions. If stimulated with constant-amplitude sinusoidal water motions, units responded with phasic (50% or with sustained (50% increases in dicharge rate. Based on isodisplacement curves, units preferred low (33 Hz, 12.5%, mid (50 Hz, 10% and 100 Hz, 30% or high (200 Hz, 47.5% frequencies. In most units, responses were weakly phase locked to the carrier frequency. However, at a carrier frequency of 50 Hz or 100 Hz, a substantial proportion of the units exhibited strong phase locking. If stimulated with amplitude-modulated water motions, units responded with a burst of discharge to each modulation cycle, that is, units phase locked to the amplitude modulation frequency. Response properties of brainstem units were in many respects comparable to those of midbrain units, suggesting that they emerge first in the lateral line brainstem.

  16. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  17. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  18. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and its interaction with antioxidant system in Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yi [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Nankai University), Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Xiaorong, E-mail: yiyluo@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ji Liangliang; Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-11-15

    In the present study, direct evidence of hydroxyl radical production in livers of Carassius auratus exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was provided using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with spin-trapping. A dose-effect relationship was obtained between hydroxyl radical intensities and PCP exposure. It was observed that hydroxyl radical was significantly induced by 0.001 mg l{sup -1} (below the criteria for Chinese fishery water quality) of PCP exposure. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.9581, p < 0.001) was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities within 7 d of PCP exposure, which suggests that hydroxyl radical are mainly produced from PCP itself. However, no correlation was observed between PCP liver concentrations and hydroxyl radical intensities after 7 d, and a higher intensity of hydroxyl radical could still be observed when the PCP liver concentrations decreased to a lower level, which suggests that other mechanisms may possibly contribute to hydroxyl radical production after 7 d. The glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased below that of the control level during the entire period of PCP exposure (0.05 mg l{sup -1}), which suggested oxidative stress occurred.

  19. DNA methylation analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xiao

    Full Text Available Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids.

  20. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment

  1. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  3. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  4. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  5. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat ® on slime production in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) and koi ( Cyprinus carpio ). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat ® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat ® , when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat ® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  8. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  9. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  10. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  11. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  12. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRUSSIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (BLOCH, 1782 COMMERCIAL STOCK OF THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Heina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To provide the biological assessment of the silver Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 commercial stock of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the conditions of the transformed Dnieper river flow. Methodology. During the analysis of the biological state of the Prussian carp commercial stock, the main attention was given to the dynamics of age and sexual structure, length-weight growth rate, absolute fecundity and condition factor. The basic data were collected during the work of control-observation stations of the Institute of Fisheries in the Dnieper-Bug estuary during the current century. The collection and processing of ichthyological materials were performed in accordance with the generally accepted methodologies. Findings. The analysis showed that during the current century, the age structure of the Prussian carp of the Dnieper-Bug estuary was the most labile among other commercial cyprinids. It was found that as a result of an increase in the right wing of the age series, there was a gradual increase of the mean weighted age of its commercial stock. At the beginning of studies (2001-2002, the core of the stock was formed by age-3-6 fish (up ; however in subsequent years, a displacement of dominant groups toward the dominance of age-4-7 fish (more than 80% of the total stock was observed. At the same time, the relative number of age-3 fish (recruits was at a relatively high level – up to 10.6%. The linear growth varied more intensively until the age-5, but it reduced with ageing and did not show high variability. The body weight most variable was in age-4 fish (Cv=9.62%. The noted insignificant deviations in the body weight growth rate of the right wing of the age series was due to stable predominance of females in the stock structure, which were characterized by a variability of the mean weight as a result of different development of gonads. The dynamics of the age-related changes in the condition factor indicated on a

  13. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus.

  14. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  15. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in gynogenetic offspring of Carassius auratus red var. (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, QinBo; Wang, Juan; Wang, YuDe; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-03-13

    The offspring with 100 chromosomes (abbreviated as GRCC) have been obtained in the first generation of Carassius auratus red var. (abbreviated as RCC, 2n = 100) (♀) × Megalobrama amblycephala (abbreviated as BSB, 2n = 48) (♂), in which the females and unexpected males both are found. Chromosomal and karyotypic analysis has been reported in GRCC which gynogenesis origin has been suggested, but lack genetic evidence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific centromere probes directly proves that GRCC possess two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes. Sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (abbreviated as NTS) reveals that three types of 5S rDNA class (class I; class II and class III) in GRCC are completely inherited from their female parent (RCC), and show obvious base variations and insertions-deletions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with the entire 5S rDNA probe reveals obvious chromosomal loci (class I and class II) variation in GRCC. This paper provides directly genetic evidence that GRCC is gynogenesis origin. In addition, our result is also reveals that distant hybridization inducing gynogenesis can lead to sequence and partial chromosomal loci of 5S rDNA gene obvious variation.

  17. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  18. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection.

  20. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  3. Influence of ammonia on forming the toxicity of waters from the surface sources of water supply determined on Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Arystarkhova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the influence of ammonia in waters from surface sources of water supply of Zhytomyr city on forming the toxicity of these waters determined by test-reactions of atypical motor activity of Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch, 1782 with the use of the «time sampling» method during 2012–2014. Methodology. Biotesting was performed at the Municipal Enterprise "Zhytomyrvodokanal". Water samples were taken once a month time from the Teteriv river reservoirs and tap water network and then placed into aquaria (8 dm3 on a group. Control and experimental groups of fish were formed according to the following scheme: control group — samples of settled (24 hours tap water; experimental group D-1 — water samples from the Denyshivske reservoir; experimental group D-2 — water samples from the Vidsichne water intake. Test specimens were females of C. auratus gibelio. Biotesting was conducted using the «time sampling» method by keeping fish (n=30 in water for 12 hours. The toxicity indexes of waters were calculated on the basis of the following test-reactions: spiral-like and vector movements, jumping out from water, immobilization and death of fish. Statistical processing of study results were performed using cross-correlation and regression analysis in MS Excel 2007 and Statistica-6. Findings. The study showed an effect of ammonia on the toxicity of waters from reservoirs of the Teteriv river that was determined by atypical motor activity with the use of the «time sampling» method, which consisted in the instantaneous fixation of the number of individuals that favored one or another act of behavior. It was shown that females not adapted to the action of ammonia reacted to its concentration in water of more than 0.55 mg/dm3 by disorders in movements. Unlike fish of experience groups, only single pathological acts were observed in the control group. A positive moderate relationship, which had a tendency to an increase, was

  4. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Body Weight in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus Using 2b-RAD Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution genetic linkage map is essential for a wide range of genetics and genomics studies such as comparative genomics analysis and QTL fine mapping. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus is widely distributed in Eurasia, and is an important aquaculture fish worldwide. In this study, a high-density genetic linkage map was constructed for crucian carp using 2b-RAD technology. The consensus map contains 8487 SNP markers, assigning to 50 linkage groups (LGs and spanning 3762.88 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.44 cM and genome coverage of 98.8%. The female map had 4410 SNPs, and spanned 3500.42 cM (0.79 cM/marker, while the male map had 4625 SNPs and spanned 3346.33 cM (0.72 cM/marker. The average recombination ratio of female to male was 2.13:1, and significant male-biased recombination suppressions were observed in LG47 and LG49. Comparative genomics analysis revealed a clear 2:1 syntenic relationship between crucian carp LGs and chromosomes of zebrafish and grass carp, and a 1:1 correspondence, but extensive chromosomal rearrangement, between crucian carp and common carp, providing evidence that crucian carp has experienced a fourth round of whole genome duplication (4R-WGD. Eight chromosome-wide QTL for body weight at 2 months after hatch were detected on five LGs, explaining 10.1–13.2% of the phenotypic variations. Potential candidate growth-related genes, such as an EGF-like domain and TGF-β, were identified within the QTL intervals. This high-density genetic map and QTL analysis supplies a basis for genome evolutionary studies in cyprinid fishes, genome assembly, and QTL fine mapping for complex traits in crucian carp.

  5. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  6. Alternations in neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) following an acute and chronic exposure to vinclozolin, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Hatef, Azadeh; Zare, Ava; Socha, Magdalena; Milla, Sylvain; Gosiewski, Grzegorz; Fontaine, Pascal; Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk, Mirosława; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2014-10-01

    The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) is in use globally and known to disrupt reproductive function in male. The present study tested the hypothesis that VZ disrupts testicular function in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by affecting brain-pituitary-testis axis. Goldfish were exposed to 100, 400 and 800 μg/L VZ and 5 μg/L 17β-estradiol (E2) for comparison. In VZ treated goldfish, 11-ketotesteosterone (11-KT) secretion was changed depending on dose and duration period of treatment. Following 7 days of exposure, 11-KT was decreased in goldfish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ, while it was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ after 30 days of exposure. Circulating E2 level was unchanged in VZ treated goldfish, however the E2/11-KT ratio was increased in a concentration-related manner. In E2 treated goldfish, circulatory 11-KT and E2 levels were decreased and increased, respectively, which resulted in an increase in the E2/11-KT ratio. Exposure to VZ at 100 μg/L caused a significant increase in the circulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) after 30 days. In E2 treated fish circulatory LH was decreased, significantly. Transcripts of genes encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone and androgen receptor in the brain, and those of genes encoding LH and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors, StAR, CYP17, and 3β-HSD in the testis changed in VZ-treated goldfish depending on concentration and period of treatment. mRNA of genes encoding vitellogenin and estrogen receptor in the liver and cytochrome P450 aromatase in the brain were increased in E2-treated goldfish. The results suggest that VZ-induced changes in 11-KT were due to disruption in brain-pituitary-testis axis and provide integrated characterization of VZ-related reproductive disorders in male fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  8. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  9. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  10. The effects of dissolved organic matter and feeding on bioconcentration and oxidative stress of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) to crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Nkoom, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Bioconcentration of UV filters in organisms is an important indicator for the assessment of environmental hazards. However, bioconcentration testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural aquatic environmental factors. In order to better assess the ecological risk of organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) in an actual water environment, this study determined the influences of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg/L) and feeding (0, 0.5, 1, and 2% body weight/d) on bioconcentration of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) in various tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Moreover, oxidative stress in the fish liver caused by the OD-PABA was also investigated by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The bioconcentration of OD-PABA in the fish tissues was significantly decreased with the presence of DOM indicating a reduction of OD-PABA bioavailability caused by DOM. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased by 28.00~50.93% in the muscle, 72.67~96.74% in the gill, 37.84~87.72% in the liver, and 10.32~79.38% in the kidney at different DOM concentrations compared to those of the non-DOM treatments. Significant changes in SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, and MDA levels were found in the DOM- and OD-PABA-alone treatments. However, there were no significant differences in the SOD, CAT, GST, and MDA levels found when co-exposure to OD-PABA and DOM. Feeding led to lower OD-PABA concentrations in the fish tissues, and the concentrations were decreased with increasing feeding ratios. BCFs in various tissues reduced by 39.75~72.52% in the muscle, 56.86~79.73% in the gill, 66.41~87.50% in the liver, and 75.88~89.10% in the kidney, respectively. In the unfed treatments, the levels of SOD and MDA were significantly higher than those of the fed ones while GST and GSH levels were remarkably inhibited indicating the enhanced effect of starvation

  11. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  12. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  13. Method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing: acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. [Pimephales promelas; Carassius auratus; Ictalurus punctatus; Lepomis macrochirus; Salmo gairdneri; Orconectes immunis; Aplexa hypnorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.L.; Holcombe, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed to simultaneously ascertain 96 h LC/sub 50/ values for seven freshwater species in a single flow through test with measured concentrations. It allows interspecific comparisons, easy determination of the most sensitive species, and cuts cost of labor, materials and chemical analysis for measured concentration tests. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, goldfish Carassius auratus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, crayfish Orconectes immunis and snails Aplexa hypnorum. Compounds tested were pentachlorophenol, 2-chloroethanol, 2,4-pentanedione, hexachloroethane, ..cap alpha..-bromo-2',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone, benzaldehyde, 1,3-dichloro-4,6-dinitro-benzene, dursban, sevin and cadmium chloride. The LC/sub 50/ values from these multiple species tests compared favourably with those determined using single species tests at this laboratory, usually within 20%.

  14. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  15. Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802 Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shimoda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.

  16. Japon Balığı (Carassius Auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet Anıl; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem Yeşim; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  17. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve Arpa Bitkisinin (Hordeum vulgare L.) Gelişimi ve Su Kalitesinin İyileştirilmesi Üzerine Aquaponik Sistemin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİNBALTA, Mehmet; HAMZAOĞLU, Gökhan; ÇELİK, Meryem; DERNEKBAŞI, Seval

    2015-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, Japon balığı (Carassius auratus L. 1758) ve arpa bitkisi (Hordeum vulgare L.) kullanılarak model bir akuaponik sistem oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma süresince arpa bitkisinin suyun nitrit, nitrat ve fosfat değerlerinde yaptığı değişim ve balıkların gelişimi üzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. 30 günlük araştırma süresince günlük olarak pH, sıcaklık ve oksijen değerleri ölçülmüştür. Haftalık olarak bitki yetiştirme yatağına giren ve bitkiden süzülen suyun nitrit (NO2...

  18. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  20. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus; however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr, deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3, tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh, were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3 and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4, and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  1. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  2. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  3. Effects of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on DNA Damage and p53 Protein Expression in Carassius auratus Linn.%多溴联苯醚对鲫鱼组织DNA损伤及p53蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 瞿建宏; 陈家长; 聂凤琴

    2011-01-01

    以鲫鱼(Carawsius auratus)为试验材料,研究了经不同浓度的2,2’,4,4’-四溴联苯醚(PBDE-47)和十溴联苯醚(PBDE-209)暴露后,鲫鱼体内DNA损伤产物8-羟基脱氧鸟苷(8-OHdG)的含量及p53蛋白的水平.结果表明,采用浓度为0.10~5.00 mg·L-1的PBDE-47和10.0~50.0mg·L-1的PBDE-209处理鲫鱼20d,除了0.10 mg·L-1 PBDE-47和10.0 mg·L-1 PBDE-209浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05),其余各浓度组的8-OHdG和p53蛋白含量均随PBDE-47和PBDE-209浓度增加而逐渐上升,呈显著的相关关系(P<0.01),且8-OHdG和p53蛋白之间也呈显著的正相关.说明PBDE-47和PBDE-209对鲫鱼组织的DNA产生了损伤,具有遗传毒性影响.%Persistent organic pollutants(POPs) has a long-term threat to different biota, including aquatic animals, mammals, especially humans, due to their biomagnified effect in food chain, the study on the toxic effect of POPs to aquatic animals was evidently important and concerned. This paper discussed the variation of DNA-damage product 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) and p53 protein to Carassius awatus in exposed to poly -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE-47 and PBDE-209), where the exposed dose of PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 ranged from 0.10 to 5.00 mg·L-1 and 10.0 to 50.0 mg·L-1, respectively. The results showed that, DNA-damage product 8-OHdC and p53 protein were generated extraordinary in all treatment lasted for 20 days, expectihe 0.1 mg·L-1 in PBDE-47 and 10.0 mg·L-1 in PBDE-209. The variation of 8-OHdC and p53 protein to Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were significantly dose-depend (P<0.01), respectively, and the variation of 8-OHdC was significantly correlated with the variation of p53 protein as well. The results indicated that, the genotoxic effect, characterized by DNA-damage product, such as 8-OHdC and p53 protein in Carassius awatus when exposed to PBDE-47 and PBDE-209 were produced. The paper provided more

  4. 额尔齐斯河2种类型雌性银鲫的形态特征及D-loop基因序列比较%Comparative analysis between two types of female silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Irtysh River using morphology and mitochondrial control regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马波; 霍堂斌; 李喆; 蔡林钢; 阿达可白克可尔江; 姜作发

    2013-01-01

    Two types of female silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio were discovered in the main stem of the Irtysh Rive (the Crop 185) in May 2008. We defined them as high-dorsal silver crucian carp (1.78−2.14) and low-dorsal silver crucian carp (2.18−2.39) based on differences in their morphology (body length/body depth). The number of lateral line scales in the high and low-dorsal silver crucian carp is 31 and 30, respectively. The number of scales above (or below) the lateral line is 7 (6), the number of scales above (or below) the lateral line in the caudal peduncle is 3 (2). High-dorsal silver crucian carp exhibit a size advantage based on the significant differ-ence in body depth and width, head depth and width, and caudal peduncle depth (P<0.01) between high and low-dorsal silver crucian carp. The mean weight of high-dorsal silver crucian carp is 1.3−1.9 times that of low-dorsal silver crucian carp. A comparison of the mitochondrial control region sequences of the two types re-vealed that each has one haplotype, thus representing intraspecific variation with a low genetic diversity value (0.004). The two types and Fangzheng silver crucian carp in the Heilongjiang River are monophylic, and share the same haplotype with Fangzheng silver crucian carp. Accordingly, we speculate that the Irtysh silver crucian carps are derived from the Heilongjiang River basin. Our observations suggest the two types of C. a. gibelio, particularly the high-dorsal silver crucian carp, have a growth advantage over other crucian carps. Given this, they offer greater potential as breeding stock. Our results provide a theoretical basis for better conservation and utilization of the unique varieties of Irtysh River silver crucian carp.%  2008年5月调查发现,在额尔齐斯河主河道(185团)的雌性银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)群体中存在2种形态类型,按照体长比体高的形态学性状区分,分别为高背型(1.78~2.14)和低背型(2.18~2.39).形态学分

  5. Phylogeny and biogeographic history of the cyprinid fish genus Carassius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with focus on natural and anthropogenic arrivals in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.K.; Petrtýl, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 380, č. 383 (2013), s. 13-20 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Carassius auratus complex * Cytochrome b * Distribution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2013

  6. Morphology of the intestine of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the structures of the intestine of the Goldfish is given. Several morphological techniques have been used. Special attention has been paid to those characteristics of this organ that may be of importance to physiologists working with the same material, with emphasis on cell-to-cell

  7. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  8. Glycogen dynamics of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in prolonged anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2016-12-01

    Mobilization of glycogen stores was examined in the anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linnaeus). Winter-acclimatized fish were exposed to anoxia for 1, 3, or 6 weeks at 2 °C, and changes in the size of glycogen deposits were followed. After 1 week of anoxia, a major part of the glycogen stores was mobilized in liver (79.5 %) and heart (75.6 %), and large decreases occurred in gill (46.7 %) and muscle (45.1 %). Brain was an exception in that its glycogen content remained unchanged. The amount of glycogen degraded during the first anoxic week was sufficient for the anaerobic ethanol production for more than 6 weeks of anoxia. After 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, there was little further degradation of glycogen in other tissues except the brain where the stores were reduced by 30.1 and 49.9 % after 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, respectively. One week of normoxic recovery following the 6-week anoxia was associated with a complete replenishment of the brain glycogen and partial recovery of liver, heart, and gill glycogen stores. Notably, the resynthesis of glycogen occurred at the expense of the existing energy reserves of the body in fasting fish. These findings indicate that in crucian carp, glycogen stores are quickly mobilized after the onset of anoxia, with the exception of the brain whose glycogen stores may be saved for putative emergency situations.

  9. Radioecological studies of [sup 137]Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassium auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki (Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan)); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1994-11-01

    Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in concentration ratio (CR), in whole body of the fish showed a rapid increasing tendency during the rearing, and the CR value reached nearly 1 at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above for 7 days demonstrated a gradual decreasing tendency, and the retention rate resulted in nearly 71% at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera and the gill than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera and the gill is more rapid than that for the muscle. (author).

  10. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formicki, Grzegorz; Stawarz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m 2 for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m 2 for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation

  11. Study of goldfish (Carassius auratus) growth hormone structure-function relationship by domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y H; Cheng, C H K; Chan, K M

    2007-03-01

    Using goldfish as a model, the structure-function relationship of goldfish growth hormone was studied using the strategy of homologous domain swapping. Chimeric mutants were constructed by exchanging homologous regions between goldfish growth hormone (gfGH II) and goldfish prolactin (gfPRL) with their cloned complementary DNAs. Six mutants, with their domain-swapped, were generated to have different combinations of three target regions, including the helix a, helix d and the large section in between these helices (possess the helices b, c and other random coiled regions). After expression in E. coli and refolding, these mutants were characterized by using competitive receptor binding assay (RRA) and growth hormone responding promoter activation assay. The different activity profiles of mutants in Spi 2.1 gene promoter assays from that in RRA shows that, for gfGH, receptor binding dose not confer receptor signal activations. When either helices a or d of gfGH was maintained with other helices replaced by their gfPRL counterparts, both receptor binding and hence gene activation activities are reduced. In mutants with helices b and c in gfGH maintained, containing the gfGH middle section, and helices a and d swapped with gfPRL, the had reduced RRA activities but the promoter activation activities retained. In conclusion, as in the case of human GH, the gfGH molecule possesses two functional sites: one of them is composed of discontinuous epitopes located on the target regions of this study and is for receptor binding; another site is located on the middle section of the molecule that helices a and d are not involved, and it is for activation of GH receptor and intracellular signals.

  12. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both ... There are various studies on the effects of these factors ..... have high salt in the blood and do not spend more energy.

  13. Opportunity of integrated production of "Ceratophyllum demersum" in a nutrition trial with "Carassius auratus"

    OpenAIRE

    Santana García, Gustavo Julián

    2016-01-01

    [EN]The integrated culture of fish and plant in a recirculated system is called aquaponics, where a mutual benefit have been demonstrated for the cocultured species. Today this practice is still not well known for the most studied consumed freshwater species, and almost nothing has been done for aquarium species. The objective of present work was to study the opportunity of growing one of the most selled aquarium plant coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a coculture with the goldfish (Carass...

  14. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  15. Ultraviolet influence on catalase activity and mineral content in eyeballs of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicki, Grzegorz [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: formicki@ap.krakow.pl; Stawarz, Robert [Cracow Pedagogical Academy, Institute of Biology, Department of Zoology, ul. Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland)

    2006-10-01

    UV radiation present in the environment may induce several eye disorders including inflammation and cataract. The aim of this work was to study catalase activity and Mg, Cu, Ca and Zn contents in the eyeballs of gibel carp exposed to ecologically relevant doses of UV radiation (0.09 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-A and 0.98 kJ/m{sup 2} for UV-B) simulated in laboratory conditions. Ultraviolet exposure resulted in significant reduction of catalase activity in the eyeballs of tested fish. Reductions in Mg, Cu and Ca contents after UV exposure were also observed. The differences in Mg and Cu levels between control and UV exposed animals were statistically significant, whereas the reduction of Ca level was insignificant. Zinc level in the eyeballs of UV-exposed fish was significantly higher than in non-irradiated specimens. The results suggest that ultraviolet radiation affects prooxidant/antioxidant balance and Mg, Cu, Zn contents in the eyes of fish living in shallow habitats. These may lead to cataract formation.

  16. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  17. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  18. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  19. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  20. Effect of diet on the feces quality in javan langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Joeke; Clauss, Marcus; Olsthoorn, M; Noordermeer, W; Huisman, T R; Verheyen, C; van der Kuilen, J; Streich, W J; Beynen, A C

    2006-01-01

    A high intake of easily fermentable carbohydrates and a low intake of fiber material are generally regarded as major factors affecting the health of captive langurs. The effect on fecal consistency of excluding fruits and vegetables from the diet was evaluated in Javan langurs (Trachypithecus auratus auratus). Cross-over trials were carried out at Rotterdam Zoo and at the Apenheul Zoo, The Netherlands. During the first and third dietary period, the langurs were fed their usual diet, which con...

  1. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The application of hCG, CPH and Ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, K; Kucharczyk, D

    2011-08-01

    Artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. The aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (CPH), Ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. Goldfish spawners were stimulated with hCG, CPH and Ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish from the control group, comprised of unstimulated fish. In another experiment, spawn were induced twice within an interval of 21 days with the same group of fish. The best results in the first experiment in terms of the percentage of ovulating females and survival to the eyed-egg stage were achieved after administering hCG (100% and 88.7%, respectively). However, the highest fecundity was observed in fish stimulated with Ovopel (89,960 eggs/kg). It was shown in the second experiment that female goldfish produce higher weight of eggs during the first spawning, but the number of eggs/BW ratio was higher during the next reproduction process. Survival, both that of embryos to the eyed-egg stage and that of spawners, is higher during the first reproduction act. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The effect of the addition of cow brain powder in commercial feed on the gonadal maturity of comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Subhan, U.; Rosidah; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Abdillah, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to analysis the effect of addition bovine’s brain meal in artificial feed on gonad maturity and to find out the best time of gonad maturity in comet fish.This research was conducted at Fourth Building Hatchery Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University on November 2014 until Januari 2015. Freeze drying of bovine brain was conducted at Research Center Inter University Bandung Institute of Technology. The research was using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications.The treatment were 20 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, 50mg/kg and control. The parameters of this research are Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and egg maturity level. Addition of bovine brain meal in feed with the dose of 50 mg/kg are giving the best result until 45 days of the care time against gonad maturity of comet fish with GSI result 12.93 %, egg maturity level ripe phase 21.115 and fecundity 1520 grain/g.

  4. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  5. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  6. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  7. Toxicological responses on cytochrome P450 and metabolic transferases in liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to lead and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Cui, Zhaojie; Wang, Xinlei; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Su

    2018-04-30

    As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0.05-10mg/L, respectively. Four hepatic enzyme activities, including 7-ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were determined after 1, 7, 14, 28 days exposure. The results showed that the activities of EROD and BFCOD in fish were significantly inhibited in response to paraquat at all exposure levels during the whole experiment. Similarly, the inhibitory effects of lead exposure on BFCOD activity were found in our study, while different responses of lead on EROD were observed. There were no significant differences on EROD activity under lower concentrations of lead (less than 0.1mg/L) before 14 days until an obvious increase was occurred for the 0.5mg/L lead treatment group at day 14. Furthermore, lead showed stronger inhibition on GST activity than paraquat when the concentrations of the two toxicants were more than 0.5mg/L. However, the similar dose and time-dependent manners of UGT activity were found under lead and paraquat exposure. Our results indicated that higher exposure levels and longer accumulations caused inhibitory effects on the four enzymes regardless of lead or paraquat stress. In addition, the responses of phase I enzymes were more sensitive than that of phase II enzymes and they may be served as the acceptable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity effects of both lead and paraquat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature selection of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitch. ) after heterogeneous temperature acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.

    1977-01-01

    Goldfish and brook trout were acclimated heterogeneously to temperature by exposing the head and tail simultaneously to different temperatures. The temperature selection of heterogeneously acclimated fish was tested in a vertical temperature gradient and compared to that of homogeneously acclimated fish. All fish selected temperatures essentially corresponding to the state of acclimation of their head. It is concluded that the brain acts as the main control of temperature selection in fish.

  9. Role of pH on the acute toxicity of sulfite in water. [Carassius auratus; Leistes reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of sulfite to fish decreases with increasing pH value, because the HSO/sub 3//sup -/ ion is more toxic than the SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion. An effective sulfite concentration S/sub eff/ which is proportional to the toxicity on fish is expressed by the following equation: S/sub eff/ = (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) + f(SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/), where f is a coefficient which expresses the change of toxicity of sulfite depending on the pH of the water, and varies for each species of fish. For goldfish, owing to the very small toxic contribution of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion (f = 0.07), the pH dependence of the toxicity of sulfite on pH was so strong that sulfite seemed almost non-toxic in basic solution. However, f for guppy is somewhat larger (f = 0.20) so that the toxicity of sulfite weakly depends on the pH value of water.

  10. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, Carassius auratus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, B.A. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC); Peter, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on prolactin release from the goldfish pituitary gland. Fish were acclimated to different photoperiods and temperatures, and also were subjected to a change in either of these two parameters after different acclimation conditions. Serum and pituitary samples were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. In other experiments samples for prolactin analysis were taken every 3 h intermittently over a period of 3 days from fish that were acclimated to different photoperiod and temperature conditions. Longer photoperiods and higher temperatures caused pituitary prolactin release. Serum prolactin changed on a circadian rhythm and the rhythm was modified depending on the length of the photoperiod.

  11. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  12. Effect of diet on the feces quality in javan langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Joeke; Clauss, Marcus; Olsthoorn, Moniek; Noordermeer, Wendy; Huisman, Tjalling R; Verheyen, Celine; van der Kuilen, Jan; Jürgen, W Streich; Beynen, Anton C

    2006-09-01

    A high intake of easily fermentable carbohydrates and a low intake of fiber material are generally regarded as major factors affecting the health of captive langurs. The effect on fecal consistency of excluding fruits and vegetables from the diet was evaluated in Javan langurs (Trachypithecus auratus auratus). Cross-over trials were carried out at Rotterdam Zoo and at the Apenheul Zoo, The Netherlands. During the first and third dietary period, the langurs were fed their usual diet, which contained fruits, vegetables, langur pellets, and browse. During the second period, the vegetables and fruits were excluded from the diet and the diet essentially consisted of pellets and browse. Feces consistency was scored using a fecal score chart developed for langurs. During the second feeding period the feces consistency improved significantly in animals at both zoos. Across all trials, a firmer feces consistency was correlated with an increase in dietary cell wall (measured as neutral detergent fiber) and a decrease in dietary water. It is suggested that the combined decrease in the intake of soluble sugars, the increase of fiber intake, and a lower amount of dietary water in the diet resulted in more solid stools. The results indicate that a dietary neutral detergent fiber content of approximately 46% in dry matter will result in a feces consistency indicative of undisturbed gut function.

  13. Juvenile angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasal tumor; Angiofibroma - juvenile; Benign nasal tumor; Juvenile nasal angiofibroma; JNA ... Juvenile angiofibroma is not very common. It is most often found in adolescent boys. The tumor contains many blood ...

  14. The toxicity of copper to crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in soft water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schjolden, Joachim [Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep, Ullevalsveien 72, N-0033, Oslo (Norway); Sorensen, Jorgen [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway); Nilsson, Goeran E. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1041 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2007-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a Cu rich medium (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l, approximately 300 {mu}g Cu{sup 2+}/l). Untreated department water (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 {mu}S/cm, 2.91 mg Ca{sup 2+}/l) acted as control. Mortality in crucian carp was first observed after 13 days of exposure to the Cu rich medium. There were, however, significant changes in haematocrit, plasma chloride, plasma sodium and water content in muscle in fish exposed to the Cu rich medium after two days. After 14 days of exposure to copper, haematocrit increased to 52 {+-} 2% (control: between 37 and 40%), plasma chloride decreased to 45 {+-} 5 mmol/l (control: 99-106 mmol/l), plasma sodium decreased to 81 {+-} 6 mmol/l (control: 116-137 mmol/l), and water content in muscle increased to 83.0 {+-} 0.3% (control: 78.7-79.9%). No apparent changes in blood ethanol, and minor changes in plasma lactate were observed in copper exposed fish. Analyses of the gills revealed an increasing concentration of copper on the gills from fish exposed to Cu rich water. After 14 days, the concentration of copper accumulated in the gill was 12.8 {+-} 4.1 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight (control: 0.91-1.19 {mu}g Cu/g wet weight). A reduction of the respiratory area in fish exposed to copper was observed, in terms of both lamellar and filamental fusion. The normoxic O{sub 2} uptake did not change, but the critical oxygen tension was elevated to 6.12 {+-} 1.04 mg O{sub 2}/l after a 6 day exposure to copper (control: 1.03 {+-} 0.05 mg O{sub 2}/l). This study shows that crucian carp has a higher tolerance to copper compared to other freshwater fish species. Our results suggest that this tolerance is based on the ability of crucian carp to avoid becoming hypoxic as well as an extreme tolerance to severe loss of plasma ions.

  15. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  16. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp.

  17. The high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poléo, Antonio B S; Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5.8; 960 μg Al/l), acidic Al-poor water (pH 5.8; 50 μg Al/l) or untreated control water (pH 6.5; 50 μg Al/l). Blood, muscle and gill samples were collected from exposed fish, and closed respirometry was performed to measure critical O2-tension an normoxic O2-consumption. The results show an increased gill surface area in Al-exposed fish, while the critical O2-tension did not change. The normoxic O2-consumption was lower in Al-exposed fish and might be due to a reduced metabolic rate. The results suggest that crucian carp exposed to aluminium do not become hypoxic, since haematocrit, plasma lactate and blood ethanol did not differ from that of control fish after 14 days of exposure. We also observed an initial loss of plasma chloride and sodium, followed by a stabilisation of these ions at a lower level than in control fish. The decrease in plasma ions caused a transient increase in haematocrit and water content in muscle tissue, returning to control levels when the ion concentrations stabilised, suggesting that the water balance was restored. We conclude that the high tolerance to aluminium in crucian carp is associated with its ability to avoid hypoxia as well as an ability to counteract a continuous loss of plasma ions.

  18. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  19. Juvenile Firesetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Freeman, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Male gender, substance use, history of maltreatment, interest in fire, and psychiatric illness are commonly reported risk factors. Interventions that have been shown to be effective in juveniles who set fires include cognitive behavior therapy and educational interventions, whereas satiation has not been shown to be an effective intervention. Forensic assessments can assist the legal community in adjudicating youth with effective interventions. Future studies should focus on consistent assessment and outcome measures to create more evidence for directing evaluation and treatment of juvenile firesetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Juvenile Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1986-01-01

    Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)

  1. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerbik, P.; Mikolajczyk, T.; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M.; Socha, M.; Chyb, J.; Epler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g -1 of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g -1 ) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g -1 ) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g -1 did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g -1 ) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes

  2. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  3. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  4. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  5. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  7. Effect of adjusting kilovolt peak of the X-ray machine on radiographic-image quality in goldfish(Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nut Nuanmanee; Dilok Wongsathein; Rutch Khattiya; Atigan Thongtharb; Utumma Maghanemi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find optimal kilovolt peak (kVp) for radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish with body width and depth ranging between 3-5 centimeters. Materials and Methods: 18 Oranda fish were divided into 6 groups (3 for each group). Body widths of fish in group 1, 2, and 3 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. Body depths of fish in group 4, 5, and 6 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. After the fish were anesthetized, the radiographic images of group 1, 2, and 3 were taken in lateral position with milliamperes (mA) at 50 mA and duration (sec) for 0.02, 0.05, and 0.05 sec, respectively. Kilovolt peak (kVp) was used in range from 40 to 58. In addition, the radiographic images of group 4, 5, and 6 were taken in dorsoventral position at 50 mA for 0.1 sec with varying kVp from 40 to 62. The quality of radiographic images was evaluated by 5 veterinarians and 5 radiologists. Results: The most appropriate kVp in lateral position with 3, 4 and 5 centimeters in body width were 44, 44, and 48, respectively. In addition, the most appropriate kVp in dorsoventral position with 3, 4, and 5 centimeters in body depth were 46, 48, and 50, respectively. Conclusion: The radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish was depended on the appropriated kVp

  8. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  9. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline and nitr......The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline...... in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...... that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...

  10. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T 4 U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T 3 U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using 125 I-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T 4 U, and a 204% increase in T 3 U. The much greater increase in T 3 U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposure induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T 3 U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T 4 U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed

  11. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  12. Finding of triploid Carassius Gibelio (Bloch, 1780)(Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Memis, D.; Bohlen, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-79 ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : carassius gibelio * cyprinidae * Turkey Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  13. Juvenile angiofibromer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, benign, rich vascular tumor, and approximately one new case is diagnosed in Denmark each year. It sits in the foramen sphenopalatinum and occurs in boys from 14 to 25 years of age. The most frequent initial symptoms are nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Through...... the years, the treatment of juvenile angiofibroma has included many methods, including surgical excision, electrocoagulation, interstitial or external radiation therapy, cryosurgery, hormone administration and chemotherapy. Radiation, chemotherapy and surgery have proven to be the most effective treatments...

  14. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  15. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  16. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joints. This form of JIA may turn into rheumatoid arthritis. It may involve 5 or more large and ... no known prevention for JIA. Alternative Names Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ...

  17. COLOUR QUALITY ENHANCED ON GOLDFISH JUVENILES THROUGH SHRIMP HEAD MEAL ENRICHED IN FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldfish (Carassius sp. is the ornamental fish which has been managed its culture by fish farmers. The objective of the research is to improve the colour quality of goldfish juveniles through enrichment of feed using shrimp head meal as source of carotenoid. The research was conducted at The Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, using completely randomized design with four treatments of shrimp head meal ratio, 0% (control, 5%, 10%, and 15% in feed, the feed formulation contained isoprotein (30%, and isolipid (15% and three replications of each treatment. Ten juveniles of Carassius sp. with body weight of (1.08±0.02 g stocked in aquarium with water volumes of 20 L. The growth and colour quality in qualitative standard using TCF (Toca Colour Finder were examined, while total carotenoid content on feed were measured by spectrophotometry method. The colour quality of goldfish were also measured at three of fins those were dorsal, ventral, and caudal. The result showed that no significant different on growth and survival rates among the treatments. Based on the present research, the optimal colour improvement to goldfish was by addition of 10% shrimp head meal in feed.

  18. Brief communication: a cranial morphometric assessment of the taxonomic affinities of Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy, 1812 primates: Colobinae) with a reassessment of the T. auratus type specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingicco, Thomas; Balzeau, Antoine; Callou, Cécile; Fitriana, Yuliana Sulistya

    2011-10-01

    The debate over the taxonomic position and affinities of Trachypithecus auratus has been ongoing since its identification by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1812. The type specimen of this species is housed in Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris (MNHN-ZM 2005-912). This point is debated due to the complex and fluctuating taxonomy of Southeast Asian Colobinae (Brandon-Jones et al.: Int J Primatol 25 (2004) 97-164) and to the fact that this individual is represented by a mounted skeleton. By means of 3D medical imaging methodologies we describe for the first time the cranial anatomy of the specimen MNHN-ZM 2005-912 and compare it with other Trachypithecus species, in order to test the molecular systematic hypotheses for affinities among the T. auratus-T. cristatus group. We ascertain the taxonomic attribution of this individual to the species Trachypithecus auratus species. The most diagnostic characters shared by the type specimen and Trachypithecus auratus compared to other species of Trachypithecus are the rounded orbits and the straight facial profile. We then try to clarify the inconsistencies concerning the geographical provenance of the type. The island of Java appears to be the most probable locality from a cluster analysis based on linear morphometry. After this approach and a discriminant analysis, a northeastern Javanese provenance of this specimen, as proposed by Brandon-Jones et al. (Int J Primatol 25 (2004) 97-164) is dubious. Finally we provide 3D models of the skull and the endocast, and a list of cranial landmark coordinates of the holotype for future research. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. PTHrP potentiating estradiol-induced vitellogenesis in sea bream (Sparus auratus, L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, G.S.; Hang, X.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, vitellogenin is an important nutritional precursor protein produced solely in the liver and released into the blood where it binds calcium. In the gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) 17beta-Estradiol (E2) plays an important role in the synthesis of vitellogenin, but also the pituitary

  20. The involvement of thyroid hormone metabolism in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus) osmoregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Mancera, J.M.; Geven, E.J.W.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of adaptation to low salinity water on the thyroid status of the euryhaline teleost, Sparus auratus. We show that, following low salinity adaptation, the plasma T(4) concentration increases and branchial deiodination activities of T(4), T(3), and rT(3) decrease.

  1. Identification of individual adult female Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) by using patterns of dark pigmentation in the pubic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Hadi, Islamul; Suryobroto, Bambang; Watanabe, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    In a series of field surveys of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) conducted at Pangandaran Nature Reserve in West Java, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2012, we tried to use a method of individual identification by using individual-specific patterns of dark pigmentation in the pubic area. During the 2011 dry season, we used a digital SLR camera with a 400-mm telephoto lens to photograph the pubic area of each individual of a habituated group. These photographs were the basis for identifying 14 different adult females. During the rainy season of 2011 and the dry season of 2012, we checked the presence/absence of each of the identified individuals and found that these patterns were stable, at least during our study period. We found that two adult females and one adult female disappeared from the subject group between the first and second and between the second and third surveys, respectively, and that one adult female gave birth between the first and second surveys, but the infant had disappeared from the group between the second and third surveys. We could not confirm the validity of the method for juvenile females because of the dense white hair in their pubic areas and the fact that few individuals had clear patterns. Furthermore, we could not use this method for males because of the lack of pigmentation in the pubic area. As patterns of pigmentation in the pubic area are known to be present in other Trachypithecus species, our method can be useful for identification of individual adult females of these species, on which few individual-based behavioral studies have been conducted. Collecting individual-based behavioral data would enable us to track the presence of individuals in groups or movements between groups; determine the effects of social rank and age on within-group competition and copulation; and examine population data.

  2. Thermal adaptation of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac delayed rectifier current, IKs, by homomeric assembly of Kv7.1 subunits without MinK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Minna; Laulaja, Salla; Paajanen, Vesa; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2011-07-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates experience acute and chronic temperature changes which affect cardiac excitability and may threaten electrical stability of the heart. Nevertheless, ectothermic hearts function over wide range of temperatures without cardiac arrhythmias, probably due to special molecular adaptations. We examine function and molecular basis of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) in cardiac myocytes of a eurythermic fish (Carassius carassius L.). I(Ks) is an important repolarizing current that prevents excessive prolongation of cardiac action potential, but it is extremely slowly activating when expressed in typical molecular composition of the endothermic animals. Comparison of the I(Ks) of the crucian carp atrial myocytes with the currents produced by homomeric K(v)7.1 and heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicates that activation kinetics and pharmacological properties of the I(Ks) are similar to those of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels. Consistently with electrophysiological properties and homomeric K(v)7.1 channel composition, atrial transcript expression of the MinK subunit is only 1.6-1.9% of the expression level of the K(v)7.1 subunit. Since activation kinetics of the homomeric K(v)7.1 channels is much faster than activation of the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels, the homomeric K(v)7.1 composition of the crucian carp cardiac I(Ks) is thermally adaptive: the slow delayed rectifier channels can open despite low body temperatures and curtail the duration of cardiac action potential in ectothermic crucian carp. We suggest that the homomeric K(v)7.1 channel assembly is an evolutionary thermal adaptation of ectothermic hearts and the heteromeric K(v)7.1/MinK channels evolved later to adapt I(Ks) to high body temperature of endotherms.

  3. The effect of finasteride on spermatogenesis of Mesocricetus auratus Impacto da finasterida na espermatogênese do Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of finasteride on the spermatogenesis of adult Mesocricetus auratus. METHODS: Twenty adult hamsters were evaluated. The animals were one year-older, and were randomly divided in 2 different groups: control group with ten animals (n=10 and experimental group also with ten animals (n=10. The animals in the experimental group were shot 7.14 ng/mL (0.5mL of finasteride by 100mg/Kg, subcutaneously in the dorsal region three times per week during 90 days. This dose correspondes to 5mg of the drug used in adult men for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. After three months, the animals were anesthetized through association of 200mg/kg ketamine chloridrate and 2.5 mg/kg of diazepan and were dead through hypovolemia.. The testis removed along with the whole genitourinary apparel were fixed with 10% formalin and submitted to histological analisys by optical microscopy. The hematoxilin-eosin (HE method was used to stain the slides. RESULTS: The mean weight of animals in the control group before death was 129.0±18.8gr. The mean weight of animals in experimental group was 145.0±15.25gr. The mean age of animals in control group before death was 15.2±1.13 months. The mean age of animals in experimental group before death was 17.16±0.82 months. The mean difference in weight between both groups was not statistical significant (p=0.0514. The totality of animals in control group (100% presented no tubular alterations and showed no disturbancy in the spermatogenesis stages. Four animals (40% in the experimental group showed hypotrophy of the seminiferous tubules and six (60% showed normal spermatogenesis, however reduced compared to control group. There was statiscally significant difference (p=0.043 between the control and experimental group related to testicular alterations. CONCLUSION: The animals that were administered finasteride showed significant tubules atrophy and spermatogenesis reduction compared to

  4. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted.

  5. Tingkah Laku Makan Lutung Jawa Trachypithecus Auratus Di Kawasan Pancuran 7 Baturaden Gunung Slamet Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana, Dwi; Nasution, Erie Kolya; Indarmawan, Indarmawan

    2017-01-01

    Javan Langur (Trachypithecus auratus) has an important ecological role in conserving the forest as their habitat by spreading seeds of fruits of their food. They are also responsible for the pattern of the plant diversity and forest regeneration as their habitat. Unfortunately, Javan Langur has been listed on Appendix II of CITES and categorized as vulnerable by the IUCN. Pancuran 7 Baturaden on the Mount Slamet slope is one of the few Javan Langur habitats in Java. Information on the Javan L...

  6. Juvenile Court Statistics - 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This report is a statistical study of juvenile court cases in 1972. The data demonstrates how the court is frequently utilized in dealing with juvenile delinquency by the police as well as by other community agencies and parents. Excluded from this report are the ordinary traffic cases handled by juvenile court. The data indicate that: (1) in…

  7. Juvenile Court Statistics, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline; Vereb, Thomas S.

    This report presents information on juvenile court processing of youth in the U.S. during 1974. It is based on data gathered under the National Juvenile Court Statistical Reporting System. Findings can be summarized as follows: (1) 1,252,700 juvenile delinquency cases, excluding traffic offenses, were handled by courts in the U.S. in 1974; (2) the…

  8. Juvenile Confinement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century, the predominant strategy for the treatment and punishment of serious and sometimes not-so-serious juvenile offenders in the United States has been placement into large juvenile corrections institutions, alternatively known as training schools, reformatories, or youth corrections centers. America's heavy reliance on…

  9. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  10. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    As one of the fundamental units of ecology and biogeography, the geographic distribution of the endemic and threatened ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok (Indonesia) has been assessed. All localities where the species

  11. Juvenile mammary papillomatosis; Papilomatosis juvenil mamaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.; Jimenez, A. V. [Hospital Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Juvenile mammary papillomatosis is a benign proliferative disease of young patients, generally under 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical presentation is the existence of an elastic and mobile lymph node of the breast. Anatomopathologically, it is characterized because it presents ductal epithelial hyperplasia, sometimes with marked atypia, and there are numerous cysts having different sizes among the findings. It has been associated with an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, both in the patient herself as well as her family. We review the literature on the subject and present the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings of a 22 year old woman diagnosed of juvenile mammary papillomatosis. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Kin discrimination in cannibalistic tadpoles of the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus (Anura, Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Gray

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalizing a related individual can reduce the inclusive fitness of the cannibal. Hence, mechanisms that allow a tadpole to recognize and modify its behavior toward kin may reduce the inclusive fitness costs of cannibalism. Alternatively, ecological factors may cause preferential treatment of kin to be too costly to be favored by selection. We tested these two predictions in the Green Poison Frog, Dendrobates auratus. The effect of kinship on larval cannibalism was examined through a series of kin-discrimination trials. The behavior of large tadpoles was observed when presented with two small, tethered tadpoles, one a clutchmate and one an unrelated tadpole. In these simultaneous presentation tests, tadpoles displayed a significant preference for attacking kin. In a series of timed trials, pairs of unequally sized tadpoles were placed together in containers. The majority (70% of large tadpoles took less than24 hr to consume the small tadpole. Kinship did not affect the survival time of the small tadpole. Our results are consistent with observations that D. auratus is an indiscriminate predator. As conspecifics may be serious competitors, their swift elimination would be an advantage, particularly in the small, nutrient-poor poolsused by this species.

  13. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  14. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  15. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  16. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  17. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male...

  18. Parenting and juvenile delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, M.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is a noteworthy problem. This thesis addressed the association between parenting and juvenile delinquency by analyzing the concepts of parenting adopted in family research in relation to criminological concepts and measures of delinquent behavior. Four studies were conducted. The first study addressed a meta-analysis on parenting characteristics and styles in relation to delinquency. In this meta-analysis, previous manuscripts were systematically analyzed, computing mean ...

  19. Contaminación aguda por vertidos textiles: Tratamiento de carpines dorados (Carassius auratus) con dicromato potásico; determinación de la toxicidad y niveles de cromo en branquias.

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Juan, María del Carmen; Flos Bassols, Rosa; Crespi Rosell, Martí; Balash, J.

    1980-01-01

    El cromo es el metal pesado cuantitativamente más importante en el vertido de la Industria Textil; procede esencialmente de los procesos de tintura con colorantes cromatables. Hemos sometido carpines dorados al tratamiento agudo con dicromato potásico disuelto en el agua de tanques experimentales. Se determina la toxicidad y los niveles de cromo en branquias. La concentración de cromo en el tejido branquia1 se halla mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, previa digestión c...

  20. Do nursery habitats provide shelter from flow for juvenile fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish nurseries are an essential life stage requirement for the maintenance of many fish populations. With many inshore habitats globally in decline, optimising habitat management by increasing our understanding of the relationship between juvenile fish and nursery habitats may be a prudent approach. Previous research on post-settlement snapper (Chrysophrys auratus has suggested that structure may provide a water flow refuge, allowing snapper to access high water flow sites that will also have a high flux of their pelagic prey. We investigated this hypothesis by describing how Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs modified water flow while also using a multi-camera set up to quantify snapper position in relation to this water flow environment. Horizontal water flow was reduced on the down-current side of ASUs, but only at the height of the seagrass canopy. While the highest abundance of snapper did occur down-current of the ASUs, many snapper also occupied other locations or were too high in the water column to receive any refuge from water flow. The proportion of snapper within the water column was potentially driven by strategy to access zooplankton prey, being higher on the up-current side of ASUs and on flood tides. It is possible that post-settlement snapper alternate position to provide opportunities for both feeding and flow refuging. An alternative explanation relates to an observed interaction between post-settlement snapper and a predator, which demonstrated that snapper can utilise habitat structure when threatened. The nature of this relationship, and its overall importance in determining the value of nursery habitats to post-settlement snapper remains an elusive next step.

  1. Do nursery habitats provide shelter from flow for juvenile fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; MacDonald, Iain; Buckthought, Dane; Middleton, Crispin

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile fish nurseries are an essential life stage requirement for the maintenance of many fish populations. With many inshore habitats globally in decline, optimising habitat management by increasing our understanding of the relationship between juvenile fish and nursery habitats may be a prudent approach. Previous research on post-settlement snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) has suggested that structure may provide a water flow refuge, allowing snapper to access high water flow sites that will also have a high flux of their pelagic prey. We investigated this hypothesis by describing how Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) modified water flow while also using a multi-camera set up to quantify snapper position in relation to this water flow environment. Horizontal water flow was reduced on the down-current side of ASUs, but only at the height of the seagrass canopy. While the highest abundance of snapper did occur down-current of the ASUs, many snapper also occupied other locations or were too high in the water column to receive any refuge from water flow. The proportion of snapper within the water column was potentially driven by strategy to access zooplankton prey, being higher on the up-current side of ASUs and on flood tides. It is possible that post-settlement snapper alternate position to provide opportunities for both feeding and flow refuging. An alternative explanation relates to an observed interaction between post-settlement snapper and a predator, which demonstrated that snapper can utilise habitat structure when threatened. The nature of this relationship, and its overall importance in determining the value of nursery habitats to post-settlement snapper remains an elusive next step.

  2. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  3. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  4. Memory for individual scent in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as assessed by habituation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R E

    1993-06-01

    The memory of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) for the flank scent of other male hamsters was investigated in a series of habituation experiments. In 2 types of habituation tasks (Experiments 1 and 2), male hamsters habituated to the flank scent of 1 male and then increased their level of investigation to that of a novel male; similar results were obtained when the intervals between trials ranged from 1 s to 2 days. When the test trial was 10 or 21 days after habituation (Experiment 3), males discriminated between familiar and novel flank scents at 10 days but not at 21 days. The results demonstrate recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individual odors and excellent memory for these differences. Habituation techniques yield extremely robust results and may be useful for investigations of other aspects of individual signatures.

  5. TINGKAH LAKU MAKAN LUTUNG JAWA Trachypithecus auratus DI KAWASAN PANCURAN 7 BATURADEN GUNUNG SLAMET JAWA TENGAH

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Eliana; Erie Kolya Nasution; Indarmawan Indarmawan

    2017-01-01

    Javan Langur (Trachypithecus auratus) has an important ecological role in conserving the forest as their habitat by spreading seeds of fruits of their food. They are also responsible for the pattern of the plant diversity and forest regeneration as their habitat. Unfortunately, Javan Langur has been listed on Appendix II of CITES and categorized as vulnerable by the IUCN. Pancuran 7 Baturaden on the Mount Slamet slope is one of the few Javan Langur habitats in Java. Information on the Javan L...

  6. Javan Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus Auratus) Movement in a Fragmented Habitat, at Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Subarkah, M. Hari; Wawandono, Novianto Bambang; Pudyatmoko, Satyawan; Subeno, Subeno; Nurvianto, Sandy; Budiman, Arif

    2011-01-01

    Pergerakan Lutung budeng (Trachypithecus auratus) didaerah habitat terfragmentasi Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru, Jawa Timur, Indonesia. Pergerakan lutung budeng di daerah habitat terfragmentasi diamati dengan metode transek. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwaada empat kelompok masing masing beranggotakan 12 (grup A), 16 (grup B), 15 (grup C) dan 12 lutung (grup D). Penelitian yang dilakukan disekitar hunian penduduk, jalan, hutan terdegradasi dan jalan-jalan setapak mengindikasikan bahwa lu...

  7. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    As one of the fundamental units of ecology and biogeography, the geographic distribution of the endemic and threatened ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok (Indonesia) has been assessed. All localities where the species has been collected are listed, and forty-two areas (each in itself consisting of numerous smaller sites) where the species has been recorded are discussed. The species occurs in a large variety of f...

  8. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  9. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Papazian; Israel Alfonso; Nayle Araguez

    2009-01-01

    La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ) es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos) o sostenidos (posturas) y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nerv...

  10. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  11. DERMATOMIOSITIS JUVENIL Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Evans M,Gregorio; Poulsen R,Ronald; Blanco R,Romiely; Luna V,Viviana

    2002-01-01

    La dermatomiositis juvenil es un desorden inflamatorio crónico multisistémico del tejido conectivo. Tiene una incidencia de 2-3/100.000/año. Con la disminución en la mortalidad experimentada en los últimos decenios, la atención está cifrada en la morbilidad a largo plazo y en las alteraciones funcionales. Con un tratamiento agresivo los niños con dermatomiositis juvenil generalmente tienen un futuro promisorio, sin incapacidad o con incapacidad mínima. La mortalidad actualmente se estima cerc...

  12. Several Growth Characteristics of an Invasive Cyprinid Fish (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait BULUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length-weight relationships, growth, and condition factors of the gibel carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782 were determined using specimens collected from Seyitler Reservoir between July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 149 gibel carp were observed and examined. The age composition of the samples ranged between I and VII years of age. It has been determined than 82.55% of the obtained samples are comprised of females, 16.11% is comprised of males and 1.34% is comprised of immature. The population is dominated by females able to reproduce gynogenetically. The mean fork lengths and mean weights of the population were 14.8-32.5 cm and 43.1-807.3 g respectively. The length-weight relation were calculated as W = 0.0696 L2.132, r=0.838 for females, for males W = 0.2942 L2.6417 r=0.784 and W = 0.0274 L2.9382, r=0.813 for all samples. The mean Fulton Condition Factor was calculated as 2.342 for females, 2.064 for males and 2.276 for all samples. Age-length and age-weight relations were determined according to von Bertalanffy growth equation formula. Growth parameters of the population were Lt = 48.09 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29], and Wt=2323.62 [1-e-0.093(t+0.29]2.9382. The growth performance index value (Ø´ was computed as 5.37 for all specimens.

  13. Biodiversity data mining from Argus-eyed citizens: the first illegal introduction record of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819 in Japan based on Twitter information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Teramura, Akinori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    An apparent illegal introduction of Lepomis macrochirus macrochirus from Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, is reported based on a juvenile specimen and a photograph of two adults collected on 14 June 2015 and deposited in the Kangawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History. The specimens and photographs were initially reported on the internet-based social networking site, Twitter. Two specimens of Carassius auratus, including an aquarium form, were also reported at the same locality and date, suggesting that the illegal introductions originated from an aquarium release. Our report demonstrates an example of web data mining in the discipline of Citizen Science.

  14. Juvenile polyposis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Han; Wei, Chin-Hung; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chang, Lung; Fu, Yu-Wei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Yeung, Chun-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Juvenile polyposis syndrome, a rare disorder in children, is characterized with multiple hamartomatous polyps in alimentary tract. A variety of manifestations include bleeding, intussusception, or polyp prolapse. In this study, we present an 8-month-old male infant of juvenile polyposis syndrome initially presenting with chronic anemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Methods: We report a rare case of an 8-month-old male infant who presented with chronic anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding initially. Panendoscopy and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple polyposis throughout the entire alimentary tract leading to intussusception. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell (RBC) bleeding scan revealed the possibility of gastrointestinal tract bleeding in the jejunum. Histopathological examination on biopsy samples showed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome was excluded, whereas the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome was established. Results: Enteroscopic polypectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. However, polyps recurred and occupied the majority of the gastrointestinal tract in 6 months. Supportive management was given. The patient expired for severe sepsis at the age of 18 months. Conclusion: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited disease, so it is not possible to prevent it. Concerning of its poor outcome and high mortality rate, it is important that we should increase awareness and education of the parents at its earliest stages. PMID:27631205

  15. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  16. Naevoxanthoendothelioma (Synonym: Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Handa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of naevoxanthoendothelioma juvenile xanthogranuloma is reported with rare features like late onset of the disease, involvement of liver and diffuse cutaneous lesions including cafe au lait spots and pigmented naevus. Final diagnosis could be achieved only on histopathology report.

  17. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae from Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rivera Félix

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical, and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta’s length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, pLos otolitos sagitta son los más estudiados debido a su variabilidad morfológica y a su tamaño, sin embargo, los otolitos de D. auratus no han sido estudiados hasta el momento. En el presente estudio, se muestra una descripción completa de la morfología y un análisis morfométrico de diversas medidas. El análisis incluye las relaciones entre el ancho y largo de la sagitta contra la longitud cefálica, longitud estándar, altura y peso de 449 peces. El material biológico fue capturado con un chinchorro playero en las costas de Alvarado y el Puerto de Veracruz de noviembre 2009 a junio 2010. Las sagittae fueron extraídas, limpiadas, fotografiadas (SEM y ópticas y medidas. La comparación entre el otolito derecho e izquierdo no mostró diferencias significativas entre el ancho y largo (prueba de t, p<0.05 para cada sexo. El otolito derecho fue utilizado para las relaciones de las distintas medidas del otolito del pez y del otolito de hembras y machos; la prueba de Fisher (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001 no mostró diferencias significativas de las pendientes e intersecciones entre ellos. La relación longitud del otolito

  18. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  19. Argon laser-induced damage in the goldfish (C. auratus) retina following whole-body hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Michael A.; Lund, David J.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Ann M.; Cowan, Beth L.; Lester, Paul; Odom, Daniel G.

    1990-07-01

    The heat shock response is a phenomenon common to all cells and is characterized by an increase in the rate of synthesis of intracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) . The response occurs following rapid transient increases in terrerature sufficient to cause stress but not cell death. HSPs appear to perform protective functions that raise the cell''s tolerance to diverse noxious stimuli. Thus we postulated that we could limit laser-induced retinal darriage through induction of the heat shock -response. Corrmon goldfish (C. auratus) made hyperthermic by immersion in 35C water for 15 minutes and radiolabeled with [355]methionine showed retinal liSPs with apparent molecular weights of 110 90 70 and 35 kilodaltons. To test the protective effects of HSPs against laser injury goldfish were made hyperthermic and 4 and 24 hr later their retinas were irradiated with argon laser light (51 4 . 5 nm spot size at the cornea 3. 0 mm irradiance 125 mW/cm2) . NonhyperLhermic animals served as controls. Following 24 hr of recovery fish were terminated and retinas fixed for histology. Fundus photographs were taken irrunediately after laser exposure . Lesion diameters were measured from fundus photographs and evaluated statistically. The mean retinal lesion diameters of fish not subjected to hyperthermJ. a laser exposed 4 hr post hyperLhermia and laser exposed 24 hr post hyperthermia were 10. 25 1. 4 SD 8. 82 2. 1 SD and 6. 78

  20. TINGKAH LAKU MAKAN LUTUNG JAWA Trachypithecus auratus DI KAWASAN PANCURAN 7 BATURADEN GUNUNG SLAMET JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Eliana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Javan Langur (Trachypithecus auratus has an important ecological role in conserving the forest as their habitat by spreading seeds of fruits of their food. They are also responsible for the pattern of the plant diversity and forest regeneration as their habitat. Unfortunately, Javan Langur has been listed on Appendix II of CITES and categorized as vulnerable by the IUCN. Pancuran 7 Baturaden on the Mount Slamet slope is one of the few Javan Langur habitats in Java. Information on the Javan Langur in this area was inadequate. Therefore this study was aimed to get information on the type of food and the feeding behavior of Javan Langur, particularly in Pancuran 7 Baturaden. This study used a survey method, and the Animal Scan sampling technique was applied. The variables observed were sex ratio, population size, eating position, eating process, feeding locations, feeding duration, including the food type of the Javan Langur. Observed data for each variable were analyzed descriptively as percentages, and the results showed the Javan Langur were eating by sitting and standing, were marking trees to feed, were using hands and mouth to eat, were eating leaves and fruit, were eating on the trees and bushes. There were nine plant species as their food variety, while Matoa fruit and leave (Pometia  pinnata were their preferred foods.

  1. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  2. Late Onset Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithwavathy K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19 year old female was seen with multiple skin coloured and hyperpigmented macules, discrete as well as grouped papules and nodules of varying sizes distributed over the face, neck, extensor and flexor aspects of both upper and lower extremities including joints. The trunk was spared. Some of the lesions showed features of spontaneous regression. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. Lesions regressed satisfactorily with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy.

  3. Miastenia gravis juvenil Juvenile myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Papazian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La miastenia gravis juvenil (MGJ es un trastorno crónico auto inmune en el cual existen anticuerpos séricos que al unirse a los receptores de acetilcolin nicotínicos de la membrana muscular de la placa motora alteran la transmisión neuromuscular. El resultado es fatiga muscular precoz con progresión a la parálisis durante estados de contracción muscular iterativos (movimientos o sostenidos (posturas y más raramente parálisis permanente durante el reposo. Los músculos inervados por los nervios craneales, especialmente los extraoculares y elevadores de los párpados, tienen más tendencia a la debilidad muscular persistente que los inervados por otros pares craneales y las extremidades. Las formas clínicas de presentación son generalizadas, oculares y respiratorias. El diagnóstico se sospecha mediante la anamnesia, la fatiga anormal se comprueba mediante el examen físico y la estimulación eléctrica iterativa del nervio que inerva al músculo afectado pero no paralizado. Se corrobora mediante la administración de inhibidores de la acetilcolin esterasa (IACE que al aumentar la cantidad de acetilcolin en la hendidura sináptica, corrigen la fatiga o la debilidad muscular transitoriamente. Se hace el diagnóstico de certeza mediante la demostración sérica de anticuerpos contra los receptores de acetilcolin (ACRA. El tratamiento es a largo plazo sintomático con IACE y etiopatogénico con inmunosupresores, plasmaféresis, gamma globulina endovenosa y timectomía. El curso es crónico. La remisión espontánea o después de tratamiento sintomático o etiopatogénico ocurre entre 1-10 años respectivamente. La mortalidad es prácticamente nula aun durantes las crisis miastenias gracias a la educación de padres, pacientes y público en general sobre el tema, al desarrollo del sistema de respuesta rápida de auxilio domiciliario y las unidades de cuidados intensivos y el empleo de la ventilación asistida profiláctica, plasmaféresis y

  4. Reproductive activity of the frog Dendrobates auratus Girard in captivity breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Křížová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of the reproduction activities of Dendrobates auratus Girard, 1855 is part of a broader ana­ly­sis of the problems encountered when keeping frogs from the family Dendrobatidae in captivity. The aim is to achieve an optimization of measures for successful breeding of these amphibians, for both the amateur hobbyist and conservationist alike. Due to the wide area they have colonized, many colour variations exist; the reproduction parameters of six differently coloured examples of the species were tracked. The collection of data happened in standardized conditions over two consecutive years (2007, 2008 and was aimed at measuring five indicators concerning reproduction, understanding of egg-laying dynamics during a year, measuring the risk of stock loss during different stages of development and determining if any differences existed between the different colour variations in these parameters. A noticable alternating cycle of rest and reproduction activities has been observed between equinoxes. In the harvest there were usually 5–10 eggs with an average incubation period of 10 days (8–18 at a temperature of 22 °C. The total duration of development was on average 74 days (64–103. The number of eggs in a harvest and the duration of incubation were statistically dif­fe­rent with the blue form between different observed periods. Total mortality rate during ontogenesis reached 10–53%, the highest losses were in the period when the tadpole left its egg and began developing its hind legs, 5–60%. The optimisation of breeding conditions has been reccommended. Secondary be­ne­fits of this study research was the collection of new knowledge about ethology of this species in captivity.

  5. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  6. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  8. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  9. Annual, lunar and diel reproductive periodicity of a spawning aggregation of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in a marine embayment on the lower west coast of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, C B

    2010-10-01

    Ichthyoplankton sampling and ovarian characteristics were used to elucidate whether the reproductive cycles of a spawning aggregation of snapper Pagrus auratus in a nearshore marine embayment were temporally and spatially specific and related with environmental conditions. The reproductive dynamics of this aggregation were studied over four consecutive years (2001-2004). Spawning occurred between September and January each year, when water temperatures ranged from 15·8 to 23·1° C. In all 4 years, the cumulative egg densities in Cockburn Sound were highest when water temperatures were between the narrow range of 19-20° C. The spawning fraction of females was monthly bimodal and peaked during new and the full moons at 96-100% and c. 75%, respectively. The backcalculated ages of P. auratus eggs collected from 16 ichthyoplankton surveys demonstrated that P. auratus in Cockburn Sound spawn at night during the 3 h following the high tide. The spatial distributions of P. auratus eggs in Cockburn Sound during the peak reproductive period in all 4 years were consistent, further implying spawning was temporally and spatially specific. High concentrations of recently spawned eggs (8-16 h old) demonstrated spawning also occurred within the adjacent marine embayments of Owen Anchorage and Warnbro Sound. Water circulation in Cockburn and Warnbro Sounds resembled an eddy that was most prominent during the period of highest egg densities, thereby facilitating the retention of eggs in these areas. The reproductive cycles of P. auratus described in this study have assisted managers with the appropriate temporal and spatial scale for a closed fishing season to protect these spawning aggregations. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Juvenile hyperthyroidism: an experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadada, S; Bhansali, A; Velayutham, P; Masoodi, S R

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the clinical profile of juvenile hyperthyroidism at presentation, their treatment outcome; predictors of remission and relapse. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 56 patients with juvenile hyperthyroidism seen over a period of 16 years. A cohort of 38 females and 18 males with mean (+/-SD) age of 14.9 +/- 3.4 years (range 3 to 18 years) was analyzed. Majority of patients was in the age group of 12-16 years. Common symptoms observed at presentation were weight loss (82.1%), excessive sweating (78.6%), heat intolerance (76.8%), increased appetite (73.2%) and diarrhea in 48.2%. In addition, accelerated linear growth was observed in 7.1% of patients. Goiter was present in 98.2% of children; 94.5% of which was diffuse and 4.8% was multinodular. The mean ((+/-SD) T3 was 4.8 +/- 3.4 ng/mL (N, 0.6-1.6), T4 was 218 +/- 98 ng/mL (N, 60-155) and TSH was 0.44 +/- 0.36 (N, 0.5-5.5 microIU/mL). TMA positivity seen in 36.9% of patients. All patients were treated with carbimazole; subsequently 4 patients required thyroidectomy and one required radioactive iodine ablation. Mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in our patients was 4.9 +/- 3 years, ranging between 1.6 to 16 years and mean (+/-SD) duration of treatment was 34.4 +/- 22.6 months (range 12 to 120 months). Mean (+/-SD) duration to achieve euthyroidism was 5.2 +/- 4.7 months, ranging between 1-33 months. On intention to treat analysis, remission with carbimazole was achieved in 47.6%, remaining patients failed to achieve remission with drug treatment. Graves disease is the commonest cause of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Carbimazole is safe, effective, cheap, and easily available form of therapy. It is occasionally associated with serious side effects but requires prolonged follow up.

  11. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  12. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  13. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A number of studies conducted under this project have demonstrated that many of the biological parameters used to calculate permissible levels of exposure of adults to radioactive materials are inappropriate for the rapidly growing infant or child or for the pregnant female. These include age-related differences in radionuclide deposition, distribution, and retention and associated differences in microdosimetry, as well as the greater intrinsic radiosensitivity of the immature organism. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed information on the metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. The continuing objective of this project is to obtain such information, which is needed to establish appropriate exposure limits for radionuclides of greatest potential hazard to these age groups

  14. Juvenile delinquency and correctional treatment in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    堀尾, 良弘; ホリオ, ヨシヒロ; Yoshihiro, Horio

    2006-01-01

    Japanese modernistic culture is influenced not a little from Britain. In looking at the Juvenile Law and the history of correctional treatment in Britain, understanding of today's juvenile delinquency and treatment deepen. Moreover, the background and issue of juvenile delinquency in Britain are also discussed. As a feature of the juvenile delinquency in Britain, the common field with Japan and the field peculiar to Britain became clear in each. It is common to the world that the juvenile del...

  15. Group Work with Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews group work literature on juvenile delinquents. Presents overview of interventions, including positive peer culture, cognitive-behavioral treatment, psychoeducational treatment, treatment of learned behavior, action-oriented treatment, milieu therapy, parental involvement, assertiveness training, and music therapy. Discusses outcome…

  16. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Piero; Schreiber, Alberto; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22164185

  17. Juvenile Angiofibroma: Evolution of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare benign lesion originating from the pterygopalatine fossa with distinctive epidemiologic features and growth patterns. The typical patient is an adolescent male with a clinical history of recurrent epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Although the use of nonsurgical therapies is described in the literature, surgery is currently considered the ideal treatment for juvenile angiofibroma. Refinement in preoperative embolization has provided significant reduction of complications and intraoperative bleeding with minimal risk of residual disease. During the last decade, an endoscopic technique has been extensively adopted as a valid alternative to external approaches in the management of small-intermediate size juvenile angiofibromas. Herein, we review the evolution in the management of juvenile angiofibroma with particular reference to recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  19. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  20. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for rapidly growing infants or children and for pregnant women. Further dosimetry for an experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that most of the lifetime burden is derived from prenatal exposure and that milk contributes little in addition. Other measurements have confirmed a tentative observation that the lifetime burden in offspring is greater with near-term exposure than with exposure earlier in gestation. Additional results from a comparison of the embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am have confirmed that, on the basis of dose administered to the dam, the former has a greater effect on the conceptus. Pilot studies indicate that 233 U is teratogenic, acting as a chemical rather than as a radiological teratogen. Studies with 239 Pu-exposed pregnant rabbits have shown that maternal distribution differs from that in rodents; concentration patterns in the placenta and membranes also differed. 4 figures, 1 table

  1. [Localized eruptive juvenile xanthogranuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, S; Chiaverini, C; Rostain, G; Cardot-Leccia, N; Lacour, J-P

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytosis of young children characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules. Atypical skin lesions such as lichenoid eruptions, and pedunculated, maculopapular, plaque-like or linear lesions have been described. We report a case of eruptive XGJ en plaque in the left leg in an infant. A 13-month-old child presented asymptomatic eruptive, yellowish papules of the leg measuring 5 to 10mm since the age of 2months. There was no cutaneous infiltration between the lesions. Darier's sign was negative. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of JXG. The course of the disease comprised a gradual decrease in the number of active lesions with slight residual pigmentation. Our case was suggestive of JXG en plaque. Only 7 cases have been reported in the literature, all appearing before the age of 5months. The lesions corresponded mostly to an asymptomatic erythematous plaque studded with small yellowish/red nodules of variable localisation. Spontaneous involvement was noted in all cases. No systemic involvement was found. Herein we present a unique case of localised multiple JXG without evident clinical infiltrating plaque progressing with self-resolving flares. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, our emphasis is directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child, and for pregnant women. Recent results demonstrated that injection of pregnant rats with 23 Pu had the greatest effect on longevity and bone-tumor incidence of the offspring when exposure occurred at 19 days of gestation (dg); less effect at 15 dg and the least effect at 9 dg. Ongoing distribution studies are providing data which confirm our tentative explanation that marked variations in the anatomic distributions of bone tumors, with age at the time of injection, were attributable to age-related differences in 239 Pu microdosimetry and concentrations among skeletal components. Other studies, using a placental perfusion technique, have demonstrated that intravenous injection of 239 Pu in pregnant guinea pigs leads to a marked decrease in maternal blood flow to the placenta

  3. JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Sartika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is the most common rheumatic condition in children. JRA is defined as persistent arthritis in 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks, with the onset before age 16 years. The etiology of JRA is unknown. Antigen activated CD4+ T cell stimulate monocytes, macrophages, and synovial fibroblasts to produce the cytokines Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and to secrete matrix metalloproteinases, which lead to chronic inflammation due to infiltration of inflammatory cell, angiogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone with pannus formation. The 3 major subtypes of JRA are based on the symptoms at disease onset and are designated systemic onset, pauciarticular onset, and polyarticular onset. For all patients, the goals of therapy are to decrease chronic joint pain and suppress the inflammatory process. Poor prognostic have been observed in patients with polyarticular onset, rheumatoid factor, persistent morning stiffness, tenosynovitis, involvement of the small joints, rapid appearance of erosions, active late onset childhood, subcutaneous nodules, or antinuclear antibody.

  4. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal is reported. Emphasis is toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. Recent results have shown that injection of pregnant rats with 239 Pu increases the incidence and severity of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver in the offspring; the magnitude of these effects is relatd to dose and prenatal age at exposure. Analysis of combined data from several experiments leads to the conclusion that perinatal rats are more sensitive to bone tumor induction by 239 Pu alpha-particle irradiation than are adults. Further histopathologic evaluations of material from earlier experiments have demonstrated that most of the increased incidence of thyroid tumors following 131 I exposure is attributable to follicular tumors. An analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that prenatal irradiation can lead to an increased or decreased incidence of tumors, depending on the specific details of the experimental design and system

  5. Fetal and juvenile radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This project is directed at obtaining detailed comparative information on the deposition, distribution, retention, and toxicity of radionuclides in the prenatal and juvenile mammal. Because quantitative data cannot necessarily be extrapolated to man, emphasis is also directed toward establishing patterns, phenomenologic interactions, and relationships which will be useful in determining appropriate exposure levels for the rapidly growing infant or child and for pregnant women. An experiment to evaluate the effects of foster-rearing of newborn rats on the lifetime effects of 239 Pu exposure has demonstrated that, while longevity is primarily dependent on radiation history, growth rate and adult body weight are related to the exposure and fitness of the foster dam. Results from an ongoing comparison of the dosimetry and embryotoxicity of 239 Pu and 241 Am confirm that the former has a greater effect on the conceptus, on the basis of dose administered to the dam. Studies in the guinea-pig perfusion system have confirmed that maternal blood flow to the placenta is decreased by intravenous doses of 30 nCi/g 239 Pu and suggest that the threshold lies at approximately 5 nCi/g body weight. A dose of 30 nCi/g of 241 Am does not affect blood flow. Clearance of the two actinides is similar when blood flow effects are not considered. 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: Variation among species and impact of water chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, David L.; Meinelt, Thomas; Liu, Dibo

    2017-01-01

    , Ictalurus punctatus; golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas; goldfish, Carassius auratus; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; sunshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis; and walleye, Sander vitreus. Median lethal concentration...

  7. PSYCHOSOCIAL PROFILE OF JUVENILE DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Jyoti; Dhavale, H.S.; Rathi, Anup

    1999-01-01

    A study of the complex relationships between the patient characteristics, family and environmental influences, physician's behaviour and the demands of the disease with its management in Juvenile Diabetics was taken up at a general hospital. 90 subjects were selected for the study and grouped into three. Group A consisted of 30 Juvenile Diabetics, Group B of 30 Adult Diabetics and Group C of 30 Normal healthy adolescents. The impact of the illness was measured on the Diabetes Impact Measurement Scale (DIMS), the behavioural deviations and the parental attitudes towards child rearing on the Fallstrom's Questionnaire (FQ) and the family environment on the Family Climate Scale (FCS). Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Group A & B were compared on the DIMS and Group A & C on FQ & FCS. Adult diabetics had a greater impact of diabetes. Juvenile diabetics had significantly higher frequency of behavioural deviations as compared to controls. Also there was a higher number of responses on questions indicating an overprotecting attitude amongst parents of juvenile diabetics. There was an increased incidence of psychiatric morbidity in juvenile diabetics as compared to normal adolescents irrespective of the family environment. The results are discussed in relation to current literature. PMID:21430802

  8. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Bari, A.; Maqsud, A.; Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, T. M.; Saira Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and drug therapy in patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from October 2008 to October 2011. Methodology: All patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for JRA were enrolled. Their clinical features, investigations done and treatment received for JRA were noted. Statistical analysis of data was done on SPSS version 16.0 for obtaining descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 185 patients, 50.3% (n = 93) were females; 54% (n = 100) were between 10 - 15 years of age. Polyarthritis was found in 71.9% (n = 133) followed by oligoarthritis (22.7%, n = 42) and systemic onset disease (5.4%, n = 10). Morning stiffness (78%) and fever (68%) were the most common clinical presentations. All patients with systemic onset disease had fever (n = 10) followed by skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Uveitis was found in 2 patients, and both belonged to the oligoarticular group. Rheumatoid factor was found in 10.27% (n = 19) of all patients. All patients were given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Disease modifying agents (methotrexate) were given to 43.8% (n = 81). Steroids were used in 61% (n = 113) of patients either with NSAIDs alone or NSAIDs plus methotrexate. Conclusion: Disease profile of JRA at the study centre showed that polyarthritis is the commonest type. Recognition of subtypes will help in planning the management of these patients. (author)

  9. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  10. Evolution of Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Prohorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis tend to follow a more frequent involvement in the pathological process of elbow and ankle joints, development of enthesiopathies, changes of intraarticular meniscal horns, forming of Baker’s cysts, cartilage flaps and systemic osteoporosis, and total value of all these signs 13 times exceeds thereof in patients with with the debut of disease in adulthood, but for juvenile ankylosing spondylitis vertebral lesion is less common. Age dimorphism of the use of certain groups of drugs and physiotherapy facilities is observed.

  11. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  12. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  13. Juvenile Courts. Creation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the creation of Juvenile or Children's Courts in Spain, analysing their reasons and aims, as well as the ethical and political connotations present on their way of acting. Their history and the one of the institutions that complement them is built from the legislation, writings and ideas of their promoters.

  14. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  15. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  16. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  17. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  18. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  19. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  20. A Practical Approach to Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Juvenile Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Liza J; Pain, Clare E

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile scleroderma are rare multisystem autoimmune disorders. Although they share some pathognomonic hallmarks with adult onset myositis or scleroderma, there are significant differences in presentation, characteristics and associated features when the diseases present in childhood. In view of this, and the rarity of the conditions, it is important for care to be led by teams with expertise in pediatric rheumatology conditions. Prognosis has improved significantly in the West; likely due to early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with immunosuppressive medications. However, this trend is not replicated in the developing world. Early recognition of these diseases is crucial to achieve rapid and sustained remission and prevent disease or medication associated complications. This article aims to provide a practical overview for recognition, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  1. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  2. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  4. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  5. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemometric approach to evaluate element distribution in muscle, liver and fish bone of roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) from Swarzędzkie Lake (Poland) using ICP-MS and FIAS-CVAAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzińska, Maria; Komorowicz, Izabela; Hanć, Anetta; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-11-01

    The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied. The study indicated a large variation in the occurrence of the investigated elements in different parts of the fish body. The highest content of Al and Zn was stated in all fish organs for each fish species. The majority of the applied statistical and chemometric methods (e.g., PCA, CA) refer to roach since we had a large number of data for this species. The obtained results were assessed in terms of their accuracy and precision using certified reference material of Fish Muscle ERM BB422.

  7. Radioactive tracers in the study of energy turnover by a grazing insect (Chrysochus auratus Fab. ; coleoptera chrysomelidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jr, E C; Reichle, D E

    1968-01-01

    Radioisotope tags of rubidium-86 and phosphorus-32 were used to measure food consumption by the chrysomelid beetle Chrysochus auratus feeding upon the old field herb Apocynum cannabinum. The elimination of isotope by beetles which had fed upon tagged plants was used to estimate the rates of food consumption. For individuals at isotopic equilibrium with their food base, isotope input (I) equals the biological turnover of isotope: I = kQ/sub e/M/a, where k is the turnover rate of isotope, Q/sub e/ is the equilibrium concentration of isotope in the beetles, M is mass (mg dry wt), and a is the assimilation coefficient for the particular radioisotope. Turnover rates (k) were calculated from biological half-lives (T/sub b/), where k = 0.693/T/sub b/. The biological half-life of YWRb in Chrysochus was one day, while that of TSP was 7.5 days in females and 10.2 days in males. The calorific value of Apocynum leaves was 4625 cal/g dry wt (5640 cal/g ash-free wt); that of Chrysochus was 5227 cal/g dry wt (5537 cal/g ash-free wt). Individuals consumed 56.8% (15.9 mg) of their dry body weight in food per day. Of the ingested foliage, 43% of the ash-free dry matter was digested, 56% of the energy assimilated, and 71% of the ash content assimilated. The calorific value (cal/g) of digested food was 1.17 times greater than that consumed. Beetles assimilated 87% of the YWRb and 74% of the TSP present in food. Ranking of turnover times showed Chrysochus to be most conservative in its expenditure of food energy and dry matter, followed by mineral constituents. 9 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. © 2013.

  9. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  10. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  11. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  12. Juvenile ossifying fibroma: Psammamatoid variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is a rare fibro-osseous lesion containing variable amount of calcified masses, which resembles bone or cementum within a fibrocellular connective tissue stroma. It has variable clinical behavior, highly aggressive in nature including invasion and destruction of adjacent anatomic structures with a strong tendency to recur. We reported a 28-year-old female patient with a growth in the upper left vestibule region extending from canine to molar region with clinical, histopathological, and radiological features are presented. Surgical management was done, and regular follow-up was advised.

  13. THE STUDY OF FEATURES OF GUILT OF JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN THE CONTEXT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vladimirovna Galkina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the results of empirical studies of the experiences of guilt of juvenile offenders in the context of juvenile justice where a minor appears as the subject of legal relations. Restorative approach of juvenile justice is based on an admission of guilt to the victim. In connection with it, the research of features of the guilt of minors who have committed an offence and the conditions for the development of the subjectivity will enhance understanding of the possibilities of restorative juvenile justice system in the prevention of juvenile delinquency.Thus, the results of empirical research presented in the article are important for determining of the psychological bases of realization of rehabilitation programs in the context of juvenile justice. In particular, the results are important for the organization and conduct of psychological work to overcome the psychological barriers in the behavior of juveniles having inherently maladaptive guilt and destructive psychological defense mechanisms.

  14. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  15. Moral development of solo juvenile sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Stams, G.J.; Dekovic, M.; Brugman, D.; Rutten, E.; Hendriks, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the moral development of solo juvenile male sex offenders (n = 20) and juvenile male non-offenders (n = 76), aged 13-19 years, from lower socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The Moral Orientation Measure (MOM) was used to assess punishment- and victim-based moral

  16. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  17. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  18. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  19. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  20. Reformations in Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system | Ruparanganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in conflict with the law are often stigmatized and shunned by society as they are perceived as a threat to society. Historically, Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system has been retributive and focused on punishing the juvenile offender. As a result, it has been criticised from a number of viewpoints, including the need to ...

  1. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Family transitions and juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D; Osgood, Aurea K; Oghia, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of research that shows children from non-intact homes show higher rates of juvenile delinquency than children from intact homes, partially due to weaker parental control and supervision in non-intact homes. What has not been adequately addressed in the research is the influence of changes in family structure among individual adolescents over time on delinquent offending. Using the first and third waves of the National Youth Study, we assess the effect of family structure changes on changes in delinquent offending between waves through the intermediate process of changes in family time and parental attachment. Although prior research has documented adolescents in broken homes are more delinquent than youth in intact homes, the process of family dissolution is not associated with concurrent increases in offending. In contrast, family formation through marriage or cohabitation is associated with simultaneous increases in offending. Changes in family time and parental attachment account for a portion of the family formation effect on delinquency, and prior parental attachment and juvenile offending significantly condition the effect of family formation on offending.

  3. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis

  4. Juvenile Gaucher disease simulating osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Ortega, J.A.; Heisel, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    A case in which several imaging procedures suggested juvenile Gaucher disease in a child who presented with symptomatology of osteomyelitis is discussed. The 20-month girl was given a Technetium-99m radionuclide skeletal examination which revealed intense uptake of tracer agents along the shaft of the right femur. It was also found that the liver and spleen were dramatically Ga-67 avid. The bone pain symptomatology suggested an osteomyelitis of the femur, but skeletal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled bone tracer demonstrated photopenic areas involving the femur, suggesting that the bone pain may have been due to marrow packed with Gaucher cells. This overexpansion of the marrow may lead to microfractures with remodeling seen radiographically as periosteal new bone and scintigraphically as increased periosteal deposition of tracer agent. The radiogallium study was useful to exclude an underlying osteomyelitis in the involved femurs. Although juvenile Gaucher disease is unusual, it should be considered in any child who presents with the constellation of hepatosplenomegaly and bone pain simulating osteomyelitis.

  5. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  6. Infección experimental del hámster (Mesocricetus auratus con metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Huiza F

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Un hámster hembra adulta infectada oralmente con 11 metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus murió a los 10 días de ser infectado. A la autopsia del animal, se observaron y recuperaron 5 ejemplares juveniles de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus aún móviles: 2 en tejido pulmonar, 2 en cavidad toráxica y 1 en tejido graso del peritoneo abdominal.

  7. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  8. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  9. Juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome. Interdisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Siuchnińska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM belongs to soft tissue pain syndromes of unknown cause, also referred to as “soft tissue rheumatism”. It is characterized by chronic widespread pain as well as additional symptoms such as fatigue, sleep and mood disturbance and cognitive problems. There is more and more data showing that this condition may start at a young age or even in childhood, adversely affecting development processes and resulting in dysfunctional social and family relationships. Because of the multifaceted character of fibromyalgia the efficient treatment of this disorder can be difficult and requires comprehensive care. This work reviews most recommended procedures used in integrated treatment programmes for juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFM.

  10. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  11. Law & psychiatry: punishing juveniles who kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-10-01

    Punishment of juvenile murderers forces policy makers to weigh the developmental immaturity of adolescents against the heinousness of their crimes. The U.S. Supreme Court has progressively limited the severity of punishments that can be imposed on juveniles, holding that their impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, and more fluid character render them less culpable for their actions. Having eliminated the death penalty as a punishment, the Court recently struck down mandatory life sentences without prospect of parole. The decision is interesting for its emphasis on rehabilitation, opening the door to further restrictions on punitive sentences for juveniles-and perhaps for adults too.

  12. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  13. Perception of scent over-marks by golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus): novel mechanisms for determining which individual's mark is on top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R E; Bhorade, A

    1998-09-01

    Hamsters preferentially remember or value the top scent of a scent over-mark. What cues do they use to do this? Using habituation-discrimination techniques, we exposed male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) on 3 to 4 trials to genital over-marks from 2 females and then tested subjects for their familiarity with these 2 scents compared with that of a novel female's secretion. Preferential memory for 1 of the 2 individuals' scents did not occur if the 2 marks did not overlap or did not overlap but differed in age, but it did occur if a region of overlap existed or 1 mark apparently occluded another (but did not overlap it). Thus, hamsters use regions of overlap and the spatial configuration of scents to evaluate over-marks. These phenomena constitute evidence for previously unsuspected perceptual abilities, including olfactory scene analysis, which is analogous to visual and auditory scene analysis.

  14. The semantic sphere of juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a preliminary empirical study aimed to identify features of the semantic sphere of adolescents who have committed illegal, including aggressive acts. The study included 50 male juveniles aged of 16 - 17 years. The first group consisted of adolescents convicted of aggressive and violent crimes; the second – of property socially dangerous acts (SDA. It is shown that evaluation of such adolescents is generally categorical and polar, the semantic field is subdifferentiable, less hierarchic, and has not enough realistic structure of meanings. Developed structure of motives and meanings is the basis of voluntary regulation of socially significant behavior. Thus, assessing the semantic sphere of juvenile offenders we can highlight its characteristics as risk factors of unlawful behavior, as well as the resource side, that will contribute to addressing issues of prevention and correction of unlawful behavior. Key words: juvenile offenders, semantic field of juvenile offenders, unlawful behavior.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. Normally, the body stops the inflammatory response after healing is complete to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues. In people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis , the inflammatory ...

  16. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  17. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  18. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  19. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  20. Native freshwater species get out of the way: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) impacts both fish and benthic invertebrate communities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Docherty, Cassandra; Neufeld, Kenton; Hamilton, Kyle; MacPherson, Laura; Poesch, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    Prussian carp ( Carassius gibelio ) are one of the most noxious non-native species in Eurasia. Recently, Prussian carp, a non-native freshwater fish species, were genetically confirmed in Alberta, Canada and have been rapidly expanding their range in North America since establishment. Given their rapid range expansion, there is an increasing need to determine how Prussian carp may impact native species. We assessed the severity of the Prussian carp invasion by (i) determining their impact on fish communities, (ii) assessing their impact on benthic invertebrate communities, (iii) evaluating if Prussian carp alter abiotic conditions, and (iv) identifying where we find higher abundances of Prussian carp. When Prussian carp were established, we found significant changes to the fish community. Correspondingly, the degree of impact to benthic invertebrate communities was related to the stage of invasion (none, early or recent), where changes in fish communities were significantly concordant with changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Finally, we found that higher abundances of Prussian carp were significantly associated with lower abundances of a majority of native fish species. Altogether, using three lines of evidence, we determine that Prussian carp can have wide-ranging impacts on freshwater ecosystems in North America, pressing the need for management intervention.

  1. [Bacteriological study on juvenile periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N

    1991-02-01

    The predominant cultivable microflora of 23 pockets in 15 juvenile periodontitis (JP) patients was studied for the first time in China using the current anaerobic methodology. Samples were taken with sterile paper points and dispersed on a vortex mixer. Then the diluted samples were plated on the non-selective blood agar plates and selective MGB medium which favors the growth of Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa) and incubated in anaerobic chamber for 5 days. From each sample 15 or more isolated colonies were picked in sequence without selection and subcultured. The isolates were identified mainly by Schrechenberger's 4 hour rapid methods for biochemical and fermentative tests and the chromatographic analysis of acid end products using ion-chromatography. The results were as follows: 1. The microflora of healthy sulci of 7 healthy young subjects was significantly different from that in the pocket of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. 2. The species increased significantly in JP patients in prevalence and proportions was Eubacterium. Other species in high proportions were Bacteroides oris, B. melaninogenicus, B. gingivalis, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Actinomyces meyeri, etc. 3. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any of the samples.

  2. Gill structural change in response to turbidity has no effect on the oxygen uptake of a juvenile sparid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, H; Herbert, N A

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O 2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O 2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species ( Pagrus auratus ) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (turbidity units) for 30 days. Significant gill structural change was apparent with a progressive increase in turbidity and was quantified as a reduction in lamellar density, as well as an increase in basal hyperplasia, epithelial lifting and increased oxygen diffusion distance across the lamellae. The weight of control fish did not change throughout the experiment, but all fish exposed to turbid waters lost weight, and weight loss increased with nephelometric turbidity units, confirming that long-term turbidity exposure is detrimental to growth productivity. The growth of fish could be impacted in a variety of ways, but the specific hypothesis that structural alteration of the gills impairs O 2 uptake across the gills and limits growth fitness was not supported because there was no measurable difference in the standard metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, aerobic metabolic scope or critical oxygen saturation limit of fish measured in clear water after 30 days of exposure. Although impaired O 2 uptake as a result of structurally adjusted gills is unlikely to be the cause of poor fish growth, the exact mechanism by which growth productivity is affected in turbid conditions remains unclear and warrants further investigation.

  3. PERBEDAAN TINGKAT STRES LUTUNG JAWA (Trachypitecus auratus) PADA KANDANG PERAWATAN DAN KANDANG KARANTINA DI JAVAN LANGUR CENTER (JLC) DITINJAU DARI KADAR KORTISOL DAN RASIO NEUTROFIL PERLIMFOSIT (N/L)

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Dini Danafi; Djoko Winarso; Rahadi Swatomo; Ahmad Fauzi; Ida Masnur; Iwan Kurniawan; Nurina Titisari

    2017-01-01

    Lutung Jawa (Trachypithecus auratus) adalah satwa endemik Jawa dan Bali. Populasi lutung Jawa semakin mengalami penurunan dan masuk kategori satwa yang dilindungi. Penurunan populasi lutung jawa dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai macam penyakit yang diperparah dengan tingginya tingkat stres pada satwa. Javan Langur Center yang berlokasi di Cangar, Batu merupakan salah satu tempat untuk merehabilitasi lutung Jawa sebelum dilepasliarkan ke alam. Javan Langur Center terdiri dari tiga kandang yaitu k...

  4. BAFRA BALIK GÖLÜ'NDE YAŞAYAN HAVUZ BALIĞI,Carassius gibelio (BLOCH, 1782'NUN KONDİSYON FAKTÖRÜ VE BOY-AĞIRLIK İLİŞKİSİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya BOSTANCI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Bu çalışmada, Bafra Balık Gölü'ndeki Havuz balığının (Carassius gibelio kondisyon faktörü ve boy-ağırlık ilişkisini belirlemek amacıyla, Ocak 2000-Eylül 2002 tarihleri arasında aylık olarak örneklenen 173 birey incelenmiştir. Populasyonda 168 ♀ (% 97.11, 5 ♂ (% 2.89 birey bulunmaktadır. Populasyonun çatal boy dağılımı 16.9-30 cm arasında, ağırlık dağılımı ise 125-730 g arasında değişmiş, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi W = 0.0265 L2,978 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Kondisyon faktörü ise 1.976–3.776 arasında değişmiş ve ortalama kondisyon faktörü 2.494±0.018 olarak belirlenmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Carassius gibelio, Kondisyon faktörü, Boy-ağırlık ilişkisi, Bafra Balık Gölü DETERMINATION OF CONDITION FACTOR AND LENGTH-WEİGHT RELATIONSHIP OF THE CRUCIAN CARP, Carassıus gıbelıo (BLOCH, 1782 INHABITING BAFRA FISH LAKE Abstract: In this study, it is examined the crucian carp (Carassius gibelio which is captured by montly sampling during the period of January 2000 to September 2002 in the Bafra Fish Lake to investigate for the condition factor and length-weight relationship. There are 168 ♀ (% 97.11, 5 ♂ (% 2.89 specimens in the population. The fork length distribution from 16.9 to 30 cm and weight varied between of 125 to 730 g; length-weight relationship was calculated as W = 0.0265 L2.978. Condition factors varied from 1.976 to 3.776 and the mean condition factors were determined as 2.494±0.018. Key words: Carassius gibelio, Condition factor, Length-weight relationship, Bafra Fish Lake

  5. [Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, C J; Job-Deslandre, C; Feldmann, J L

    1984-02-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with juvenile onset (under 17 years of age) is not infrequent. Thirty-six cases were studied, amounting to 18% of patients hospitalized between 1977 and 1981. The following criteria were used for diagnosis: radiologic sacroiliitis (typical AS), presence of HLA B27 and/or pelvic or vertebral clinical manifestations (possible AS). 31 patients (85%) were boys. Mean age at onset was 12.3 +/- 2.8 years. In three cases, AS was found in a member of the family of the propositus and in one case there was cutaneous psoriasis. Usually (29 cases) onset was in the lower limbs: arthritis of the knee (14 cases), hip (9 cases), ankle (7 cases) or painful heel (4 cases). During the course (with a mean follow-up of 11.2 +/- 7 years), 35 patients exhibited peripheral joint diseases and 25 had axial involvement. Ocular involvement was present in 5 cases. 10 patients had a modification of respiratory function. Radiologic sacroiliitis was found in 31 patients but with a delay of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years. Vertebral radiologic lesions were only seen in 11 patients. Radiologic hip involvement was frequent (20 cases) with complete destruction in 6 patients. Erosion and ossification of the calcaneum were observed in 15 cases. The ESR was above 20 mm/first hour in 26 cases (72%). 81% of these patients were HLA B27 positive. Functional prognosis was good: 16 patients (51.6%) led an almost normal life, 6 were bedridden (Steinbrocker's grade IV), 3 had severe impairment (grade III) and 6 had slight impairment (grade II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – an update on its diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of chronic arthritis in children and the most ... A swollen knee and uveitis in a young girl, for instance, is ..... Methotrexate for treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  7. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  8. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish DNA species identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Many pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes) were collected in juvenile salmonid surveys in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) from 1998 to 2002. Often species identification of...

  9. Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesher, Melissa S

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with months of severe widespread musculoskeletal pain. He was profoundly fatigued and unable to attend school. Laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, inflammatory markers, and thyroid function, was unrevealing. Physical examination was also normal except for multiple tender points. The patient was diagnosed with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome and referred for multidisciplinary treatment including physical therapy, exercise, and counseling, and his daily functioning gradually improves. Juvenile fibromyalgia is a complex syndrome that often severely limits patients' activities and can impede normal adolescent development. Effective treatment requires an understanding of the biologic, psychologic, and social factors contributing to the perpetuation of chronic pain. The author reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia. Medications, particularly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, can be useful adjuncts to therapy. However, multimodal pain management including intensive physical therapy, exercise, counseling, and sleep hygiene is most effective in treating fibromyalgia. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Effect of TBT on Ruditapes decussatus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, M R; Langston, W J; Bebianno, M J

    2006-06-01

    The effects of sublethal concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on growth of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus were determined during exposure to TBT concentrations of 50, 100 and 250 ng l(-1) (as Sn) for a period up to two years. Length and weight of clams increased continuously in all treatments throughout the experimental period, and, overall, rates were not significantly influenced by TBT exposure, although final length and weight were inversely related to increasing TBT concentration. Juvenile R. decussatus therefore appear to be less sensitive to TBT than larval stages. Some juveniles exposed to TBT developed abnormal shell growth, laterally, changing the typical flattened shape of clams into a more "rounded" form. This characteristic was more visible in the anterior margins of valves than posteriorly, and mainly observed in clams exposed to TBT at 50 ng l(-1) (as Sn).

  11. Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, M; Perry, H D

    1995-07-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare and usually benign skin disease of unknown cause that occurs in infants and young children. We studied a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma of the corneoscleral limbus in a 17-year-old black boy, who presented with a 5-month history of a lump in the right eye. The lesion extended from the superior limbus, fanning out as it proceeded posteriorly for 6 mm with a width of 9 mm and a height of 2 to 3 mm. This yellow-orange mass was vascular and firmly fixed to the underlying tissue. The lesion was diagnosed as a dermoid and observed for 7 months without documented growth before an uneventful excisional biopsy was performed. The pathologic diagnosis showed the characteristic picture of juvenile xanthogranuloma with numerous Touton giant cells. Lipid stains provided further confirmation.

  12. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  13. Delincuencia y responsabilidad penal juvenil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Montalvo Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl término «delincuencia juvenil» fue acuñado en Inglaterra en el año 1815, “Se entiende por delincuencia juvenil el conjunto de delitos, contravenciones o comportamientos socialmente reprochables, que cometen las personas consideradas como jóvenes por la ley”1 . Cada Estado está sujeto a su propio sistema jurídico, para algunos es delincuente juvenil el adolescente que comete acciones sancionadas por la ley sin importar su gravedad, otros Estados sólo consideran como delincuente juvenil al joven que comete un acto delictivo grave.El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es algo que se inscribe en los espacios de una sociedad en la cual su estructura material, y su formación social consecuente, se halla en una profunda crisis. Que jóvenes conformen bandas de delincuencia organizada nos está indicando que son el resultado de la misma criminalidad general que se ha apoderado de la sociedad en la perspectiva de lograr sobrevivir materialmente. El capitalismo no es sólo acumulación de riqueza sino concentración de la misma en muy pocas manos; y todo el sistema institucional y legal tiende a favorecer ese fenómeno porque éste constituye la supra estructura del modo de producción capitalista. Así como los adultos se organizan para delinquir, lo hacen los niños y los jóvenes a partir de una edad en la cual pueden percibir que la sociedad no es sana y no tienen porvenir humano en ella. Abandonados y sujetos a la violencia que engendra el sistema, ellos simplemente responden en una manifestación de reflejos condicionados que sostienen la sobrevivencia en forma instintiva; “los niños no saben de normas legales sino de formas de sobrevivir a semejante situación; el instinto de sobrevivencia no tiene edades ni la normatividad puede incidir en él”.Palabras ClavesDelincuencia juvenil, Jóvenes, Criminalidad, Familia, Factores, Acto delictivo, Responsabilidad Penal.AbstractThe term “juvenile delinquency” was coined in

  14. Imágenes juveniles, medios y nuevos escenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aguilera Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nace del análisis de los discursos radiales producidos exclusivamente para jóvenes en Santiago de Chile. Aborda además las categorías comprensivas de la vida juvenil, la vida juvenil de los años 90, el imaginario juvenil des-simbolizado, hacia una comprensión de lo juvenil, dinámica social propuesta por los medios y estrategias comunicacionales.

  15. The World of Juvenile Justice According to the Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael; Deignan, Marilyn; Engel, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Intended to be an instructive, yet sobering, introduction to the complex and disturbing nature of the juvenile justice system, this article details the "numbers," including selected percentages, ratios, and dollar amounts, that are relevant to developing a better understanding of the juvenile justice system. General statistics about juvenile and…

  16. Challenges and prospects of the juvenile justice administration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very little priority, despite Nigeria being signatory to the major international instruments relevant to the administration of juvenile justice. This is attributable to the history of the penal system of Nigeria, with laws guiding juvenile justice administration having ...

  17. Criminal Profiles of Violent Juvenile Sex and Violent Juvenile Non-Sex Offenders: An Explorative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Mali, Bas R. F.; Bullens, Ruud A. R.; Vermeiren, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally investigated the criminal profiles of violent juvenile sex and violent juvenile non-sex offenders. To make up for this lack, this study used police records of juveniles to determine the nature of the criminal profiles of violent sex offenders (n = 226) and violent non-sex offenders (n = 4,130). All offenders…

  18. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2010: Selected Findings. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series. Bulletin NCJ 241134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Sarah; Sickmund, Melissa; Sladky, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This bulletin is part of the "Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series." The "National Report" offers a comprehensive statistical overview of the problems of juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and the response of the juvenile justice system. During each interim year, the bulletins in the "National…

  19. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  20. Program Performance Inventory: Six Juvenile Offender Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomalla, Terri Groff; Dougherty, Victoria J.

    This report describes the performance of 6 Connecticut juvenile justice alternative sanction programs in 14 qualitative areas: community reintegration; outcomes and evaluation; assessment methods; risk factors; escalation of criminal activity; family involvement; community involvement; work ethic and vocational training; education and life skills;…

  1. Radium rentention and dosimetry in juvenile beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Bruenger, F.W.; Atherton, D.R.; Mays, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Retention of administered 226 Ra was substantially greater in beagles injected as 3-month-old juveniles than as 1.4-year-old adults, but the measured 222 Rn/ 226 Ra ratio in bone was significantly less in juveniles for about the first 600 days after injection. An equation that describes the total-body biological retention R in beagles injected with 226 Ra at 3 months of age at any time t (in days) after injection during the first 6.6 years is R = 0.331e/sup -0.206t/ + 0.245e/sup -0.00374t/ + 0.424e/sup -0.000114t/. The rate constant of the final term in the equation for juveniles is similar to that for young adults, suggesting that this component reflects the net turnover rate in the slowly remodeling component of adult bone. Compared to young adult beagles, animals injected as juveniles had a greater fraction of their retained 226 Ra in parts of the skeleton containing much cortical bone, such as paws, and a smaller fraction in those parts containing much trabecular bone

  2. Alteracioness cognitivas en familias con Parkinson juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Lopera Restrepo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Neurociencias de la Universidad de Antioquia reportó por primera vez en Colombia cuatro familias afecatas por la Enfermedad de Parkinson Familiar Juvenil portadoras de la mutación G736A en el gen Parkin.

  3. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currently...

  4. Antibodies in juvenile-onset myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Juvenile-onset myositis is a highly heterogeneous disease. Myositis-specific and associated autoantibodies provide a potential means of subdividing patients into clinically homogenous subgroups. Given the increasing availability of autoantibody testing, this review explores the phenotypes associated with different autoantibodies in juvenile-onset myositis and the potential clinical utility of autoantibody testing. Autoantibodies can be identified in 60-70% of children with myositis and the recent discovery of novel myositis-associated autoantibodies in adult patients suggests this may increase in the near future. Detailed phenotype descriptions are now known for several autoantibodies commonly identified in juvenile-onset disease. Whilst there is insufficient evidence to recommend a differential treatment approach based on autoantibody status, it is becoming increasingly clear that some autoantibody subgroups are often treatment resistant and may benefit from a more aggressive approach. The validation of nonspecialised methods for myositis-specific autoantibody detection should lead to more widely available testing. In juvenile-onset disease, this will provide detailed prognostic information and in the future may also influence approach.

  5. Do burn centers provide juvenile firesetter intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrns-Klas, Karla S; Wahl, Wendy L; Hemmila, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting activity accounts for a significant number of annual injuries and property damage, yet there is sparse information on intervention in the burn literature. To quantify juvenile firesetting intervention (JFSI) in burn centers, a 23-question survey was sent to all directors listed in the American Burn Association Burn Care Facilities Directory.Sixty-four out of 112 (57%) surveys were returned. This represents responses from 79% of currently verified burn centers. When queried on interventions provided to a juvenile firesetter admitted to their unit, 38% report having their own JFSI program and 38% refer the child to fire services. Two thirds of units without a JFSI program treat pediatric patients. Units that previously had a JFSI program report lack of staffing and funding as most common reasons for program discontinuation. Almost all (95%) stated that a visual tool demonstrating legal, financial, social, future, and career ramifications associated with juvenile firesetting would be beneficial to their unit. Many burn units that treat pediatric patients do not have JFSI and rely on external programs operated by fire services. Existing JFSI programs vary greatly in structure and method of delivery. Burn centers should be involved in JFSI, and most units would benefit from a new video toolkit to assist in providing appropriate JFSI. Study results highlight a need for burn centers to collaborate on evaluating effectiveness of JFSI programs and providing consistent intervention materials based on outcomes research.

  6. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography.

  7. Retrocalcaneal bursitis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W

    1992-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631

  8. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  9. Perceived Competence of Juvenile Delinquents and Nondelinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Peter G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Thirty male juvenile delinquents and 90 male high achievers, low achievers, and students with behavior problems were compared using an adapted version of Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Children. The Australian students (aged 12-15) were compared on 4 different domains of perceived competence--cognitive competence, social competence,…

  10. Factors Involved in Juveniles' Decisions about Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimler, Edward; Beach, Lee Roy

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether delinquency is the result of a rational decision. The Subjective Expected Utility (SEU) model from decision theory was used with male juvenile offenders (N=45) as the model of the decision process. Results showed that the SEU model predicted 62.7 percent of the subjects' decisions. (Author/RC)

  11. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  12. Smerte og smertemestring ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consist...

  13. Biologisk terapi ved juvenil idiopatisk artritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has undergone marked changes. There is substantial evidence that inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) like etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab show significant efficacy when standard therapy fails, and long-ter...

  14. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  15. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia presenting as Juvenile Idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children commonly presents with osteo articular manifestations that may mimic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This may create considerable diagnostic difficulty and lead to delay in commencing appropriate treatment. Case: An eight year old boy who presented with multiple ...

  16. Molecular basis of juvenile hormone signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Marek; Bellés, X.; Shinoda, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct 09 (2015), s. 39-46 ISSN 2214-5745 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-23681S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * JH receptor * Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574515001297

  17. Metamorphosis: How Missouri Rehabilitates Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Juveniles convicted of serious offenses usually end up in large correctional facilities that focus on punishment--not rehabilitation. The state of Missouri, however, has found a better way to help end the cycle of crime: by creating a network of small facilities that provide therapy and educational opportunities, it has dramatically reduced…

  18. Shortening the juvenile phase for flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higazy, M.K.M.T.

    1962-01-01

    Higazy tried to determine whether the duration of the juvenile phase for flowering was a fixed character or whether it could be influenced by external growth factors.

    Lunaria biennis was chosen as a cold-requiring biennial, Silene armeria as a long-day plant and Salvia

  19. The Diversity of Juvenile Sarcoidosis Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vougiouka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of juvenile sarcoidosis, emphasizing the variety of clinical manifestations. The child had uveitis, which is among the most common manifestations of the disease. However, fever of unknown origin, glomerulonephritis and lymphadenopathy were also noticed, underscoring the diversity of the clinical spectrum of the disease.

  20. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  1. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  2. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutsler, Eric P.; Horton, Daniel B.; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  3. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  4. Lectin histochemistry as a tool to identify apoptotic cells in the seminiferous epithelium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Sánchez-Huertas, M M; Madrid, J F; Saez, F J; Pastor, L M

    2013-12-01

    Lectins have been widely used to study the pattern of cellular glycoconjugates in numerous species. In the process of cellular apoptosis, it has been observed that changes occur in the membrane sugar sequences of these apoptotic cells. The aim of our work was to identify which lectins, out of an extensive battery of the same (PNA, SBA, HPA, LTA, Con-A, UEA-I, WGA, DBA, MAA, GNA, AAA, SNA), show affinity for germinal cells in apoptosis, at what stage of cell death they do so and in which germinal cell types they can be detected. For this, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod. Several lectins showed an affinity for the glycoconjugate residues of germ cells in apoptosis: Gal β1,3-GalNAcα1, α-d-mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine and l-fucose. Furthermore, lectin specificity was observed for some specific germinal cells and in certain stages of apoptosis. It was also observed that one of these lectins (PNA) showed affinity for Sertoli cells undergoing apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that the use of lectin histochemistry could be a very useful tool for studying apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium because of the specificity shown towards germinal cells in pathological or experimentally induced epithelial depletion models. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  6. Development of the leptospirosis by experimental infection in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, strain LO4, by intact and scratched skin exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and evolution of leptospirosis in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus by experimental infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola, LO4 strain, by intact and scratched skin exposures, having as control the intraperitoneal route, were evaluated. Hundred-twenty female hamsters distributed in two groups according to inoculation route (intact and scratched skin were used. Infectious inoculum was constituted by a pure culture of L. interrogans serovar Canicola (strain LO4, isolated from liver from a slaughtered swine in Londrina, Paraná state and typified by agglutinins adsortion technique with monoclonal antibody kit at the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The animals were observed twice a day during 21 days. Animals that died were necropsied and kidneys, liver, genital tract (uterus and ovaries and brain were aseptically collected. On the 21st post-inoculation day, surviving animals were euthanized. In these animals, serum samples were also collected by cardiac puncture to antileptospires agglutinins research using microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Fresh direct microscopy and microbiological culture were used for the detection of leptospires. Scratched skin route induced larger lethality when compared to intact skin route, with establishment and evolution of leptospirosis. On the other hand, intact skin route induced renal and/or genital carrier state more frequently. LO4 strain presented low immunogenic power, characterized by soroconversion at the MAT in only one inoculated animal.

  7. Orofacial pain, jaw function, and temporomandibular disorders in adult women with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis or persistent juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, M.; Zak, M.; Jensen, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis......Orofacial pain, jaw function, temporomandibular disorders, adult women persistent juvenil chronic arthritis...

  8. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil Acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil Acupuncture in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialda Höfling P. Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD, escala visual analógica (EVA de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM. Durante o estudo, os pacientes puderam usar analgésicos, amitriptilina e foram orientados a praticar atividade física aeróbica. Os resultados antes e após acupuntura foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Dos 38 pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil acompanhados em oito anos consecutivos, 13 tinham todas as informações nos prontuários e nas fichas de acupuntura e foram avaliados. Destes 13, sete obtiveram melhora nos três parâmetros analisados (número de pontos dolorosos, EVA de dor e IM. As medianas do número de pontos dolorosos e da EVA de dor foram significativamente maiores antes do tratamento quando comparados ao final do tratamento com as sessões de acupuntura [14 (11-18 versus 10 (0-15, p=0,005; 6 (2-10 versus 3 (0-10, p=0,045; respectivamente]. Em contraste, a mediana do IM foi significativamente menor antes do tratamento [3,4 (2,49-4,39 versus 4,2 (2,71-5,99, p=0,02]. Nenhum dos pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil apresentou eventos adversos associados à acupuntura. CONCLUSÕES: Acupuntura é uma modalidade de Medicina Tradicional Chinesa que pode ser utilizada nos pacientes pediátricos com fibromialgia. Futuros estudos controlados serão necessários.OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de acupuntura en adolescentes con fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con fibromialgia juvenil (criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología sometidos a al menos 11 sesiones

  9. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaddi Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is the most common arthropathy of childhood. Different diseases affect school attendance to varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA on Moroccan children’s schooling. Methods Thirty-three children with JIA were included in this study, having been previously diagnosed according to the classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR. Seventy-four healthy children were recruited to serve as controls. Data was obtained for all children on their school level, educational performance, and attendance. The rate of absenteeism due to health complications was noted. Results All healthy children were able to attend school (p Conclusions Our study suggested that the schooling of children with JIA was negatively impacted due to the disorder. More studies, with a larger sample of children, are needed to confirm our findings.

  10. Bacteriological study of juvenile periodontitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, N M; Xiao, X R; Zhang, L S; Ri, X Q; Zhang, J Z; Tong, Y H; Yang, M R; Xiao, Z R

    1991-09-01

    The predominant cultivable bacteria associated with juvenile periodontitis (JP) in China were studied for the first time. Subgingival plaque samples were taken on paper points from 23 diseased sites in 15 JP patients and from 7 healthy sites in 7 control subjects. Serially diluted plaque samples were plated on nonselective blood agar and on MGB agar, a selective medium for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Fifteen or more isolated colonies from each sample (in sequence without selection) were purified for identification. The results indicated that the microflora in healthy sulci of the 7 control subjects was significantly different from that in diseased sites of JP patients. The predominant species in healthy sulci were Streptococcus spp. and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. In JP patients, Eubacterium sp. was found in significantly higher frequency and proportion. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was not detected in any samples. It appears that this species is not associated with juvenile periodontitis in China.

  11. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  12. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Sarah; Sen, Ethan; Ramanan, Athimalaipet

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between geneti...

  13. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  15. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.

  16. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: clinical and EEG features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S B; Petersen, K A

    1998-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the clinical profile and EEG features of 43 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. In a retrospective design we studied the records of, and re-interviewed, 43 patients diagnosed with JME from the epilepsy clinic data base. Furthermore, available EEGs were re-evaluated...... were sleep deprivation (84%), stress (70%), and alcohol consumption (51%). EEG findings included rapid spike-wave and polyspike-wave....

  17. [Social and cultural determinants of juvenile deliquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Sébastian

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of juvenile delinquency has progressed considerably since the early 1980s, thanks to self-reported delinquency surveys. They teach us that the determinants of delinquent behaviors among teenagers are dependent on the facility with which the offense is committed, the internal motivation (frustration in the family and school, observational learning of the use of violence in the media) and the weakness of social reactions.

  18. Radioangiography in diagnosis of juvenile angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantarov, K.D.; Anyutin, R.G.; Ashikhmina, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    To study the blood supply of juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx 10 patients were examined (2 of them were examined twice). Four patients with the deseases of the nose and the nasopharynx of a nonvascular nature were in the control group. The authors used sup(99m)Tc for radioangiography. The investigations were made on the gamma-chamber ''Nuclear-Chicago'' connected to the computer ''Cina-200''. Ten patients with juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx showed rapid accumulation of the radioactive substance at the site of the tumour exceeding its concentration in the carotic arteries by 4-10 times. In unilateral localization of angiofibroma, its blood supply was provided mainly through the external carotic artery at the affection site or evenly through the both external carotic arteries. The data on dynamic distribution of the radioactive substance, scintiphotograms and clinical observations allow a distinct differentiation between juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx the adenoid tissue or any other tumour to determine the angiofibroma size as well as to follow the results of surgical and radiation treatment

  19. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Yul; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma.

  20. Clinical presentation of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruocco Heloísa H.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation a group of patients with juvenile onset of Huntington disease. METHOD: All patients were interviewed following a structured clinical questioner. Patients were genotyped for the trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeat in the Huntington Disease gene. High resolution brain MRI was performed in all patients. RESULTS: We identified 4 patients with juvenile onset of disease among 50 patients with Huntington disease followed prospectively in our Neurogenetics clinic. Age at onset varied from 3 to 13 years, there were 2 boys, and 3 patients had a paternal inheritance of the disease. Expanded Huntington disease allele sizes varied from 41 to 69 trinucleotide repeats. The early onset patients presented with rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia, dysarthria, seizures and ataxia. MRI showed severe volume loss of caudate and putamen nuclei (p=0.001 and reduced cerebral and cerebellum volumes (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: 8% of Huntington disease patients seen in our clinic had juvenile onset of the disease. They did not present with typical chorea as seen in adult onset Huntington disease. There was a predominance of rigidity and bradykinesia. Two other important clinical features were seizures and ataxia, which related with the imaging findings of early cortical atrophy and cerebellum volume loss.

  1. Sonographic diagnosis of juvenile polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Shi-Xing; Xie, Li-Mei; Shi, Bo; Ju, Hao; Bai, Yu-Zuo; Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for juvenile polyps in children and their sonographic characteristics. A retrospective analysis was performed of the ultrasound findings in 27 children who were diagnosed preoperatively with juvenile polyp within the intestinal tract by ultrasonography and then confirmed by colonoscopy, laparotomy and histopathology. The ultrasonic finding common to all polyps was an isolated intraluminal nodular or massive protrusion, associated with multiple mesh-like fluid areas of different sizes. In 25 children, surrounding pedicle-like low echoes of varying lengths were seen connecting with the polyps to form "mushroom" sign. The color Doppler showed abundant blood flow signals within all polyps and pedicles in a shape of a branch or an umbrella. For seven children with an intussusception, the polyp shadow was detected in the cervical part or interior of the intussusception. Ultrasonography is, thus, considered to be a feasible method for diagnosing intestinal juvenile polyp. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Change in Family Structure and Rates of Violent Juvenile Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Jeannie A

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: Have the changes in family structure in the U.S. become a catalyst for juvenile delinquency? For this research, I use existing statistics for my three independent variables: divorce rates, rate of working mothers with children under age 18, percent female-headed households. My dependent variable, juvenile violent crime rates, is measured using data from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. My control variables consist of the followin...

  3. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  4. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Diagnosed in a Child Based on Multiple Juvenile Xanthogranulomas and Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Sune R R; Schomerus, Eckhard; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) has been described in the literature but has only been documented in approximately 20 cases. We diagnosed a patient with NF1 at 25 months of age, before any cutaneous...... with chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation. With increased awareness, patients with JXG and NF1 who develop symptoms possibly related to JMML, such as paleness, skin bleeding, cough, unexplained fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, should be further evaluated. We also emphasize that multiple JXG lesions...

  5. Tooth Morphogenesis and FGF4 Expression During Development of Molar Tooth in Three Muroid Rodents: Calomyscus elburzensis (Calomyscidae), Mesocricetus auratus (Cricetidae) and Mus musculus (Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Kordiyeh; Darvish, Jamshid; Matin, Maryam M; Javanmard, Athar Sadat; Kilpatrick, C William

    2017-12-01

    To date, no studies have examined the tooth formation during developmental stages of brush-tailed mice (Calomyscidae) and true hamsters (Cricetidae). Herein, we compared the timing of tooth morphogenesis and FGF4 expression pattern during development of the first lower molar in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Calomyscus elburzensis with two other muroid rodents; the house mouse, Mus musculus (Muridae), model organism for tooth morphogenesis, and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus which shares great similarities in cusp pattern with brush-tailed mice. All three species were bred in captivity and developing embryos were isolated at different embryonic days (E). Histological evaluation of lower molars was performed and spatiotemporal pattern of FGF4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that morphogenesis of the tooth cusps starts at the beginning of the cap stage of the first lower molar (E14 in house mouse, about E11.5 in golden hamster and E22 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse). During the cap to bell stage (E15 in house mouse, E12 in golden hamster and at about E24 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse), a decrease in the expression of FGF4 was observed in the mesenchyme, except for the cusp tips. According to our observations, the developmental process of the first lower molar formation in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse began much later as compared with the other two species. Despite the differences in the temporal pattern of molar development between these three members of the same superfamily (Muroidea), the correlation in the expression of FGF4 with specific stages of tooth morphogenesis supported its regulatory function. Anat Rec, 300:2138-2149, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. Copyright

  7. Penalty responsibility of juveniles in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić-Pavlović Nikolina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest members of organized society, more intensive than ever enter the circle of those whose behavior is deviant. Juvenile delinquency is a social problem, which recently experienced an expansion in all modern countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska. Considering the fact that juvenile delinquency includes lighter criminal conducts, such as, for example misdemeanors, in this paper a position of juveniles when they are a perpetrators of misdemeanors will be analyzed. Also, the paper will statistically show the number of misdemeanors in the field of public peace and order that juveniles conducted in the Republic of Srpska in the period 2004-2009.

  8. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  9. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  10. 78 FR 17184 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1620] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 75 FR 53958 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1529] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 78 FR 58288 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1634] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  13. 78 FR 65297 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1637] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 78 FR 38014 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1625] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 75 FR 70216 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1533] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 77 FR 24687 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1587] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  17. 77 FR 3453 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1581] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  18. 77 FR 70994 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1510] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 76 FR 26280 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1549] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 76 FR 61672 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1570] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  1. 76 FR 39075 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1562] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  2. 75 FR 16177 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1514] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 77 FR 50486 - Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COORDINATING COUNCIL ON JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION [OJP (OJJDP) Docket No. 1601] Meeting of the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention AGENCY: Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  4. Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.

  5. Dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Tomie Kozu

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de dislipidemia em pacientes com dermatomiosite juvenil (DMJ) e seus possíveis fatores de risco. MÉTODO: 25 pacientes com DMJ foram comparados a 25 controles de acordo com dados demográficos, composição corporal, perfil lipídico, glicêmico, autoanticorpos e enzimas musculares. Foram avaliados os instrumentos de atividade da DMJ: Disease Activity Score (DAS), Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Myositis Disease Activity Assessme...

  6. CYCLOSPORIN A IN THERAPY FOR JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fedorov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes approaches to using cyclosporin A (CsA in juvenile arthritis (JA. It shows the benefits of combination basic therapy with CsA and methotrexate included into a treatment regimen mainly for systemic JA and JA involving the eye (uveitis versus monotherapy with the above drugs. Attention is drawn to that the oral dose of glucocorticoids may be decreased when CsA is incorporated into the treatment regimen. CsA is shown to be of value as the drug of choice for the therapy of such a menacing complication of systemic JA as the macrophage activation syndrome

  7. Causas e importancia del desempleo juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Gómez, Juan Francisco

    1985-01-01

    A la hora de estudiar el problema del desempleo juvenil no hay que tener en cuenta solamente las causas de este problema; su conocimiento y análisis es importante para los encargados de las tomas de decisiones, planificadores y educadores. En el caso de España -y de la Comunidad Valenciana-, este problema se explica por la crisis económica de 1975, el Baby-Boom de los sesenta, la falta de relación entre los programas de enseñanza y demanda laboral, el proceso de innovación tecnológica y sus r...

  8. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  9. Catch rate of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata , Sardinella maderensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We collected data on the quantity of juvenile fish and the daily duration of fishing trips in four landing sites over a two-week period Bernoulli random variables and properties of uniform distribution were used to analyze the data. Catch rates of juveniles Ethamatosa fimbriata, Sardinella maderensis, and Brachydeuterus ...

  10. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo; Peñ a, Marian; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier; Rubio, Anna; Nogueira, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  11. Psychotic Symptomatology in a Juvenile Court Clinic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dorothy Otnow; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This report indicating an unexpectedly high incidence of psychotic symptomatology in a population of cases referred to the Juvenile Court Psychiatric Clinic of the Second District of Connecticut, manifests the necessity for juvenile court systems to be made aware of the possibility of psychosis in our delinquent populations. (CS)

  12. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  13. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; van der Laan, Peter H.; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  14. Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents: Post-Treatment Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods: The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U,

  15. Social skills training for juvenile delinquents : Post-treatment changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, T.; Asscher, J.J.; Hoeve, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the post-treatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands and to conduct moderator tests for age, gender, ethnicity, and risk of reoffending. Methods The sample consisted of juveniles who received Tools4U, a

  16. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in a Nigerian Girl: a Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Dermatomyositis in a Nigerian Girl: a Case Report. MG Mustapha, MG Ashir, AA Mayun, Y Machoco, AB Ibrahim. Abstract. A case of Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in a 10 year old Nigerian girl is herein reported to discuss some of the features of the disease and challenges in management of such a rare but ...

  17. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  18. Effects of Juvenile Court Exposure on Crime in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Amelie; Gatti, Uberto; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The juvenile justice system's interventions are expected to help reduce recidivism. However, previous studies suggest that official processing in juvenile court fails to reduce adolescents' criminal behavior in the following year. Longer term effects have not yet been investigated with a rigorous method. This study used propensity…

  19. Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 2002. OJJDP Fact Sheet #02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents statistics on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts in 2002. The number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts decreased 11 percent between 1997 and 2002. During this time, the number of person offense cases decreased 2 percent, property offense cases decreased 27 percent, drug law violation cases…

  20. Demographic Prediction of Juvenile Delinquency across and within Delinquency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Michael D.; Truckenmiller, James L.

    Demographic prediction of juvenile delinquency has been hampered by the heterogeniety of youth samples. In an attempt to correct for sampling bias in predicting juvenile delinquency, 1,689 male and female youths(aged 12 to 19, drawn from a 6 percent systematic, census tract, random sample of Pennsylvania school youths) completed the Youth Needs…

  1. Differential heritability of adult and juvenile antisocial traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, M J; True, W R; Eisen, S A; Goldberg, J; Meyer, J M; Faraone, S V; Eaves, L J; Tsuang, M T

    1995-11-01

    Studies of adult antisocial behavior or criminality usually find genetic factors to be more important than the family environment, whereas studies of delinquency find the family environment to be more important. We compared DSM-III-R antisocial personality disorder symptoms before vs after the age of 15 years within a sample of twins, rather than comparing across studies. We administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version III-revised by telephone to 3226 pairs of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Biometrical modeling was applied to each symptom of antisocial personality disorder and summary measures of juvenile and adult symptoms. Five juvenile symptoms were significantly heritable, and five were significantly influenced by the shared environment. Eight adult symptoms were significantly heritable, and one was significantly influenced by the shared environment. The shared environment explained about six times more variance in juvenile anti-social traits than in adult traits. Shared environmental influences on adult antisocial traits overlapped entirely with those on juvenile traits. Additive genetic factors explained about six times more variance in adult vs juvenile traits. The juvenile genetic determinants overlapped completely with genetic influences on adult traits. The unique environment (plus measurement error) explained the largest proportion of variance in both juvenile and adult antisocial traits. Characteristics of the shared or family environment that promote antisocial behavior during childhood and early adolescence also promote later antisocial behavior, but to a much lesser extent. Genetic causal factors are much more prominent for adult than for juvenile antisocial traits.

  2. Extinguishing All Hope: Life-without-Parole for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing juveniles to life-without-parole (JLWOP) is a practice fraught with ethical dilemmas. Through in-depth interviews with 11 men living sentences of JLWOP, their narratives of their backgrounds and experiences as juveniles were studied. Common themes were identified, and 3 general categories of cases emerged from the narratives. Ethical…

  3. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  4. Prevention and Firesetting: Juvenile Justice and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…

  5. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  6. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  7. Marine nurseries and effective juvenile habitats: concepts and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Adams, A.J.; Gillanders, B.M.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Much recent attention has been focused on juvenile fish and invertebrate habitat use, particularly defining and identifying marine nurseries. The most significant advancement in this area has been the development of a standardized framework for assessing the relative importance of juvenile habitats

  8. Essential habitat for sardine juveniles in Iberian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Rodríguez-Climent

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In a period when the Iberian sardine stock abundance is at its historical minimum, knowledge of the sardine juvenile’s distribution is crucial for the development of fishery management strategies. Generalized additive models were used to relate juvenile sardine presence with geographical variables and spawning grounds (egg abundance and to model juvenile abundance with the concurrent environmental conditions. Three core areas of juvenile distribution were identified: the Northern Portuguese shelf (centred off Aveiro, the coastal region in the vicinity of the Tagus estuary, and the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. Spatial differences in the relationship between juvenile presence and egg abundances suggest that essential juvenile habitat might partially differ from the prevailing spawning grounds. Models also depicted significant relationships between juvenile abundance, temperature and geographical variables in combination with salinity in the west and with zooplankton in the south. Results indicate that the sardine juvenile distribution along the Iberian Peninsula waters are an outcome of a combination of dynamic processes occurring early in life, such as egg and larva retention, reduced mortality and favourable feeding grounds for both larvae and juveniles.

  9. Growth and Survival of Catfish ( Clarias anguillaris ) Juveniles Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles of catfish, Clarias anguillaris (mean weight, 119.8g) were fed unconventional diets for ten weeks in outdoor hapas (net cages, 1m3 dimension) and the growth responses and feed utilization by the juveniles were compared. The experimental diets were (i) live maggots, (ii) live tilapia fry, (iii) commercial catfish feed ...

  10. Sexual dimorphism and plumage characteristics of juvenile Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles, or birds in their first year, were genetically sexed. Standardised photographs were taken of plucked juvenile breast feathers and analysed using Adobe Photoshop. Pixel counts were taken to analyse the streak coverage of a single feather. A scale from 0 to 3 was used to score streak intensity of the entire breast.

  11. Pattern of juvenile periodontitis in Lagos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the survey was to study the pattern of juvenile periodontitis patients that presented at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Centre from November 1999 to March 2004. Methods: Through review of case files of patients, twenty six juvenile periodontitis patients, within the age range of 18 and 30 ...

  12. Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part I: Classifications and radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile spondyloarthropathies are manifested mainly by symptoms of peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. By contrast with adults, children rarely present with sacroiliitis and spondylitis. Imaging and laboratory tests allow early diagnosis and treatment. Conventional radiographs visualize late inflammatory lesions and post-inflammatory complications. Early diagnosis is possible with the use of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the article presents classifications of juvenile spondyloarthropathies and discusses their radiographic presentation. Typical radiographic features of individual types of juvenile spondyloarthritis are listed (including ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis and arthritis in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases. The second part will describe changes visible on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging also visualizes early inflammatory changes in the axial skeleton and subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation.

  13. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...

  14. Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, D.S.; Peterson, M.E.; Cho, D.Y.; Markovits, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism was diagnosed in an adult mixed-breed dog examined because of quadraparesis. Unusual clinical signs attributable to juvenile-onset or congenital hypothyroidism included disproportionate dwarfism; enlarged, protruding tongue; mental dullness; and retention of a 'puppy' coat, which was soft and fluffy, without guard hairs. Radiography of the vertebral column and long bones revealed multiple areas of delayed epiphyseal closure and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Myelography demonstrated several intervertebral disk protrusions in the cervical and lumbar regions. Hypothyroidism was confirmed on the basis of a low basal serum thyroxine concentration that failed to increase after the administration of thyroid stimulating hormone. Other laboratory abnormalities included nonregenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia; mild hypercalcemia; and an impaired growth hormone (GH) secretory response after xylazine administration. At necropsy, the thyroid gland was small and weighed only 0.2g. Microscopic examination of the thyroid gland revealed a loss of glandular tissue, which was replaced by adipose tissue along its periphery. Gross or microscopic abnormalities were not noted in the pituitary gland, and immunohistochemical staining of the pituitary gland revealed a normal number of GH-containing acidophils. This suggests that primary hypothyroidism may result in an impaired secretion of growth hormone, and that pituitary dwarfism or GH deficiency may be difficult to differentiate from hypothyroid dwarfism on the basis of provocative GH testing alone

  15. Uveitis and Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis or Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Sherveen S; Pradeep, Archana; Guly, Catherine; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Rosenbaum, James T

    2018-01-01

    To describe the phenotype of the uveitis that accompanies juvenile psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis. Observational case series. Setting: Two university-based referral clinics: 1 in England, 1 in the United States. Five children with uveitis and psoriatic arthritis and 1 with uveitis and psoriasis Observational Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Demographics of subjects such as age and sex; description of ocular and joint disease; surgical and other complications; medical treatment. Five of the 6 children in this series had the onset of disease at or before age 6 (P = .0008 compared to expected age of onset for psoriatic arthritis in childhood). All children in this series had an inadequate response to topical corticosteroids. Most of the children were treated with systemic corticosteroids for many months, yet all of them went on to require methotrexate. Therapy with systemic methotrexate did not suffice, as all the patients also required some form of biologic therapy. Five of 6 had surgeries such as vitrectomy, cataract extraction, or a procedure for glaucoma control. The observations suggest that the uveitis that accompanies juvenile psoriatic arthritis might be a distinct disease that is particularly severe when its onset affects children aged 6 years or younger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Morphea or juvenile localised scleroderma: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Alexis; Gallo, Silvanna; Jaramillo, Pedro; de Toro, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Morphea or juvenile localised scleroderma (JLS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, chronic, slowly progressive connective tissue disease of unknown cause that preferably affects skin and underlying tissues. To report a case of Juvenil Localised scleroderma in an 8-year old girl, contributing to an early diagnosis and treatment. The case is presented of an 8 year-old girl who presented with indurated hypopigmented plaques, of linear distribution in the right upper extremity of two years onset, together with papery texture hyperpigmented indurated plaques with whitish areas of thinned skin in right lower extremity, and leg and ankle swelling. The clinical features and diagnostic tests, including histology were compatible with linear and pansclerotic JLS. She started with immunosuppressive therapy, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. We report a case of linear and pansclerotic ELJ type, in which there was a 2 year delay in diagnosis, however the response to treatment was positive as expected. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterogeneidad de trayectorias laborales y temporalidades juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Longo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Las trayectorias laborales de los jóvenes se diversifican en función de las duraciones, las etapas y las edades en las que ocurren los acontecimientos y se alcanzan ciertos roles. Sin embargo, factores clásicos asociados al origen social o al mundo del trabajo no alcanzan para comprender la diferenciación en los modos de inserción. Este artículo propone la inclusión de las temporalidades juveniles como factor clave para la comprensión de trayectorias laborales de jóvenes. Las temporalidades juveniles sirven para observar conjuntamente los marcos temporales dominantes de la inserción y la manera en la que los mismos son vividos por los sujetos. Las mismas discuten las tesis que señalan que en Argentina los jóvenes son prisioneros de un presentismo sin proyecto o que se someten inevitablemente a un contexto laboral incierto. Cuatro tipo des temporalidades han emergido en el análisis cualitativo y longitudinal de las trayectorias : los "planificadores", los "ejecutantes", los "latentes" y los "oportunistas"

  18. Preliminary evidence of altered biomechanics in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher; Strotman, Daniel; Ting, Tracy V; Myer, Gregory; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and marked reduction in physical activity. Despite recommendations for exercise to manage juvenile FM pain, exercise adherence is poor. Because of pain and activity avoidance, adolescents with juvenile FM are at risk for altered joint mechanics that may make them susceptible to increased pain and reduced tolerance for exercise. The primary aim of this study was to assess functional deficits in patients with juvenile FM compared to healthy controls using objective biomechanical assessment. Female adolescent patients with juvenile FM (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 14) completed biomechanical assessments, including gait analysis and tests of lower extremity strength (isokinetic knee extension/flexion and hip abduction) and functional performance (drop vertical jump test) along with self-reported measures of disability (Functional Disability Inventory), pain intensity, depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), and fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia). Patients with juvenile FM demonstrated mild deficiencies in walking gait and functional performance (P < 0.05 for both) and significantly lower left knee extension and flexion strength (18-22% deficit) and bilateral hip abduction strength (34-38%) compared with healthy controls (P < 0.008 for all). Patients with juvenile FM reported significantly higher functional disability, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and fear of movement relative to controls (P < 0.01 for all). This study showed that adolescents with juvenile FM exhibited objective alterations in biomechanics and self-reported fear of movement that may have reinforced their activity avoidance. Interventions for juvenile FM should include a focus on correcting functional deficits and instilling greater confidence in adolescents with juvenile FM to engage in exercise to improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Juvenile Delinquency and Teenage Pregnancy: A Comparison of Ecological Risk Profiles among Midwestern White and Black Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Gavazzi, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined ecological risk factors associated with teen pregnancy with a sample of 1,190 court-involved female juvenile offenders between 11 and 18 years of age. Data were obtained from five Midwestern juvenile county courts using a recently developed youth risk assessment instrument called the global risk assessment device (GRAD). In…

  20. Larval, pre-juvenile and juvenile development of Diapterus peruvianus (Perciformes: Gerreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Patricia Adelheid Jiménez Rosenberg

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Diapterus peruvianus (Sauvage 1879 is based on 60 larvae collected in superficial tows made in Bahía Concepción, and on 16 prejuvenile and juvenile organisms collected in Bahía de La Paz, B. C. S., México, using a standard plankton net and a rectangular epibenthonic net, respectively. Larvae of D. peruvianus show three large blotches on the dorsum of the gut that can fuse together and give the appearance of one large continuous blotch. There are two to three pre-anal pigments and 16 post-anal pigments in the ventral midline; cephalic pigments are present from the postflexion stage, as well as a serrated preoperculum. The prejuvenile and juvenile organisms are distinguished by their body depth, the analfin formula, the serrated preoperculum and the base pigments in the dorsal and anal fins.El desarrollo de Diapterus peruvianus se analizó con base en 60 larvas recolectadas en Bahía Concepción y 16 pre-juveniles y juveniles recolectados en la Ensenada de La Paz, B. C. S. México, usando respectivamente, una red estándar de plancton en arrastres superficiales y una red epibentónica para arrastres de plancton. Las larvas presentan desde la pre-flexión tres manchas alargadas sobre la superficie dorsal de la masa visceral, que pueden unirse y dar apariencia de pigmentación continua, observándose hasta 16 pigmentos post-anales en la línea media ventral y de dos a tres pigmentos pre-anales; la pigmentación cefálica así como la forma aserrada del pre-opérculo característica del género, aparecen a partir de la post-flexión. Los organismos pre-juveniles y juveniles se distinguen por la profundidad del cuerpo, la fórmula de la aleta anal, la fina forma aserrada del pre-opérculo y la pigmentación en la base de las aletas dorsal y anal.

  1. Integração do enxerto heterólogo de pele humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochman Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração de enxertos de pele total humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu de 18 hamsters machos, exogâmicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de pele humana normal foram obtidos de pele excedente de mastoplastia redutora de paciente parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de pele, perfazendo um total de 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica foi realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante fotografias padronizadas. Na avaliação microscópica foi adotado como critério de integração a presença de vasos sangüíneos na derme dos enxertos. Observou-se também a presença de queratina, melanócitos, infiltrado celular e aspecto do tecido conjuntivo. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação macroscópica foi observada uma reação vascular em torno dos fragmentos até 12 dias do implante, e a presença de pigmentação castanho-escura a partir de 42 dias. À microscopia, integraram-se 80,64% dos fragmentos enxertados, inclusive no grupo de 168 dias. Observou-se infiltrado celular inflamatório até 12 dias, a presença de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias e uma hialinização do tecido conjuntivo após 84 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Fragmentos de pele humana integram-se no tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster, mantêm-se vascularizados por 168 dias, e conservam o epitélio íntegro até 21 dias. O subepitélio da bolsa representa modelo experimental de investigação da fisiologia de pele humana ex vivo.

  2. Interactive effects of high stocking density and food deprivation on carbohydrate metabolism in several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Guzmán, José M; Láiz-Carrión, Raúl; Míguez, Jesús M; Martín Del Río, María P; Mancera, Juan M; Soengas, José L

    2005-09-01

    The influence of high stocking density (HSD) and food deprivation was assessed on carbohydrate metabolism of several tissues of gilthead sea bream Sparus auratus for 14 days. Fish were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: (1) fed fish under normal stocking density (NSD) (4 kg m(-3)); (2) fed fish under HSD (70 kg m(-3)); (3) food-deprived fish under NSD; and (4) food-deprived fish under HSD. After 14 days, samples were taken from the plasma, liver, gills, kidney and brain for the assessment of plasma cortisol, levels of metabolites and the activity of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. HSD conditions alone elicited important changes in energy metabolism of several tissues that in some cases were confirmatory (5-fold increase in plama cortisol, 20% increase in plasma glucose, 60% decrease in liver glycogen and 20% increase in gluconeogenic potential in the liver) whereas in others provided new information regarding metabolic adjustments to cope with HSD in the liver (100% increase in glucose phosphorylating capacity), gills (30% decrease in capacity for phosphorylating glucose), kidney (80% increase in the capacity of phosphorylating glucose) and brain (2.5-fold increase in ATP levels). On the other hand, food deprivation alone resulted in increased plasma cortisol, and metabolic changes in the liver (enhanced gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic potential of 13% and 18%, respectively) and brain (10% increase in glycolytic capacity), confirmatory of previous studies, whereas new information regarding metabolic adjustments during food deprivation was obtained in the gills and kidney (decreased lactate levels in both tissues of 45% and 55%, respectively). Furthermore, the results obtained provided, for the first time in fish, information indicating that food deprivation increased the sensitivity of gilthead sea bream to the stress induced by HSD compared with the fed controls, as demonstrated by increased plasma cortisol levels (50% increase vs

  3. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, ...

  4. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  5. Expertomica Fishgui: comparison of fish skin colour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Štys, D.; Sergejevova, Magda; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 172-180 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CARASSIUS-AURATUS * IMAGE-ANALYSIS * DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  6. The influence of low-level radiation on nucleolus activity of cyprinidae embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The number and sizes of nucleoli in embryos of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to low-level radiation at a dose-rate of 10 μ Gy/h and down were larger than those on non-irradiated controls

  7. Identification and characterisation of an androgen receptor from zebrafish Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Ole; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2007-01-01

    ) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Binding assays with zfAR demonstrated high affinity, saturable, single class binding site, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor. Saturation experiments along with subsequent Scatchard analysis determined that the Kd of the zfAR for 3H-testosterone was 2 n...

  8. Sexuality education groups in juvenile detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, J A; Schroeder, E

    1984-01-01

    Several major studies have described the magnitude and character of adolescent sexual activity and sexual knowledge related to contraception and sexually transmitted diseases (Diepold & Young, 1979; Hass, 1979; Sorenson, 1973; Zelnick & Kantner, 1980). Few systematic studies have been conducted, however, which analyze the attitudes toward sexuality and contraception of delinquent adolescents who are generally school dropouts and who may engage in socially unacceptable behaviors such as running away, drug abuse, and prostitution. Delinquent youths, especially delinquent girls, have been characterized as being more sexually active and less sexually knowledgeable than their nondelinquent peers (Gibbon, 1981; Mannarino & Marsh, 1978). Despite the assumed high-risk nature of this delinquent population, few juvenile detention facilities have offered systematically evaluated coeducational sex education programs. One barrier to implementation of such programs in juvenile detention centers is the lack of a treatment or program orientation of most staff, and/or staff denial of adolescent sexuality in general, an attitude which suppresses the development of healthier sexual values and often promotes pathologic sexual interaction within institutions (Shore & Gochros, 1981). A recent survey of adolescent sexuality (Diepold, 1979) points out that teenagers' feelings about their "sexual selves" impacts greatly upon their general self-image. Low self-esteem is more frequently found among delinquents than nondelinquents (Jones & Swain, 1977; Lund & Salury, 1980), and treatment for delinquent girls often focuses on increasing self-esteem and developing assertiveness skills based on feelings of self-worth (DeLange, Lanahan, & Barton, 1981; NiCarthy, 1981). Two studies carried out with juvenile detainees from a large urban center confirmed that sexual activity among delinquent adolescents is significantly greater than that of the general adolescent population, and that the delinquents

  9. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  10. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  11. HLA antigens in juvenile onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Toyota, T; Ouchi, E

    1980-11-01

    To study association between juvenile onset diabetes (JOD) and major histocompatibility gene complex, 40 patients with childhood onset diabetes and 120 healthy subjects were typed for HLA. Bw54 was present in 33 percent of the patients with JOD, while it appeared in 8 percent of the controls. Expressed as a relative risk, the antigen Bw54 confers a susceptibility to the development of JOD which is 5.3 times that in the controls. JOD shows a little high degree of association with A9 (78%). However, the A9-antigen is common in the Japanese and appears in 58 percent. Though less striking, the decreased frequency of B12 was 3 percent of JOD, less than 15 percent of the controls (p less than 0.05). There was no association between Bw54 and JOD with family history of diabetes.

  12. Computer-Tailored Intervention for Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVESQUE, DEBORAH A.; JOHNSON, JANET L.; WELCH, CAROL A.; PROCHASKA, JANICE M.; FERNANDEZ, ANNE C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies assessing the efficacy of juvenile justice interventions show small effects on recidivism and other outcomes. This paper describes the development of a prototype of a multimedia computer-tailored intervention (“Rise Above Your Situation”or RAYS) that relies on an evidence-based model of behavior change, the Transtheoretical Model, and expert system technology to deliver assessments, feedback, printed reports, and counselor reports with intervention ideas. In a feasibility test involving 60 system-involved youths and their counselors, evaluations of the program were favorable: 91.7% of youths agreed that the program could help them make positive changes, and 86.7% agreed that the program could give their counselor helpful information about them. PMID:23264754

  13. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma staging: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Nada Ali; Eleftheriadou, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Staging of tumors is very important in treatment and surgical decision making, as well as in predicting disease recurrence and prognosis. This review focuses on the different available classifications of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and their impact on the evaluation, management, and prognosis of JNA. The literature was reviewed, and publications on JNA staging were examined. Our MEDLINE search of the entire English-language literature found no review article on the current available staging systems for JNA. In this article, we review the common JNA classification systems that have been published, and we discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used staging systems for JNA are the Radkowski and the Andrews-Fisch staging systems. However, some newer staging systems that are based on advances in technology and surgical approaches-the Onerci, INCan, and UPMC systems-have shown promising utility, and they will probably gain popularity in the future.

  14. Marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en la periodontitis juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Pérez Borrego,

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis juvenil es una enfermedad del periodonto propia de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, afecta principalmente los primeros molares y los incisivos y se caracteriza por la pérdida severa del hueso alveolar alrededor de dientes permanentes sin correspondencia entre la rapidez y severidad de la destrucción con los factores locales. En la causa de la enfermedad se citan factores genéticos, infecciosos e inmunológicos. Estudiamos algunos marcadores de inmunorrespuesta en 6 adolescentes que acudieron a nuestro servicio con el diagnóstico de periodontitis juvenil, además de su valoración clínica y radiológica. Ambos sexos se afectaron por igual, la movilidad dentaria y el sangramiento al sondeo fueron los hallazgos clínicos más relevantes y el índice de higiene bucal fue adecuado en todos los casos. No encontramos homogeneidad en las alteraciones inmunológicas, pero todos los pacientes estuvieron afectados en más de un marcador. Predominaron las alteraciones funcionales de linfocitos T en los estudios celulares. La hipogammaglobulinemia y la IgM elevada fueron las alteraciones más frecuentes en la inmunidad de anticuerpos. Se señala la dificultad que aún existe para explicar la patogenia de la enfermedad basándose solamente en un único factor de riesgo, así como la importancia de la valoración individual de cada enfermo.Juvenile periodontitis is a disease of the periodontium inherent to adolescents and young adults, affecting mainly the first molars and incisives and characterized by the severe loss of the alveolar bone sorrounding the permanent teeth with no correspondance between the celerity and severity of the destruction and the local factors. Genetic, infectious and immunological factors are considereed as the causes of the disease. Some immunoresponse markers were studied in 6 adolescents that were seen at our service with the diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis in addition to their clinical and radiological

  15. IMPACTUL PRESEI ASUPRA DELICVENŢEI JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CIOBANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea în cauză e un rezultat al unui studiu asupra schimbărilor comportamentale ale adolescenţilor, influenţate de unele materiale publicistice. Departe de intenţia de a reveni la cenzura de altădată, autorul pledează pentru o auto-cenzură, pentru o autoexigenţă în procesul de creaţie, pentru o responsabilitate sporită pentru cuvântul scris sau rostit.THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON THE JUVENILE DELINQUENCYThis writing is a result of a study of teenager’s behavior changes influenced by journalistic work. The author is not militating for the past censorship, but he pleads for an autocensorship, for an auto exigency during the creation process, for a high responsibility for written word or for the spoken one.

  16. Institutional games played by confined juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartollas, C; Sieverdes, C M

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the games played by 561 juvenile offenders confined in six coeducational correctional facilities in one state. The types of games these residents used against staff and peers within the confines of the institution varied considerably. The study documented nineteen games used by males and females, twelve to deal with staff and seven to deal with peers. The games were defined as therapeutic games, material games, psychological games, and physical games. Peer-oriented games included attention-seeking activities and a variety of dominance games. Additionally, these games were described and tabulated according to the sex and race of the residents. The conclusion was that game-playing behavior was no less frequent in coeducational institutions than it was in single-sex institutions.

  17. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edison, Michele N.; Letter, Haley P. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); O' Dell, M.C. [University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L. [Florida Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, Orlando, FL (United States); Florida State University, College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases. (orig.)

  18. Cardiac juvenile xanthogranuloma in an infant presenting with pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Delius, Ralph E; Debelenko, Larisa V; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a rare histiocytic disorder of childhood mainly affecting skin and rarely deep soft tissues and viscera. We report a 2-month-old infant who presented with respiratory distress secondary to a large pericardial effusion associated with an epicardial mass. Excisional biopsy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as juvenile xanthogranuloma. The child is well without evidence of disease 8 months following the excision. The corresponding literature on juvenile xanthogranuloma with cardiac manifestations is reviewed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. MR imaging of arthropathies of juvenile arthritis and hemophilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulish, B.S.; Lieberman, J.; Mulopoulos, G.P.; Strandjord, S.; Newman, A.; Goodfellow, D.; Bryan, P.J.; Modic, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The arthropathies of juvenile arthritis and hemophilia have in common abnormal hyperplastic synovium leading to marginal bone erosion, articular cartilage destruction, subchondral bone exposure, and dissolution and ultimately collapse of the affected joint. The authors examined children and young adults with juvenile arthritis and hemophilia by MR imaging and found that they could identify hyperplastic synovium, articular cartilage lesions, bone erosions, and joint effusions. This has therapeutic implications since identification of progressive synovial hyperplasia and/or early cartilage or marginal bone erosion may lead to earlier synovectomy in patients with hemophilia or switch to second line drugs in patients with juvenile arthritis, in an attempt to prevent progressive joint destruction

  20. Effect of moderate exercise on peritoneal neutrophils from juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Sousa, Shirley Maria; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Lagranha, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that moderate exercise in adult rats enhances neutrophil function, although no studies were performed in juvenile rats. We evaluated the effects of moderate exercise on the neutrophil function in juvenile rats. Viability and neutrophils function were evaluated. Moderate exercise did not impair the viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neutrophils, whereas there was greater reactive oxygen species production (164%; p < 0.001) and phagocytic capacity (29%; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that moderate exercise in juvenile rats improves neutrophil function, similar to adults.

  1. Clinical research of juvenile hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ling; Zhang Chunying; Chen Yue

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects and side effects in the radioiodine management of juvenile hyperthyroidism. Methods: 80 patients with poor effects using anti-thyroid drug were assigned to receive 131 I therapy. The follows of therapy outcome were assessed 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment. One follows up per 1-3 years. Results: Among 80 patients followed by 6 months, clinical response was excellent in 65 patients (81%), good in 15 (19%). There were 12 patients with hypothyroidism followed 4 years, and with no other side effects. Conclusion: The good therapeutic effect was obtained in radioiodine treatment for juvenile hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine was effective to juvenile hyperthyroidism

  2. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edison, Michele N.; Letter, Haley P.; O'Dell, M.C.; Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases. (orig.)

  3. "Scared Straight" and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, A; Turpin-Petrosino, C; Buehler, J

    2002-01-01

    'Scared Straight' and other programmes involve organised visits to prison by juvenile delinquents or children at risk for criminal behavior. programmes are designed to deter participants from future offending through first-hand observation of prison life and interaction with adult inmates. These programmes remain in use world-wide despite studies and reviews questioning their effectiveness. To assess the effects of programmes comprising organised visits to prisons by juvenile delinquents (officially adjudicated or convicted by a juvenile court) or pre-delinquents (children in trouble but not officially adjudicated as delinquents), aimed at deterring them from criminal activity. Handsearching by the first author in identifying randomised field trials 1945-1993 relevant to criminology was augmented by structured searches of 16 electronic data bases, including the Campbell SPECTR database of trials and the Cochrane CCTR. Experts in the field were consulted and relevant citations were followed up. Studies that tested the effects of any program involving the organised visits of juvenile delinquents or children at-risk for delinquency to penal institutions were included. Studies that included overlapping samples of juvenile and young adults (e.g. ages 14-20) were included. We only considered studies that randomly or quasi-randomly (i.e. alternation) assigned participants to conditions. Each study had to have a no-treatment control condition with at least one outcome measure of "post-visit" criminal behavior. We report narratively on the nine eligible trials. We conducted one meta-analysis of post-intervention offending rates using official data. Information from other sources (e.g. self-report) was either missing from some studies or critical information was omitted (e.g. standard deviations). We examined the immediate post-treatment effects (i.e. "first-effects") by computing Odds Ratios (OR) for data on proportions of each group re-offending, and assumed both fixed and

  4. Acute Respiratory Failure in 3 Children With Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Britt; Hellebostad, Marit; Ifversen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare hematopoietic stem cell disease in children with features of both myelodysplasia and myeloproliferation. Extramedullary involvement has been reported and pulmonary involvement secondary to leukemic infiltration is an initial manifestation, which may result...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked juvenile retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a decrease in or complete loss of functional retinoschisin, which disrupts the maintenance and organization of ... sides of the retina, resulting in impaired peripheral vision. Some individuals with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis do ...

  6. Growth response of juveniles of Clarias bidorsalis to imported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Growth response of Clarias bidorsalis juveniles weighing between 5 - 10 g that were fed with extruded. (floating) imported ... and showed that daily food consumption and weight gain of fish that were ... mental period. The feed ...

  7. Juvenile Salmonid Necropsy Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  8. Juvenile Salmonid Trophic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  9. Juvenile Salmonid Parasite Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  10. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Pseudopentaceros Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) larvae and juveniles were collected in the vicinity of the Northwest and Southeast Hancock Seamounts During 1984 and 1985....

  11. Reassessing the Anatomic Origin of the Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Colin D; Parmar, Hemant A; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Mukherji, Suresh K

    A modern imaging review is necessary to further define the anatomic origin of the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. After institutional review board approval, a search from January 1998 to January 2013 yielded 33 male patients (aged 10-23 years) with pathologically proven juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma lesions, as well as pretreatment computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involvement was assessed in the following regions: sphenopalatine foramen, pterygopalatine fossa, vidian canal, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, sphenoid sinus, choana, pterygomaxillary fissure/masticator space, orbit, and sphenoid bone. The choana and nasopharynx were involved in all 33 patients. In contrast, only 22 lesions involved the pterygopalatine fossa, 24 lesions involved the sphenopalatine foramen, and 28 lesions involved the vidian canal. Our results suggest that the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma origin is in the region of the choana and nasopharynx rather than the sphenopalatine foramen or pterygopalatine fossa.

  12. Juvenile Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Specimens Collected from 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile swordfish caught throughout the Pacific Ocean collected by Hawaii longline observers, aboard the Thomas Cromwell research vessel, and donated by various...

  13. Association of the GRM4 gene variants with juvenile myoclonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    out the genetic association study in an Indian population for ... Keywords. genetic risk factor; idiopathic generalized epilepsy; juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; metabotropic glutamate receptor; polygenic ..... JME cases, in a German population.

  14. Escape/Aggression Incidence in Sexually Abused Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, John W.; Gutierres, Sara E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a continuation of prior research testing a theoretical model which predicts that juveniles subjected to abuse will not become aggressive but will engage in escape and social avoidance behaviors. Analysis supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  15. Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ... Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, this project will examine youth crime, relations with the police ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  16. Impacto del Ministerio Juvenil en los jovenes de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Uriel; Corporación Universitaria Adventista de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Investigación solicitada por la IASDC sobre algunas actividades y programas que han sido de gran beneficio para el aspecto espiritual de los jovenes en el ministerio Juvenil de la union colombiana del norte.

  17. Parent Group Training Programs in Juvenile Courts: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windell, James O.; Windell, Ellen A.

    1977-01-01

    This survey of juvenile courts across the country indicates that only one of five courts have a parent group program and few use procedures reported in the growing literature relating to changing the behavior of agressive children. (Author)

  18. Recruitment and growth patterns of juvenile marine teleosts caught ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teleosts caught at King's Beach, Algoa Bay. Theresa A. ... about by the arrival of larvae/juveniles in the plankton, followed ..... Species composition and length distribution in the ... abundance and diversity of the Swartkops estuary ichthyofauna.

  19. Juvenile delinquency in Russia: Ccriminal justice, trends, key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.

  20. The pattern of juvenile idiopathic arthritis; a retrospective Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    subtype specially at rural areas which differed from Western and Gulf countries pattern. ... version 18) and the following statistical measures ..... the results of Abdwani et al27 at 2015 (an Omani ... Ravelli A, Martini A. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  1. The host preference and impact of Argulus japonicus ectoparasite on cyprinids in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismiyati; Wulansari, P. D.; Dewi, N. N.

    2018-04-01

    The most widely cultivated freshwater fish are from Familia Cyprinidae, among others goldfish (Carassius auratus), koi (Cyprinus carpio) and comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus). One of the constraints of freshwater fish cultivation is ectoparasite infestation Argulus japonicus. Financial losses have been experienced by some farmers, caused by these ectoparasitic infestaions. This study was aimed to determine the impact of ectoparasite Argulus japonicus infestation on host (freshwater ornamental fish from Familia Cyprinidae), in order to find a preventive solution to treatment on the host. The results showed that prevalence of infested fish by Argulus japonicus were 57 % goldfish, 31 % comet fish and 65 % koi. Changes of histopathology on host were congestion, baoning degeneration, epithelium erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration. The image of infected leukocytes infested by Argulus japonicus were 8.5 % of lymphocytes, 4.7 % neurophils, 3.9 % monocytes, 1.45 % eosinophils and 0,17% basophils.

  2. Role-Playing (Psychodrama in the Social Rehabilitation of Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzyb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the term of psychodrama in the aspect of the social rehabilitation process of juveniles. An important area of considerations is noting the most effective form of work in the modification of socially desirable behavior. Moreover, the identification and wider discussion of the aspect of psychodrama interaction indicates the emotional, therapeutic, and above all correctional dimension, so desired in the social rehabilitation of juveniles.

  3. Abundance of juvenile eastern box turtles in manages forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Felix; Y. Wang; H. Czech; C. Schweitzer

    2008-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2005, we used drift fences and artificial pools to sample juvenile eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in northeastern Alabama in forest stands experimentally treated to retain various amounts of overstory trees—clear-cuts and those with 25%–50% and 75%–100% of trees retained.We captured juvenile turtles only in clear-cut and 25%–50% retention...

  4. Role of radiation therapy for 'juvenile' angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudea, F.; Vega, M.; Canals, E.; Montserrat, J.M.; Valdano, J. (Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Spain))

    1990-09-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign neoplasm which occurs primarily in male adolescents and is characterized by aggressive local growth. The controversy concerning appropriate treatment for patients with juvenile angiofibroma persists. Radiation therapy and survival resection have both been reported to be effective to control a high proportion of these tumours. The case reported here demonstrates a locally advanced JNA controlled by radiation therapy. (author).

  5. Behandling af juvenile angiofibromer med partikelembolisering og endoskopisk kirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne Daugaard; Jakobsen, John; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign, rich vascular nasal tumor, and the biggest complication in surgery is the great loss of blood. Since 1997, Odense University Hospital (OUH) has used preoperative particle embolization and endoscopic surgery to combat this problem. MATERIALS...... and may be considered to be satisfactory. DISCUSSION: Endovascular embolization of juvenile angiofibromas followed by endoscopic surgery is considered to be the preferred treatment method today....

  6. Uveíte na artrite idiopática juvenil Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a freqüência de uveíte anterior crônica em pacientes com artrite idiopática juvenil (AIJ e sua associação com a presença do fator antinúcleo (FAN. Casuística e métodos: foram avaliadas, retrospectivamente, 72 crianças com diagnóstico confirmado de AIJ, que tiveram avaliação oftalmológica através da biomicroscopia para exame da câmara anterior da úvea, determinação do FAN (imunofluorescência indireta e fator reumatóide (FR (prova do látex no período inicial da doença. Para os pacientes com FAN positivo, esta avaliação foi realizada a cada três meses, e, caso contrário, a cada seis meses.Resultados: dos 72 pacientes com AIJ, 40 (55,5% crianças eram do sexo masculino e 36 (50% caucasóides. A idade média de início da AIJ foi 6,4 anos (1 a 14 anos, e a idade média na época do estudo foi de 10,4 anos (1 a 19 anos. De acordo com o tipo de início da AIJ, em 32 (44,4% crianças era pauciarticular (17 meninos e 15 meninas, em 30 (41,6% era poliarticular (17 meninos e 13 meninas, e em 10 (14% era sistêmico (6 meninos e 4 meninas. A presença de uveíte anterior crônica foi detectada em cinco (6,5% crianças com idade média de 11,4 anos. Destas, quatro (80% eram do tipo de início pauciarticular (três meninas do tipo I, com FAN positivo, e um menino do tipo I, FAN negativo, e uma menina com doença poliarticular (FAN e FR negativos. Neste grupo, a idade de início da AIJ foi em média 5,1 anos (3 a 12 anos, e a idade de início da uveíte foi em média de 9 anos (4 a 16 anos. O FAN foi positivo em 3/5 pacientes (60% com uveíte. Dentre os pacientes com AIJ e sem uveíte (67 crianças, oito (12% apresentaram FAN positivo. Quanto à evolução dos pacientes com comprometimento ocular, três crianças tiveram apenas um episódio de uveíte, e duas crianças apresentaram quatro recorrências da uveíte com catarata sem atividade articular associada. A presença do FAN foi estatisticamente mais freq

  7. Sports Participation and Juvenile Delinquency: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Anouk; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; van der Stouwe, Trudy; Stams, Geert-Jan

    2016-04-01

    Participation in sports activities is very popular among adolescents, and is frequently encouraged among youth. Many psychosocial health benefits in youth are attributed to sports participation, but to what extent this positive influence holds for juvenile delinquency is still not clear on both the theoretical and empirical level. There is much controversy on whether sports participation should be perceived as a protective or a risk factor for the development of juvenile delinquency. A multilevel meta-analysis of 51 published and unpublished studies, with 48 independent samples containing 431 effect sizes and N = 132,366 adolescents, was conducted to examine the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency and possible moderating factors of this association. The results showed that there is no overall significant association between sports participation and juvenile delinquency, indicating that adolescent athletes are neither more nor less delinquent than non-athletes. Some study, sample and sports characteristics significantly moderated the relationship between sports participation and juvenile delinquency. However, this moderating influence was modest. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of sports to prevent juvenile delinquency are discussed.

  8. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  9. Combination of Juvenile Papillomatosis, Juvenile Fibroadenoma and Intraductal Carcinoma of the Breast in a 15-Year-old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedloev, Theophil; Bassarova, Assia; Angelov, Kostadin; Vasileva, Mariela; Asenov, Yavor

    2015-09-01

    The association of juvenile papillomatosis with carcinoma is proven, but very rare, as there exist several reported cases. A 15-year-old girl with no family history of breast cancer presented with two masses in the left breast. The excisional biopsy on both lumps revealed juvenile fibroadenoma and juvenile papillomatosis epithelial proliferation multiple cystic expanded channels. In some of these channels, cytological features of intraductal carcinoma were observed. We performed a full immunohistochemical examination of the juvenile papillomatosis. The patient refused any further surgical or adjuvant treatment. There are no signs of recurrence in the 15 year follow-up. This case is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, taking into account the patient's age and the controversial treatment recommendations. Good collaboration between surgeons and pathologists is essential for an accurate diagnostic process and aims to avoid under- or overtreatment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Cibercriminalidad social juvenil: la cifra negra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montiel Juan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ciberespacio constituye un contexto básico de socialización para los nativos digitales, al tiempo que se configura como un espacio de oportunidad criminal en el que niños, niñas y jóvenes continúan siendo víctimas y agresores. Fenómenos como el cyberbullying, el ciberacoso sexual, el online grooming o el sexting constituyen formas de cibercriminalidad social que, según numerosos estudios sobre cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada, implican a un importante número de menores en España cada año, especialmente en el caso del ciberbullying y el ciberacoso. Sin embargo, no reflejan lo mismo las estadísticas oficiales. A pesar de apuntar una tendencia creciente de la cibercriminalidad en los últimos años, representa menos de un 2% de todos los delitos conocidos y sólo se dispone de algunos datos fragmentarios sobre la implicación de menores en estos casos. Los datos muestran que este grupo de edad es el más afectado, con mucha diferencia, por los ciberdelitos sexuales, pero también son estos los ciberdelitos que más cometen.

    Por otra parte, las elevadas prevalencias reveladas por los estudios de cibervictimización y ciberdelincuencia auto-revelada no concuerdan con el escaso impacto del ciberdelito juvenil en las estadísticas oficiales y en los tribunales de justicia. Entre las posibles explicaciones destacan la transversalidad de estas formas de delincuencia, que pueden manifestarse en comportamientos ilícitos de muy diversa naturaleza, la ausencia de pruebas para su imputación y esclarecimiento, las dificultades técnicas para dejar constancia del componente cibernético al registrar el ilícito, así como la ausencia de denuncias por parte de las cibervíctimas.

    Las tasas de denuncia del online grooming y el cyberbullying son, en general, más bajas que sus equivalentes tradicionales (abuso sexual infantil y bullying. La elevada cifra negra de la cibercriminalidad social juvenil

  11. Caracterización del glaucoma juvenil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Roche Caso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El glaucoma no es frecuente en los niños, pero cuando ocurre sus síntomas son poco perceptibles y produce graves consecuencias para la salud visual. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar, desde las aristas clínica y epidemiológica, a los pacientes con glaucoma juvenil atendidos en los servicios de oftalmología de los Hospitales Pediátricos del Cerro y «Pedro Borrás», en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico longitudinal y prospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 176 pacientes entre 5 y 18 años de edad, con presunto glaucoma. La muestra, después de aplicados los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, quedó conformada por 38 casos. Se analizaron las variables: edad al momento del diagnóstico, sexo, color de la piel, antecedentes familiares según grado de parentesco, agudeza visual máxima corregida, tipo de defecto refractivo, características del ángulo camerular, espesor corneal central, valor de la presión intraocular, alteraciones fundoscópicas y campimétricas. RESULTADOS. En la mayoría de los pacientes el diagnóstico de glaucoma juvenil constituyó un hallazgo. La mediana de edad al momento del diagnóstico fue de 12,5 años, con ligero predominio de varones y de la piel no blanca. Fue más frecuente el antecedente de glaucoma en familiares de segundo grado de consanguinidad. La mayoría de los casos tenía visión óptima, algún grado de miopía y ángulo abierto sin alteraciones evidentes del ángulo camerular, entre las cuales la más frecuente fue la presencia de procesos iridianos prominentes. CONCLUSIONES. Predominaron la disminución moderada del espesor corneal y valores medios de presión intraocular de 26,91 mm Hg. La alteración fundoscópica encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue la excavación papilar moderada (entre 0,4 y 0,5 y como lesión campimétrica, el aumento de la mancha

  12. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  13. Social and psychological aspects of criminal juvenile justice in the world practice (Anglo-Saxon model of juvenile justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Oshevsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed

  14. An overview of juveniles and school violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Saori; Rappaport, Nancy; Penn, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Despite the relative rarity of school shootings, targeted violence, and school-associated violent deaths, any youth who presents with words, gestures, or actions of a threatening or violent nature in a school setting should be assessed and referred for further evaluation by a mental health professional and, if clinically indicated, a forensic evaluator.The request for a juvenile risk assessment for future dangerousness requires careful delineation of role and agency; confidentiality issues; a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of the youth; and a detailed assessment of the youth's perceived threat or problematic behavior. Various protective and risk factors and consideration of other individual, family, school/peer, and situational factors should also be explored.There is still much information that is unknown when considering school violence or targeted school violence. There is clearly a need for additional research on the identification of at-risk youths, the contributions and significance of various protective and risk factors, the impact of peer relationships, and perceived rejection, socioeconomic status, subtypes of aggression, and developmental stages. Examples of future research direction might include difference by gender, presence of affective or psychotic disorders, substance abuse, emerging characterologic disturbances, and physiologic markers, such as cortisol or serotonin. Additional research regarding best practices and the development of clinical guidelines or practice parameters is also needed.

  15. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2016-05-04

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health.

  16. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sarah L N; Sen, Ethan S; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2016-04-27

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between genetic and environmental factors. JIA-associated uveitis comes in several forms, but the most common presentation is of the chronic anterior uveitis type. This condition is usually asymptomatic and thus screening for JIA-associated uveitis in at-risk patients is paramount. Early detection and treatment aims to stop inflammation and prevent the development of complications leading to visual loss, which can occur due to both active disease and burden of disease treatment. Visually disabling complications of JIA-associated uveitis include cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy and macular oedema. There is a growing body of evidence for the early introduction of systemic immunosuppressive therapies in order to reduce topical and systemic glucocorticoid use. This includes more traditional treatments, such as methotrexate, as well as newer biological therapies. This review highlights the epidemiology of JIA-associated uveitis, the underlying pathogenesis and how affected patients may present. The current guidelines and criteria for screening, diagnosis and monitoring are discussed along with approaches to management.

  17. Uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ethan S; Dick, Andrew D; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2015-06-01

    Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA-associated uveitis is recognized to have an autoimmune aetiology characterized by activation of CD4(+) T cells, but the underlying mechanisms might overlap with those of autoinflammatory conditions involving activation of innate immunity. As no animal model recapitulates all the features of JIA-associated uveitis, questions remain regarding its pathogenesis. The most common form of JIA-associated uveitis is chronic anterior uveitis, which is usually asymptomatic initially. Effective screening is, therefore, essential to detect early disease and commence treatment before the development of visually disabling complications, such as cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy and cystoid macular oedema. Complications can result from uncontrolled intraocular inflammation as well as from its treatment, particularly prolonged use of high-dose topical corticosteroids. Accumulating evidence supports the early introduction of systemic immunosuppressive drugs, such as methotrexate, as steroid-sparing agents. Prospective randomized controlled trials of TNF inhibitors and other biologic therapies are underway or planned. Future research should aim to identify biomarkers to predict which children are at high risk of developing JIA-associated uveitis or have a poor prognosis. Such biomarkers could help to ensure that patients receive earlier interventions and more-potent therapy, with the ultimate aim of reducing loss of vision and ocular morbidity.

  18. Friendship Group Composition and Juvenile Institutional Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shannon E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examines both the patterns of friendship networks and how these network characteristics relate to the risk factors of institutional misconduct for incarcerated youth. Using friendship networks collected from males incarcerated with California's Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), latent profile analysis was utilized to create homogeneous groups of friendship patterns based on alter attributes and network structure. The incarcerated youth provided 144 egocentric networks reporting 558 social network relationships. Latent profile analysis identified three network profiles: expected group (67%), new breed group (20%), and model citizen group (13%). The three network profiles were integrated into a multiple group analysis framework to examine the relative influence of individual-level risk factors on their rate of institutional misconduct. The analysis finds variation in predictors of institutional misconduct across profile types. These findings suggest that the close friendships of incarcerated youth are patterned across the individual characteristics of the youth's friends and that the friendship network can act as a moderator for individual risk factors for institutional misconduct.

  19. Risky Decision Making in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Unterberger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years. Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.

  20. Risky Decision Making in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberger, Iris; Zamarian, Laura; Prieschl, Manuela; Bergmann, Melanie; Walser, Gerald; Luef, Gerhard; Javor, Andrija; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete

    2018-01-01

    It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years) and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years). Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.

  1. Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis: A Paediatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Finnis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies are directed against the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigability. Juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG is a rare condition of childhood and has many clinical features that are distinct from adult MG. Prepubertal children in particular have a higher prevalence of isolated ocular symptoms, lower frequency of acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and a higher probability of achieving remission. Diagnosis in young children can be complicated by the need to differentiate from congenital myasthenic syndromes, which do not have an autoimmune basis. Treatment commonly includes anticholinesterases, corticosteroids with or without steroid-sparing agents, and newer immune modulating agents. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG are effective in preparation for surgery and in treatment of myasthenic crisis. Thymectomy increases remission rates. Diagnosis and management of children with JMG should take account of their developmental needs, natural history of the condition, and side-effect profiles of treatment options.

  2. Malocclusions in a juvenile medieval skull material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, E

    1983-01-01

    From a mostly medieval skull material--the "Schreiner collections" in Oslo--juvenile crania were selected as follows: Group A: Crania with complete and intact primary dentition. n = 20. Group B: Crania with early mixed dentition. Incisors only erupted or under eruption. n = 47. Group C: Crania with late mixed dentition. n = 14. The author recorded visually: Sagittal and transversal dental relation, frontal dental contact, anterior cross-bite, rotation and crowding. There was good basal stability. Sagittally 1 moderately postnormal dentition was recorded, transversally there were no anomalies. Slight anterior cross-bite was recorded in 1 case, anterior cross-bite of one and two lateral incisors respectively in 2 others, and tête-à-tête contact in 3 cases. Crowding was recorded in 6 cases, in one of them being general, in the others located solely in the mandibular incisor segment. Broken contact and more or less pronounced rotation occurred in these dentitions. Rotation was also recorded in 2 other cases. The prevalence of malocclusions of the type that can be related to continuing finger-sucking or sucking of dummylike objects was very low in this material. This observation prompted the author to discuss a hypothesis concerning the aetiology of dummy- and finger-sucking habits.

  3. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Development of consensus treatment plans for juvenile localized scleroderma: a roadmap toward comparative effectiveness studies in juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzanne C; Torok, Kathryn S; Pope, Elena; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Hong, Sandy; Jacobe, Heidi T; Rabinovich, C Egla; Laxer, Ronald M; Higgins, Gloria C; Ferguson, Polly J; Lasky, Andrew; Baszis, Kevin; Becker, Mara; Campillo, Sarah; Cartwright, Victoria; Cidon, Michael; Inman, Christi J; Jerath, Rita; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Vora, Sheetal; Zeft, Andrew; Wallace, Carol A; Ilowite, Norman T; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C

    2012-08-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with substantial morbidity and disability. Although a wide range of therapeutic strategies has been reported in the literature, a lack of agreement on treatment specifics and accepted methods for clinical assessment has made it difficult to compare approaches and identify optimal therapy. Our objective was to develop standardized treatment plans, clinical assessments, and response criteria for active, moderate to high severity juvenile LS. A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, dermatologists, and a lay advisor was engaged by the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) to develop standardized treatment plans and assessment parameters for juvenile LS using consensus methods/nominal group techniques. Recommendations were validated in 2 face-to-face conferences with a larger group of practitioners with expertise in juvenile LS and with the full membership of CARRA, which encompasses the majority of pediatric rheumatologists in the US and Canada. Consensus was achieved on standardized treatment plans that reflect the prevailing treatment practices of CARRA members. Standardized clinical assessment methods and provisional treatment response criteria were also developed. Greater than 90% of pediatric rheumatologists responding to a survey (66% of CARRA membership) affirmed the final recommendations and agreed to utilize these consensus plans to treat patients with juvenile LS. Using consensus methodology, we have developed standardized treatment plans and assessment methods for juvenile LS. The high level of support among pediatric rheumatologists will support future comparative effectiveness studies and enable the development of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of juvenile LS. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Parental Low Self-Control, Family Environments, and Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Connolly, George M; Flexon, Jamie; Guerette, Rob T

    2016-10-01

    Research consistently finds that low self-control is significantly correlated with delinquency. Only recently, however, have researchers started to examine associations between parental low self-control, family environments, and child antisocial behavior. Adding to this emerging area of research, the current study examines associations between parental low self-control, aspects of the family environment, and officially recoded juvenile delinquency among a sample (N = 101) of juveniles processed through a juvenile justice assessment facility located in the Southeastern United States. Furthermore, it considers whether aspects of family environments, particularly family cohesion, family conflict, and parental efficacy, mediate the influence of parental low self-control on delinquency. The results of a series of analyses indicate that parental low self-control is correlated with various aspects of family environments and juvenile delinquency, and that the association between parental low self-control and juvenile delinquency is mediated by family environments. Supplementary analyses also suggest that the association between parental low self-control and the family environment may be reciprocal. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Temperament of juvenile delinquents with history of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Chen, Sue-Huei; Huang, Chien

    2007-01-01

    The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse have been continuously debated. Cloninger's Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported to predict patterns of substance abuse and comorbidity. In the current study, we aimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. Sixty consecutive and newly incarcerated male delinquents with history of substance abuse were recruited from a juvenile correctional facility in northwestern Taiwan from January 2002 through December 2003. All subjects were assessed of their temperament, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders on an individual base. The juvenile delinquent subjects with childhood history of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were significantly younger, consumed less betel nuts, and had more siblings with history of drug abuse. Consistent with the results of Cloninger's studies, novelty seeking positively correlated to the amount of substance abuse, while harm avoidance inversely correlated in juvenile delinquents. Endemic trend of choice of substance abuse needs to be taken into consideration in future research projects.

  7. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrowitz, Elliott H

    2012-07-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1-2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors.

  8. The image diagnosis of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian Jianxing; Zhao Jihong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the image change of JAS and improve the knowledge of this case. Method: 12 patients in this group, 11 males and 1 female. The morbidity age is between 9-16 years old and in average is 13 years old. All the cases use the pelvis platform and R F, HLA-B27 check. Four of them has made the CT and MRI level. Result: In this group, the case is extended over the sacroiliac joint. Among them, there are 5 samples that are referred to both of the coxa articution. The X-rays shows that under the sacroiliac joint, there has 2/3 sclerotin sclerotized and the side of sacroiliac shows this phenomenon especially. The sacroiliac joint is fuzziness and the size of articulation clearance is different, it shows as the sawtooth. When it refers to the coxa articulation, it shows as the acetabular and at the same time the articulation become abnormally. When it refers to the lumber, it shows as that the lumber articulation fuzziness while the articulation clearance disappear. CT level: when affected with this sickness it show that the size of the clearance is different. MRI level: T 1 WI shows that when affected with this case, it express that the size of the clearance is different and at the side of sacroiliac joint can see the low signal which can change into high signal when put it under the T 2 Wi, HLA-B27 is masculine. Conclusion: Because JAS is lack of the adjust ankylosing spondylitis special clinical in the early stage, so it is always be misdiagnosed as the Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In fact they are two different cases and treatment is also different. The authors should improve our knowledge about this case. In our opinion, checking of the image and HLA-B27 can diagnose this sickness earlier and correctly. (authors)

  9. Juvenile animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-12-01

    There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. What is the prevalence of the co-occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co-occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co-occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The influence of mental health disorders on severity of reoffending in juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.; McMillan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted secondary data analyses on mental health assessment and offense history data for 700 juveniles referred to juvenile justice agencies in Alabama (probation and detention). Multiple regression analysis was applied to predict subsequent offense severity by disorder profile,

  11. The juvenile antisocial brain : brain imaging studies in clinically antisocial youth with nascent phychopathic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides important new clues on the neurobiology of juvenile psychopathic traits in clinically antisocial juveniles. The data specifically shows that these traits are ostensibly underpinned by highly specific corticolimbic network dysfunctions, in which

  12. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments... of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the... information, please contact Janet Chiancone, (202) 353-9258, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  13. Contrasting patterns of changes in abundance following a bleaching event between juvenile and adult scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Baird, Andrew H.; Bridge, Tom C. L.; Dornelas, Maria; Fontoura, Luisa; Pizarro, Oscar; Precoda, Kristin; Torres-Pulliza, Damaris; Woods, Rachael M.; Zawada, Kyle; Madin, Joshua S.

    2018-06-01

    Coral bleaching events have caused extensive mortality on reefs around the world. Juvenile corals are generally less affected by bleaching than their conspecific adults and therefore have the potential to buffer population declines and seed recovery. Here, we use juvenile and adult abundance data at 20 sites encircling Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, before and after the 2016 bleaching event to quantify: (1) correlates of changes in juvenile abundance following a bleaching event; (2) differences in susceptibility to extreme thermal stress between juveniles and adults. Declines in juvenile abundance were lower at sites closer to the 20-m-depth contour and higher for Acropora and Pocillopora juveniles than for other taxa. Juveniles of Acropora and Goniastrea were less susceptible to bleaching than adults, but the opposite was true for Pocillopora spp. and taxa in the family Merulinidae. Our results indicate that the potential of the juvenile life stage to act as a buffer during bleaching events is taxon-dependent.

  14. A new mass mortality of juvenile Protoceratops and size-segregated aggregation behaviour in juvenile non-avian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W E Hone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage. In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians ("horned dinosaurs" are known from both types of assemblages. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. CONCLUSIONS: The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of 'sociality' in dinosaurs.

  15. A new mass mortality of juvenile Protoceratops and size-segregated aggregation behaviour in juvenile non-avian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, David W E; Farke, Andrew A; Watabe, Mahito; Shigeru, Suzuki; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav

    2014-01-01

    Monodominant bonebeds are a relatively common occurrence for non-avian dinosaurs, and have been used to infer associative, and potentially genuinely social, behavior. Previously known assemblages are characterized as either mixed size-classes (juvenile and adult-sized specimens together) or single size-classes of individuals (only juveniles or only adult-sized individuals within the assemblage). In the latter case, it is generally unknown if these kinds of size-segregated aggregations characterize only a particular size stage or represent aggregations that happened at all size stages. Ceratopsians ("horned dinosaurs") are known from both types of assemblages. Here we describe a new specimen of the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, Granger and Gregory 1923 from Mongolia representing an aggregation of four mid-sized juvenile animals. In conjunction with existing specimens of groups of P. andrewsi that includes size-clustered aggregations of young juveniles and adult-sized specimens, this new material provides evidence for some degree of size-clustered aggregation behaviour in Protoceratops throughout ontogeny. This continuity of size-segregated (and presumably age-clustered) aggregation is previously undocumented in non-avian dinosaurs. The juvenile group fills a key gap in the available information on aggregations in younger ceratopsians. Although we support the general hypothesis that many non-avian dinosaurs were gregarious and even social animals, we caution that evidence for sociality has been overstated and advocate a more conservative interpretation of some data of 'sociality' in dinosaurs.

  16. Juvenile xanthogranuloma with clonal proliferation in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mały, Ewa; Przyborska, Marta; Rybczyńska, Aleksandra; Konatkowska, Benigna; Nowak, Jerzy; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2012-04-01

    The triple association between juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and neurofibromatosis was described in literature in about 20 cases. In this paper, the case of an 11-month-old infant boy with a disseminated JXG with unusual cytogenetic representation in the bone marrow was reported. Neurofibromatosis and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were excluded, just the same as other leukemias. Bone marrow and peripheral blood cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype with many rearrangements 46,XY,-6,der(12)t(6;12)(p21;p13),del(7)(p13p22),+9 once described in the literature as a B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia case. On the contrary, in our patient immunologic testing demonstrated a high activity of T lymphocytes, however, inflammation was excluded. To the best of our knowledge this is the first described case of systemic JXG with determined karyotype representing unusual chromosomal aberrations.

  17. Psychopathology and personality in juvenile sexual homicide offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Blashfield, R

    1997-01-01

    This project describes the psychopathology and personality findings in 14 juveniles who committed sexual homicide. These incarcerated youth were assessed using a structured interview, a personality assessment instrument, correctional files review, and an author-designed clinical interview. Nearly all of these youth met DSM-III-R conduct disorder criteria at the time of the crime. The presence of personality disorders and moderately high psychopathy scores at follow-up were common. Two-thirds of these youth reported the presence of violent sexual fantasies before their crimes. Weapons, most often knives, were used by these juvenile sexual murderers to kill known victims in a majority of the cases. They usually acted alone and selected a low risk victim. These findings suggest that juvenile sexual murderers are an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with identifiable psychopathology, personality disturbances, and criminal patterns.

  18. Strike kinematics and performance in juvenile ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, William G; Tan, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    The rapid strike of snakes has interested researchers for decades. Although most work has focused on the strike performance of vipers, recent work has shown that other snakes outside of the Viperidae can strike with the same velocities and accelerations. However, to date all of these examples focus on performance in adult snakes. Here, we use high-speed video to measure the strike kinematics and performance of 10 juvenile (pythons, Python regius. We find that juvenile P. regius strike at levels comparable to larger snakes, but with shorter durations and over shorter distances. We conclude that the juvenile P. regius maintain performance likely through manipulation of the axial musculature and accompanying elastic tissues, and that this is a first step to understanding ontogenetic changes in behavior and a potential avenue for understanding how captivity may also impact behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Amera K.; Catlin, Natasha R.; Quist, Erin M.; Steinbach, Thomas J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, “Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists” on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  20. Coblation-assisted endonasal endoscopic resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L; Zhou, X; Li, J; Jin, J

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma may be successfully resected using endoscopic techniques. However, the use of coblation technology for such resection has not been described. This study aimed to document cases of Fisch class I juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with limited nasopharyngeal and nasal cavity extension, which were completely resected using an endoscopic coblation technique. We retrospectively studied 23 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who underwent resection with either traditional endoscopic instruments (n = 12) or coblation (n = 11). Intra-operative blood loss and overall operative time were recorded. The mean tumour resection time for coblation and traditional endoscopic instruments was 87 and 136 minutes, respectively (t = 9.962, p angiofibroma (Fisch class I), with good surgical margins and minimal blood loss.