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Sample records for carassius auratus auratus

  1. PARASITES INFECTIONS OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus L.

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    Emil Gjurčević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Removing fish from their natural environment, and placing them in aquariums, where large number is concentrated on small space, causes not only stress but increases the possibility of disease. In these unnatural conditions but often adequate for parasite reproduction, parasites can cause diseases leading to death. In our work we investigated parasites presence in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. kept in aquarium, from three different pet shops. The study showed presence of: Trypanoplasma sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Myxoboulus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. Considering the number of parasites found in examined fish, it can be possible that parasites can cause mortality in goldfish. Therefore, special caution has to be on quarantine and healthcare while importing especially exotic aquarium fish that may be infected with exotic parasites. In case of disease, proper treatment in due time has to be conducted.

  2. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

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    Fengjin CAI, Zhengjun WU, Nan HE, Zhenxing WANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. auratus recognizes P. clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. auratus recognize P. clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. clarkii previously fed with C. auratus (C. auratus diet cues and water from a tub containing unfed P. clarkii (P. clarkii cues. In the visual experiment, experienced C. auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. auratus responded to P. clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. auratus appears to recognize P. clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. auratus may recognize P. clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. auratus can recognize P. clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. auratus cannot [Current Zoology 57 (3: 330–339, 2011].

  3. Can native species crucian carp Carassius auratus recognizes the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii?

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    Fengjin CAI; Zhengjun WU; Nan HE; Zhenxing WANG; Chengming HUANG

    2011-01-01

    Procambarus clarkii is native to the south-central United States (Louisiana) and northeastern Mexico, and is a highly efficient predator that poses a damager to native species after its introduction or invasion. In its natural habitat, P. Clarkii consumes Carassius auratus, however, whether C. Auratus recognizes P. Clarkii as a predator is not yet clear. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus recognize P. Clarkii as a predatory threat and the specific sensory modality used by C. Auratus to respond to chemical and visual stimuli from P. Clarkii. In the chemical stimuli experiment, two kinds of chemical stimuli were used, water from a tub containing P. Clarkii previously fed with C. Auratus (C. Auratus diet cues) and water from a tub containing unfed P. Clarkii (P. Clarkii cues). In the visual experiment, experienced C. Auratus decreased activity, but inexperienced C.auratus avoided the predator compartment. When C. Auratus diet cues were presented, both experienced and inexperienced C. Auratus increased the use of shelter, decreased activity in the initial response phase. Compared with the blank treatment, experienced C. Auratus responded to P. Clarkii cues by decreasing activity; however, inexperienced C. Auratus showed no reduction in activity. C. Auratus appears to recognize P. Clarkii as a predator both through visual and chemical cues. Further analysis revealed that C. Auratus may recognize P. Clarkii visually through the disturbances caused by P. Clarkii movement and chemically by detecting conspecific alarm cues in the diet of P. Clarkii. The results also indicate that experienced C. Auratus can recognize P. Clarkii by innate chemical cues from P. Clarkii, whereas inexperienced C. Auratus cannot.

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov. (Myxozoa) infecting goldfish Carassius auratus auratus.

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    Lewisch, Eva; Soliman, Hatem; Schmidt, Peter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) was isolated from the fins of goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus 1758). The fish had been imported from China by an Austrian retailer. Nodules from the margins of the fins contained pyriform myxospores with a singular polar capsule. In valvular view, the spores measured 12.2 µm in length and 6.4 µm in width. In sutural view, the thickness was 2.9 µm. The polar capsule measured 4.2 × 3.1 µm and contained a polar filament with 8 to 9 coils. Histological sections showed plasmodia of 0.2 to 4.0 mm diameter with the earlier developmental stages of the parasite in the periphery and the mature spores closer to the center. In the transmission electron microscope examination, the different developmental stages could be observed. Morphological data, host specificity, tissue tropism, and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA identify this parasite as a new species of Thelohanellus, which we have named Thelohanellus hoffmanni sp. nov.

  5. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio.

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    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced from the tetraploid Carassius auratus gibelio in this study. The genome sequence was 16,576 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is 31.61% A, 25.81% T, 26.62% G, 15.96% C, with an A+T bias of 57.42%. The complete mitogenome data provides useful genetic markers for the studies on the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  6. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

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    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  7. Multistress effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus) behavior and metabolism.

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    Gandar, Allison; Jean, Séverine; Canal, Julie; Marty-Gasset, Nathalie; Gilbert, Franck; Laffaille, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Crossed effects between climate change and chemical pollutions were identified on community structure and ecosystem functioning. Temperature rising affects the toxic properties of pollutants and the sensitiveness of organisms to chemicals stress. Inversely, chemical exposure may decrease the capacity of organisms to respond to environmental changes. The aim of our study was to assess the individual and crossed effects of temperature rising and pesticide contamination on fish. Goldfish, Carassius auratus, were exposed during 96 h at two temperatures (22 and 32 °C) to a mixture of common pesticides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin, and tebuconazol) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations MIX1 = 8.4 μg L(-1) and MIX2 = 42 μg L(-1)). We investigated the sediment reworking behavior, which has a major ecological functional role. We also focused on three physiological traits from the cellular up to the whole individual level showing metabolic status of fish (protein concentration in liver and muscle, hepatosomatic index, and Fulton's condition factor). Individual thermal stress and low concentrations of pesticides decreased the sediment reworking activity of fish and entrained metabolic compensation with global depletion in energy stores. We found that combined chemical and thermal stresses impaired the capacity of fish to set up an efficient adaptive response. Our results strongly suggest that temperature will make fish more sensitive to water contamination by pesticides, raising concerns about wild fish conservation submitted to global changes.

  8. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  9. Identification of Triploid Individuals and Clonal Lines in Carassius Auratus Complex Using Microsatellites

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    Zhiyi Bai, Feng Liu, Jiale Li, Gen Hua Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carassius auratus complex in natural populations includes diploid triploid and polyploidy individuals. Diploid individuals belong to the species Carassius auratus whereas triploid and polyploidy individuals are from the subspecies Carassius auratus gibelio. Triploid individuals are all female and reproduce clonally by gynogenesis. Therefore the Carassius auratus complex is an ideal system for studying evolution of unisexual reproduction. Identification of triploid individuals and clonal lines is the first step towards understanding of the evolution of unisexual clonal lines. We examined the ability of 10 microsatellites in identifying triploid individuals in 94 individuals from Japan and China. In 40 confirmed triploid individuals and eight confirmed diploid individuals, all triploid and diploid individuals can be identified by genotyping 10 microsatellite, and four triploid clonal lines were identified. Using the 10 microsatellites we genotyped 46 adult individuals (40 females and six males from a natural population in China and found that all six males were diploid whereas the majority of females (36 of 40 were triploid and three triploid clonal lines were detected. In 18 diploid individuals from China, all individuals showed different genotypes, suggesting there is no diploid clonal line in diploid crucian carp. A phylogenetic analysis of 94 individuals from China and Japan showed that triploid individuals and clonal lines have originated recurrently.

  10. Resistencia a antibioticos y presencia de plasmidos en: Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, aislados de Carassius auratus auratus

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    Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

    2004-01-01

    Se aislaron e identificaron 70 cepas bacterianas del riñón de peces de ornato Carassius auratus con signos y lesiones de infección. Las especies bacterianas aisladas e identificadas, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis y Vibrio furnissii, han sido descritas como causantes de diarrea en humano y como patógeno muy agresivo en cultivos de Ciprinus carpio. Por esta razón se ha hecho mal uso y abuso de antibióticos para evitar y controlar la presencia de esta bacteria en los cultivos. El uso fu...

  11. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  12. Genetic variation and population history of three Carassius auratus populations in Huaihe River, China.

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    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yuanjun; Yang, Chengzhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to investigate the relationships of drainage history of Huaihe River with the genetic history of Carassius auratus along the river, we examined the genetic variations and population histories of three wild C. auratus populations in Huaihe River based on the D-loop gene. The results showed that their nucleotide and haplotype diversities were ranged from 0.00268 to 0.00651 and from 0.863 to 0.902, respectively, and their genetic distance was quite small. The analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that a frequent inter-population connection and large historic gene flows occurred among the three populations. Demographic analysis indicated that expansions had been happened in three populations. After investigating the historic process of the Huaihe River, we presumed that both nature and artificial factors may play important roles in shaping the genetic structure of the three populations. The present study also provided genetic information of C. auratus for further conservation of its germplasm resources.

  13. Immunotoxicity of bisphenol A to Carassius auratus lymphocytes and macrophages following in vitro exposure

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    YIN Da-qiang; HU Shuang-qing; GU Ying; WEI Li; LIU Shu-shen; ZHANG Ai-qian

    2007-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer component of polycarbonate plastics and classified as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC).The reproductive toxicity of BPA has been extensively studied in mammals; however, relatively little information is available on the immunotoxic responses of fish to BPA. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA on the immune functions of lymphocytes and macrophages in Carassius auratus. The effects of BPA were compared with those of two natural steroid hormones, estradiol and hydrocortisone. Proliferation of the two types of cells in response to PHA was measured using colorimetric MTT assay. Macrophage respiratory burst stimulated by Con A was measured using chemiluminescence assay. Results showed that BPA (0.054-5.4 mg/L),estradiol (0.0002-2.0 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (5-50 mg/L) significantly induced Carassius auratus lymphocyte proliferation while higher doses of hydrocortisone (500-5000 mg/L) appeared to be inhibitory. BPA (0.005-50 mg/L), estradiol (0.005-800 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (0.005-500 mg/L) markedly enhanced macrophage proliferation, whereas higher doses of BPA (500-1000 mg/L)appeared to inhibit cell proliferation. Furthermore, higher dosage of BPA (50 mg/L) and hydrocortisone (50 and 500 mg/L) suppressed the macrophages respiratory burst while estradiol is stimulative all the doses tested (0.05-500 mg/L). In conclusion, BPA could have immunotoxicity to Carassius auratus and functional changes of lymphocyte and macrophage in Carassius auratus may be different between low and high dosages.

  14. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  15. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

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    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  16. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldifsh (Carassius auratus)

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    Reza Tarkhani; Mohammad Reza Imanpoor; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Sayede Amene Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Methods:To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight usingANOVA. Results:Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of this hormone on growth factors ofCarassius auratus.

  17. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  18. Hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative stress in Carassius auratus liver, exposed to pyrene.

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    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the hydroxy radical generation and oxidative stress in the liver of goldfish Carassius auratus under the effect of pyrene. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) of pyrene for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. Based on the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, the free radical which was generated in fish liver was identified as hydroxyl radical ((*)OH). The (*)OH signal intensity showed a significant increase compared with the control. The changes of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were detected. The reduced glutathione (GSH) level decreased significantly while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level was increased at higher concentration (0.005-0.1 mg/L), resulting in a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly at 0.005-0.1 mg/L pyrene. The results clearly showed that C. auratus was subjected to oxidative stress and damage when exposed to pyrene.

  19. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

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    DIANA COSTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  20. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  1. THE ACTION OF CORAGEN INSECTICIDE ON CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

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    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our researches we have determined the variation of certain physiological indexes, such as the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the glycaemia and the number of red blood cells under the action of Coragen insecticide on Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Under the action of Coragen, we have registered significant changes in the oxygen consume, the breathing rhythm, the number of red blood cells and glycemia at the Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch items, considered as answers to the stress provoked by emissions. The highest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of the percentage, were noticed at the glycemia, which at the mark was 28 mg/dl, and in the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 42 mg/dl, representing a 50% growth and at the breathing rhythm in 24 hours, where values significantly decreased with 41.18% at the concentration of 0.07 ml/l and with 39.33% at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen. The slightest variations of the physiological indexes, from the perspective of percentage, were noticed at the oxygen consumption, which, at the mark is of 55.302 ml oxygen/kg/hour, and for the treated sample, with 0.1 ml/l Coragen is 34.81 ml oxygen/kg/hour, representing a decrease of 37.06% in 24 hours and the number of red blood cells, where the values have significantly decrease with 9.58%, 13.48%, respectively 18.44% for the concentrations of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 ml/l Coragen.

  2. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

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    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  3. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  4. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  5. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  6. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  7. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  8. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  9. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  10. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.

  11. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  12. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  13. In vivo Pharm acodynam ic Effect of Thiam phenicol in Serum of Carassius auratus on Aerom onas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Hongbo; Wang; Di; LU; Tongyan

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the in vitro pharmacodynamic effect of thiamphenicol( TAP) in serum of Carassius auratus on Aeromonas hydrophila. By combining the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro pharmacodynamics,the pharmacodynamic effect of TAP on Aeromonas hydrophila was studied,and the data were processed and analyzed by software Excel 2007,Kinetica3P97 and Kinetica4. 4. The results showed that oral administration of singly 30 mg /kg TAP assumed a rapid assimilation-quickly peaking-slowly dispelling trend in Carassius auratus. The related parameters were measured as follows: time of peaked plasma concentration of TAP( Tpeak) of 1.5 h,peak concentration( Cmax) of 37.172 μg/mL and absorption rate( ka) of 1.523 h,half-life period T1/2( ka) of 0.455 h,lag time( TL)of 0. 02 h,elimination half life T1/2( ke) of 16.712 h. The half maximal effective concentration( EC50) was 14.28 h. The PK-PD parameters were 32.41 h in AUC0- 24/ MICserumand 23. 23 in Cmax/MICserum. Employing an inhibitory Sigmoid Emax model,the administration dosage of TAP for preventing Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia was 8. 61- 46. 20 mg /kg in clinical application. Based on these,we proposed the optimal administration route for preventing and controlling the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia: delivering TAP at the ratio of 46. 20 mg /kg on diseased Carassius auratus by mixing with baits or oral administration,followed by delivering with baits at ratio of 8. 61 mg /kg for preventing the Aeromonas hydrophila-caused bacterial septicemia. The results provided references for applying thiamphenicol for preventing and controlling the bacterial septicemia in aquatic livestock.

  14. Effect of vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acids supplementation on sperm quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Zeinab Hanaee Kashani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary vitamin E and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA supplementation onsperm quality was studied in goldfish (Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758, for one year. Fish fedexperimental diets had no significant differences in sperm concentration, spermatocrit, motility durationand percent motility of each sperm (P>0.05. Fish fed with E100+HUFA had the highest spermconcentration and highest spermatocrit. Motility duration and percent motility of each sperm were notsignificantly different (P>0.05 although the control group had the lowest value.

  15. Behavioral and biochemical responses in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Sheng; Nie, Yang; Ma, Binni; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-09-01

    Sertraline is one of the most commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. However, knowledge regarding relationships among molecular or biochemical endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of sertraline and ecologically important behavioral responses of fish is insufficient. The present study aimed to investigate the bioconcentration and possible adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of sertraline (4.36, 21.3 and 116 μg L(-1)) for 7 d. Bioconcentration factor values were in the range of 19.5-626 in liver, 6.94-285 in brain, 4.01-146 in gill and 0.625-43.1 in muscle during the entire period of exposure. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were selected as biochemical endpoints associated with MOAs. Swimming activity, shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were determined to assess behavioral responses. Fish plasma levels of sertraline exceeding human therapeutic doses were also predicted from external exposure concentrations. Significant enhancements in CAT, GPx, AChE and swimming activities and decreases in shoaling tendency, feeding rate and food consumption were observed when fish plasma levels exceeded human therapeutic thresholds. Shoaling, feeding rate and food consumption were correlated with the activities of SOD, CAT and GST. A significant positive correlation between swimming activity and AChE activity was also observed. As such, our study provides important AOPs linking biochemical responses with ultimate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints.

  16. Characterization of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Boronat, Miguel; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel Luis; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known hormone posttranslationally modified with an acylation. This modification is crucial for most of ghrelin’s physiological effects and is catalyzed by the polytopic enzyme ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT). The aim of this study was to characterize GOAT in a teleost model, goldfish (Carassius auratus). First, the full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Two highly homologous cDNAs of 1491 and 1413 bp, respectively, named goat-V1 and goat-V2 were identified. Deduced protein sequences (393 and 367 amino acids, respectively) are predicted to present 11 and 9 transmembrane regions, respectively, and both contain two conserved key residues proposed to be involved in catalysis: asparagine 273 and histidine 304. RT-qPCR revealed that both forms of goat mRNAs show a similar widespread tissue distribution, with the highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract and gonads and less but considerable expression in brain, pituitary, liver and adipose tissue. Immunostaining of intestinal sections showed the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa, some of which colocalize with ghrelin. Using an in vitro approach, we observed that acylated ghrelin downregulates GOAT gene and protein levels in cultured intestine in a time-dependent manner. Finally, we found a rhythmic oscillation of goat mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and intestinal bulb of goldfish fed at midday, but not at midnight. Together, these findings report novel data characterizing GOAT, and offer new information about the ghrelinergic system in fish. PMID:28178327

  17. Characterization of Toll-like receptor gene expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during Dactylogyrus intermedius infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao; Liu, Lei; Qi, Xiaozhou; Chen, Weichao; Wang, Gaoxue; Ling, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first and best understood innate immune receptors, play a notable role in the innate immune system by sensing pathogenic agents and initiating appropriate immune responses. However, studies about the roles of fish TLRs in response to the infection of the ectoparasitic monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius have been surprisingly vacant. In the present study, cDNA fragments of five members of TLRs family in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were cloned and the expression patterns of nine TLRs in five tissues at different time points during D. intermedius infection were subsequently investigated. We found that the expressions of TLR4, TLR5, TLR20 and TLR22 were significantly elevated after infection at some time points, of which the transcription of TLR5 was progressively increased nearly in all tissues, whereas the mRNA levels of other TLRs (TLR2, 3, 7, 9 and 21) were down-regulated or showed no significant change compared with the control at most time points. Additionally, this paper was also conducted to explore the expression of above TLRs after re-infected with D. intermedius. The results showed a significant upregulation of TLR4, TLR5 and TLR22 in all tested tissues at these two time points, especially the levels of TLR4 and TLR22 expression, were even higher comparing with the first infection. Besides, tissue-specific expression analysis revealed that spleen featured the highest expressions of almost all the TLR-encoding genes among detected tissues. The informations obtained here could be helpful towards understanding the functions of TLRs in response to parasitic infection in goldfish and provide new insights for the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches against D. intermedius infection.

  18. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  19. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae serves as novel carrier for oral DNA vaccines in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nana; Xu, Kun; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Yuwan; Bai, Yichun; Zhang, Xiaohan; Han, Baoquan; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    Oral delivery of DNA vaccines represents a promising vaccinating method for fish. Recombinant yeast has been proved to be a safe carrier for delivering antigen proteins and DNAs to some species in vivo. However, whether recombinant yeast can be used to deliver functional DNAs for vaccination to fish is still unknown. In this study, red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) was orally administrated with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring CMV-EGFP expression cassette. On day 5 post the first vaccination, EGFP expression in the hindgut was detected under fluorescence microscope. To further study whether the delivered gene could induce specific immune responses, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used as immunogen, and oral administrations were conducted with recombinant S. cerevisiae harboring pCMV-OVA mammalian gene expression cassette as gene delivery or pADH1-OVA yeast gene expression cassette as protein delivery. Each administration was performed with three different doses, and the OVA-specific serum antibody was detected in all the experimental groups by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA assay also revealed that pCMV-OVA group with lower dose (pCMV-OVA-L) and pADH1-OVA group with moderate dose (pADH1-OVA-M) triggered relatively stronger antibody response than the other two doses. Moreover, the antibody level induced by pCMV-OVA-L group was significantly higher than pADH1-OVA-M group at the same serum dilutions. All the results suggested that recombinant yeast can be used as a potential carrier for oral DNA vaccines and would help to develop more practical strategies to control infectious diseases in aquaculture.

  20. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  1. Efecto del anabólico acetato de trembolona sobre el crecimiento de Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae Anabolic effect induced by trenbolone acetate steroid on the Carassius auratus (Pisces: Cyprinidae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Marañón Herrera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia anabólica del esteroide acetato de trembolona en juveniles de Carassius auratus de 60 días de edad, expuestos durante 120 días a dosis de 300 mg/kg de alimento. Cada dos semanas se registraron las siguientes biometrías: longitud total, longitud patrón, altura y peso. El beneficio del esteroide se caracterizó con un modelo que relacionó el peso en función del tiempo, acoplado a otros dos modelos: uno en donde se relaciona la talla con el tiempo y otro alométrico, que relacionó el peso con la talla. Los modelos estimados mostraron que el crecimiento de los peces tratados con el anabólico fue superior al de los peces del testigo y difieren significativamente (p0.05. El análisis de la variabilidad de los tres modelos demostró que las estimaciones describieron en forma adecuada el crecimiento, así lo confirma el coeficiente de determinación (r² que fluctúa entre el 72.9 y 93.5% y el análisis de la distribución de la talla y el peso con diagramas de caja. Se concluye que la aplicación del acetato de trembolona en Carassius auratus fue exitosa, al registrarse una sobrevivencia del 100% y funcionar como un eficiente agente anabólico, ya que se obtuvo una ganancia de biomasa del 48.0% y de talla del 41.3%, con respecto al testigo.The anabolic efficiency of steroid trenbolone acetate was evaluated in 60 days old juveniles of Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed during 120 days to steroid at a dose of 300 mg/kg food. Total length, standard length, height and weight were registered every two weeks. The benefit of the steroid was characterized with a model that relates the weight as a function of time, coupled to other two models: one where size is related with time and an alometric one which correlates weight with size. The models showed that growth of steroid treated fish was superior to that of untreated (control fish, differing significantly (p 0.05. Analysis of the variability of the three models

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  3. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  4. Histopathological study of the kidney, liver and intestine tissues in goldfish (Carassius auratus and angelfish (Pterophyllum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtesam Ahmadmoradi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is used for diagnosis of diseases in aquatic animals. This study was conductedto investigate histopathological lesions of kidney, liver and intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus andangelfish (Pterophyllum sp. in some aquarium shops during a period between January-April 2010.Several histological alterations were observed in kidney which include glomerulonephritis, cell swelling ofepithelial cells, tubular epithelium necrosis, hyaline droplets and hyaline cast in renal tubules and tubulardilation. Liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, karyolysis and karyorrhexis and focal areasof necrosis, haemorrhagia and hepatitis. In intestine, atrophy of epithelial cells and enteritis on thelamina propria and submucosal layer were seen. It was concluded that unfavourable environmentalcontamination of aquarium may induced several histopathological alterations in the tissues of goldfishand angelfishes.

  5. Assessing the anti-estrogenic activity of sodium pentachlorophenol in primary cultures of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes using vitellogenin as a biomarker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bing; LIU Zheng-tao; XU Zhang-fa

    2006-01-01

    Both pentachlorophenol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) had been studied widely because of their probable anti-estrogenic activity. Sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na), as a industrial product used in many fields, usually contains a trace of TCDD. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-estrogenic effect of PCP-Na in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)hepatocyte cultures using vitellogenin (VTG) as the biomarker. The ID50 of PCP-Na was investigated and then a series of concentrations (0.001-0.5 μg/ml) of PCP-Na were evaluated to estimate the anti-estrogenic activity. Results showed that PCP-Na was cytotoxic for hepatocytes even at very low concentration <1.21 μg/ml, and it could not induce VTG at any concentrations tested.Since it failed to stimulate VTG production, the possibility of its anti-estrogenic effect was tested, and a well-known anti-estrogenic compound-tamoxifen was used as positive control. PCP-Na caused a reduction in VTG synthesis in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes at concentrations >0.1 μg/ml when co-exposure with 1 μg/ml 17β-estradiol (E2), making its anti-estrogenic activity approximately as potent as tamoxifen. Our results indicate that PCP-Na can act as negative modulators of estrogenic function in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes.

  6. 普安银鲫的生物学特性及养殖技术%Biological Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of PUAN Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢先中; 冉光鑫; 黄仕洪

    2015-01-01

    普安银鲫(PUAN Carassius auratus)是贵州省特有的天然雌核发育鱼类种质资源;它具有肉质好、生长快、杂食性、抗病力强、营养与药用价值高等特点。该文对普安银鲫形态特征、生活习性、摄食习性、繁殖习性等生物学特征进行了综述。并对普安银鲫养殖过程中池塘准备、放养密度、饲料投喂、水质管理,疾病防治等进行了简单介绍。%PUAN Carassius auratus was indigenous unique natural fish germplasm resources in Guizhou prov⁃ince;it has good meat,fast growth,omnivorous,disease resistance,high nutritional and medicinal value. In this paper,biological characteristics of PUAN Carassius auratus were reviewed,including morphological char⁃acteristics,living habits,feeding habits and breeding habits. Cultivation technology of PUAN Carassius aura⁃tus was introduced briefly,including breeding ponds during the preparation,stocking density,feed,feeding,wa⁃ter quality management and disease prevention.

  7. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish. PMID:28338019

  8. Study on Carassius Auratus Fresh-keeping with Microwave%鲫鱼微波保鲜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣

    2013-01-01

    采用微波处理鲫鱼,然后将处理好的鲫鱼冷藏在3℃和10℃,以其细菌菌落数、pH、感官值、TVBN值、TBA值变化,研究微波的保鲜效果。结果表明:经超声波处理,对鱼的保鲜期有所延长,3℃时功率为300 W、时间为30 s微波处理鲫鱼,可保藏16 d。10℃时功率为300 W、时间为45 s微波处理鲫鱼可保藏9 d。%Carassius auratus was treated with microwave,then stored under 3℃and 10℃.Germs,pH,sensory index, TVBN index, TBA index was measured to evaluated the fresh-keeping effect. It was proved that Fish was treated with microwave,the fish can be preserved longer . At the temperature of 3℃,the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 16 days under Power 300 W, Time:30 s;At the temperature of 10℃, the fresh period of the fish can be prolonged 9 days under Power 300 W , Time:45 s.

  9. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  11. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiuping; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+), the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn(2+) exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn(2+), while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+) were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  12. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  13. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of herbicide butachlor on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Dong; Wang, Jun-Song; Li, Ming-Hui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-02-01

    Butachlor, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has been reported with high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological examination and biochemical assays was applied to comprehensively investigate the toxic effects of butachlor on four important organs (gill, brain, liver and kidney) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time. After 10 days' butachlor exposure at two dosages of 3.2 and 0.64 μmol/L, fish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathological inspection revealed severe impairment of gill filaments and obvious cellular edema in livers and kidneys. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in gill and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level in four tissues reflected the disturbance of antioxidative system in the intoxicated goldfish. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and creatinine (CRE) level were increased in butachlor exposure groups, suggesting liver and kidney injuries induced by butachlor. Orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed metabolic changes that were related to the toxic effects of butachlor including oxidative stress, disorder of energy metabolism and amino acids metabolism, and disturbance of neurotransmitter balance in butachlor exposed goldfish. This integrated metabolomics approach provided a molecular basis underlying the toxicity of butachlor and demonstrated that metabolomics was a powerful and highly effective approach to elucidate the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of herbicides and pesticides, applicable for their risk assessment.

  14. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  15. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  16. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin and β-carotene on the semen quality of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizkar, B; Kazemi, R; Alipour, A; Seidavi, A; Naseralavi, G; Ponce-Palafox, J T

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of two carotenoids (astaxanthin and β-carotene) on the sperm quality of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758). For this purpose, six diets containing concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin and β-carotene were added to a basic carp diet. One group of fish was also fed with a control diet (no added carotenoids). Osmolality, spermatocrit value, and sperm concentration significantly increased in the treatment supplemented with 150 mg/kg of astaxanthin (296.6 ± 1.1 mOsm/kg; 29.2 ± 0.6%; 17.2 ± 0.4 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively) and β-carotene (295.2 ± 2.1 mOsm/kg; 32.5 ± 1.6%; 17.9 ± 0.5 × 10(9) cells/mL, respectively). The highest concentration of astaxanthin (10.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg) was recorded in the treatment of A150 (P astaxanthin improves osmolality, motility, fertilization rate, and sperm concentration.

  18. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  19. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  20. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  1. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  2. Two gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes with distinct ligand selectivity and differential distribution in brain and pituitary in the goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Illing, Nicola; Troskie, Brigitte E.; Nahorniak, Carol S.; Janet P Hapgood; Peter, Richard E.; Millar, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    In the goldfish (Carassius auratus) the two endogenous forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), namely chicken GnRH II ([His5,Trp7,Tyr8]GnRH) and salmon GnRH ([Trp7,Leu8]GnRH), stimulate the release of both gonadotropins and growth hormone from the pituitary. This control is thought to occur by means of the stimulation of distinct GnRH receptors. These receptors can be distinguished on the basis of differential gonadotropin and growth hormone releasing activities of naturally occurring...

  3. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  4. A prediction of the global habitat of two invasive fishes (Pseudorasbora parva and Carassius auratus from East Asia using Maxent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi’ao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva and goldfish (Carassius auratus, two small omnivorous freshwater fishes, have been introduced into many countries by human activities during recent years. Wide and severe ecological harm has resulted from the pathogens that these fishes carried and from the extremely large populations of these fishes. Based on data from a large number of distribution points systematically identified by our long-term sampling survey and from the FishBase, and on high-resolution environmental data, we used Maxent to obtain the first prediction of the potential global distribution of the two fishes. The results of the study suggest that the topmouth gudgeon and goldfish have an extremely wide potential range in the world and that this is especially the case for the goldfish. In fact, all continents except Antarctica include many potential habitats for the two fishes. Accordingly, these two fishes may spread more widely and create more serious danger to the aquatic ecosystem in the future as human activities continue to expand. Especially, the Mississippi valley in the middle part, and the eastern and southern coasts of the United States of America, region from Seattle to Vancouver of Canada will be the areas of the topmouth gudgeon with highly potential invasive risk. And those areas for goldfish will be the countries of Argentina and Brazil in South America, Guinea and Cameroon in West Africa. Our results also suggest that the use of Maxent with comprehensive distribution data and high resolution environmental data represents a new and valid method for obtaining early warnings serving to prevent the danger of biological invasion.

  5. Effect of booster shot and investigation of vaccination efficacy period against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2015-01-30

    In this study, the efficacy period of an intraperitoneal vaccination and effect of a booster shot of vaccine against herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Cell culture supernatant of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), causative agent of HVHN, propagated in goldfish fin (GFF) cells was inactivated with formalin (0.1%, v/v) for 2 days at 4 °C. Three groups of the variety Ryukin were individually intraperitoneally injected with the vaccine and each group was separately maintained in replicate tanks. After 4 weeks (Vaccinated-4w-1 and 2) and 8 weeks (Vaccinated-8w-1 and 2) from the first vaccination, the fish were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)). In addition, the other vaccinated group of fish were injected with a booster vaccine 4 weeks after the first vaccination as the Vaccinated-booster groups, then the fish of these groups were CyHV-2-challenged by the immersion route (10 TCID50 l(-1)) after 8 weeks from the first vaccination. The mean of the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of the Vaccinated-4w and 8w groups showed 42.5% and 57.6%, respectively. In addition, the mean RPS value of Vaccinated-booster groups showed 63.6%. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates in all the vaccinated groups than those of the respective negative control groups using Fisher's exact test. Moreover, the survival rates of vaccinated-booster groups were significantly higher (p=0.036) compared with the respective control groups by Student's t test. The present study shows the efficacy period of the vaccine is at least 8 weeks and a booster shot showed a tendency to enhance the protection against HVHN in goldfish.

  6. Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2013-09-03

    Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish.

  7. Protection of Carassius auratus Gibelio against infection by Aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-liang; SHUAI Jiang-bing; FANG Wei-huan

    2006-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin (IgY) from egg yolk against Aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of White Leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of A. hydrophila. ELISA test using A. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (P/N=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (P/N=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (P/N=7.03). The antibody was purified by saturated ammonium sulphate with a recovery rate of 63.5%. The specific IgY inhibited the growth ofA. hydrophila at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml during the 18 h incubation. Pre-treatment of polyploid gibel carps Carassius auratus Gibelio with specific IgY had a protection rate of 60% (6/10) against challenge with A. hydrophila, while none of the fishes in the control groups receiving sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or non-specific IgY survived the challenge. Treatment of fishes with the specific IgY 4 h after the challenge also had lower mortality (70%, 7/10), a 30% reduction against the control PBS or non-specific IgY groups (10/10).These results indicate that specific IgY antibodies could be obtained easily from hens immunized with an inactivated A. hydrophila and could provide a novel alternative approach to control of diseases in fishes caused by this organism.

  8. Ecotoxicological effects of waterborne PFOS exposure on swimming performance and energy expenditure in juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jigang Xia; Shijian Fu; Zhendong Cao; Jianglan Peng; Jing Peng; Tingting Dai; Lili Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The potential risks of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are of increasing ecological concern.Swimming performance is linked to the fitness and health of fish.However,the impacts of PFOS on swimming performance remain largely unknown.We investigated the ecotoxicological effects of acute exposure to PFOS on the swimming performance and energy expenditure of juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus).The fish were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (0,0.5,2,8 and 32 mg/L) for 48 hr.The spontaneous swimming activity,fast-start swimming performance,critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and active metabolic rate (AMR) of the goldfish were examined after exposure to PFOS.PFOS exposure resulted in remarkable effects on spontaneous activity.Motion distance was reduced,and the proportion of motionless time increased with increasing concentrations of PFOS.However,no significant alterations in the fast-start performance-related kinematic parameters,such as latency time,maximum linear velocity,maximum linear acceleration or escape distance during the first 120 msec after stimulus,were observed after PFOS exposure.Unexpectedly,although PFOS exposure had marked influences on the swimming oxygen consumption rates and AMR of goldfish,the Ucrit of the goldfish was not significantly affected by PFOS.This may result in a noteworthy increase in the energetic cost of transport.The overall results indicate that,in contrast to spontaneous activity,underlying swimming capabilities are maintained in goldfish after short-term exposure to PFOS,but energy expenditure during the process of swimming is dramatically aggravated.

  9. 对鲫鱼的急性毒性试验四种中药%Acute Toxicity Test of Four Chinese Herbs on Carassius Auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗喜东; 陈鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    Biological toxicity method was adopted to investigate the acute toxicity effect of four Chinese herbs(Cyrtomium fortune,Sophora,Toosendan and Elecampane) on carassius auratus by ob-serving and recording the death and toxic reaction of carassius auratus within 96 h. The results indi-cated that toxicities of the four Chinese herbs decreased in the following sequence:Cyrtomium for-tune>Toosendan>Sophora>Elecampane. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of these four Chinese herbs were 2.254, 10.239, 36.363 g/L and 47.539 g/L, respectively, and their corresponding safe concentration (SC) were 0.294,1.539,8.575 g/L and 10.076 g/L,respectively. Therefore,once these four Chinese herbs were used in culture of carassius auratus,their dosages must be controlled within each safety concentration range.%为研究贯众、苦参、川楝子、土木香等4种中药对鲫鱼的急性毒性作用,我们采用生物毒性方法,观察和记录了投药96 h内鲫鱼的死亡情况和毒性反应. 结果显示:4种中药的毒性大小依次为贯众>川楝子>苦参>土木香,24 h的半致死质量浓度(LC50)分别为2.254、10.239、36.363、47.539 g/L,安全质量浓度(SC)分别为0.294、1.539、8.575、10.076 g/L. 结论:在鲫鱼养殖中使用上述中药时应在其安全质量浓度范围内进行.

  10. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.

  11. Effects of La(III) and Ca(II) on isolated Carassius auratus liver mitochondria: heat production and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man; Gao, Jia-Ling; Sun, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    The effects of lanthanum and calcium on heat production of mitochondria isolated from Carassius auratus liver were investigated by microcalorimetry, and their effects on mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential (Δψ) were determined by spectroscopic methods. La(3+) showed only inhibitory action on mitochondrial energy turnover with inhibition concentration of 50 % (IC50) being 71.2 μmol L(-1). Similarly, Ca(2+) restrained the heat production of mitochondria, and the IC50 of Ca(2+) was much higher than that of La(3+). In the spectroscopic experiments, La(3+) and Ca(2+) induced fish liver mitochondrial swelling and decreased membrane potential (Δψ), and the induction ability of La(3+) was stronger than that of Ca(2+). It is concluded that the effects of La(3+) and Ca(2+) on fish liver mitochondria differ, and La represents toxic action rather than Ca analogy.

  12. Discovery of a male-biased mutant family and identification of a male-specific SCAR marker in gynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Wang; Huiling Mao; Jinxia Peng; Xiyin Li; Li Zhou; Jianfang Gui

    2009-01-01

    Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a uniquely gynogenetic species with a minor ratio of males in natural habitats, but its male origin and sex determination mechanisms have been unknown. In this study, a male-biased mutant family was discovered from the gynogenetic gibel carp, and a male-specific SCAR marker was identified from the mutant family. Normal spermatogenesis was observed in the male testes by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Nearly identical AFLP profiles were observed between males and females, but a male-specific 86 bp AFLP fragment was screened by sex-pool bulked segregant analysis and individual screening. Based on the male-specific AFLP frag-ment, a total of 579 bp sequences were cloned by genome walking. Subsequently, a male-specific SCAR marker was designed, and the male-specific DNA fragment was confirmed to be steadily transmitted to the next generation and consistently detected only in males.

  13. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  14. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  15. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC, triploid (abbreviated 3nCC and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  16. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  17. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 10 μg ZnO.L(-1), 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1), 100 μg ZnO.L(-1), and 100 μg Al2O3.L(-1) plus 100 μg ZnO.L(-1)). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) of both single ZnO and Al2O3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L(-1) Al2O3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al2O3 (except for 10 μg Al2O3.L(-1)), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L(-1)) and Al2O3 (100 μg.L(-1)). The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects on C. auratus, but when

  18. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  19. 纳米和微米ZnO对鲫鱼的毒性效应研究%Toxicity of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正雪; 刘林; 郭红岩; 尹颖

    2014-01-01

    Nano ZnO has attracted increasing concerns because of its widespread use and unique toxic potential.While,so far most researches focused on the concentration effects but not the size effects of Nano ZnO.The purpose of this study was to compare the toxic effects of Nano ZnO and Micro ZnO to Carassiusauratus.Fourteen days after the intraperitoneal injection of Nano ZnO(1,12.5,50 mg ZnO/kg)and Micro ZnO(12.5 mg ZnO/kg),the distribution and toxic effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Carassiusauratus liver and brain were studied.The particle size of both Nano and Micro ZnO was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).And the free radicals (·OH )generation was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).Several antioxidant biomarkers such as superoxide dysmutase (SOD),glutathione S-transferases(GST),glutathione(GSH)and malondialdehyde(MDA)were measured,and the effects of Nano and Micro ZnO on Zn content in liver and brain of C.auratus were also detected.We found that both Nano and Micro ZnO could induce the production of·OH.As compared to Micro ZnO,exposure to 12.5 mg ZnO/kg Nano ZnO caused more accumulation of ·OH in the liver of C.auratus.Accordingly,Nano ZnO induced the synthesis of MDA and suppressed the SOD activities in the liver and brain of C.auratus.Further,Nano ZnO effects on GSH were much higher than those of Micro ZnO,suggesting more severe oxidative stress caused by Nano ZnO under the same concentration.The contents of Zn in both liver and brain of C.auratus exposed to Nano ZnO were also much higher than those exposed to Micro ZnO.However,there was no linear relationship between the increased concentrations of Nano ZnO and the induction of ·OH and MDA and the inhibition of SOD activities.Overall,the results indicated that Nano ZnO could be more effectively taken into the brain and liver of Carassius auratus than Micro ZnO,resulting in more toxic effects,but the toxic effects of Nano ZnO didn’t have a linear relationship with the

  20. Analysis on the Muscle Nutrition Component of Carassius auratus (A form)%普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉的营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 安苗; 范兴刚; 刘贵林; 黄仕洪; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide reference for developing animal industry or other basic researches of Carassius auratus. In this paper, the nutritive composition in muscle of C. auratus (A form) was quantitatively analyzed by biochemical method. The results showed that water content was (78. 28 + 0.15)%, crude protein content was (16. 79±0. 30)%, crude fat content was (0. 74 + 0. 02) %, crude ash content was (0. 98 + 0. 05)%. The muscle of C. auratus (A form) consisted of 17 kinds of amino acids, the gross amount was 20. 08% , and the gross amount of essential amino acids was 8. 21%. The ratio of the essential amino acids to the total amino acids was 40. 89%. The ratio of the content of the essential amino acids to that of the non-essential amino acids was 69. 19%. The proportion of the essential amino acids was in accordance with the standards of FAO/WHO. The'contents of EPA and DHA in fatty acids were 0. 48% and 2. 15% respectively. This research indicated that C. auratus(A form) was a kind of cultured fishes, which had high protein, low fat, abundant amino acids, delicious taste and high nutritive value.%为普安银鲫的推广养殖或其他基础研究提供参考依据,应用生化分析方法对普安银鲫A型鱼的肌肉营养成分进行了定量分析.结果表明:普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中水分为(78.28±0.15)%,粗蛋白含量为(16.79±0.30)%,粗脂肪含量为(0.74±0.02)%,粗灰分含量为(0.98±0.05)%.普安银鲫A型鱼肌肉中含有17种氨基酸,总量为20.08%,必需氨基酸总量为8.21%,必需氨基酸与总氨基酸比值为40.89%,必需氨基酸与非必需氨基酸比值为69.19%,其必需氨基酸的构成比例符合FAO/WHO标准;脂肪酸中的EPA与DHA含量分别为0.48%和2.15%.普安银鲫A型鱼是一种高蛋白、低脂肪、氨基酸含量丰富、味道鲜美、营养价值高的养殖鱼类.

  1. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance.

  2. Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in peripheral blood cells of silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch), suggests its potential in viral diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Xu, Lj; Lu, Lq

    2016-02-01

    Epidemics caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in domestic cyprinid species have been reported in both European and Asian countries. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, acute CyHV-2 infections generally result in high mortality, and the surviving carps become chronic carriers displaying no external clinical signs. In this study, in situ hybridization analysis showed that CyHV-2 tended to infect peripheral blood cells during either acute or chronic infections in silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Laboratory challenge experiments coupled with real-time PCR quantification assays further indicated that steady-state levels of the viral genomic copy number in fish serum exhibited a typical 'one-step' growth curve post-viral challenge. Transcriptional expression of open reading frames (ORF) 121, which was selected due to its highest transcriptional levels in almost all tested tissues, was monitored to represent the replication kinetics of CyHV-2 in peripheral blood cells. Similar kinetic curve of active viral gene transcription in blood cells was obtained as that of serum viral load, indicating that CyHV-2 replicated in peripheral blood cells as well as in other well-characterized tissues. This study should pave the way for designing non-invasive and cost-effective serum diagnostic methods for quick detection of CyHV-2 infection.

  3. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  4. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  5. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment.

  6. Production and extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma and its biological effect on alcohol-induced renal hypoxia in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesci, Alessio; Salvo, Andrea; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Gervasi, Teresa; Palombieri, Deborah; Bruno, Maurizio; Pergolizzi, Simona; Cicero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.

  7. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Qin, Li; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zunyao; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.

  8. 四溴双酚A的鲫鱼血清蛋白生物标志物研究%Biomarkers of Serum Protein to Tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰超; 杨苏文; 徐范范; 丁志山; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Carassius auratus as test subject, acute toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), potential biomarkers of serum protein and toxicity target organ histopathology were studied.Results showed that 96 h-LC50 of Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA was 3.13 mg/L, and serum proteins of Carassius auratus can be divided into 11 components exposure to different concentrations TBBPA at different times.There were differences within protein components with time and concentration existed.Component 11 with clear bands and the largest amplitude first decreased then increased, and reached the highest value at low concentration on the 16th day, while it reached the highest value on the 2nd day at high concentration.The molecular weight of Component 11 was 24 kDa, may be the solution of polymer of calcitonin factor in coriouscles of stannius of Carassius auratus.The histopathological results indicated that Carassius auratus liver and kidney showed time-dose-dependent of pathological damage synchronously.The protein component 11 which responds sensitively on the concentration and time of TBBPPA inducing as well as easier to be recognized and identified can be used as the potential biomarkers in Carassius auratus exposed to TBBPA.%以鲫鱼为供试生物,对四溴双酚A(TBBPA)的急性毒性、血清蛋白潜在生物标志物以及相应的毒性靶器官组织病理进行了研究,结果表明TBBPA对鲫鱼96h的半致死浓度LC50是3.13 mg/L,TBBPA诱导下鲫鱼血清蛋白可区分为11个组分,各组分随时间和浓度的变化规律存在差异.组分11条带清晰,表达量变化幅度最大,在低浓度TBBPA暴露下表达量先降低后升高,第16天达到最高;高浓度时表达量在第2天达到最高.组分11的分子量为24 kDa,可能为鲫鱼斯坦尼小体(CS)中降血钙因子的解聚物.组织病理切片结果显示,鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏均表现出时间-剂量依赖性,且与组分11的诱导差异性表达呈现相应的病理损伤.

  9. Effects of Cardiac Glycosides from Nerium indicum on Juvenile Carassius auratus%夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)皂甙对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)幼鱼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 戴灵鹏; 郑祥河; 席启斐; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of cardiac glycosides of N. Indicum on non-target organism, the effects of different concentration of cardiac glycosides(0, 5.89, 20.12 mg·L-1 and 80.76 mg·L-1) on mortality, specific growth rate, glycogen and protein content, SOD activity as well as micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus were investigated during exposure for 14 d and its recovery response after 7 d by using semi-static test method. The results showed that fish did not die when the concentration of cardiac glycosides ≤20.12 mg·L-1 during 14 d exposure periods. However, with 80.76 mg·L-1, 100% of the fish died within 5 d. When cardiac glycosides concentration reach to 20.12 mg·L-1, the specific growth rate, glycogen and protein contents decreased gradually while the SOD activity increased first and then decreased during the whole experiment. After a recovery period of 7 d, the inhibition of specific growth rate and SOD activity were weakened gradually and the glycogen and protein content were no significant difference between control and treatment group. In addition, the result of micronucleus test showed that cardiac glycosides did not significantly affect the micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus. These results suggested that cardiac glycosides was low toxicity and no genotoxicity found, which supports that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. However, higher concentration of cardiac glucosides seriously impaired the normal physiological metabolism, resulting in the growth inhibition of C. Auratus, even caused fish death in the end.%为了评价夹竹桃皂甙对非靶标生物的潜在危害,采用半静态法研究了不同浓度(0、5.89、20.12 mg·L-1和80.76 mg·L4)的夹竹桃皂甙对鲫鱼幼苗的死亡情况、特定生长率、糖原、蛋白质含量、SOD酶活性和微核率的影响.结果表明,当夹竹桃皂甙处理浓度≤20.12 mg·L-1时,处

  10. Distribution and bioaccumulation of tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus tissues and its pathological effect%四溴双酚A在鲫鱼不同器官中的分布、富集及病理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苏文; 徐范范; 赵明东

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and bioaccumulation of TBBPA in different Carassius auratus tissues exposed to varied TBBPA concentrations were measured and analyzed. The corresponding pathological effects were also assessed. Results indicated that the concentrations of TBBPA increased firstly, then decreased in Carassius auratus liver and kidney at high as well as low dose group. Indicating that both the fish liver and kidney had a strong capacity of bioaccumulation. Nevertheless, the concentrations of TBBPA showed a similarity only at high dose in gill and muscle. The bioaccumulation capacity of the gill and muscle was comparatively lower. Pathological observations revealed that the pathological damage was time-dose-dependent in the liver, kidney and gill. Under the same TBBPA concentration, the gonad damage caused by TBBPA to the male was more serious than that to the female.%研究了将鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)长期暴露于不同浓度的四溴双酚A(TBBPA)后的器官组织分布和浓缩富集系数,同时对不同暴露时间的鲫鱼不同器官病理切片进行了观察.结果显示,各浓度组鲫鱼肝脏和肾脏的TBBPA含量都表现出先升高后下降的趋势,鳃和肌肉中TBBPA含量只有在高浓度时呈现相同的趋势.病理切片显示鲫鱼肝脏、肾脏和鳃等器官组织均表现出时间-剂量依赖性的病理损伤,在相同暴露浓度下,雄鱼的性腺损伤程度高于雌鱼.

  11. Short-term exposure to L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil, alters the expression pattern of calcium-binding proteins in the brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palande, Nikhil V; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Biswas, Saikat P; Jadhao, Arun G

    2015-01-01

    The influx of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) is responsible for various physiological events including neurotransmitter release and synaptic modulation. The L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (L-type VDCCs) transport Ca(2+) across the membrane. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) bind free cytosolic Ca(2+) and prevent excitotoxicity caused by sudden increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The present study was aimed to understand the regulation of expression of neuronal CaBPs, namely, calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) following blockade of L-type VDCCs in the CNS of Carassius auratus. Verapamil (VRP), a potent L-type VDCC blocker, selectively blocks Ca(2+) entry at the plasma membrane level. VRP present in the aquatic environment at a very low residual concentration has shown ecotoxicological effects on aquatic animals. Following acute exposure for 96h, median lethal concentration (LC50) for VRP was found to be 1.22mg/L for goldfish. At various doses of VRP, the behavioral alterations were observed in the form of respiratory difficulty and loss of body balance confirming the cardiovascular toxicity caused by VRP at higher doses. In addition to affecting the cardiovascular system, VRP also showed effects on the nervous system in the form of altered expression of PV. When compared with controls, the pattern of CR expression did not show any variations, while PV expression showed significant alterations in few neuronal populations such as the pretectal nucleus, inferior lobes, and the rostral corpus cerebellum. Our result suggests possible regulatory effect of calcium channel blockers on the expression of PV.

  12. Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

    2012-04-01

    This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs.

  13. Preparation of a polyclonal antibody against goldfish (Carassius auratus) vitellogenin and its application to detect the estrogenic effects of monocrotophos pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Bing, Xin; Yu, Kun; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) represents a good model to detect the estrogenic effects of chemicals, and vitellogenin (Vtg) is a vital indicator of estrogenic activity. The heterologous anti-carp Vtg antibody has previously been used for goldfish Vtg detection. Here, we report the preparation of an anti-goldfish Vtg antibody to improve the sensitivity and specificity of goldfish Vtg immunoassays. Vtg was purified from the plasma of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced goldfish by gel filtration followed by anion-exchange chromatography. It was characterized as a phospholipoglycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of ~460 kDa and separated into three major polypeptides corresponding to ~130, ~106, and ~81 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A polyclonal antibody against goldfish Vtg was raised in rabbits and found to be specific for goldfish Vtg through immunoelectrophoresis and Western blot. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the quantification of plasma Vtg, with a detection limit of 3.6 ng/mL and a detection range from 7.8 to 250 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were 2.4-6.8% and 6.7-10.8%, respectively. Additionally, we qualitatively and quantitatively detected the induction of Vtg in male fish exposed to 0.01, 0.01, and 1.00 mg/L monocrotophos pesticide by Western blot and ELISA. The homologous sandwich ELISA based on the anti-goldfish Vtg antibody could provide a valuable tool for the study of estrogenic effects of exogenous chemicals on goldfish.

  14. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  15. Réponses comportementales du brochet (Esox lucius L. à un extrait épidermique de carassin doré (Carassius auratus L. en olfactomètre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAGLIO Ph.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Les effets de solutions brutes (EE et d'une fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée (FAA, issues d'un extrait épidermique de Carassin doré (Carassius auratus L., ont été analysés sur l'attraction et le comportement exploratoire du Brochet (Esox lucius L. en olfactomètre. Des effets significatifs ont été observés en réponse aux différentes solutions et doses testées (EE = 0,005 ; 0,05 ; 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l ; FAA = 0,5 équivalent-carassin/l. L'effet stimulant des solutions épidermiques brutes sur l'exploration varie en raison inverse de la concentration testée. L'activité de ces solutions sur l'attraction augmente avec la concentration. L'effet stimulant de la fraction d'acides aminés libres reconstituée sur l'exploration et sur l'attraction est apparu inférieur à celui observé en réponse à la solution brute. Ces résultats sont discutés à la lueur de données sur le rôle des sécrétions de la peau et des acides aminés dans la communication chimique chez les poissons.

  16. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  17. 饲料中鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响%Influence of Additive Amount of Fish Oil on Growth and Body Color of Carassius auratus red variety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 李明云; 贾福怀

    2015-01-01

    为研究鱼油添加量对观赏性红鲫鱼生长和体色的影响,在喂养红鲫鱼的饲料中分别添加质量分数0%、2.5%、5%、10%的鱼油,投喂49 d,并将其与空白组分别进行对照.结果表明:添加2.5%的鱼油喂养红鲫鱼对红鲫鱼的生长最佳.随着鱼油喂养量的不断增加,红鲫鱼体重和体长的增加率呈一定的下降趋势.以观赏鱼的红度、白度、黄度作为重要的评判标准,5%鱼油添加量更有助于提高红鲫鱼的红度值,降低白度值和黄度值.%In order to investigate the impact of fish oil on growth and body color of Carassius auratus red variety, the diet of Carassius auratus red variety is added with fish oil of different concentration level (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and fed for 49 days. The results show that 2.5%additional fish oil is the best diet for the growth of Carassius auratus red variety. The more the fish oil feeding is given, the more slowly the weight and length of Carassius auratus red variety increase. Body color is an important factor for ornamental fish, which is standardized with the degree of red, white, yellow. It is found that 5%fish oil helps increase the red color index of Carassius auratus red variety, while reduce that of white and yellow.

  18. 伊维菌素在鲫体内的药代动力学%The pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    以0.4 mg/kg的给药剂量进行口灌和肌肉注射给药,研究伊维菌素(IVM)在鲫体内的药代动力学.两种给药方式下,鲫组织中的IVM药-时曲线大都呈现多峰现象.肌肉注射给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.445 mg/L、Tmax=48h、t1/2z=524.2 h、MRT(0-∞)=788h、AUC(0-∞)=289.2(mg/L)·h;口灌给药后,药动学统计矩参数为Cmax=0.264 mg/L、Tmax=8h、t1/2z=15,3.9 h、MRT(0-∞)=269.78 h、AUC(0-∞)=83.77(mg/L)·h.两种给药方式相比,口灌组鲫对药物的吸收和清除均较快,而肌肉注射组鲫各组织中的药物浓度高,AUC值也较大.两种给药方式下,IVM在鲫各组织中AUC(0-600)值呈现相同的排列顺序,由大到小分别为性腺、血液、肾脏、肝胰脏、肌肉.IVM在鲫性腺和肾脏中均具有一定的蓄积作用,其主要表现为药物浓度高,MRT值大,且清除率低于血药的清除率,其中卵巢的积蓄作用最为明显.25℃的水温条件下,肌肉注射给药后,鲫休药期应不低于25 d;口灌给药后,鲫的休药期应不低于15 d.休药期与水温条件和给药剂量有关,因此在养殖生产过程中的休药期要根据实际情况适当调整.%Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in Carassius auratus was studied following a single oral or intramuscular administration at dose of 0.4 mg/kg. After following these two different administration routes, IVM concentration-time cruves in most tissues of C. Auratus exhibited multi-peak phenomenon. After intramuscular administration, non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows :Cmaxi =0.445 mg/L,Tmax=48 h, =524.2 h, MRT(0.., = 788 h and AUC(0-x\\, =289. 2(mg/L) · h. After oral administration,non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows:Cmax =0.264 mg/L,Tmax = 8 h,tl/2z =153. 9 h.MRT(0-)., =269. 78 h,and AUC(0.., =83. 77(mg/L) · h. Comparing parameters of these two administration routes, we found that the rate of absorption and elimination following the oral

  19. The interactive effects of ammonia exposure, nutritional status and exercise on metabolic and physiological responses in gold fish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) following periods of feeding (2% body weight) and starvation (unfed for 7 days prior to sampling) in gold fish (Carassius auratus). Both groups of fish were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days. Measurements of weight gain (%), oxygen consumption (MO2), ammonia excretion rate, ammonia quotient (AQ), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit), plasma and muscle ammonia accumulation, plasma lactate, liver and muscle glycogen, lipid and protein content were done at various time intervals during the experimental periods. Overall, ammonia excretion rates, plasma ammonia accumulation and AQ were significantly affected by food regime in ammonia free water. HEA, the additional challenge in the present study, significantly altered all the studied parameters among fed and starved groups in days-dependent manner. Results show that weight gain (%), MO2, Ucrit, protein content in liver and muscle, and glycogen content in muscle among starved fish under HEA were considerably reduced compared to control and fed fish. Additionally a remarkable increase in plasma ammonia level, muscle ammonia, lactate accumulation and AQ was seen. However in fed fish, MO2, ammonia excretion rate, AQ and lactate level augmented after exposure to HEA. These results indicate that starved fish appeared more sensitive to HEA than fed fish. Furthermore, as expected, the toxic effect of ammonia exposure in both feeding treatments was exacerbated when imposed to exhaustive swimming (swum at 3/4th Ucrit). Such effects were more pronounced in starved fish. This suggests that starvation can instigate fish more vulnerable to external ammonia during exercise. Therefore, it was evident from our study that feeding ameliorates ammonia handling and reduces its toxicity during both routine and exhaustive swimming. Moreover, recovery was

  20. Genetic basis and breeding application of clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes in polyploid Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A unisexual species is generally associated with polyploidy, and reproduced by a unisexual reproduction mode, such as gyno- genesis, hybridogenesis or parthenogenesis. Compared with other unisexual and polyploid species, gibel carp (Carassius au- ratus gibelio) has a higher ploidy level of hexaploid. It has undergone several successive rounds of genome polyploidy, and experienced an additional, more recent genome duplication event. More significantly, the dual reproduction modes, including gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, have been demonstrated to coexist in the polyploid gibel carp. This article reviews the genetic basis concerning polyploidy origin, clonal diversity and dual reproduction modes, and outlines the progress in new va- riety breeding and gene identification involved in the reproduction and early development. The data suggests that gibel carp are under an evolutionary trajectory of diploidization. As a novel evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) biology model, this work highlights future perspectives about the functional divergence of duplicated genes and the sexual origin of vertebrate animals.

  1. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素%Determination of Trace Microcystins in Meat of Carassius Auratus by SPC-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房祥军; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 穆宏磊; 毛金林

    2011-01-01

    建立固相萃取-高效液相色谱法(SPE-HPLC)测定鲫鱼肉中微囊藻毒素的方法.鲫鱼肉经90%甲醇水溶液提取,反相硅胶萃取柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱法进行测定.以乙腈-水-三氟乙酸(体积比35:65:0.05)为流动相,经Zorbax Eclipse C18柱(4.6mm×250mm i.d.5μm)分离,外标法定性、定量分析,结果表明微囊藻毒素LR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0μg/mL,鲫鱼肉中检出限25 ng/g.微囊藻毒素RR的线性定量范围0.1~10.0 μg/mL,在鲫鱼肉中的检出限20ng/g.此方法准确,灵敏度高,专属性好,可作为监测淡水水产品微囊藻毒素污染的分析方法.%Objective:An analytical method for the analysis of trace microcystins(MCYST) in meat of Carassius auratus was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE)for enrichment and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)for detection. Methods:Meat of Carassius auratus were extracted by 90% methanol aqueous solution. The microcystins were determined by the method of HPLC after SPE purification。 The mobile phase is consist of 35% acetonitrile,65%water contained 0.05% TFA。 The microcystins were separated and determined on a Zorbax Eclipse C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm id, 5 μm) by the method of external standard method. Results: the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-LR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-LR in meat of Carassius auratus was 25 ng·g-1; the liner range was 0.1~10.0 μg/mL for MC-RR and the detection limit(LOD) for microcystin-RR in meat of Carassius auratus was 20 ng·g-1. This method is precision sensitive and specific and can be used for food satety hazard evaluation and microcystin pollution supervision in fresh water aquatic products.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) FROM YILI RIVER OF SINKIANG DISTRICT%新疆伊犁河鲫鱼遗传多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋白; 郑宇; 周莉; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    为了解我国西北地区野生鲫鱼的遗传多样性,鲫鱼样品从新疆伊犁河中采用小型拖网捕获.通过解剖观察性腺鉴定性别;采用碘化丙啶(PI)染色,经流式细胞仪测定血细胞核DNA含量;采用非变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,考马斯亮蓝染色分析血清转铁蛋白多态性.结果表明:新疆伊犁河鲫鱼群体为具雌、雄的两性个体的群体;伊犁河鲫鱼血细胞核DNA平均含量为(5.315±0.215)pg/个细胞核,血细胞核DNA含量约为二倍体彩鲫DNA含量的1.53倍,与银鲫血细胞核DNA含量相当;在所采集的鲫鱼样品中共发现9种转铁蛋白表现型,由7个等位基因调控,等位基因频率依次为Tfa0.063、Tfb0.063、Tff0.095、Tfg0.169、Tfc0.174、Tfe0.175和Tfd0.270.基因型频率分别为Tfcd0.043、Tfcdf0.043、Tfabdg0.043、Tfdef0.087、Tfee0.13、Tfde0.13、Tfdf0.13、Tfabeg0.13和Tfcdg0.26.综合分析,伊犁河现存野生鲫鱼为银鲫,且具有两性融合生殖能力.伊犁河鲫鱼表现出的遗传特性可能与该特定水环境有关.%Studies about genetic diversity of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) have been executed for many years. However, the samples usually come from the area of Heilong River in northeast, Yangtze River and Yellow River in the middle part of China, rarely from the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. This study aim at accumulating evidences for realizing genetic diversity and finding some characteristic marks of genetic diversity of crucian carp in the district of Sinkiang District in northwest of China. The sampled crucian carps (Carassius auratus) captured with townet from Yili River of Sinkiang district. Their sex was identified according to the gland at the anatomical level. DNA content of blood corpuscle was mensurated with Phoenix Flow Systems after blood corpuscle was dyed with propidium iodide (PI) solution. Transferrin (Tf) in blood serum was measured with non-denatualization polyacrylamide gel

  3. 金鱼Dmrt2基因表达分析%Expression of Dmrt2 gene in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江山; 陈晓武; 施志仪; 李倩

    2012-01-01

    Dmrt2,dsx and mab-3 related transcription factor 2 are members of a gene family of putative transcription factors which contain a common zinc finger-like DNA binding motif,DM domain.The full-length cDNA of Dmrt2a gene was obtained from total RNA isolated from the liver of goldfish by the technology of RACE(Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends).The complete cDNA of goldfish Dmrt2a is 1 755 bp and its ORF(opening reading frame) includes 1 500 bp which codes 499 amino acid residues.Dmrt2a in goldfish shares high homology with Dmrt2a genes from other fishes via phylogenesis analysis.The sequence homologies between deduced goldfish Dmrt2a peptide and that from zebrafish,takifugu,medaka and tilapia are 85%,61%,58% and 58%,respectively.SYBR Green I Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis was used to assess the expression of Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b at mRNA level.The Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b genes were expressed from early embryo stage to juveniles of 15 days post hatching(dph).Dmrt2a was expressed highly in embryos,reached a peak at 24 hours post fertilization(hpf),and decreased at 36 hpf;Dmrt2b was expressed lowly in embryos and increased obviously after hatching.In adult goldfish,Dmrt2a and Dmrt2b genes were expressed highly in ovary and testis,and had a low expression in intestine,kidney,liver,heart and brain.%采用荧光定量PCR技术检测了Dmrt2基因的两个亚型Dmrt2a和Dmrt2b在金鱼(Carassius auratus)不同发育时期以及不同组织中的表达情况,用RACE技术克隆得到金鱼Dmrt2a cDNA序列的全长为1 755 bp,5'和3'非编码区长分别为188 bp和67 bp,推测的开放阅读框可编码499个氨基酸的多肽。分子系统进化分析表明金鱼Dmrt2a与其它鱼类Dmrt2a基因聚成一支,与斑马鱼(Daniorerio)、红鳍东方鲀(Takifugu rubripes)、青鳉(Oryzias latipes)、罗非鱼(Oreochromis Niloticus)Dmrt2a的同源性分别为85%、61%、58%、58%。荧光定量PCR结果揭示,Dmrt2a在精巢中表达量

  4. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  5. Japon Balığı (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 Dokularında Bor Akümülasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, model bir balık türü olabilen Japon balığının (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758 karaciğer ve kas dokusundaki, yem ve su kaynaklı bor birikiminin dağılımı incelenmiştir. Her bir uygulama için her bir akvaryuma 12 adet birey. Uygulamalarda, akvaryum gruplarının suyuna belirli oranlarda (1 mg/L, 10 mg/L ve 20 mg/L borik asit ve borik asit emdirilmesi ile elde edilen yemlerden (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg ve 10 mg/kg verilmiştir. Dokulardaki bor birikimi mikrodalga yaş yakma ile çözündürme işleminin ardından indüktif olarak eşleştirilmiş kütle spektroskopisi (ICP-MS tekniği ile belirlenmiştir. Japon balıklarının farklı dokularında belirlenen maksimum bor konsantrasyonu 20mg/L sulandırılmış borik asit uygulamasında karaciğer dokusunda (1.78±0.02 mg/kg tespit edilmiştir. Ancak 1 mg/kg yem uygulamasında kas dokusunda birikim olmadığı gözlemlenmiştir. Borlu su grupların için Transfer faktör (TF en düşük dozda en yüksek oranda iken doz miktarı arttıkça TF azalmış ve neredeyse 0.1’e yakın bir sabitlik göstermiştir. Bor ilaveli yem kullanılan deney gruplarında TF en düşük dozda (1 mg/kg 0 iken yemde kullanılan borun doz miktarı arttıkça (5 mg/kg TF değerinin yaklaşık 0.06’ya kadar çıktığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada önemli iki tespit ortaya konulmuştur; bor birikiminde hedef organlardan biri karaciğer iken kas dokusunun birikim açısından hedef olmadığı ve yem ile alınan borun dokularda birikiminin düşük olmasıdır.

  6. CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF KAISO IN GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS%鲫Kaiso 基因cDNA 的克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海炎; 黄万旭; 罗琛

    2013-01-01

    -tional repressor, plays an important role in timing the expression of methylated genes during early embryogenesis in amphibian and zebrafish. To investigate the reproductive and developmental functions of DNA methylation in goldfish (Carassius auratus), an important cultural fish, we cloned its full-length Kaiso cDNA by reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The spatiotemporal expression pattern of goldfish Kaiso was examined by whole mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The entire Kaiso cDNA was 3145 bp long, including a 132 bp long 5'-UTR, a 1117 bp long 3'-UTR and a 1896 bp long open read frame, which encoded a protein with 631 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment of Kaisos of Carassius auratus, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Gallus gallus, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed that the structure of goldfish Kaiso protein also consisted a highly-conserved BTB/POZ domain at the N-terminal and zinc finger domains at the C-terminal. Whole-mount in situ hybridization examination showed that Kaiso was ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis but tissue-specifically expressed from bud stage onward. qRT-PCR examination revealed that high abundance maternal Kaiso mRNA existed in the eggs. During embryogenesis, the level of Kaiso mRNA gradually decreased during cleavage and remained low from late blastula stage to early gastrula stage, and then gradually increased from late gastrula stage and reached to the highest level at bud stage. These results suggested that the Kaiso transcripts detected in cleavage stage might be the maternal mRNA and the transcription of zygotic Kaiso might start at late blastula stage. qRT-PCR analysis of different adult tissues revealed that the transcriptional levels of Kaiso in the muscle, retina, heart and brain were much higher than those in the kidney, pancreas and liver. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Kaiso suggested that

  7. Segregation patterns of microsatellite markers indicate triploid Cara-ssius auratus generate aneuploid sperm%微卫星分离模式显示雄性三倍体鲫产生非整倍体精子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程磊; 曹顶臣; 鲁翠云; 李超; 孙效文

    2014-01-01

    三倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)行天然雌核发育,其自然种群中却有较高比例的雄性个体,这些雄性个体的性腺发育正常,能产生有活力的精子。而且其精子的DNA含量约为体细胞的一半,显示三倍体鲫精子发生过程中可能经历了均等的减数分裂。流式细胞术虽然能够较准确地测定细胞群的平均DNA含量,但是却很难检测到单个精子中的个别染色体增减,要明确回答雄性三倍体鲫产生的精子是否为整倍体需要定量地检测单个精子的遗传组成。本研究用微卫星标记检测以雌性鲤(Cyprinus carpio)与雄性三倍体鲫为亲本构建的杂种家系的基因型,结果发现母本鲤的多态位点在子代中呈孟德尔分离,父本三倍体鲫具有三套鲫基因组,其等位基因在子代中呈随机分离。上述研究结果提示:三倍体鲫起源于二倍体鲫的同源加倍,而非二倍体鲫和鲤的种间杂交;三倍体鲫通过染色体的随机分离产生非整倍体的精子,其精子发生过程中没有均等的减数分裂。三倍体鲫行雌核发育生殖,却可能并非起源于种间杂交且群体中的雄性个体可育,因而是单性生殖鱼类中的一个特例。%Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) is an important aquaculture species, in which diploid, triploid and tetraplo-id forms coexist. Diploid crucian carp reproduce sexually, while both triploid and tetraploid crucian carp reproduce via gynogenesis. Because only females passed their genome to the next generation, gynogenetic fishes are usually all fe-male and reproduce clonally. However, there are unusual high proportion of males in natural populations of triploid crucian carp. These males have normally developed testis, which can generate viable sperm. Additionally, DNA content of sperm was about half of that of somatic cell, which indicated that meiosis has occurred during spermatogenesis of triploid crucian carp. The average DNA

  8. 丁酸钠对鲫鱼生长和肠细胞增殖的影响%Effects of sodium butyrate on growth and intestinal cell proliferation of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      以初始体质量(6.02±0.16) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为研究对象,在鲫鱼基础饲料中分别添加0.0 g/kg、1.0 g/kg、2.5 g/kg、5.0 g/kg、7.5 g/kg的包膜丁酸钠,配制5种等氮等能的实验饲料,研究不同浓度包膜丁酸钠通过促进鲫鱼肠细胞增殖对其生长作用的影响。实验在室内养殖系统中进行,每水族缸饲喂30尾,每处理组3个重复,以鱼体质量3%~5%投喂量,日投喂3次,试验持续7周。实验结果表明:在饲料中添加丁酸钠对鲫鱼有明显的促生长作用,显著提高了鲫鱼前肠绒毛高度/隐窝深度的比值以及肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达。当丁酸钠添加量为2.5 g/kg 时,鲫鱼增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和肥满度最高,显著高于对照组(P<0.05),比对照组分别提高了25.76%、16.46%、28.91%和8.37%;与对照组相比,丁酸钠添加量达到2.5 g/kg时,鲫鱼干物质与蛋白质表观消化率、前肠绒毛高度、肠道 CREB 基因和 CDX2基因的相对表达量显著升高,分别比对照组提高8.36%、6.21%、34.22%、51.11%和42.13%(P<0.05)。上述研究表明饲料中添加适量的丁酸钠可能通过显著提高鲫鱼肠绒毛高度和肠道细胞增殖因子CREB和CDX2基因的表达量,从而促进其生长,适宜添加量为2.5 g/kg。%A 7-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and expression of intestinal development related genes in Carassius auratus. The grade levels of sodium butyrate at 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg were added to the basic diets respectively. Each diet was randomly fed to a group of 30 fishes per tank in triplicates. The fish were fed three times daily by hand at a rate of 3% –5% of body weight for seven weeks. The results showed that dietary sodium butyrate significantly affected growth, foregut villus height and crypt depth, and the expression

  9. Preliminary study on the influence of ivermectin on blood component of Carassius auratus%伊维菌素对鲫血液成分影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ivermectin on Carassius auratus blood component was studied after oral administration at ivermectin doses of 3. 0, 1.0 and 0. 4 mg/kg. The results showed that RBC, WBC, HCT and HGB in Carassius auratus blood had no obvious difference among control group and treatment groups. The contents of PLT in treated fish were obviously higher than those in untreated fish. The contents of PLT increased quickly at 8 ~ 16 h after administration, and began to decrease at 24 h, and the fluctuation was greater than that in control group. The contents of Ca2+ , Tbil, ALP, ALT and ALB didn' t be affected by ivermectin. While the contents of TP in blood of fish administrated with 3. 0 or 1. 0 mg/kg ivermectin were lower than untreated fish, and with the increase of dose, the greater the influence was, while 0. 4 mg/kg ivermectin didn' t affect the content of TP obviously. Some adverse reactions were observed including darkened color, loss of appetite, and balance in treated fishes with the increasing dose. There was external hemorrhage in kidneys when the fish in group of 3. 0 mg/kg was dissected.%采用三种给药剂量(3.0、1.0、0.4 mg/kg)研究伊维菌素对鲫(Carassius auratus)血液指标的影响,结果显示:各实验组鲫血液中红细胞(RBC)、白细胞(WBC)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血红蛋白(HGB)与对照组间均无显著性差异;但血小板(PLT)指标则显著高于对照组,且在给药后8~16h快速上升、24 h后开始下降,波动幅度亦显著高于对照组.三种口灌剂量对鲫血液中钙离子(Ca2+)、总胆红素(Tbil)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和白蛋白(ALB)含量均无明显影响;而3.0、1.0 mg/kg的口灌剂量组鲫血液中总血清蛋白(TP)含量较对照组有下降,且剂量越大影响越大,而0.4 mg/kg组TP含量变化不大.随着剂量的增大,鲫体色逐渐变深,食欲减退、身体失衡,3.0 mg/kg组的鲫解剖后显示肾脏出血迹象.

  10. The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lümanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus%“绿满园”对柑桔红蜘蛛的田间防治效果及对金鱼的毒性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔虎平; 王金亮; 江庆红; 云月利; 王维; 彭宇

    2013-01-01

    测定“绿满园”水剂对柑桔红蜘蛛Panonychus citri的田间防治效果及对非靶标生物金鱼Carassius auratus 的急性毒性.结果表明,64%“绿满园”水剂800倍和1 000倍稀释液在施药后7d和15d对柑桔红蜘蛛的防治效果均极显著地高于对照杀螨剂:15%扫螨净和57%炔螨特,其中以800倍稀释液防治效果最好,15d的防效达97.21%,800倍和1 000倍稀释液的防治效果差异不明显.金鱼的死亡率随“绿满园”浓度的升高和染毒时间的延长逐渐增加.“绿满园”水剂对金鱼的急性毒性小于阿维菌素.%The controlling role of Panonychus citri by "Lumanyuan" in the filed and the measurement of its acute toxicity to Carassius auratus were carried out. The results showed that, 15 days after spraying, the controlling roles of 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of 64% "Lumanyuan" to P. citri was obviously higher than 15% pyridaben and 57% propargite. 800 fold dilution of "Lumanyuan" had the best controlling role to P. citri and the controlling effect was 97. 21%. There was no significant difference on controlling effects between 800 folds and 1 000 folds dilution of "Lumanyuan" to P. citri. The mortalities of C. auratus increased with the rise of the concentration and treatment time of "Lumanyuan" and "Lumanyuan" has lower acute toxicity to C. auratus than avermectin.

  11. Solution structure of the Z-DNA binding domain of PKR-like protein kinase from Carassius auratus and quantitative analyses of the intermediate complex during B-Z transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae-Ree; Park, Chin-Ju; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Park, Jin-Wan; Kwon, Mun-Young; Lee, Janghyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Choi, Byong-Seok; Lee, Joon-Hwa

    2016-04-07

    Z-DNA binding proteins (ZBPs) play important roles in RNA editing, innate immune response and viral infection. Structural and biophysical studies show that ZBPs initially form an intermediate complex with B-DNA for B-Z conversion. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of Z-DNA binding and B-Z transition is still lacking, due to the absence of structural information on the intermediate complex. Here, we report the solution structure of the Zα domain of the ZBP-containing protein kinase from Carassius auratus(caZαPKZ). We quantitatively determined the binding affinity of caZαPKZ for both B-DNA and Z-DNA and characterized its B-Z transition activity, which is modulated by varying the salt concentration. Our results suggest that the intermediate complex formed by caZαPKZ and B-DNA can be used as molecular ruler, to measure the degree to which DNA transitions to the Z isoform.

  12. 浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属污染水平与金属硫蛋白基因表达%Heavy Metal Levels and Metallothionein mRNA Expressions in Wild Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus auratus) from Hun River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳强; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 林进; 陈浩; 赵兴茹

    2012-01-01

    为揭示浑河重金属污染的潜在生态风险,分析测定了浑河野生鲫鱼体内重金属的残留水平以及肝和鳃组织中金属硫蛋白基因表达.对鱼体各组织中Cr、Cd、Pb、Cu和Zn含量的分析结果显示,各组织重金属含量的排序为肠>肝>鳃>肌肉,且Zn含量最高(17.49~ 176.01 mg·kg-1,以湿体质量计算),Cd含量最低(N.D.~0.57 mg· kg 1,以湿体质量计算).均值综合污染指数评价结果显示,浑河野生鲫鱼受到重金属的轻微污染,且从上游至下游呈现逐渐升高的趋势,其中,Cr、Pb和Zn对均值综合污染指数贡献较大.利用实时定量PCR方法分析鲫鱼肝组织金属硫蛋白基因表达发现,中、下游鲫鱼肝组织的金属硫蛋白基因表达水平较上游有所升高,且与肌肉组织综合污染指数具有较好相关性(R2=0.71),这表明金属硫蛋白基因可作为监测环境重金属污染的敏感标志物.%the metallothionein gene can be used as a promising biomarker for monitoring the heavy metal contamination. Hun River; heavy metal; crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus); average pollution index; metallothionein

  13. 鲫幼鱼(Carassius auratus)标准代谢个体差异与力竭后代谢特征及行为的关联%Correlations between standard metabolic rate and metabolic characteristics after exhaustive exercise, and behavior in the juvenile crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令清; 付世建; 曹振东

    2016-01-01

    为考察鲫(Carassius auratus)幼鱼标准代谢的个体差异与运动力竭后代谢特征和行为的关系,在(25.0±0.5)℃条件下测定80尾鲫幼鱼标准代谢率(SMR),筛选出40尾实验鱼[体重(13.54±0.20)g,体长(8.05±0.07) cm],其中包括20尾高SMR个体和20尾低SMR个体,测定运动至力竭实验鱼的最大代谢率(MMR),并计算代谢空间(AS=MMR-SMR)、相对代谢空间(FAS)和过量耗氧(EPOC)总量,随后测定单尾鱼的快速启动行为[反应时间(RT)、最大线速度(Umax)、最大线加速度(Amax)和120ms移动距离(S120)]以及个性行为(勇敢性和活跃性).结果显示鲫幼鱼的SMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈负相关,而与MMR不相关;MMR与AS、FAS和EPOC总量均呈正相关;协方差分析显示高SMR个体组的代谢恢复速率与低SMR个体组无显著差异.鲫幼鱼的SMR与快速启动行为的RT呈正相关,与Amax呈负相关,而与Umax和S120均不相关.在快速启动行为中,鲫幼鱼的RT与Umax、Am120和S120均呈负相关,而Amax与S120和S120呈正相关.鲫幼鱼的SMR与其勇敢性指标如潜伏期(L)、曝露时间(ET)和探头频率(AF)以及活跃性指标如运动时间比(PTM)、撞墙频率(FHW)均不相关,但鲫幼鱼的PTM与FHW和ET呈正相关.研究表明在实验室条件下鲫幼鱼的能量代谢特征、快速启动和个性行为存在明显的个体差异现象,并且部分表型特征之间存在权衡,提示这些权衡可能是鲫幼鱼的生理、行为与栖息环境相互作用的综合结果.

  14. 异育银鲫幼鱼对饲料中维生素K需求的研究%DIETARY VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元慧; 朱晓鸣; 韩冬; 杨云霞; 金俊琰; 解绶启

    2013-01-01

    以不同维生素K水平(0.13、2.15、3.25、6.40、12、17.20和23.20 mg/kg饲料)的7种精制饲料喂养初始体重约为(2.17±0.01) g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)10周,每个处理3个重复,研究异育银鲫对维生素K的需求量.结果显示:饲料中维生素K的添加可以明显降低摄食率,饲料中维生素K含量为2.15 mg/kg时,摄食率出现最大值,之后显著下降(P0.05).饲料中维生素K的含量从0.13 mg/kg升至3.25 mg/kg时,饲料效率显著升高(P0.05),在12 mg/kg时达到最大值,并且与特定生长率呈正相关关系(SGR = 0.01 FE + 0.95,R2 = 0.95).血液红细胞数目随着饲料维生素K含量的增加先显著升高(P0.05).血红蛋白含量、血球容积比、血清钙含量与血液中红细胞数目表现出相似的趋势,均在不添加维生素K组出现最低值,但是差异不显著(P>0.05).肝体比、肥满度及鱼体生化组成均不受饲料维生素K水平的影响(P>0.05).分别对饲料效率、红细胞数目进行折线回归得出异育银鲫幼鱼对维生素K的最适需求量为3.73-6.72 mg/kg饲料.%A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine vitamin K requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Purified diets with seven levels (0.13, 2.15, 3.25, 6.40, 12, 17.20 and 23.20 mg/kg diet) of supplemental vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulfite, MSB) were fed to C. gibelio (mean weight 2.17±0.01 g). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish. The results showed that fish fed with the diet supplemented with 2.15 mg vitamin K/kg had significantly higher feeding rate (FR) than fish fed with diets supplemented with 12 mg vitamin K/kg (PO.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary vitamin K levels and reached the highest value when dietary vitamin K content was 12 mg/kg (P>0.05). Feed efficiency (FE) was the highest in fish fed with diet supplemented with ≥3.25 mg vitamin K/kg, intermediate with 2.15 mg vitamin K

  15. Effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus%Cd和Pb对鲫鱼超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 段辉国; 唐正义

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to present our findings on the effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD in the hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus, which is a kind of enzyme that tends to catalyze the destruction of the O2-free radical to form oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. As is known, SOD is a kind of chemical compound widely existing in nature to prevent cellular damage by excessive oxygen free radicals generated in the process of metabolism . As a matter of fact, the activity of SOD can be affected by the metal ions, especially, the heavy metal ones, e.g. Cd and Pb. In our research, we have discovered that the concentrative effects of Cd and Pb on the activities of SOD from hepatopancreas of Carassius auratus through our toxicity tests. Statistically speaking, after 24 h, 48 h or 96 h of post-exposure treatments in the presence of Cd2+ (0.5 mg/L, 2.0 mg/L, 6.0mg/L) , Pb2+ (10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L) or both of them, the activity of SOD would have changed . The results have thus shown that within the experimental doae range, the activities of SOD were found to have accelerated by 0.5 mg/L of Cd2+ . However, high concentrations of Cd2+ , Pb2+ and the mixture tend to obviously suppress the activities of SOD. What is more, synergetic effect of the toxicity can be detected in the presence of both Cd2+ and Pb2+ . Such results prove to be useful for the evaluation of the risk of Cd2+ and Pb2+ , in monitoring the environmental pollution .%为了解不同浓度Cd2+、Pb2+及其联合胁迫对超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的影响,以鲫鱼为材料,采用急性毒性试验研究了质量浓度为0.5 mg/L、2.0 mg/L、6.0 mg/L的Cd2+溶液和10 mg/L、20 mg/L、40 mg/L的Pb2+溶液及其混合液作用下,24 h、48 h、96 h后鲫鱼肝胰脏SOD活性的变化.结果表明,0.5 mg/L的Cd2+对鲫鱼肝胰脏的SOD活性有促进作用,其余各浓度组的Cd2+和Pb2+对SOD有抑制作用;Cd2+和Pb2+的联合作用比单独作用对SOD的影响大.

  16. Hematologic Studies of Three Types of Carassius auratus%3种类型普安鲫鱼的血液学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤君; 安苗; 黄良; 胡飞; 邵娅

    2012-01-01

    By extracting blood from the tail vein, the blood corpuscle kind and number of C. auratus A, B and C were determined, also the hemoglobin and plasma glucose contents were determined to figure out red blood cell and part of physiological and biochemical indexes of blood. The results showed that the blood corpuscle was composed of red blood cell, hrombosis cell and white blood cell, the white cell included neutrophil, small lymphocyte, large lymphocyte and monocyte. Compared to the three kinds of fish each other, the red blood cell of type A was the biggest and type B was the smallest. The number of red blood cell was maximum in type C and minimum in type B. The plasma glucose content of Type A was the highest value, the second was type B, and the lowest was type C. Hemoglobin content of type C was the highest, and the second was the type A, type B was the minimum.%为弄清3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞及血液的部分生理生化指标,丰富普安鲫的基础生物学资料,采用尾静脉取血法,对A型、B型和C型普安鲫鱼的血细胞数量、大小、分类及血红蛋白和血浆葡萄糖含量进行了测定.结果表明:3种类型普安鲫鱼的血细胞均包含红细胞、白细胞和血栓细胞,其中,白细胞又包含淋巴细胞(大淋巴细胞和小淋巴细胞)、嗜中性粒细胞(未发现嗜酸性粒细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞)和单核细胞.红细胞大小,A型普安鲫鱼最大,C型次之,B型最小;红细胞数,C型普安鲫鱼最多,A型次之,B型最少;血浆葡萄糖含量,A型最高,B型次之,C型最低;血红蛋白含量,C型最高,A型次之,B型最低.

  17. Effect of echinacea purpurea extract on growth and anti-oxidant responses in carassius auratus var.pengze%紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫生长和抗氧化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 付京花; 李志华; 邹记兴

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究紫锥菊提取物对彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.pengze)生长和抗氧化反应的影响.选取体重为(7.50±0.15)g的彭泽鲫作为试验动物,在其饲料中分别按0.1%、0.2%、0.4%、0.8%的不同比例添加紫锥菊提取物,经过60 d的饲养,测定其生长及血清中抗氧化酶活力等的变化.结果表明,紫锥菊提取物显著增加彭泽鲫的相对增重率(P<0.05);显著降低鲫鱼血清中的羟自由基(·OH)(P<0.05),降低丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高其血清中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活力,同时降低谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力.该研究阐明了紫锥菊提取物对鲫鱼生长及抗氧化反应的影响,为紫锥菊在水产养殖中的研究与应用提供基础数据.

  18. 异育银鲫鳃出血病流行病学调查和研究%Epidemiological Investigation and Survey of Gill Hemorrhagic Disease in Silver Prussian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霆; 丁正峰; 朱春艳; 薛中仪; 顾伟; 孟庆国; 王文

    2014-01-01

    2011-2013年,江苏省局部地区发生新型异育银鲫鳃出血病,给养殖业造成较大经济损失。为查明病因,了解发病历史、发病季节、发病症状及危害对象,通过在江苏省宝应县开展水产流行病学调查,结合组织病理学、回归感染试验、分子生物学诊断等研究方法,证实异育银鲫鳃出血病病原为鲤科疱疹病毒-Ⅱ型,由于该病害会导致异育银鲫养殖重大损失,因此需要引起国内相关养殖业主、科研工作者更多关注。%Gill hemorrhagic disease as a new type disease in silver prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) caused by Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV‐2) makes harmful in silver prussian carp aquaculture .In present paper ,we make an epidemiological investigation on this new disease in Baoying county ,an important aquaculture area in Jiangsu province .The past records of disease ,epidemic seasons ,hosts suffered from the disease ,symptoms and pathological changes ,molecular biological detection ,and challenged infection are described ,therefore ,some valuable information are provided to the fishers and related researchers for understanding of the disease .

  19. 萍乡肉红鲫的性腺发育研究%GONADAL DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL WILDNESS TRIPLOID MUTANT PINGXIANG RED-TRANSPARENT CRUCIAN CARP, CARASSIUS AURATUS L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 盛军庆; 洪一江; 王军花; 刘田欣; 桂建芳

    2009-01-01

    萍乡肉红鲫(Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp,Carassius auratus L.)是在江西省萍乡地区分布的天然三倍体鲫突变体经人工选育后获得的遗传性状基本稳定的后代,具有两性生殖和雌核生殖两种生殖方式.研究以F5代萍乡肉红鲫为材料,自孵化后每满1个月开始取性腺,观察了其卵巢1周年性成熟和精巢的发育过程,结果表明萍乡肉红鲫的性腺为1年成熟类型.卵巢发育进程町以分为6个时期,卵母细胞发育相应可分为6个时相.统计了卵巢成熟系数周年变化,体重为95 g左右的雌性萍乡肉红鲫,其成熟卵巢的成熟系数约为(11.73±2.8)%,成熟的卵母细胞内充满卵黄,相对怀卵量为(3018±310)粒/g.萍乡肉红鲫精巢属于小叶型,在精小叶中可观察到不同发育阶段的生殖细胞.由精原细胞分裂而来的仞级精母细胞经分裂增殖,产生次级精母细胞并最终发育成为精子.萍乡肉红鲫的精巢发育程序与普通鲫鱼和鲤鱼相似,卵巢和精巢的发育过程基本同步,孵化后50日龄内性腺分化不明显,到70日龄左右开始出现雌雄分化,3月龄发育为第1期,4-5月龄发育为第2期,6-7月龄发育至第3期,7-10月龄可见第4期卵巢,1年即可成熟产卵,精巢可排出精液.结果表明,该鲫鱼突变体的性腺发育与普通二倍体鲤(鲫)鱼的性腺发育方式类似.%The Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp, Carassius auratus ( L. ) , which was approved for a new kind of breed by the National Fisheries thoroughbred Examining Committee in January 2008, is a wildness natural triplod crucian carp mutant distributed in the area of Pingxiang in Jiangxi Province. It takes bi-sexual and gynogenetic reproduction mode which is similar to the Silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). In response to this particular genetic traits of the species, this study aimed to master its gonadal development process and understand its gonadal development rules

  20. 饲料中组合色素对红草金鱼体色的影响%Effects of combinated dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云生; 陈世金; 李静; 陈龙胜; 卢文轩; 邵祖勇; 何吉祥

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of dietary pigments on body color of red Carassius auratus, a series of feeding experi-ments were conducted from July to October 2014 (90 days). For the first 45 days, larva fish (averaged 18. 5 ± 1. 2 g) were fed with diets supplemented with red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal at different levels (5%, 8%, 11%, 13%, 16%) respectively. For each treatment group, 30 fish were fed at the same feeding level (4%), and 2 of the 30 fish were randomly sampled every 15 days. Each treatment was replicated three times. For each sampled fish, squama and tail fin were collected and mixed. Results from the total carotenoids absorbance analysis of the well mixed organs showed a proper level of red pepper meal, spirulina and corn gluten meal, which was 8%, 5%, and 16%, respectively. For the next 45 days, another series of feeding experiments were conducted with the same feeding environment. Treatments of dieta-ry pigment included 8% of red pepper meal, 5% of spirulina, 16% of corn gluten meal, and the combination of them (one third for 8% of red pepper meal, one third for 5% of spirulina, and one third for 16% of corn gluten meal). Each treatment group contained 30 fish, and the sampling method was the same as above experiments. At the end of the experi-ment, the collected organs were scanned under UV light (470 nm). Scanned maps indicated a better staining result of fish fed with combination of pigments than that of the other groups, suggesting that combinated dietary pigments, were more ef-ficiently in improving the body color of red Carassius auratus than the single dietary pigment.%为研究组合色素对红草金鱼( red Carassius auratus)的增色效果, 在基础饲料中分别添加红辣椒粉、 螺旋藻、 玉米蛋白粉3种着色剂, 制成粗蛋白质含量均为33. 6%饲料, 投喂初始均重( 18. 5 ± 1. 2 ) g的红草金鱼. 每种着色剂设5个水平(5%、 8%、 11%、 13%、 16%), 每水平30尾鱼× 3重复,

  1. 饲料中添加螺旋藻对改良鲫生长和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of Spirulina platensis on muscle nutritive components and growth of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少林; 陈平原; 吕子君; 蓝宗坚; 邹记兴

    2015-01-01

    The control group used tilapia feed for based diet, the test group fed with based diet supple-mented with 1%Spirulina platensis is for 100 days, The growth of Carassius auratus and quality of flesh were determined.The results showed that ingestion of 1%S.platensis increased growth gain rates and the flesh quality.Compared with the control group, the growth gain rates of test group was increased 20.15%, and the total delicious amino acid and essential amino acid, linolenic acid and palmitic acid, amino acid score was also higher than control group.It was concluded that 1%S.platensis could increase fish growth, and be good for its flesh quality.%以改良鲫( Carassius auratus)为试验对象,以罗非鱼料为基础日粮对照,以在基础日粮中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻为试验处理,进行了100 d的养殖试验.并就螺旋藻对改良鲫的生长性能和鲫鱼肌肉营养成分的影响进行了研究.结果表明,与对照组相比,质量分数1%的螺旋藻处理组鱼平均每天内禀增质量率提高20.15%,鲜味氨基酸和必需氨基酸质量分数、亚麻酸和棕榈酸质量分数、氨基酸各项评分均显著提高.由此认为,饲料中添加质量分数1%的螺旋藻对促进改良鲫生长和改善肌肉营养成分有一定的效果.

  2. Toxicity and accumulation of zinc pyrithione in the liver and kidneys of Carassius auratus gibelio: association with P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Fu, Gui-Hong; Liu, Teng-Fei; Hu, Kun; Li, Hao-Ran; Fang, Wen-Hong; Yang, Xian-Le

    2017-02-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent; therefore, it is widely used in industry and civilian life. It is discharged into the aquatic environment with industrial and civilian waste water. Carassius sp. is one of the most widely distributed and farmed fish in China. The effects of aquatic ZPT on Carassius sp. remain unknown. In this study, we determined the acute toxicity of ZPT on Carassius sp. The results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50 96 h) of ZPT on Carassius sp. cultivated in freshwater or water with 1.5 or 3 ‰ salinity was 0.163, 0.126, and 0.113 mg/L, respectively. ZPT has a higher affinity to the liver than the kidney, with a prolonged tissue residual time. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette transporter, was found to be induced in the liver and kidney tissues of these Carassius spp. after ZPT treatment, based on the determination of its mRNA and protein levels by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The ZPT accumulation and magnitude of P-gp induction were also affected by the salinity of the cultivation water. These results suggest that aquatic ZPT is potentially toxic to Carassius sp. We speculate that P-gp induction may play a protective role for Carassius sp. Our findings provide a basis for assessing the potential risk of ZPT to aquatic animals including Carassius sp.

  3. THE GROWTH-PROMOTING EFFECT AND MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE MICROBIAL PEPTIDE SOYBEAN ON CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS%活性菌肽豆蛋白对鲫(Carassius auratus)促生长的作用效果及机理分析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘臻; 谢帝芝; 周毅; 赵琼; 王赏初; 孙浪; 鲁双庆

    2013-01-01

    Using different feeding formulas, the effects of common soybean, fermented soybean and active microbial peptide soybean meals on growth appearance of crucian carp Carassius auratus were studied. The results indicat that the relative body weight growth rate was higher in active microbial peptide soybean group (41.87%) than control and fer-mented soybean group (19.11%higher);the serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) levels of active microbial peptide soybean group were the highest with following fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group. Realtime-PCR indicated that IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) gene expressions were the highest in active microbial peptide soybean group, lower in fermented soybean group and the lowest in control group; GHR showed no significant difference between fermented soybean group and active microbial peptide soybean group, but both two groups were higher than control group. Thus, active microbial peptide soybean may regulate GH, IGF-I, T3 and T4 in serum as well as GHR and IGFs gene expression in liver to affect growth in C. auratus.%  采用不同饲料配方投喂,研究了普通豆粕(对照组)、发酵豆粕和活性菌肽豆蛋白配合饲料对鲫(Carassius auratus)生长性状影响的研究。结果表明,活性菌肽豆蛋白组的相对体重生长率高于对照组41.87%(P<0.01)和发酵豆粕组19.11%;血清中的三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)、胰岛素样生长因子-I(IGF-I)和生长激素(GH)含量活性菌肽豆蛋白组最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,而对照组最低;实时定量 PCR检测显示: IGFs(IGF-I和 IGF-II)基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组中最高,其次是发酵豆粕组,对照组的表达量最低。GHR基因的表达量在活性菌肽豆蛋白组和发酵豆粕组间无显著性差异,但明显高于对照组。因此,活性菌肽豆蛋白可能通

  4. 微囊藻毒素在银鲫肠道中的累积及其病理学影响%Intestinal Accumulation and Pathological Effects of Microcystins in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 雷和花; 侯杰; 龙萌; 苏玉晶; 吴宁

    2014-01-01

    银鲫(Carassius auratus),杂食性鱼类,是我国淡水主养品种之一.在富营养化湖泊中,它能以有毒微囊藻为主要食物,导致微囊藻毒素(MCs)在其组织中大量累积.为研究MCs在肠道内累积和代谢特征及其对肠道的毒性影响,分别以50和200 μg MC-LReq·kg-1剂量的MCs粗提液(主要含MC-RR和MC-LR)对银鲫进行腹腔注射,并在注射后1、3、12、24、48和168 h后取样.MCs的含量用LC-MS和HPLC进行定性和定量测定,结果发现,高低两剂量组银鲫肠中MCs的含量均在注射后1h达最大值(分别为2.8和181.4 ng·g-1 DW),然后随暴露时间的延长迅速下降.相对于毒素的累积,MCs诱导的银鲫肠组织损伤具滞后性,注射后48 h内,高低两剂量组肠道的病理变化呈时间-剂量依赖性的增长,病理特征表现为肠上皮细胞排列紊乱,甚至出现坏死、溶解和脱落,杯状细胞数目显著增多,微绒毛结构破坏并伴随淋巴细胞浸润.实验结果表明,单次染毒后MCs在鲫肠道中迅速累积后降解,并造成时间-剂量依赖性组织损伤,且低剂量组的损伤是可逆的.

  5. 盾叶薯蓣提取物对鱼类指环虫的杀灭效果%Ethanol extract of plant Dioscorea zingiberensis against dactylogyrid Dactylogyrus intermedius found in goldfish Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高学; 李军; 赵良炜; 周状; 申烨华; 田渭花

    2009-01-01

    The parasiticidal effect of ethanol extracts from a plant Dioscorea zingiberensis on dactylogyrid Dactylogy-rus intermedius found in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied to search for parasiticidal substances by standard laboratory procedures compared with the other four drugs mebendazole,abamectin,ivermectin and praziquantel. The bioassay -oriented procedure showed that the active compounds concentrated in the alcoholic extract,with LC_(50), val-ue of 53.47 mg/L(24 h) ,34.05 mg/L(48 h) , and 19. 34 mg/L(96 h). The anthelmintic efficacy of the alcoholic extract was found to be 99.55% with the concentration of 17.0 mg/L (48 h). For mebendazole,99.01% of the dactylogyrid were killed with 3.4 mg/L (48 h) drugs, and 95. 39% killed by praziquantel at a rate of 6.2 mg/L. It is suggested that the ethanol extracts of Dioscorea zingiberensis be a promising and effective Chinese herbal medi-cine to control dactylogyrids.%以寄生在金鱼Carassius auratus鳃部的中型指环虫Dactylogyrus intermedius为指示寄生虫,采用活体感染、活体杀虫的方法,研究了用不同溶剂(石油醚(沸程60~90 ℃)、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、乙醇和水)分别对盾叶薯蓣Dioscorea zingiberensis进行提取,其5种提取物的杀虫活性.结果表明,盾叶薯蓣的杀虫活性部位是乙醇提取物.将乙醇提取物与甲苯咪唑、伊维菌素、阿维菌素和吡喹酮4种原料药的杀虫效果进行比较,结果表明:盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物的最高杀虫浓度为17.0 mg/L,平均最高杀虫率为99.37%;其次是甲苯咪唑和吡喹酮,最高杀虫浓度分别为3.4、6.2 mg/L时,平均最高杀虫率分别为99.01%和95.39%;而伊维菌素、阿维菌素对中型指环虫无明显的杀灭作用.盾叶薯蓣乙醇提取物对斑马鱼Brachydanio rerio 的24、48、96 h的半致死浓度(LC_(50))分别为53.47、34.05、19.34 mg/L.

  6. 氟甲喹对异育银鲫细胞色素CYP450主要药酶的影响%Effects of flumequine on cytochrome P450 enzymes in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓; 房文红; 汪开毓; 孙贝贝; 胡琳琳; 周帅; 周俊芳

    2011-01-01

    在分析了氟甲喹腹腔注射后对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)主要药酶活性影响的基础上,从蛋白表达和mRNA转录水平探究了氟甲喹对CYP1A(EROD)的诱导机制.以氟甲喹剂量35 mg/kg一次性腹腔注射异育银鲫24 h后,肝微粒体的7-乙氧基异吩唑酮-O-脱乙基酶(EROD)活性为54.33 pmol/(mg·min).显著高于对照组的34.00pmol/(mg·min)(P<0.01),而红霉索-N-脱甲基酶(ERND)[177.98 pmol/(mg·min)]、氨基比林-N-脱甲基酶(APD)[934.40 pmol/(mg·min)]及7-乙氧基香豆素-O-脱乙基酶(ECOD)[9.84 pmol/(mg·min)]与对照组[分别为140.90pmol/(mg·min)]、850.71 pmol/(mg·min)和8.93 pmol/(mg·min)]相比无显著性差异;除肾组织中ERND活性高于肝脏外,其他CYP亚型药酶活性(APD、EROD和ECOD)均以肝组织中最高.Western-blotting印迹表明,实验组肝脏中CYP1A蛋白含量明显高于对照组,与酶活(EROD)相符合;而肾、肠中没有检测到特异性条带.半定量RT-PCR结果显示,CYPiAmRNA在肝、肾和肠均有表达,但实验组与对照组并无明显差异.体外实验中,不同浓度的氟甲喹与微粒体共孵育,未见EROD活性与浓度、时间的依赖关系.综上推测,氟甲喹对鲫鱼肝CYP1A的诱导是在翻译后水平,可能是加强蛋白的稳定性.本研究旨在为氟甲喹在鱼类中的合理应用提供科学依据.%The effects of flumequine on activities of several microsomal P450 monooxygenases of allogynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were determined and the induction of fluemquine on CYP1A was further explored at the level of protein expression and mRNA transcription. After 24 h following a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 35 mg/kg, the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the liver of the Crucian carp was 54.33 pmol/(mg.min), which was significantly higher than that of the control carps [34.00 pmol/(mg.min)](P<0.01). It was revealed that flumequine could significantly induce EROD

  7. Effect of Water Pollution onActivitiy of CAT and LDH of Carassius auratus in Yongcheng Coal Collapse Area%永煤塌陷区水污染对鲫鱼过氧化氢酶和乳酸脱氢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 郑娜; 李壹

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution in Yongcheng coal collapse area towards the activitiy of blood catalase (CAT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Carassius auratus of Yongcheng coal collapse area was selected as the research object and that from a relatively pollution-free Tianmu lake of Shangqiu was used as the control. The results showed that compared to Tianmu lake,the activity of blood CAT and LDH of Yongcheng coal collapse area decreased significantly (P<0.01). The result suggested that the normal physiological process was inhibited by low concentration mixed heavy metal pollution.%2010年5月,选择永城煤矿塌陷区天然鱼塘的野生鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为对象,以相对无煤矿污染的商丘市天沐湖为对照,研究了永城煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼血液过氧化氢酶(CAT)和血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性的影响.结果表明,永城煤矿塌陷区鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.600)极显著高于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.411)(P<0.01),塌陷区鲤鱼血清中LDH的OD值(0.310)极显著低于天沐湖鲫鱼CAT的OD值(0.421)(P<0.01),说明煤矿塌陷区低浓度混合重金属污染对鲫鱼的正常生理过程有明显的抑制.

  8. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Crucian Carp (Car-assius auratus) of Luan River%滦河流域鲫鱼体内重金属分布及风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霖; 孙然好; 武大勇

    2015-01-01

    The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and river sediment samples were collected from the Luan River in this study. The concentration of heavy metals in fish and sediment was measured for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As by ICP-MS. The concentration of heavy metals decreased in the order of Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd. Moreover, the heavy metal concentration differed among different parts of the fish body. Specifically, the concentrations of Cu and Cr were high in liver whereas those of Zn, Pb and Cd were high in gill. As concentration depended on the sample sites. Generally, the heavy metal concentration in downstream was high than that in upstream. The results indicated that the concentration of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the muscle of crucian carp excessed lots of food safety limits, including the national limited quantity of poisonous and harmful contents of the national pollution-free aquatic products (NY 5073—2006), limited quantity of contaminants in foods (GB 2762—2012), and tolerance limit of zinc in foods (GB 13106—1991). The excess value of heavy metal concentration is Cr(3.34)>Pb(2.24)>Cd(1.15). Finally, the con-sumption risk was assessed based on US EPA’ s target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The results indicated that As had the highest health risk whereas Cr showed the least risk. All THQ values of 6 heavy metals were less than 1. However, the fish consumption in downstream might have risks with the evidence of high TTHQ values of com-bined heavy metals in Suhe River (TTHQ=1.263) and Douhe River (TTHQ=1.381). This study indicated that the high risk of As, Pb, and Zn should be paid more attention in the regular fish consumption.%采集滦河流域鲫鱼样本并分析重金属元素(Cu、Zn、Cr、Pb、As、Cd)在其体内的分布特征及食用风险。实验结果表明鲫鱼体内重金属含量由高到低顺序为Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>As>Cd,蓄积器官主要为肝脏和鳃部,Cu和Cr主要蓄积在肝脏,Zn、Pb、Cd主要富集在鳃部,As的蓄积器官随地域

  9. THE CONTRAST BETWEEN TWO SUSTAINED-RELEASE HORMONES CARRIERS IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS)%鱼类两种缓释催产激素载体临床性能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹相菡; 温海深; 倪蒙; 步艳; 迟美丽; 钱煜; 张冬茜; 丁玉霞

    2013-01-01

    采用组织切片技术和RT-PCR技术研究了海藻酸钠微球和壳聚糖微球作为缓释激素载体在临床上对金鱼基础生物学指标以及CYP19A、GH基因mRNA表达的影响,以检测两种缓释激素载体对鱼类生殖和生长的影响.研究结果表明:缓释材料埋植0、7、14、30、48d后,雌性和雄性金鱼处理组与对照组(埋植0.7%生理盐水组)比较,海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组在基础生物学方面没有出现显著性差异;不同处理组中实验鱼性腺组织切片卵巢和精巢的发育均处于同一时期(按照Мейен分期原则);海藻酸钠微球埋植组和壳聚糖微球埋植组中,各次采样组的CYP19A基因表达均没有出现明显性差异;海藻酸钠微球埋植组GH基因各次取样时间均未出现显著性差异,雌性金鱼壳聚糖微粒埋植组GH基因的表达在0、7、14、30采样后显著上升(P<0.05),埋植48d差异消失,雄性金鱼壳聚糖埋植组未出现明显差异.综合显示:作为缓释载体,海藻酸钠微球在临床上的性能较壳聚糖微球更为稳定,而壳聚糖微球对雌性金鱼的GH基因mRNA表达的促进作用更为明显.%CYP19A and GH gene expression and basic biological indicators were studied after implantation Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres by RT-RCR technique and tissue section technique in male and female goldfish (Carassius auratus , variation). These indicators were used to detect the effects caused by these two sustained-release hormones carriers in both the reproductive and growth of goldfish. The study result show that there was no significant difference in basic biological indicators between control group and experimental group in the 0, 7, 14, 30, 48 days after implantation both Sodium Alginate Microspheres and Chitosan Microspheres separately. The goand appearance of the fish in different groups are in the same period, and the germ cells were in the same phase

  10. 不同营养状况对鲫鱼偏好游泳速度的影响%Preferred swimming behavior in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) at different nutrition status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青怡; 曾令清; 付世建

    2016-01-01

    为考察不同营养状况对鲤科鱼类偏好游泳速度的影响,本研究以鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为实验对象,(25±1.0)℃条件下设置3个不同营养状况实验组:对照组(禁食48 h)、饱食组(饱食)和饥饿组(饥饿14 d),将单尾实验鱼置于梯度流速选择仪(流速范围为11.86~65.45 cm/s,等距离划分为5个流速区域,从第一到第五流速区域流速连续增加)中拍摄1 h,采用Ethovision XT9软件分析视频资料并计算实验鱼在不同流速区域平均进入频次(F,次)、单次进入停留时间(T, s/次)和平均停留时间百分比(Pt,%)等流速选择行为指标。结果显示,对照组和饱食组的F值随水流速度上升而增加,对照组的T值不同流速区域间无差异(P>0.05),而饱食组第三和第四流速区域T值均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),因此两实验组第三和第四流速区域的 Pt 均显著大于其他流速区域,其偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。饥饿组流速偏好行为出现表型分化, I型实验鱼在第一流速区域Pt和T值显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),各流速区域的F值均显著小于其他实验组(P<0.05),故I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为11.86~15.18 cm/s。而II型实验鱼则与对照组相似,在第三和第四流速区域Pt均显著大于其他流速区域(P<0.05),故II型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度为20.12~41.30 cm/s。结果表明,饱食不影响鲫鱼的偏好游泳速度,可能是饱食不影响鲫鱼的游泳能力所致,但饱食组在各流速区域间的出入频次减少而停留时间有所增加。饥饿后鲫鱼偏好游泳速度出现表型分化, I型实验鱼的偏好游泳速度降低,而II型实验鱼则无明显变化, I型和II型实验鱼偏好游泳速度的差异可能是由于在饥饿条件下二者能量节约和游泳功能维持的策略不同。%Fish usually alter their swimming behavior to adapt to changes in food resources in their natural habitats. In this study, we investigated

  11. Effect of Starvation and Re-feeding on Blood Physiological and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Carassius auratus gibelio%饥饿后再投喂对异育银鲫血液生理和非特异性免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董学兴; 吕林兰; 黄金田; 王爱民; 於叶兵

    2011-01-01

    The effect of starvation periods and re-feeding on blood physiological and non-specific immune parameters in Carassius auratus gibelio (15.6 ±0.84) were studied. Compared to the control, the content of blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly decreased during starvation (P<0.01). The starvation led an initial significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity followed by increased. The phosphatase (ACP) activity was not effected in short-term starvation, however prolong the starvation, ACP activity increased, but then sharp declined (P<0.01). The content of blood glucose and MDA, the activity of SOD and ACP were significantly increased in short-term starvation group after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and Hb, ACP activity also increased, however, SOD activity and content of MDA were significantly declined in middle-term starvation (P<0.05) after re-feeding. The content of blood glucose and MDA were remarkable declined compared to control, but ACP activity was gradually restored to the control level in long-term starvation after re-feeding. The results showed that short-term hunger and then re-feeding could enhance metabolism and non-specific immune function of Carassius auratus gibelio.%对体重(15.6±0.84)g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)进行了不同时间的饥饿处理和再投喂恢复生长试验.研究饥饿和再投喂后对其血液生理指标和非特异性免疫指标的影响.研究发现,饥饿使血糖和MDA含量极显著降低(P<0.01),随饥饿时间的延长,SOD活性显著下降后逐渐升高,短期饥饿对ACP活性无显著影响,进一步延长饥饿时间则先升高后显著下降(P<0.01);恢复投喂后,短期饥饿组血糖浓度、SOD和ACP活性均显著上升,中期饥饿组血糖、血红蛋白含量和ACP活性逐渐上升,SOD活性和MDA含量显著下降(P<0.05),长期饥饿组血糖和MDA含量显著低于对照组(P<0.01),ACP活性逐渐恢复到对照水平.结果表

  12. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  13. Effect of fish-scale protein hydrolysates-based films on preservation of crucian carp(Carassius auratus)%鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的涂膜剂对鲫的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯风; 罗永康; 冯启超; 姚磊

    2011-01-01

    研究了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物为基料的复合涂膜剂对鲫4 ℃贮藏过程中其鲜度指标变化和保鲜效果的影响.实验将去鳞、去内脏并洗净后的鲫分别于4℃的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液和添加了迷迭香的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物溶液中浸泡1.5min,沥干后用保鲜膜包好于4℃条件下贮藏.通过测定鱼体贮藏过程中细菌总数、TBA值、TVB-N值、K值、重量损失、感官评分等鲜度指标的变化规律,评价了鱼鳞蛋白酶解物对鲫在4℃贮藏条件下保鲜作用效果.结果表明,涂有鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的细菌总数、TVB-N值、K值、TBA值、重量损失在10 d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,在4℃条件下能延长鲫贮藏期8d左右;涂有添加了迷迭香提取物的鱼鳞蛋白酶解物的鲫的TVB-N值、K值、重量损失在4-6d内显著(P<0.05)低于对照组,而感官品质显著(P<0.05)高于对照组,但不能有效延长鱼体的贮藏期.鱼鳞蛋白经过胃蛋白酶在一定条件下酶解后,其产物对鱼体具有较好的保鲜效果,是一种良好的鱼体生物保鲜涂膜材料,但不适宜与迷迭香提取物联合使用.%Crucian carpi Carassius auratus)is a main freshwater fish species and has been widely used as a raw material for food productions. The output of crucian carp reached 1 955 500 tons in 2009 in China,but a considerable number of them spoiled because of lacking good preservation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient method of preservation of fish. During the last decade, there has been a developing interest in edible or biodegradable films based on biopolymers, which can be used to cover the body of fish to prolong the shelf life of fish products. Fish scale is easier to obtain compared to other materials and is always abandoned. It is economical to make a kind of fish-scale film obtained from fish scales by hydrolysis and the film itself can be antibacterial and antioxidant

  14. Clning, Identification and Characterization of Interferon System Genes in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus L.)%鱼类干扰素系统基因的克隆鉴定及其特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义兵; 桂建芳

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) system is the first line ofdefense against virus invasion in vertebrate. So far relative little was known concerning IFN system genes other than in mammals.In fish, nearly 40-year evidence available for existence of IFN system mainly lies in the observation that fish and fish cells are much earlier known to produce molecules with IFN-like activity as measured by a cell protection test, and that IFN-inducible gene, Mx homologue,has been identified in a limited number of fish species in the latest years. Previously we reported that UV-inactivated GCHV was able to induce high level of IFN-like molecule for establishment of antiviral state in cyprinid fish cell lines, such as crucian carp (Carassius auratus L. ) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells. In the current study, in order to better understand innate immune mechanisms of fish cells responsive to virus infection, an ideal cell model system for identifying fish antiviral-relevant genes was firstly established, and on the basis of induction and characterization of CAB IFN, a subtractive cDNA library accumulating an enhanced mRNA level of fish antiviral-relevant genes was also constructed. Secondly, a subset of fish IFN system genes and some unidentified ESTs that were found no similarity by BLASTX were retrieved by screening of the library, and expression analysis demonstrated that they were IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well. Thirdly, according to the latest research of mammals, 19 full-length cDNAs of fish IFN system genes were cloned, including crucian carp IFN, IFN signal transduction factor STAT1, IFN regulatory factor IRF7, putative IFN antiviral effectors Mx1, Mx2, PKR, Viperin, IFI56, and some ISGs with function unknown, including IFI58, ISG15-1, ISG15-2, Gigl, Gig2 and so on. Finally, further studies on the characterization of structure, expression, induction and evolution of some important relevant genes reveal that several mechanisms in fish innate immune following virus infection, including

  15. [The bipolarity of the genetic structure of communities of the crucian carp (Carassius linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxal reproductive relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Kokodiy, S V; Kulish, A V; Pukhtaevitch, P P

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of 133 populations of Carasiius spp. from water bodies in Ukraine showed their polyspecific structure: 62% of individuals of the studied 3453 specimens. turned out to be bisexual goldfishes C. auratus, 25%. were unisexual Prissian carps C. gibelio, 6% accounted for the aboriginal species crucian carp C. carassius, and 6% were hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius. In this case a clear trend has been revealed towards the formation of homogeneous alternative populations, specifically: either C. auratus, or C. gibelio. Individuals of C. carassius and the hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius typically comprise an admixture in various populations. The cause of the bipolar distribution of individuals of C. auratus and C. gibelio between various water bodies is the instability of mixed populations as far as individuals of C. auratus very quickly replace females of C. gibelio due to their low reproductive potential.

  16. 额尔齐斯河银鲫寄生指环虫18SrDNA序列测定及系统发育研究%18 s rDNA Sequence Determination and Phylogenetic Study of Parasitic Dactylogyrus in Carassius auratus gibelio in Ergis River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温卫栋; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 郝翠兰; 王新; 岳城

    2015-01-01

    Dactylogyrus is the dominant population of monogenean parasites in Cyprinidae fishes .Identification and research on the phylogenetic relationship of parasitic Platyhelminthes in fish have long been dependent on morpho -logical features.With the development of molecular biological techniques , molecular phylogenetics has solved the problems with which traditional morphological identification and phylogenetic relationship research have been con -fronted and the 18S rDNA gene has been widely applied to classification of animal fauna and phylogenetic analysis . Research on parasitic Dactylogyrus in fish in Ergis River has been concerned primarily with population dynamics and adding new records and only a few studies have been reported on molecular identification and phylogenetic a -nalysis.The objectives of this study were as follows:1) To determine the 18S rDNA sequence of Dactylogyrus spe-cies infecting Carassius auratus gibelio in the Ergis River and to confirm morphological identification of Dactylogyrus species.2) To carry out phylogenetic analysis of 19 Dactylogyrus species based on their 18S rDNA sequences.Par-asite samples were collected from the gills of Carassius auratus gibelio captured in Ergis River from 2009 to 2014 and identified as Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus extensus by morphological identification .DNA extraction, amplification of the 18S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR products were conducted .A comparison of the 18S rDNA sequence for D.vastator obtained in our study with the 18S rDNA sequence in GenBank revealed a DNA se-quence homology of 99.36%(457/460) and a base conversion rate of 0.65%(3/460).The same comparison for D.extensus revealed a DNA sequence homology of 100% (472/472).The genetic distances of 18S rDNA se-quences for the 19 Monogenean species from 3 families and 8 genera were calculated and analyzed by MEGA 4.1 software.Results indicate the following genetic distances:0.006-0.238 among the 3 families;0.097-0.182 be

  17. 饲料中补充番茄红素对鲫鱼抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of lycopene supplement on the antioxidant capacity of Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妤; 杨鸢劼; 王建美; 单志萍

    2011-01-01

    Effects of lycopene supplements on antioxidant capacity were studied in Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus, with average length 22.4±1.13 cm and weight 180.60 ± 37.23 g. Fish were fed a commercial diet supplemented with Lycopene at levels of 0.50%,0.75%, 1.00%, and with 1.5% fish oil as the control in cages for 50 days. That is, four diets contained Lycopene at 0, 75, 112.5, and 150 mg.kg-1 for a control diet and other three diets containing Lycopene. Twenty fish was randomly taken from each. cage. As biomarkers, T-SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, NO, and OH were measured in blood serum. The experimental data were presented in mean ± standard deviation (SD). Duncan test was performed for the multiple comparisons among four diets using SPSS 11.5 version. The study shows: The levels ofT-SOD in fish blood serum were 8.49, 43.33, and 48.57 U.mL-1 higher in fish fed with three diets added lycopene than that of the control. The levels of T-SOD were significantly higher (P<0.05) in fish fed with diet added 112.5 and 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene than that of the control. The levels of MDA in the blood serum of fish fed with diets were 3.75, 4.55, and 2.70 nmol·mL-1 lower than that of control. But, no significant difference was found in levels of MDA in fish fed diets added 75.0, 112.5, 150.0 mg.kg-1 lycopene oil and the control. The levels of GSH-Px activity in the blood serum of fish fed with three lycopene diets were 99.32, 138.77,122.61 U higher compared to the control. The GSH-Px activity in blood serum of fish fed diets added lycopene was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The levels of NO in fish fed diets adding lycopene were 12.83, 8.30, and 13.02 μmol·mL-1 higher than that of control. The levels of NO in fish fed 75 and 150 mg·kg-1 lycopene were significantly different (P<0.05) than that of control fish. The activities of .OH in fish fed lycopene were 318.50, 290.91, and 277.99 U·mL-1 lower than that of control. The activity of.OH was

  18. Protective effects of schisandrins extracts on injuried primary cultured hepatocytes induced by t-BHP in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel%五味子提取物对用t-BHP损伤的异育银鲫原代肝细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽萍; 贾睿; 丁炜东; 殷国俊

    2011-01-01

    The activities of inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), malondisldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) in cell culture supernatants and the survival rate of the injuried hepatocytes in vitro induced by t-BHP and then exposed to various concentrations of Schisandrins extracts (0.1,0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL) before (defense), after (treatment) and both before and after (defense-treatment)the culture were determined in the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibel to study on the protective and antioxidant effects of the Schisandrins extract. The model of acute hepatopancreatic damage was found to be established by exposure to 1 mmoL/L t-BHP for 2 h. The extracts were found to reduce the injury of hepatopancrease by increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidas (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), restraining the lipid peroxidation production-malondisldehyde (MDA), inhibiting alanine minotransferase (GPT), to release and to remarkably improve the survival of the hepatocytes (P<0.05, or P<0.01 ) in the supernatant of cultured hepatocytes injured by t-BHP induction. It is concluded that the Schisandrins extracts possess direct protective effect on primary hepatocyte injury induced by t-BHP, which is primarily involved in the scavenging oxygen free radicals and anti-oxidative activity of CMPS. The biochemical indicators showed that the protection of the extracts were significantly better in the defense-treatment group (DT) than that in the defense group (D) and treatment group (T) .%以叔丁基氢过氧化物(t-BHP)诱导异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibel原代培养肝细胞损伤模型,采用不同的给药顺序,通过检测肝细胞培养上清液中谷丙转氨酶(ALT/GPT)、微量丙二醛(MDA)、谷光甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的含量以及肝细胞的增殖活性,研究了五味子提取物对急性肝细胞损伤的保护作用.结果表明:以浓度为1 mmoL/L的t-BHP作用肝细胞2

  19. Identification and biological characteristics of a pathogenic Saprolegnia sp.from the egg of Pengze crucian carp(Carassius auratus pengzesis)%彭泽鲫卵源致病性水霉的鉴定及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文伟; 曹海鹏; 王浩; 张世奇; 杨先乐

    2011-01-01

    Three filamentous fungal strains were isolated form Carassius auratus eggs with Saprolegniasis, and strain JL1 was proved to be pathogenic to Carassius auratus eggs by artificial infection.Therefore, morphology and growth characteristics of strain JL1 were studied, and the phylogenetic analysis based on its ITS rDNA sequence was further conducted. The experimental results showed that the hyphae of strain JL1 was aseptate, transparent and seldom branched. Its zoosporangia were often clavate and renewed internally. Primary zoospore was multi-row arrangement in zoosporangia and discharged in Saprolegnia fashion. Spherical oogonia was attached by monoclinous or diclinous antheridium hyphae. The ITS rDNA sequences of strain JL1 was naturally clustered with ITS rDNA sequences of Saprolegnia sp. submitted to GenBank with 99% of homology, and had closest relationship with Saprolegnia sp. H (accession number: EF460351). Combined morphological characterization with phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequence, strain JL1 was identified as Saprolegnia sp.. In addition, strain JL1 could grow at 5℃-30℃ and pH 4-11, its optimum growing temperature and pH were 25 ℃-30℃ and 6-9, respectively. Strain JL1 was sensitive to sodium chloride, its growth could be completely inhibited by 2% NaCI, which could serve as a foundation for the Saprolegniasis control.%从患病的彭泽鲫卵上分离3 株丝状真菌,经人工感染试验证实其中1 株丝状真菌JL1 对彭泽鲫卵具有致病性,并进一步研究了其形态与生长特性,开展了ITS rDNA 序列分析.实验结果表明,菌株JL1 菌丝为透明管状结构,中间无横隔,分枝较少; 游动孢子囊多数呈棒状,游动孢子呈多排排列,发育成熟后从孢子囊中释放出来,并迅速游离; 藏卵器呈球形,与雄器同枝或异枝.菌株JL1 的ITS rDNA 序列与GenBank 基因库中水霉属菌株自然聚类,同源性高达99%,与Saprolegnia sp.H (登录号:EF460351)的亲缘关系

  20. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Full-length cDNA Encoding Glucokinase from Pengze Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus var.Pengze)%彭泽鲫葡萄糖激酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程汉良; 姬南京; 彭永兴; 申欣; 吴陈晨; 许建和; 董志国

    2011-01-01

    A full-length cDNA coding glucokinase (GK) was cloned from Pengze crucian carp ( Carassius au-ratus var. Pengze) by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA sequence obtained is of 2 050 bp length with a 1 431 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 476 amino acids. The GK protein has a calculated molecular weight of 53. 78 ku and isolectric point of 5.14. The main domains of GK, such as ATP-binding domain, glucose-binding amino acids, hexokinases signature, N-linked glycosy-lation sites, cell attachment sequence and glycosaminoglycan attachment site for the Pengze crucian carp are basically conservative compared with other vertebrates. The amino acid sequence has a high similarity to GK of other species, and the percent identity compared with common carp, human and rat are 98.1% , 79. 8% and 79.1% , respectively. Tissue distribution of GK mRNA in brain, white muscle, spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue arid liver of Pengze crucian carp was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method using β-actin gene as internal control. The result showed that the expression level of GK mRNA in liver was significantly higher than that in spleen, mesenteric adipose tissue and brain (P <0. 05). GK mRNA did not be detected in white muscle.%本试验采用RT-PCR和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)方法克隆获得了彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var.Pengze)葡萄糖激酶(GK)基因全长cDNA序列.结果表明,该cDNA全长2 050 bp,含1个1 43l bp的开放阅读框(ORF),编码476个氨基酸,GK蛋白计算分子量为53.78 ku,等电点为5.14.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列的ATP结合位点、葡萄糖结合位点、己糖激酶标签序列、N-连接糖基化位点、细胞黏附序列和糖胺聚糖黏附位点等主要功能位点与其他脊椎动物相比基本保守.彭泽鲫GK氨基酸序列与建鲤、人和鼠GK氨基酸序列相似百分比分别为98.1%、79.8%和79.1%.以β-actin为内标,采用半定量RT-PCR方法对GK基因在彭泽鲫大脑、白

  1. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、内源酶活性和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Lipid Sources on Body Lipid Deposition, Endogenous Enzyme Activities and Fatty Acid Composition of Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 王爱民; 刘文斌; 於叶兵; 封功能; 杨文平; 齐志涛

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲料中不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、脂类代谢酶活性、消化酶活性和鱼体组织中脂肪酸组成的影响.选择尾均重(6.04±0.05)g的健康异育银鲫鱼种525尾,驯养1周后,随机分为5组,每组3个重复,每个重复35尾鱼.在基础饲料中分别添加4%的鱼油、豆油、猪油、花生油和混合油(鱼油:豆油:猪油=3:4:3),制成5种等氮等能试验饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明,鱼油组肝胰脏中粗脂肪含量显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),各组间腹脂率以及肌肉中脂肪含量没有显著差异(P>0.05).鱼油组肝胰脏脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶活性显著高于猪油组和花生油组(P<0.05),鱼油组和豆油组肠道和肝胰脏中蛋白酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),但与花生油组和混合油组无显著差异(P>0.05).豆油组和混合油组肝胰脏脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),且混合油组肠道脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),其他各组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05).各组间肝胰脏和肠道中淀粉酶活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),但肠道淀粉酶活性普遍高于肝胰脏淀粉酶活性.鱼油组肌肉和肝胰脏中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05).异育银鲫肌肉和肝胰脏中亚油酸(C18:2n-6)含量均以豆油组最高,鱼油组最低,且上述2组间差异显著(P<0.05).结果显示,鱼油能提高肝胰脏中脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶的活性,从而降低鱼体脂肪沉积,而猪油的作用相反;饲料中脂肪酸组成影响异育银鲫鱼体组织中脂肪酸的组成.%This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on body lipid deposition, fatty acid composition, and activities of lipid metabolism enzymes and digestive enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. Five hundred and twenty-five healthy Carassius auratus gibelio with an average initial weight of

  2. Effects of Spermatozoa of Different Species on Survival and Growth of Offsprings in Fangzheng Silver Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus gibelio)%同源与异源精子对方正银鲫子代存活、生长及性别的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹顶臣; 贾智英; 鲁翠云; 徐伟; 常玉梅; 梁利群; 吴学农

    2012-01-01

    5月中下旬繁殖季节,用方正银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)的卵子分别与麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)(方正银鲫♀×麦穗鱼♂,简称FM)、方正银鲫(方正银鲫♀×方正银鲫♂,FF)和荷包红鲤(Cyprinus carpio)(方正银鲫♀×荷包红鲤♂,FH)的精子进行人工授精,孵出的仔鱼在网箱中饲养,测定和统计各组子代的存活率、绝对增重率和性比等。结果表明:FF子代的成活率(91.15±1.78%)极显著地高于FM(87.50±2.13%)和FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01),FM和FH之间差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(20.17±4.33 g)、FH(23.13±3.58 g)子代的出池体质量显著高于FF(18.90±3.82 g)(P〈0.05),无论雌性还是雄性子代,组间差异均极显著(P〈0.01),而组内、性别间生长差异不显著(P〉0.05);FM(99%)、FF(73%)和FH(99%)子代的雌性百分比明显偏向雌性(P〈0.01),且组间差异极显著,异源精子受精后子代中雌鱼比例明显增高(P〈0.01)。本研究结果证明:银鲫生长性状中存在"异精效应",异源精子对子代的存活率和性别比例有显著影响,对生产中积极利用异源精子提供了数据支持。%The eggs of Fangzheng silver crucian carp(Carassius auratus auratus) as gynogenetic crucian carp were activated by homogenous and by heterogeneous(common carp Cyprinus carpio and topmouth gudgeon Pseudoroashora parva) sperm,forming three offsprings Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× Fangzheng silver crucian carp♂(FF),Fangzheng silver crucian carp ♀× common carp ♂(FH) and Fangzheng silver crucian carp♀× topmouth gudgeon♂(FM).The fry of the three offsprings were reared in net cages disposed in a pond,and the survival,growth and sexual ratio were compared.The survival of FF((91.15±1.78)%) fry was shown to be very significantly higher than that in FM(87.50±2.13%)and FH(85.00±1.04%)(P〈0.01).The juveniles in FM(20.17±4.33 g) and FH(23.13

  3. 诃子抗嗜水气单胞菌活性组分分离及其对鲫鱼的毒性试验%Isolation of Active Component from Terminalia chebula Against Ameromonas hydrophila and Acute Toxicity Experiment on Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丰; 陈军; 王扬; 朱凝瑜; 孟庆辉

    2011-01-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and pure compound from the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The ethyl acetate extract shows a promising antibacterial activity against Ameromonas hydrophila (when the concentrations is set for 4 mg.L^-1, diameter of inhibition zone is 18 mm). Based on these findings, the ethyl acetate extract is fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation which produces an active compound (white crystal) showing potent activity. The active compound exhibit significant activity against Ameromonas hydrophila with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in the process afore are regulated for 2.8 mg.L^-1 and 5.6 mg.L^-1, respectively. The acute toxicities (LCs0) of the active compound for Carassius auratus is found to be 220.7 mg-L^-1, the safety concentration 85.2 mg·L^-1. The structure is not fully explored at this point and the research on it will be further embarked on.%研究以抑菌圈直径大小作为评价指标,利用提取分离技术对诃子进行抗嗜水气单胞茵活性成分分离追踪,并对诃子的抗菌活性单体进行安全评价.结果显示,诃子的抗嗜水气单胞茵的活性部位为乙酸乙酯萃取部位,其浓度为4mg·L^-1时,抑茵圈直径为18mm.活性部位经多次柱层析分离,得到一白色针状晶体.抑菌试验结果显示,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC)分别为2.8mg-L^-1和5.6mg·L^-1.急性毒性实验结果显示,活性单体对鲫鱼的96h半致死浓度为220.7mg·L^-1,其安全浓度为85.2mg·L^-1,但其化学结构还有待于进一步研究.

  4. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  5. EFFECTS OF pH STRESS ON CORTISOL AND NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO%水体pH胁迫对异育银鲫皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文祥; 谢骏; 宋锐; 邹红; 吴山功; 王桂堂

    2011-01-01

    Effects of pH stress on cortisol and non-specific immunity of Carassius auratus gibelio were investigated.Acidity and Alkalinity of the aquaculture water were maintained at pH 6.0, 7.4, 8.5 and 9.5, where pH 7.4 was used as control. pH value of the aquaculture water was adjusted by HCl (1 N) or NaOH (1 N). Fish blood was sampled at 0, 14 and 30 days during the experiment. Leucocytes isolated by 55% percoli were used for determination of phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity by flow cytometry, and the plasma was used to survey the cortisol concentration and lysozyme activity. Fish weight was measured when pH stress protocol finished. The fish was then challenged by the bacteria Flavobacterium columnare, and dead fish was recorded after 7 days of the challenge. Under the stress of pH 6.0, phagocytosis of leucocytes decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day, but no significant differences were found in respiratory burst activity and cortisol level. There were significant differences in lysozyme activity and growth between pH 6.0 and control group. No fish died from the bacteria challenge. Under pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, the cortisol concentration increased significantly, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity decreased significantly at the 14 and 30 day. The challenge of bacteria resulted in fish death. The results suggested that non-specific immunity and growth of the carp was heavily affected by the pH 8.5 and 9.5 stress, and phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of fish leucocytes determined by flow cytometry could assess the influence of stress on fish health.%实验比较了不同pH胁迫对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)皮质醇激素和非特异性免疫的影响.3个实验组水质的pH分别为6.0、8.5、9.5,对照组是pH为7.4的曝气自来水.分别在实验的第0、14和30天采血,血浆用于测定皮质醇含量和溶菌酶活性;分离的白细胞,采用流式细胞术测定吞噬活性

  6. Analysis of different gene expression profiles of sex differentiation-related genes between male and female pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze) under different culture modes%不同养殖模式下雌核发育彭泽鲫雌雄鱼性别分化相关基因的表达差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑尧; 陈家长; 邴旭文; 王在照

    2015-01-01

    将同一批经雌核发育产生的F1彭泽鲫(Carassius auratus var. pengze)仔鱼(Pcc)分别置于实验室和池塘进行养殖,结果发现,与池塘养殖雄鱼比例极少相比,实验室养殖中出现了高比例的雄鱼。实验室养殖 PccF1雄雌比例为(43.6±3.0)%,而池塘养殖PccF1雌雄比为(4.7±1.2)%。本研究比较了不同养殖模式下雌雄鱼性腺分化相关基因的表达,结果发现除Pcc-vasa、Pcc-esr1和Pcc-esr2b外,实验室养殖PccF1精巢中性腺分化、受体、类固醇合成酶类基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量。对于池塘养殖的 PccF1,除 Pcc-amh、Pcc-dmrt1b、Pcc-dmrt1c、Pcc-foxl2、Pcc-vasa 和 Pcc-esr2b 外,精巢中性腺分化和受体基因表达极显著(P<0.01)或显著(P<0.05)高于卵巢中对应基因的表达量;但精巢中绝大部分类固醇合成酶类基因的表达量极显著低于卵巢(P<0.01)。实验室和池塘养殖 PccF1雌雄出现差异表达的基因主要是类固醇合成酶类及调控芳香化酶的转录因子,这些基因的差异表达可能与雌雄激素的合成或调控相关,从而导致不同养殖模式出现不同比例的雄鱼。%Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. pengze, Pcc) is naturally gynogenic, and gynogenic Pcc pro-duced by artificial breeding can theoretically produce solely female offspring. In laboratory culture, a higher proportion of male fish occurred in F1 progenies compared with pond culture conditions. A higher proportion of males was found in the F1 progeny under laboratory culture (43.6%) compared with pond (4.7%) conditions. To determine the cause of this variant sex ratio, ovarian gene expression profiles were detected and compared between the male and female F1 progenies for different culture conditions. Results showed that expressions of most testicular sex differentiation-related, steroid receptor, and steroidogenic genes in PccF1 offspring were significantly higher than those

  7. 异育银鲫各组织器官中细胞色素P450药酶活性的比较%Comparative Activity of microsomal cytochrome P450 in various tissues and organs in allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娴; 胡琳琳; 房文红; 汪开毓; 胡晓

    2011-01-01

    The activities and tissue distribution of cytochrome P450 drug - metabolizing enzyme were studied in liver, kidney, gill and muscle of allogynogenesis silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Microsomal P450 and b5 contents were determined by the method of CO differential spectroscopy in liver,kidney,gill,intestine and muscle microsomes. Both cytochrome P450 and cytocorome b5 contents were found to be the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome. The activities of CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP2E were evaluated by microsomal N - demethylation of aminopyrine ( APD), erythromycin (ERND) and 4 - aniline - hydroxylation (AH) as probe specific reactions. The activities of APD ( 1. 668 ± 0. 104) and ERND (0.941 ± 0. 061 ) nmol/( min · mg)were the maximum in liver microsome, and the minimum in muscle microsome [ (0.245 ± 0.011 ), and (0. 078 ± 0.019) nmol/( min · mg)]. The maximal AH activity (0. 052 ± 0. 009)nmol/( min · mg) was observed in liver microsome, but not be detected in muscle microsome, indicating that the above -mentioned cytochrome P450 isoenzymes were available in main tissue microsoms in the crucian carp, and the APD, ERND and AH activities were different in different tissues, the maximal activities being observed in liver microsome.%对异育银鲫Carassius auratus gibelio肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠和肌肉等组织器官中细胞色素P450(CYP450)主要药酶活性进行检测,研究其在异育银鲫各组织中的分布.结果显示:以CO还原差示光谱法测得异育银鲫肝胰脏、肾、鳃、肠、肌肉微拉体的细胞色素P450及b5含量均以肝胰脏微粒体中最高,其次为肾、鳃、肠微粒体,肌肉中最低.以氨基比林N-脱甲基、红霉素N-脱甲基、苯胺-4-羟化反应分别作为CYP2B、CYP3A和CYP2E的探针反应,测得氨基比林N-脱甲基酶(APD)及红霉素N-脱甲基酶(ERND)活性在上述组织中分布差异性类似,均表现为肝胰脏微粒体中最高,分别为(1.668±0

  8. Screening and homology analysis of EST-SSRs makers related to body weight and body width in Carassius auratus%鲫体重和体厚相关的EST-SSRs标记筛选及同源基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭薇; 郑先虎; 匡友谊; 崔晓亮; 曹顶臣; 孙效文

    2013-01-01

    300 EST-SSRs markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 181 progenies from a normal Carassius auratus F2 family, and two growth traits ( body weight and body width) were conducted single marker regression analysis. 38 EST-SSRs markers were found to be closely related to growth traits, 26 of them were significantly associated with growth traits (P<0. 05) , the other 12 markers had a highly significant correlation with growth traits (P<0. 01) ; In these 38 markers, 27 markers were related with body weight, 25 markers were related with body width, and 14 markers were related with both body weight and width. Meanwhile, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. Furthermore, by using BLAST online in NCBI, the homology identity of these 38 EST-SSRs markers was determined. Results showed that, 10 markers had significant similarity with the sequences in GenBank ( E < e-20). JE594 was highly homologous (95%) to the gene encoding membrane-associated ring finger protein of Danio rerio; JE3165 was highly homologous (78% ) to the gene encoding muscleblind-like protein of D. rerio; JE6996 was highly correlated (98% ) with the gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase of D. rerio; JE4984 was highly correlated (84% ) with the gene encoding protein phosphatase 1 of D. rerio. These loci may be used for marker-assisted selection and genetic improvement.%利用300个EST-SSRs标记对普通二倍体鲫(Carassius auratus)自交F2代的181个个体进行基因型检测,并对其体重、体厚两种经济性状进行单标记回归分析.Permutation检验(10 000次)结果显示,38个标记与所检测的经济性状相关,其中26个标记达到显著性相关(P<0.05),12个标记达到极显著性相关(P<0.01).在38个相关标记中,有27个标记与体重相关,25个标记与体厚相关,14个标记与体重、体厚均相关.对同一标记的不同基因型之间进行多重比较,找到了与两种经济性状相关的

  9. Medication regimen for prevention of drug resistance using enroflox-acin against Aeromonas hydrophilain crucian carp Carassius auratus%恩诺沙星控制嗜水气单胞菌性鲫败血症的防耐药用药方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娟; 权可艳; 王浩; 胡鲲; 杨先乐; 吕利群

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to increasing problems caused by bacterial re-sistance. Given this, there is an urgent need to develop a medication regimen that prevents the formation of drug resistant bacteria. We estimated a number of pharmacodynamic (including mutant prevent concentration and mu-tant selection window) and pharmacokinetic parameters for the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin. Our objective was to develop a medication regimen against hemorrhagic septicemia in crucian carp(Carassius auratus), a disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.125 μg/mL, the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of enrofloxacin on the pathogenic bacterial strains was observed up to (1.67±0.42) h, (2.03±0.17) h, and (2.38±0.06) h at 2MIC, 4MIC, and 8MIC, respectively, the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) was 1.125 μg/mL, and the mutant selection window was between 0.125 and 1.125 μg/mL. We developed integrated enrofloxacin concentration-time curves for the serum of crucian carp following administration of a range of doses. Enrofloxacin persisted in the serum at concentrations above the MPC for 5 h at a dose of 5 mg/kg;9.5 h at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 23 h at a dose of 20 mg/kg. The serum PK/PD parameters AUC24/MIC and Cmax/MIC were 137.22 and 15.05, respectively, at a dose of 5 mg/kg, 285.25 and 41.43, respectively, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and 426.25 and 52.32, respectively, at a dose of 20 mg/kg.The drug remained in the plasma with a concentration>MPC for (24-PAE) h and AUC24/MIC≥100 or Cmax/MIC>8. Our results suggest that hemorrhagic septicemia can be controlled using a dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg enrofloxacin, at intervals of 24 h.The proposed withdrawal time in crucian carp should not be less than 25 d. The methods described in this study also can be used for developing dose guidelines for other anti-bacterial drugs to prevent selection for drug-resistance.%  为了合理地使用抗生素,制定

  10. Effects of Glucose and Vitamin C Inhabitation on Activities of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase,Fatty Acid Synthase and Carnitine Palmitoyltransferases Ⅰduring Embryo Development of Carassius auratus gibelio%葡萄糖、维生素 C浸泡对普安银鲫胚胎发育中乙酰辅酶 A羧化酶、脂肪酸合成酶及肉毒碱棕榈酰转移酶Ⅰ活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋左玉; 姚俊杰; 安苗; 熊铧龙; 朱忠胜

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the changes of activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( ACC ) , fatty acid synthase ( FAS) , and carnitine palmitoyltransferaseⅠ ( CPTⅠ) , and the effects of glucose and vitamin C inhabitation on them during embryo development of Carassius auratus gibelio ( C. auratus) , glucose solution and vitamin C solutions with different concentrations were used for hatching. The concentrations of glucose were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L, respectively, and the concentrations of vitamin C were 0, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/L, respec-tively. Membrane break time and hatching rate were recorded to decide the optimal concentrations of glucose and vitamin C. Solutions without addition ( control group) and with optimal concentrations of glucose ( glucose group) or vitamin C ( vitamin C group) were used for hatching, and the characteristics of changes of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠactivities were analyzed during embryo development. The results showed as follows:1) mem-brane break time was the shortest, and hatching rate was the highest when the concentrations of glucose and vi-tamin C were 15 g/d and 30 mg/L, respectively. 2) The specific activity and total activity of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ showed increasing tends during embryo development of C. auratus. 3) The specific activities and total activities of ACC and FAS in glucose group were significantly higher than those in control group at mid-gas-trul, crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) , and the specific activity an total activity of CPTⅠ was significantly higher than that in control group at crystal appear and prehatching stages ( P<0.05) . 4) The total activities of ASS and FAS in vitamin C group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, the inhabitation in solutions with appropriate concentrations of glucose ( 15 g/L) and vitamin C ( 30 mg/L) can promote synthesis and secretion of ACC, FAS and CPTⅠ during embryo development of C. auratus, and form new metabolic levels to

  11. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Lee, Kate A; Gallen, Christopher; Hughes, Julian M; Stewart, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs). We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae); a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing), with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high). Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days). The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  12. Movements, Home Range and Site Fidelity of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus within a Temperate Marine Protected Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Understanding the movement dynamics of marine fish provides valuable information that can assist with species management, particularly regarding protection within marine protected areas (MPAs. We performed an acoustic tagging study implemented within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park on the mid-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, to assess the movement patterns, home range and diel activity of snapper (Chrysophrys auratus; Sparidae; a species of significant recreational and commercial fishing importance in Australia. The study focused on C. auratus movements around Cabbage Tree Island, which is predominantly a no-take sanctuary zone (no fishing, with an array of acoustic stations deployed around the island and adjacent reefs and islands. Thirty C. auratus were tagged with internal acoustic tags in November 2010 with their movements recorded until September 2014. Both adult and juvenile C. auratus were observed to display strong site fidelity to Cabbage Tree Island with a mean 12-month residency index of 0.83 (range = 0 low to 1 high. Only three fish were detected on acoustic receivers away from Cabbage Tree Island, with one fish moving a considerable distance of ~ 290 kms over a short time frame (46 days. The longest period of residency recorded at the island was for three fish occurring regularly at the site for a period of 1249 days. Chrysophrys auratus displayed strong diurnal behaviour and detection frequency was significantly higher during the day than at night; however, there was no significant difference in detection frequency between different hours. This study demonstrates that even small-scale protected areas can benefit C. auratus during multiple life-history stages as it maintains a small home range and displays strong site fidelity over a period of 3 years.

  13. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  14. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  15. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  16. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  17. 4种添加剂对异育银鲫生长、消化酶活性及抗氧化能力的影响%Effects of four additives on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant ability of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉祥; 李海洋; 胡王; 潘庭双; 蒋业林; 吴明林

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred allogynogenetic crucian carp with initial weight 31g were divided into five groups and each group with triplicates randomly. The control group was fed with basal diet, the treated-groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 1% Chinese herbal medicines (group I), the compound of 1% Chinese herbal medicines plus 0.1% synbiotics (group II), 0.1% synbiotics (group III) , 2% small peptide (group IV), respec tively. After 60 d feeding, the growth, digestive enzymes activities, and antioxidant ability of the carp were inves tigated, and the results showed as follows. (1) GroupIII and group IV significantly increased WGR(weight gain rate) but decreased FCR(feed conversion rate) (P0.05). (2) Group III and group Ivsignificantly increased the intestinal protease and amylase activities (P0.05); only group II significantly increased the protease activities (P0.05), except the group II significantly increased the activities of SOD(P0.05). In this study, group III increased the growth and antioxidant ability of the carps all together; group I and group II were benificial to the increase of antioxidant ability, and the group IV was priority to the growth of the carp.%以基础饲料为对照,分别在基础饲料中添加1%绿康源(试验Ⅰ组)、1%绿康源+0.1%合生素(试验Ⅱ组)、0.1%合生素(试验Ⅲ组)、2%小肽(试验Ⅳ组),连续投喂300尾初始体重31g的异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio) 60 d后,测定试验鱼生长,肠消化酶活性及血清、肝胰脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.结果表明:(1)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组增重率(WGR)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),饲料系数(FCR)显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).(2)试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ组的肠蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05),脂肪酶活性与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05);试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组中仅后者肠蛋白酶活性显著高于对照组(P<0.05).(3)除试验

  18. Presumptive and Definitive Identification of Aeromonas from infected Ornamental Gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the presumptive identification of Aeromonas, definitive identification of two species of Aeromonas i.e. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida in various organs of Gold fish infected with red disease.

  19. Real-time PCR validation of visually identified snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P J; Wakefield, C B; Fairclough, D V; Jackson, G; Travers, M J; Snow, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a total of 212 eggs were visually identified as snapper Chrysophrys auratus. Real-time PCR confirmed visual identification in 69% of cases but corroboration varied widely among plankton samples. The use of molecular tools to support visual identification prior to adopting daily egg production stock assessment methods should be considered.

  20. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, P.H.M.; Guzman, J.M.; Reutelingsperger, S.J.; Mancera, J.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) c

  1. Determination of the Cd in the Tissues of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) in the Coal Gangue Polluted Water and Natural Water%煤矸石污染水域和天然水域Cd元素在鲫鱼组织中的沉积规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永峰; 张辽; 闫明

    2015-01-01

    Coal gangue is the solid waste emissions in the process of coal mining and coal washing, which contains a lot of heavy metal: Cadmium (Cd), pose a serious threat to food security and human health. Study on the rule of the deposition of Cd in the tissues of fish from gangue pollution water of Yongcheng, Shangqiu. which can lay foundation for further study on harm to fish from Cd pollution and on food safety assessment of fish from the coal gangue polluted water. Methods:Cd was determined by using the flame atomic absorption method. Results: (1) The concentration of Cd in the gills, heart, muscle of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) from the coal mining subsidence area, were 1.0630±0.2784μg·g-1, 8.6389±3.2301μg·g-1, 1.1461±0.2046μg·g-1, which were higher than the tissues of crucian carp in natural pollution-free waters. The concentration of Cd in the gills, muscle were significantly higher than the control group (Pheart>muscle>gills. However, there was no significant difference between each tissues. In polluted water, the sedimentary rule of Cd in the crucian carp was: heart>muscle>liver>gills. Heart was much higher than in the other tissues. (3) An adult can be safe to eat the fish meat weekly from the two waters were respectively 823 g, 365 g; if more than these content, there would be a potential health threat. Conclusion: The concentration of Cd in gills, muscle of crucian carp in polluted waters was much higher than not polluted waters, Cd are more likely to deposited in the heart of crucian carp. If the consumption of fish meat from coal gangue pollution water is more than 365 g weekly, there will be a health threat.%煤矸石是采煤和洗煤过程中排放的固体废物,其中含有大量的重金属元素 Cd,煤矸石的无序排放不仅对环境造成了污染,而且也对人体健康和食品安全构成了严重的威胁。研究商丘永城采煤塌陷区煤矸石污染水域Cd在鱼体中的沉积规律,可为进

  2. Protein to energy ratios in goldfish (Carassius auratus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristielle Nunes Souto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal dietary digestible protein to energy ratio is critical for the success of fish farming. Considering that it provides the proper development of the animals, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for goldfish fingerlings. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg. The growth parameters evaluated were daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, protein productive value (PPV and energy retention ratio (ERR and specific growth rate (SGR. Regardless FI, all the parameters were affected by protein and energy levels and interaction between both factors was observed. The second-order polynomial equation best fitted to the DWG, SGR, FCR, PER and ERR with estimated requirement values of 38.81, 38.85, 41.05, 41.80 and 39.39% DP, respectively, at the 3,200 kcal/kg. A second-order polynomial model was significant only for the ERR data at the 3,600 kcal/kg with an estimated requirement value of 36.45% DP. Generally, fish fed diets containing 3,200 kcal/kg had better growth performance than fish fed 3,600 kcal/kg (P<0.01, indicating a higher feed efficiency. A 3,200 kcal/kg diet seems to be the proper DE level for meeting goldfish requirement for highest weight gain. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of DP levels between 38.0-40.0% in diets for goldfish with 3,200 kcal/kg or a dietary protein to energy ratio between 119-125 mg/kcal DE.

  3. Effect of dietary oil sources on growth performance, body composition,the serum biochemical indices, fatty acids composition and lipid metabolism of Carassius auratus gibelio%不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长性能、机体成分、血清生化指标、体组织脂肪酸组成及脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘波; 戈贤平; 刘文斌; 谢骏; 高启平; 顾夕章

    2012-01-01

    试验以异育银鲫为研究对象,分别以日粮中添加5.4%鱼油、5.4%豆油、5.4%菜籽油、5.4%亚麻油为脂肪源,选择健康、规格、体质量基本一致的异育银鲫336尾,随机分为4组,每组3个重复、在可控温循环流水圆形蓄养槽内进行为期64 d的投喂试验,探讨不同脂肪源对异育银鲫生长、体成分及血清生化指标的影响.试验结果表明:豆油组及菜籽油组增重率、特定生长率显著高于鱼油组,豆油组肥满度显著低于鱼油组及亚麻油组,各试验组末均体质量、饲料系数、肝体比及脏体比均没有显著差异(P>0.05);各组间肌肉水分、粗脂肪、粗蛋白及粗灰分均无显著差异(P>0.05);不同饲料脂肪源对鱼体肌肉脂肪酸组成有显著影响,并且鱼体脂肪酸的组成与饲料脂肪酸的组成有很大相关性,其中鱼油组与菜籽油组有极显著相关性(P<0.01),豆油组显著相关(P<0.05);鱼油组的血清谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶及碱性磷酸酶活性显著高于其它组(P<0.05);各试验组间胰岛素、皮质醇、总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、白球比、血糖、胆固醇及甘油三酯均无显著差异(P>0.05);各组肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅰ (CPT-Ⅰ)、肉碱软脂酰基转移酶-Ⅱ(CPT-Ⅱ)、脂肪酶、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶(ACC)及脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)均无显著差异(P>0.05).因此,日粮中添加一定量的豆油、菜籽油或亚麻油同样能取得良好的生长效果,为以后生产中以菜籽油或亚麻油替代豆油或鱼油提供了理论依据,节约了生产成本.%This study focused on evaluating the effects of different dietary lipid sources on growth, body composition, serum biochemical indices, and activities of lipometabolism enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. The growth experiment was conducted to test four dietary lipids (soybean oil, rapeseed oil, linseed oil, and fish oil) on C. auratus gibelio. The fish with initial body weight

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  5. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of sily-marin against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in crucian carp Carassius auratus%水飞蓟素对四氯化碳致鲫肝(细胞)损伤的保护和抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾睿; 曹丽萍; 杜金梁; 徐跑; 殷国俊

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of silymarin (SM) against carbon tetrachlo-ride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte and liver injury in crucian carp (carassius auratus) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, 100, 300, and 600 μg/mL silymarin were added to carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), or both before and after(pre- and post-treatment) incubation of the hepatocytes with 8 mmol/L CCl4 in culture medium. We then measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In vivo, crucian carp were fed a diet containing one of three concentrations of silymarin [0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg (diet)] for 60 d. Each fish was then given a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30%in arachis oil), and 72 h after the injection, we collected blood and liver samples from each fish. We measured the serum biochemical indices and liver tissue indices described above. Silymarin improved cell viability and decreased GPT, GOT, LDH, MDA, and SOD activ-ity. Administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly decreased GPT, GOT, and LDH activity, increased levels of total protein and albumin in the serum, and increased SOD, glu-tathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, and MDA formation in liver tissue. However, these parameters, except for LDH, were not significantly altered in fish fed 0.1 g silymarin per kg diet. Our data suggest that silymarin exhibits a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish, which is likely re-lated to its antioxidant activity. We suggest that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent against fish liver diseases.%  为了评价水飞蓟素(Silymarin, SM)对鲫(Cyprinus carpio)肝(细胞)的保护和抗氧化作用,分别从体外和体内两个方面探讨其作用效果。在体外,利用8

  6. 鲫血髓过氧化物酶的表达及其与血药浓度的关联性%Correlation of the relative expression of myeloperoxidase and prazi-quantel concentration in blood of the crucian carp,Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾飞; 马荣荣; 肖艳翼; 朱凤娇; 杨先乐; 胡鲲

    2016-01-01

    为了研究在吡喹酮代谢过程中,鲫血髓过氧化物酶(myeloperoxidase, MPO) mRNA表达与血药浓度的相关性,以体重为(80±10.5) g的鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)为试验动物,单剂量(10 mg/kg)口灌吡喹酮(praziquantel, PZQ)后,在鲫血液中选取β-actin为内参基因,通过设计特异性引物,利用荧光定量PCR,分析了不同时间点鲫血MPO mRNA水平的相对表达量的变化;利用高效液相色谱法(high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC)测定了吡喹酮在鲫鱼体内的血药浓度,分析两者之间的相关性。结果显示,吡喹酮能够迅速进入血液,并被快速消除,药时数据符合二室开放模型。在1 h时,血液中吡喹酮的浓度达到最大值,为2.85mg/mL,96 h后血液中检测不到吡喹酮;灌药后,MPO基因表达量随时间呈先升后降趋势,在1 h时髓过氧化物酶表达量最高。此外,0.25 h、0.5 h、1 h、3 h与6 h组与对照组差异性极显著(P0.05)。相关性分析发现, MPO mRNA相对表达量与血液中吡喹酮的浓度之间相关系数r=0.96,为高度相关,并且推测MPO可能参与吡喹酮的氧化代谢。结论认为:(1) MPO mRNA相对表达量的升高与外源性药物吡喹酮的摄入有关。(2)血液中吡喹酮的残留量与MPO mRNA相对表达量线性相关。本研究旨在提供一种从分子水平评价水产动物体内药物残留的新思路。%The leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is widely present in animals, and is involved in various physiological responses in vivo. When the body is stimulated and the stress reaction is produced, MPO content increases rapidly, showing strong oxidation activity and destruction of invading microorganisms, and enhancing immunity. The strong oxidizing property of MPO has an immense influence on the oxidative metabolism of drugs. Praziquantel (PZQ) is a quinoline pyrazine derivative, and widely used in aquaculture as an anti-parasite drug. In this experiment, PZQ was used as a model drug

  7. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫的生长、体组成和肌肉脂肪酸的影响%DIETARY LIPID SOURCES FOR GIBEL CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO:GROWTH PERFORMANCE, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND MUSCLE FATTY ACID PROFILES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家林; 韩冬; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 解绶启

    2011-01-01

    A 12-week growth trial was conducted with juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) to evaluate their ability by utilize different dietary lipids. Ten diets were supplemented with 8% of either fish oil (FO), coconut oil (CNO), corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), 1 : 1 fish oil-coconut oil (FCNO), 1 : 1 fish oil-corn oil (FCO), 1 '. 1 fish oil-linseed oil (FLO) or 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 fish-coconut-corn-linseed oil mixture (MIX). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 3.53 g, 30 ini.) in a recirculation system at (24±1)℃ .Weight gain were the highest in SO and CNO group, followed RO and the lowest in FO, CO and LO group, when used as a single lipid source. Compared to total replacement of fish oil, coconut oil, corn oil or linseed oil substitute 50% fish oil led to a higher weight gain, respectively. Neither the plasma biochemistry nor the lipid and moisture contents in different tissues of gibel carp showed significant difference between groups (P>0.05). Fatty acid composition of muscle in fish generally reflected the composition of the diet. Fish fed CO and SO had higher 20:4n-6, while relative higher 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was detected in fish fed LO. These results suggested that gibel carp had ability to desaturate and elongate 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 to highly unsaturated fatty acid. In conclusion, soybean oil, coconut oil and rapeseed oil were good alternative lipid sources for gibel carp.%配制了十种等氮等能的饲料饲喂3.53 g 的异育银鲫幼鱼12 周,探讨异育银鲫对不同脂肪源的利用效果.十种饲料中分别添加8%的鱼油(FO)、椰子油(CNO)、玉米油(CO)、亚麻油(LO)、大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、1∶1 鱼油-椰子油(FCNO)、1∶1 鱼油-玉米油(FCO)、1∶1 鱼油-亚麻油(FLO)和1∶1∶1∶1 鱼油-椰子油-玉米油-亚麻油混合油(MIX).每组饲料三个平行,每个平行30 尾.实验在循环水养殖系统中进行,水温控制在(24±1)℃.结果

  8. Linking nutrient inputs, phytoplankton composition, zooplankton dynamics and the recruitment of pink snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in a temperate bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kerry P.; Longmore, Andrew R.; Hamer, Paul A.; Lee, Randall; Swearer, Stephen E.; Jenkins, Gregory P.

    2016-12-01

    Survival of larval fish is often linked to production of preferred prey such as copepods, both inter- and intra-annually. In turn, copepod production depends not only the quantity of food, but also on the nutritional quality, edibility and/or toxicity of their micro-algal food. Hence, larval fish survival can become de-coupled from levels of nutrient input depending on the resulting composition of the plankton. Here we use a plankton dynamics model to study nutrient input, phytoplankton composition and copepod, Paracalanus, production in relation to interannual variation in recruitment of snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The model was able to simulate the ratio of diatoms to flagellates in the plume of the main river entering Port Phillip Bay. Interannual variability in the copepod, Paracalanus, abundance during the C. auratus spawning period over 5 years was accurately predicted. The seasonal peak in Paracalanus production depended on the timing and magnitude (match-mismatch) of nutrient inputs and how these were reflected in temporal change in the diatom:flagellate ratio. In turn, the model-predicted Paracalanus abundance was strongly related to inter-annaul variability in abundance of snapper, C. auratus, larvae over 7 years. Years of highest larval C. auratus abundance coincided with a matching of the spawning period with the peak in Paracalanus abundance. High freshwater flows and nutrient inputs led to an early seasonal dominance of diatoms, and consequently reduced abundances of copepods over the C. auratus spawning period with correspondingly low abundances of larvae. Conversely years of very low rainfall and nutrient input also led to low phytoplankton and copepod concentrations and larval C. auratus abundances. Highest abundances of larval C. auratus occurred in years of low to intermediate rainfall and nutrient inputs, particularly when pulses of nutrients occurred in the spring period, the latter supporting the match

  9. Graphical outline of history of the genus Carassius occurrence in the Europe

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    Katerina Rylkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the phylogeographical point of view, status of the genus Carassius underwent major transformation within the Europe territory. Apart of two native members (Carassius carassius and diploid biotype of Carassius gibelio, we recognize four non-indigenous taxa (C. auratus, C. langsdorfii, C. sp. and polyploid biotype of C. gibelio. Especially last mentioned one became an icon of invasive fish species. Whether apparent or cryptic invasion, it begun in supposed starting point of lower Danube River, and consequently has spread westwards. This was greatly supported by human intentions. Within last decade, its campaign through Europe was completed by invading of major river systems of Iberian Peninsula. Unclear is origin and pilgrimage of C. langsdorfii which is native to Japanese archipelago. So far, this fish was recorded in various localities of central, south and east Europe. There are molecular clues claiming multiple origin since vast genetic variability of analyzed individuals. Another iconic fish species is C. auratus, one of the oldest fish domesticates and most favorite ornamental fish ever. Its spreading is closely linked to ornamental trade and releasing by breeders or escapes from breeding facilities. Unlike of previous two, C. auratus establishment is dependent on temperate climate. Last taxon occurring in within Europe is C. sp., also marked as Carassius mitochondrial lineage “M”. So far this lineage was recorded from several localities of central Europe. Whether it represents invader form Asia or cryptic native species is not known. Here we tried to resume time schedule of genus Carassius movements through Europe.

  10. Cause and Possible Treatments of Foot Lesions in Captive Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Mélisa Veillette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus run extensively in exercise wheels. This running may cause paw lesions. Three treatments of these wounds (topical application of vitamin E, wheel blocking, and a combination of both were compared using both sexes. A pretreatment period with or without wheels lasted 15 days and the ensuing treatment period lasted 45 days. At the end of the pre-treatment period, none of the animals without wheels had paw wounds, whereas at least 75% of the females and 100% of the males with wheels did. Females had fewer and smaller wounds than males at this point. At the end of the treatment period, no effect of vitamin E could be discerned, but significant wound healing occurred after wheel blocking in both males and females. Wheel blocking is an easy way to prevent or treat paw wounds, but it presents problems in terms of animal welfare, as wheels are an important cage enrichment for hamsters.

  11. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregrin, Laura S; Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2015-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34%) were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory). Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish); gastric herniation (46%); ruptured swim bladder (73%); organ displacement (48%); and kidney (3%), liver (73%) and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%); with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes) with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract) and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish). The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  12. Angling-induced barotrauma in snapper Chrysophrys auratus: are there consequences for reproduction?

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    Laura S Peregrin

    Full Text Available In response to concerns regarding the potential for sub-lethal impacts of barotrauma on reproductively active Chrysophrys auratus during catch and release, 90 males and 90 females representing five reproductive stages (immature or resting--28%, developing--8%, developed--7%, ripe or spawning--23% and spent--34% were angled from 8-70 m and macroscopically assessed (on-board and then in a laboratory. Irrespective of sex, all fish exhibited various clinical signs of barotrauma, including a prolapsed cloaca (60% of fish; gastric herniation (46%; ruptured swim bladder (73%; organ displacement (48%; and kidney (3%, liver (73% and coloemic-cavity haemorrhaging (33%; with the frequency of nearly all positively associated with capture depth. Reproductive stage was also an important barotrauma predictor (reflecting related morphological changes with a general trend towards spent fish least likely to incur the various clinical signs--especially for a prolapsed cloaca (also common among immature or resting fish and significantly affected by food in the digestive tract and a ruptured swim bladder (common among ripe or spawning fish. The only macroscopically visible gonad damage was haemorrhaging, which was least common among immature or resting and spent fish and, irrespective of reproductive stage, temporally reduced in frequency, and more quickly among males than females. While further research is required to accurately describe the effects of angling at each stage of the reproductive cycle and the physiological consequences of barotrauma on the gonads of C. auratus, given the observed influences of reproductive stage and depth on barotrauma found in this study, any adverse effects might be partially managed by regulating either temporal or spatial fishing effort.

  13. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

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    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  14. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft

    OpenAIRE

    Hochman,Bernardo; Ferreira,Lydia Masako; Bôas, Flaviane Cássia Vilas [UNIFESP; Mariano, Mario

    2004-01-01

    To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of gra...

  15. On the record of pug-headedness in snapper, Pagrus auratus (Forster, 1801 (Perciformes, Sparidae from New Zealand

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    Laith JAWAD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pug-headedness in the snapper Pagrus auratus is reported for the first time from New Zealand, based on a specimen (aged 2+ collected from Whangarei Harbour. Severe damage to the underlying bones of the mouth and snout regions was noted. The mouth of the specimen was virtually closed. Several factors were attributed to the cause of these anomalies among which are genetic and epigenetic causes.

  16. Secretion and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the secretion pattern and regulatory mechanism of leptin during pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). 100 pregnant golden hamsters were separated into 16 groups and the serum was sampled daily throughout gestation for the leptin assay. Results indicated that a gestational leptin profile existed during pregnancy in the golden hamster. To investigate if endocrine conditions during pregnancy contribute to this gestational leptin profile, serums collected during different reproductive stages were added to the adipocyte culture medium. Results showed that sera collected from all reproductive stages have significant stimulating effect on the secretion of leptin as compared with the control (P 0.05). However, sera from mid and late pregnancy significantly stimulate leptin secretion as compared with the cycling sera (P < 0.01). Serum collected on day 15 of pregnancy have the strongest stimulating effect on leptin secretion compared with sera collected on day 8 (P < 0.0001) and day 12 (P < 0.001) of the pregnancy. But after the extraction of steroid hormones, sera collected during different reproductive stages have the same effect on leptin secretion in vitro. Further study showed that dexamethason, progesterone and insulin stimulated while estradiol suppressed leptin secretion in vitro. Our results suggested that steroid hormones (or other steroid factors) have significant regulating effect on the leptin secretion during pregnancy and they may be the most important contributors of the gestational leptin profile in the golden hamster.

  17. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D

    2005-01-01

    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  18. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Verónica Rivera; Martínez-Pérez, José Antonio; Molina, Jacob Rubio; Emiliano, Rafael; Zuñiga, Quintanar; López, Jonathan Franco

    2013-03-01

    Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical), and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta's length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05) for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001) showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05) and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05).

  19. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  20. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  1. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Silva, Adriano; Valverde, Joanna Gardel; Ribeiro-Romão, Raquel Peralva; Plácido-Pereira, Rosa Maria; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria

    2013-05-01

    The lack of an adequate model for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection is a limiting factor for studying American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). The golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a promising model because besides being highly susceptible to dermotropic Leishmania infection, the lesions are very similar to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans. However, different Leishmania isolates or species and/or protocols have resulted in different outcomes, whereas no study has evaluated the reproducibility of L. braziliensis infection in this model. The natural history of L. braziliensis infection in 34 hamsters was evaluated by using a single parasite isolate in 8 independent experiments under similar experimental conditions. Clinical, histological and immunological analyses were performed. The hamsters presented skin ulcers similar to those observed in ATL. The intra-experiment lesion increment tended to show an intermediary variance. Histological analysis of infected skins showed granulomatous reaction, scarce amastigotes, and Schaumann's bodies. Blood lymphocytes proliferated in response to leishmanial antigens. The severity of the infection was positively correlated to spleen weight, and the titres of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies. Our findings indicate that the hamster is an appropriate model for immunopathogenesis studies of CL caused by L. braziliensis, supporting its use in clinical, vaccine and chemotherapy experimental protocols.

  2. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2011-05-31

    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  3. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  4. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2012-08-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  5. Keloid heterograft in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch Heteroenxerto de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Bernardo Hochman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of keloid heterograft in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample is formed by 18 male hamsters, heterogenic ones, aged between 10 and 14 weeks. Keloid fragments were obtained from keloid scars of the breast region of adult female mulatto patient. Each hamster received keloid fragments into both of its pouches, in a total of 36 grafted fragments. Animals were distributed into 6 groups for having their grafts assessed in the days 5, 12, 21, 42, 84, and 168. A macroscopic assessment is performed by comparing the pouch containing the grafted fragment, at each time point, with the same pouch in the immediate post surgical moment through a comparison of standardized photographs. Under microscope, the presence of blood vases is considered within the conjunctive tissue of the grafted fragment, as a criterion of its integration. Other events, as keratin secretion, the presence of cellular infiltrated, epithelium and keloid collagen fibers aspects are also analyzed. RESULTS: Macroscopy reveals intensive vascularization of the pouch up to 12 days from the transplantation and the presence of constant dark brown pigmentation on the grafted keloid fragments. In microscopy, the integration of keloid fragments is considered by the presence of blood capillary vases within conjunctive tissue. The presence of intensive cellular inflammatory type infiltrated up to 12 days is also observed, as well as the remaining of keloid epithelium up to 21 days, and the appearing of melanocytes from the day 42. CONCLUSION: Hamster cheek pouch represents, a priori, an experimental model for the investigation of keloid.OBJETIVO: Investigar a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, heterogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloidianas da região mam

  6. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

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    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  7. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Hamish A; Schultz, Arthur L; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  8. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Malcolm

    Full Text Available Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ, partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ, and areas outside (Outside the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP, Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002. Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58% that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL. HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs.

  9. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  10. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  11. Mechanisms Explaining Nursery Habitat Association: How Do Juvenile Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) Benefit from Their Nursery Habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M.; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T.; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D.; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species. PMID:25803443

  12. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  13. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  14. [Influence of the sex of the final host on experimental Dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynouard, F; Barrabes, A; Combescot, C

    1979-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental Dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus. The parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. The average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. The same applies to the extent of parasitism: the average number of adult worms is higher when parasitosis occurs in males. However, the sex of the hamster has no influence on the proportion of male and female worms present and the degree of microfilarial count, observed in male hamsters seems to result only from the presence in the same of a greater number of worms.

  15. Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, E A; Couper, G S; Huprikar, S V; Mellow, A M; Moody, R R

    1976-11-15

    The pharmacological action of mescaline on goldfish was studied with the Bitterman-Agranoff shock-avoidance test. In short term experiments with high mescaline doses an increase in learning rates was observed. Similar results were obtained with apomorphine and L-dopa. However, when the fish were exposed to smaller mescaline doses (or to fluphenazine) for 3 days, their ability to avoid electric shock was reduced. Apparently, mescaline induced a release of dopamine which stimulated central dopaminergic systems. Subsequently, MAO destroys the liberated dopamine. Thus, the ensuing dopamine deficit appears to be responsible for the marked changes in behavior in the chronic experiment.

  16. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  17. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  18. Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol on thermoregulation in goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R N; Crawshaw, L I; Wallace, H L

    2000-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia, anoxia, and endogenous ethanol (EtOH) on selected temperature (T(sel)) and activity in goldfish were evaluated. Blood and brain EtOH concentrations ([EtOH]) and brain oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) were quantified at crucial ambient oxygen pressures. Below a threshold value near 31 Torr, T(sel) decreased as a function of environmental PO(2). T(sel) of 15 degrees C-acclimated fish was approximately 10 degrees C at the onset of anoxia and changed little over 2 h. Activity showed a similar response pattern. Brain [EtOH] was significantly elevated above control levels after 1 h anoxia. In normoxic water, T(sel) remained different in previously anoxic and normoxic control fish for approximately 20 min. Blood [EtOH] of previously anoxic fish remained significantly elevated ([EtOH] >4.0 micromol/g blood), and activity was significantly depressed at 20 min. Brain PO(2) reached normal levels in <3 min. We conclude that [EtOH] (brain or blood) and brain PO(2) are not proximal causes of either behavioral anapyrexia (hypothermia) or inactivity in goldfish exposed to oxygen-depleted environments.

  19. Optimization protocol for storage of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos in chilled state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaluei, F; Imanpoor, M R; Shabani, A; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2014-04-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to explore suitable conditions for storing of goldfish embryos in a chilled state. The factors studied were embryo stage, storage temperature, physiological saline solutions and goldfish artificial coelomic fluid (GFACF) medium, antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C), buffer (Hepes, Tris) and BSA (bovine serum albumin). First, goldfish embryos at eight developmental stages were incubated in aerated and dechlorinated tap water at 0 °C for 24 h. Result shows that early developmental stages were most sensitive to chilling. Heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos were chilled at 0, 4 or 8 °C for up to 72 h in water, and chilled storage was possible only for up to 18, 24 and 48 h at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively, without a decrease in viability. Chilling of goldfish embryos at 8 °C in GFACF medium and Dettlaff's solution instead of water and other physiological saline solutions prolonged their viability (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, viability of chilled embryos in GFACF medium was slightly, but non-significantly, higher than in Dettlaff's solution. Supplementation of the GFACF medium with antibiotics, Hepes or BSA increased the viability of chilled embryos, but the tested vitamin E analogue Trolox, vitamin C or Tris concentration had no effect on embryo viability. The outcome of this series of experiments shows that heartbeat-stage goldfish embryos could be chilled for 60 h in GFACF supplemented with 25 mm Hepes, 100 U/ml penicillin, 10 μg/l streptomycin and 1 g/l BSA in such a way that embryonic development does not proceed, and viability is not lost.

  20. Morphometric and molecular characterization of Dactylogyrus vastator and D. intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fei; Tu, Xiao; Huang, Aiguo; Wang, Gaoxue

    2016-05-01

    Goldfish is known to be parasitized by at least seven species of Dactylogyrus and considered as one of the most common hosts. Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus intermedius are the dominant species living on the gills of goldfish. However, little information on morphometric characterization is available, which easily causes misidentification. The purpose of this study is to provide comprehensive morphometric and molecular characterization of D. vastator and D. intermedius collected form a fish farm in Henan, China. The characterization was presented based on the high-resolution images and standard molecular markers (18S ribosomal DNA subunit and the internal transcribed spacer region), as well as a total of 10 point-to-point morphometrics characters. In addition, a detailed comparison of morphometric and phylogenetic characterization in D. vastator versus D. intermedius was performed. The results demonstrated that all parameters measured differed significantly between these two species of Dactylogyrus, whereas molecular comparison showed subtle differences between them in nucleotide divergence and genetic distances. These findings suggested that these two species of Dactylogyrus can be distinguished more easily based on morphometric measurements than molecular data for 18S ribosomal DNA + internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1).

  1. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  2. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

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    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  3. Low O2 avoidance is associated with physiological perturbation but not exhaustion in the snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Herbert, Neill A

    2012-08-01

    It is already known that the New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) does not avoid hypoxia until reaching an oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) of 3.1±1.2 kPa at 18 °C. Avoidance at this level of PO(2) and temperature is below the critical oxygen partial pressure of the species (P(crit)=5.8±0.6 kPa, 43.5±4.5 mmHg) and is therefore expected to result in major physiological stress. Results from the current study showed that avoidance was associated with numerous physiological perturbations, including a significant endocrine response, haematological changes, osmoregulatory disturbance and metabolic adjustments in the heart, liver and muscle. Snapper clearly experienced physiological stress at the point of avoidance but they were not however in a state of physiological exhaustion since some fuel reserves were still available. In addition to avoidance, snapper also showed a subtle reduction in swimming speed - this energy-saving response may have helped snapper minimise the physiological challenge of low O(2) residence. It is therefore concluded that snapper can reside in water below their P(crit) threshold for brief periods of time and, without any evidence of physiological exhaustion at the point of avoidance, fish should recover quickly once normoxia is selected. Lastly, with signs of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac tissue at the point of avoidance, we tentatively suggest that snapper may leave hypoxia to protect heart function.

  4. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (Pspeed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  5. Photoperiodic regulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and steroidogenesis in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2014-11-01

    Photoperiodic modulation of melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression in testis has never been reported for any seasonal breeder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression dynamics of MT1R in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis in a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic conditions i.e. critical- (CP; 12.5L:11.5D); short-day- (SD; 8L:16D) and long-day- (LD; 16L:8D) for 10 weeks wherein testicular steroidogenesis, local melatonin synthesis and the expression of MT1R were analyzed. SD induced melatonin suppressed testicular steroidogenesis as evident from regressed testicular histoarchitecture, decreased expression of AR, StAR, LH-R, P₄₅₀SCC and enzyme activities of 3β- and 17β-HSD. Differential photoperiodic regulation of MT1R expression in testis suggests its involvement in photoperiodic signal transduction for seasonal adjustment of reproduction. Increased S-NAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase) activity and local testicular melatonin under SD condition suggest an inhibitory effect of the local melatonergic system on testicular steroidogenesis. Completely opposite responses were recorded for all the parameters analyzed when hamsters were exposed to CP or LD conditions. In conclusion, we may suggest that photoperiod via regulating circulatory and local melatonin level as well as MT1R expression in testes fine tunes the steroidogenesis and thereby, the reproductive status of male golden hamster.

  6. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  7. Evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity of rutaceae and lauraceae ethanol extracts on golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus peritoneal macrophages

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    N. A. Chavez Enciso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≤2 selectivity indices (S/I, the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12 and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11. These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  8. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhan, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Na; Qiang, Hui-qing; Hotez, Peter; Xiao, Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate and understand the acquired immunity in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by primary Necator americanus infective third-stage larvae (L3) infection. Hamsters infected with 150 L3 for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 weeks, were challenged with the same number of L3 and sacrificed 25 days post challenge. The primarily infected hamsters exhibited 99-100% protection against subsequent L3 challenge compared to un-infected naive hamsters. The acquired immunity was developed as early as 1 week post L3 infection and lasted up to 10 weeks. Similar protective immunity was obtained in hamsters infected with N. americanus L3 and then treated orally with a single of 100mg/kg albendazole, followed by challenge with N. americanus L3 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. The infected hamsters exhibited a rise in IgG antibodies against L3 and juvenile adult worm antigens. Histological examination showed that challenging L3 were trapped in the skin of primarily infected hamsters and surrounded or infiltrated by different inflammatory cells. The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection.

  10. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  11. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Terres

    Full Text Available Baited Underwater Video (BUV systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  12. Estudio anatomopatológico de aislados de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua en Mesocricetus auratus como biomodelo

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    Willian Jirón T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar en el biomodelo Mesocricetus auratus la sintomatología y lesiones anatomopatológicas que provocan 5 aislados clínicos de Leptospira spp., provenientes de Nicaragua. Materiales y métodos. Con este fin se inocularon 50 hámster por vía i.p con 1mL del cultivo de cada una de las cepas en fase exponencial teniendo una concentración celular de 7.5 x 106 leptospira/mL (10 animales por cepa, evaluándose signos de la enfermedad, mortalidad durante 14 días, lesiones anatomopatológicas macroscópicas y microscópicas mediante tinción con hematoxilina-eosina y tinción de Warthyn Starryn. Resultados. Todas las cepas presentaron alta mortalidad, mostrando un cuadro tanto clínico, como lesional característico de la infección experimental. Además, causaron la muerte al 100% de los animales entre el tercer y décimo día postinfección. En el estudio anatomopatológico la cepa del serogrupo Ballum y la del serogrupo Pomona produjeron focos de hemorragias específicamente en el riñón y pulmones. De forma similar ocurrió una congestión hepática y renal, mientras que la hemorragia renal fue observada con mayor frecuencia en la cepa del serogrupo Pomona, diferenciándose del resto de las cepas que mostraron esta lesión con menos frecuencia. Conclusiones. Este trabajo permitió una mayor caracterización de estas cepas siendo utilizadas como futuras candidatas vacunales frente a una nueva epidemia de Leptospirosis en Nicaragua.

  13. Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) from Baited Underwater Video Data in a Coastal Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, Maria A; Lawrence, Emma; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C

    2015-01-01

    Baited Underwater Video (BUV) systems have become increasingly popular for assessing marine biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and marine park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay Marine Park during a period when new Marine National Parks zoned as no-take or "green" areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing) were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the Marine National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular coastal habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in marine reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs.

  14. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  15. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Woolsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47, Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11 and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS (n = 9 with an E. multilocularis egg suspension that contained 100 eggs with viable oncospheres and performed post mortem examination 6, 8 (M. glareolus and 10 weeks post inoculation (wpi. C57BL/6j mice (n = 4 were used as positive controls as they have been shown to exhibit macroscopic liver lesions 4 wpi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally assess susceptibility in the ostensibly competent host M. glareolus. Lesions were only detected in 2 of 47 M. glareolus (4.3% at 8 and 10 wpi and although both contained protoscolices (1675 at 8 wpi and 88 at 12 wpi the low percentage of infected animals brings into question their role as transmitters of the parasite. Significant differences were observed between inbred and outbred mice with E. multilocularis infection in the former demonstrating increased establishment (p ≤ 0.0001 and growth (p ≤ 0.0001. No lesions were found in all 11 M. auratus.

  16. Development and Application of an eDNA Method to Detect the Critically Endangered Trinidad Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliad Phytotelmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozio, Sarah; Manson, Chloe; Gourevitch, Eleanor; Burns, Thomas J.; Greener, Mark S.; Downie, J. Roger

    2017-01-01

    The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to monitor rare and elusive species has great potential for conservation biology. Traditional surveying methods can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, subject to error or can be invasive and potentially damaging to habitat. The Trinidad golden treefrog (Phytotriades auratus) is one such species that would benefit from such an approach. This species inhabits the giant bromeliad (Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora) on two peaks on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Traditional survey methods for this species have required the destruction of the giant bromeliad, which is the only known habitat of this frog. Here we described the development of an eDNA PCR-based assay that uses water drawn from the water-filled phytotelmata of the giant bromeliad along with the use of a synthetic DNA positive control that can be easily amplified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. The assay can detect to a DNA concentration of 1.4ng. Sampling of 142 bromeliads using this method revealed 9% were positive for P. auratus DNA. These data suggest that eDNA methods also have great potential for revealing the presence of elusive species in arboreal habitats. PMID:28199338

  17. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  18. Effect of different concentrations of permeable and non-permeable cryoprotectants on the hatching rate of goldfish (Carassius auratus) embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fardin Shaluei; Mohamad Reza Imanpoor; Ali Shabani; Mohamad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the toxicity of various cryoprotective agents(CPAs) to goldfish embryos. Methods: Heart-beat embryos were immersed in: five permeable CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol (MeOH), 1,2- propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (Gly), ethylene glycol (EG), and two non-permeable CPAs: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sucrose in concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% for 5, 15, or 30 min. The viability of the embryos after the treatments was estimated from hatching rates. Results: The results showed that the toxicity to goldfish embryos of the five permeable CPAs were in the following sequence: PG 0.05). In this experiment none of the concentrations tested for sucrose reduced the hatching rate, but embryos exposed to PVP did not tolerate concentration 20%, at 30 min exposure. Conclusion: These finding will be advantageous for designing optimized Cryo-media for cryopreservation of goldfish embryos.

  19. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offiine HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; WANG Yan-hong; WU Ren-an; WANG Shi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offiine combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  20. Orexins and receptor OX2R in the gastroenteric apparatus of two teleostean species: Dicentrarchus labrax and Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Livia; Castaldo, Luciana; de Girolamo, Paolo; Lucini, Carla; Paolucci, Marina; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Varricchio, Ettore; Arcamone, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Orexin A and B peptides and the receptor OX2R were studied in sea bass and goldfish gastroenteric tract by immunoblotting combined with densitometric analysis using NIH Image J software and immunohistochemical techniques. These teleost species present a different gut organization and diverse feeding habits. Immunoblotting experiments showed one band of 16 kDa corresponding to prepro-orexin, and one band of 38 kDa corresponding to the OX2R receptor. Immunohistochemical localization of OXA and OXB was observed in the enteric nervous system throughout the gastroenteric tract of both species. OXA and OXB immunoreactive cells were found in the gastric and intestinal regions of sea bass, and were mainly found in the basal region of folds in intestinal bulb, and in the midgut and hindgut of goldfish. The distribution of OX2R was mainly detected in the mucosa of the gastroenteric tract of sea bass and goldfish. This distribution suggests an endocrine action of OXA and OXB in the gastrointestinal tract as well as involvement in the peripheral control of food intake and digestive processes in both species. This study might also serve to determine the productive factors in breeding and as a baseline for future experimental studies on the regulation of the gastroenteric functions in non-mammalian vertebrates. Anat Rec, 299:1121-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Nickel induces hyperglycemia and glycogenolysis and affects the antioxidant system in liver and white muscle of goldfish Carassius auratus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Rovenko, Bohdana M; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Janet M; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2012-06-01

    The toxicity of nickel to mammals is well studied, whereas information on nickel effects on fish is scant. Goldfish exposure to 10-50 mg L(-1) of waterborne Ni(2+) for 96 h showed reduced glycogen levels by 27-33% and 37-40% in liver and white muscle, respectively, accompanied by substantial increases in blood glucose levels (by 15-99%). However, indices of oxidative damage to proteins (carbonyl proteins) and lipids (lipid peroxides) were largely unaffected by nickel exposure. In liver, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were not affected by Ni(2+) treatment, while catalase activity was elevated by 26%. In white muscle, however, substantial increases in SOD (by 38-147%) and GPx (by 2.5-5.5-fold) activities appeared to compensate for decreased catalase activity (by 59-69%) in order to resist Ni-induced oxidative perturbations. Both hepatic and muscular glutathione reductase activities were suppressed by 10-30% and 12-21%, respectively, after goldfish exposure to all Ni(2+) concentrations used. However, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was remarkably enhanced (by 1.6-5.4-fold) in white muscle of Ni-exposed fish, indicating a strong potential increase in NADPH production under Ni exposure. Thus, the exposure of goldfish to 10-50 mg L(-1) of Ni(2+) for 96 h induces glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia, showing some similarities with a hypoxia response, and leads to a substantial activation of defense systems against reactive oxygen species in liver and white muscle in tissue-specific and concentration-dependent manner.

  2. Effects of enrofloxacin on cytochromes P4501A and P4503A in Carassius auratus gibelio (crucian carp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Li, X-C; Sun, B-B; Fang, W-H; Zhou, S; Hu, L-L; Zhou, J-F

    2012-06-01

    Currently, although enrofloxacin (EF) as a widely used veterinary medicine has begun to apply to treating fish bacterial infections, the researches on the effects of EF on their main drug metabolic enzymes are limited. To investigate the effects of EF on fish cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A and 3A, the enzymatic activities and expressions (mRNA and protein) of crucian carp CYP1A and CYP3A after EF administration were examined. For CYP1A, in the in vivo experiments, EF exhibited potent inhibition on the CYP1A-related ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, as well as CYP1A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels, at 24 h after administration with different EF dosages (3, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg); Furthermore, CYP1A enzymatic activity and expressions at both protein and mRNA levels decreased more with increasing EF dosages. Additionally, the in vitro experimental results showed that, after incubated with microsomes, EF did not change the EROD activity through interacting directly with CYP1A. For CYP3A, the in vitro and in vivo experimental results demonstrated that EF could inhibit the CYP3A-related erythromycin N-demethylase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while it did not suppress CYP3A expressions at both protein and mRNA levels after administration with EF for a short period (no more than 24 h); however, after injection with EF at a high dose (10 mg/kg) for a long period, the CYP3A protein and mRNA reached their lowest levels at 96 and 48 h, respectively. These results indicate that EF can suppress CYP1A expressions in a dose-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting further its catalytic activity; meanwhile, both the interactions of EF with CYP3A and the expressions decrease (protein and mRNA) caused by EF contribute to the CYP3A inhibition.

  3. Dactylogyrus intermedius parasitism enhances Flavobacterium columnare invasion and alters immune-related gene expression in Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Dong-liang; Chi, Cheng; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-xue

    2015-09-17

    The monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius and the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare are 2 common pathogens in aquaculture. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of prior parasitism by D. intermedius on the susceptibility of goldfish to F. columnare and to explore the potential immune mechanisms related to the parasite infection. A F. columnare challenge trial was conducted between D. intermedius-parasitized and non-parasitized goldfish. The F. columnare load in gill, kidney, spleen and liver were compared. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β2, TNF-α1, TGF-β, iNOS-a, C3 and Lyz) in gill and kidney of D. intermedius-only infected and uninfected control fish were evaluated. D. intermedius-parasitized goldfish exhibited higher mortality and significantly higher loads (3051 to 537,379 genome equivalents [GEs] mg(-1)) of F. columnare, which were 1.13 to 50.82-fold higher than non-parasitized fish (389 to 17,829 GEs mg(-1)). Furthermore, the immune genes IL-1β2, TNF-α1, iNOS-a and Lyz were up-regulated while the TGF-β and C3 were down-regulated in the gill and kidney of parasite-infected fish compared to the non-parasitized controls. The down-regulation TGF-β and C3 was especially noteworthy, as this might indicate the suppression of the host immune functions due to the parasitism by D. intermedius. Taken together, these data demonstrate that parasite infection can enhance bacterial invasion and presents a hypothesis, based on gene expression data, that modulation of host immune response could play a role.

  4. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  5. STUDY REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF ROYAL INSECTICIDE ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL INDEXES AT CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Alexandru Baciu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the royal insecticide influences the energetic metabolism, the breathing rhythm, the blood sugar and the number of red blood cells at the Prussian carp individuals. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 0.00125, 0.0025 and 0.005 ml/l royal insecticide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 0.005 ml/l grew by 50.81% in 168 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 216.66 ml oxygen/kilo/hour compared to 143.66 oxygen ml/kilo/hour. The blood sugar was the single physiological biomarker which decreased, so that the lowest value was 48 mg/dl, 29.62% approximately lower compared to the witness value (68.2 mg/dl at a concentration of 0.00125 ml/l.

  6. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  7. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno;

    2014-01-01

    nitric oxide (NO) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Cardiac performance was examined both under basal (constant preload and afterload) and loading conditions, i.e. preload-induced increases in stroke volume (SV) and hence cardiac output at constant afterload (the Frank–Starling response). Hypoxic...... to filling pressure increases; the maximum SV = 1.08 ± 0.09 mL/kg body mass was obtained at 0.4 kPa. Acute hypoxia increased this sensitivity, SV reaching the maximum value (1.45 ± 0.12 mL/kg body mass) at 0.25 kPa. NOS inhibition by L-NMMA reduced the Frank–Starling response under normoxia......, but was ineffective under acute hypoxia, where NO may come from nitrite reduction. In both conditions, sGC inhibition induced a reduction of the cardiac response to preload. Moreover, under acute hypoxia, NO scavenging significantly reduced the Frank–Starling response. The hypoxia-induced hemodynamic patterns were...

  8. Recombinant glycoprotein 63 (Gp63) of Trypanosoma carassii suppresses antimicrobial responses of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladiran, Ayoola; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that proteins secreted by Trypanosoma carassii play a role in evasion of fish host immune responses. To further understand how these parasites survive in the host, we cloned and expressed T. carassii glycoprotein 63 (Tcagp63), and generated a rabbit polyclonal antibody to the recombinant protein (rTcagp63). Tcagp63 was similar to gp63 of other trypanosomes and grouped with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei gp63 in phylogenetic analysis. We showed that rTcagp63 down-regulated Aeromonas salmonicida and recombinant goldfish TNFα2-induced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Macrophages treated with rTcagp63 also exhibited significant reduction in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-A, TNFα-1 and TNFα-2. Recombinant Tcagp63 bound to and was internalised by goldfish macrophages. The Tcagp63 may act by altering the signalling events important in downstream monocyte/macrophage antimicrobial and other cytokine-induced functions. We believe that this is the first report on downregulation of antimicrobial responses by trypanosome gp63.

  9. Light-dark cycle and feeding time differentially entrains the gut molecular clock of the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisembaum, Laura G; Velarde, Elena; Tinoco, Ana B; Azpeleta, Clara; de Pedro, Nuria; Alonso-Gómez, Angel L; Delgado, María J; Isorna, Esther

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how photocycle and feeding-time cues regulate the daily expression of Per1a, Per2a, Per3, and Cry3 in the goldfish hindgut. For this purpose, we studied the daily rhythmicity of these genes in fish maintained under different lighting conditions and under different feeding regimes (scheduled or not). We also studied whether the timing of just one meal is able to reset the hindgut molecular clock. In a first experiment, randomly fed fish were divided into four groups and kept under different light conditions for 30 d: 12 h light and 12 h dark (12L:12D), an inverted photoperiod (12D:12L), constant darkness (24D), and constant light (24L). In a second study, fish maintained under 24L were divided into four groups fed at different time points for 35 d: (1) fish scheduled-fed once a day (at 10:00 h); (2) fish fed with a 12-h shifted schedule (at 22:00 h), (3) fish fed at 10:00 h throughout the experiment, except the last day when fed at 22:00 h; and (4) a randomly fed group of fish. Fish were sacrificed every 6 h throughout a 24-h cycle. In both experiments, gPer1a, gPer2a, gPer3, and gCry3 transcripts were quantified using Real Time-qPCR in the hindgut. Results show the clock genes gPer1a, gPer2a, and gCry3 are synchronized by both zeitgebers, the photocycle and feeding regime, in goldfish hindgut. Moreover, such clock genes anticipate light-on and food delivery, when these cues appear in a cyclic manner. In the absence of both zeitgebers, gCry3 and gPer2a rhythmicity disappeared. In contrast, the gPer1 rhythm was maintained under 24L and random feeding conditions, but not always, suggesting that food when randomly supplied is able to reset the clock depending on other factors, such as the energetic and metabolic conditions of the fish. The expression of gPer2a was not activated during the light phase of the cycle, suggesting the hindgut of goldfish is a non-direct photosensitive organ. In contrast to the other three genes, gPer3 expression in the goldfish hindgut seemed to be dependent on the timing of the last food delivery, even in the presence of a photocycle. This gene was the only one that maintained daily rhythms under both constant lighting conditions (24D and 24L), although with lower amplitude than when a photocycle was present. This indicates that, although the acrophase (peak time) of the gPer3 expression rhythm seems to be driven by feeding time, there is an interaction of both zeitgebers, food and light, to regulate its expression. In conclusion, present data indicate: (1) the hindgut of goldfish can be synchronized in vivo by both the photocycle and feeding time; (2) food is a potent signal that entrains this peripheral oscillator; and (3) both environmental cues seems to target different elements of the molecular clock.

  10. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  11. Happy hamsters? Enrichment induces positive judgement bias for mildly (but not truly) ambiguous cues to reward and punishment in Mesocricetus auratus.

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    Bethell, Emily J; Koyama, Nicola F

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in the study of animal cognition and emotion have resulted in the 'judgement bias' model of animal welfare. Judgement biases describe the way in which changes in affective state are characterized by changes in information processing. In humans, anxiety and depression are characterized by increased expectation of negative events and negative interpretation of ambiguous information. Positive wellbeing is associated with enhanced expectation of positive outcomes and more positive interpretation of ambiguous information. Mood-congruent judgement biases for ambiguous information have been demonstrated in a range of animal species, with large variation in the way tests are administered and in the robustness of analyses. We highlight and address some issues using a laboratory species not previously tested: the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Hamsters were tested using a spatial judgement go/no-go task in enriched and unenriched housing. We included a number of controls and additional behavioural tests and applied a robust analytical approach using linear mixed effects models. Hamsters approached the ambiguous cues significantly more often when enriched than unenriched. There was no effect of enrichment on responses to the middle cue. We discuss these findings in light of mechanisms underlying processing cues to reward, punishment and true ambiguity, and the implications for the welfare of laboratory hamsters.

  12. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  13. Low-O₂ acclimation shifts the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of snapper (Pagrus auratus) with only subtle changes in aerobic and anaerobic function.

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    Cook, Denham G; Iftikar, Fathima I; Baker, Daniel W; Hickey, Anthony J R; Herbert, Neill A

    2013-02-01

    It was hypothesised that chronic hypoxia acclimation (preconditioning) would alter the behavioural low-O(2) avoidance strategy of fish as a result of both aerobic and anaerobic physiological adaptations. Avoidance and physiological responses of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) were therefore investigated following a 6 week period of moderate hypoxia exposure (10.2-12.1 kPa P(O(2)), 21 ± 1 °C) and compared with those of normoxic controls (P(O(2))=20-21 kPa, 21 ± 1 °C). The critical oxygen pressure (P(crit)) limit of both groups was unchanged at ~7 kPa, as were standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates. However, hypoxia-acclimated fish showed increased tolerances to hypoxia in behavioural choice chambers by avoiding lower P(O(2)) levels (3.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 1.1 kPa) without displaying greater perturbations of lactate or glucose. This behavioural change was associated with unexpected physiological adjustments. For example, a decrease in blood O(2) carrying capacity was observed after hypoxia acclimation. Also unexpected was an increase in whole-blood P(50) following acclimation to low O(2), perhaps facilitating Hb-O(2) off-loading to tissues. In addition, cardiac mitochondria measured in situ using permeabilised fibres showed improved O(2) uptake efficiencies. The proportion of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, at least relative to the aerobic marker enzyme citrate synthase, also increased in heart and skeletal red muscle, indicating enhanced anaerobic potential, or in situ lactate metabolism, in these tissues. Overall, these data suggest that a prioritization of O(2) delivery and O(2) utilisation over O(2) uptake during long-term hypoxia may convey a significant survival benefit to snapper in terms of behavioural low-O(2) tolerance.

  14. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

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    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status.

  15. The death of sertoli cells and the capacity to phagocytize elongated spermatids during testicular regression due to short photoperiod in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Esther; Ferrer, Concepción; Sáez, Francisco José; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), an animal that displays testicular regression due to short photoperiod, germ cells are removed by apoptosis during this process and the apoptotic remains are phagocytized by Sertoli cells. The aim of this work was to investigate morphologically whether the testicular regression process due to short photoperiod leads to the apoptosis of Sertoli cells, and whether, during testicular regression, the elongated spermatids are eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells. To this end, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster subjected to short photoperiod by means of several morphological techniques using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], semi-thin section vimentin, immunohistochemistry, SBA lectin, and TUNEL staining), fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H&E and semi-thin sections identified Sertoli cells with a degenerated morphology. Greater portion of Sertoli cells that were positive for TUNEL staining were observed especially during the mild regression (MR) and strong regression (SR) phases. In addition, TEM identified the characteristic apoptotic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. Moreover, during testicular regression and using light microscopy, some elongated spermatids were seen in basal position next to the Sertoli cell nucleus. This Sertoli phagocytic activity was higher in MR and SR phases. TEM confirmed this to be the result of the phagocytic activity of Sertoli cells. In conclusion, during testicular regression in Syrian hamster due to short photoperiod, when germ cells are known to be lost through apoptosis, there is morphological evidences that Sertoli cells are also lost through apoptosis, while some elongated spermatids are phagocytized and eliminated by the Sertoli cells.

  16. Embryo-endometrial expression of leukemia inhibitory factor in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): increased expression during proestrous and window of implantation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rajnish P; Fischer, Bernd; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2008-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic IL-6 family cytokine and its maternal uterine expression is critical for mouse blastocyst implantation. In the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), although the blastocyst hatching phenomenon is quite interesting and LIF is shown to regulate hatching, information is not available on the embryonic and uterine expression of LIF and hormonal regulation of LIF expression during the peri-implantation period. The present investigation is aimed at studying embryonic and uterine expression of LIF during preimplantation hamster development. We observed embryonic expression of LIF mRNA and protein in the 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages. In cycling females, uterine LIF mRNA expression was maximal during the oestrogen-dominant phase of the oestrous cycle, i.e. proestrous stage. Interestingly, during pregnancy, both LIF mRNA and protein were highly upregulated on Days 3.5 and 4 ('window of implantation'), implying a role for this cytokine in blastocyst hatching and implantation. Cell type-specific localisation of LIF mRNA and protein was observed predominantly in luminal epithelium and uterine glands with faint staining being detected in the stroma. The hamster uterus encoded a approximately 4.2 kb LIF transcript whose coding region, when cloned and sequenced, showed a high degree of identity to the murine cDNA counterpart. These data demonstrate that: (1) hamster preimplantation embryos show LIF mRNA and protein expression; (2) uterine expression of LIF mRNA and protein was dependent on elevated levels of circulating oestrogen, and (3) there is a possible functional association of LIF with the peri-implantation development in the golden hamster.

  17. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis.

  18. Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch as an experimental model to investigate human skin and keloid heterologous graft Bolsa jugal no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus como modelo experimental de investigação de enxertos heterólogos de pele humana e quelóide

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    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the integration process of grafts of total human skin and keloid in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch, whose sub-epithelium is naturally an "Immunologically Privileged Site". Fragments of human normal skin and keloid from the breast region of mulatto female patients were transplanted into the cheek pouch subepithelium in situ. Surgical procedure and grafted pouches for microscopic exam at several time points of the transplantation were standardized. The integration of grafted fragments of human skin and keloid was seen in late periods (84 days since the microscopic assessment showed the presence of blood vases within the conjunctive tissue of grafted fragments. It was also possible to see among the grafted fragments the epithelium, the appearing of early cellular infiltrated, epithelial secretion of keratin, the presence of melanocytes, and delayed changes on the aspect of collagen fibers of conjunctive tissue. Pooled results allow to define hamster cheek pouch sub-epithelium as an experimental model to investigating heterologous graft physiology of human total skin and keloid with epithelium.Descrever a integração dos enxertos de pele total humana e quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, cujo subepitélio é, naturalmente, um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico". Foram transplantados fragmentos, de pele humana normal e de quelóide, obtidos da região mamária de pacientes pardas, no subepitélio da bolsa jugal in situ. O procedimento operatório, e de preparo das bolsas enxertadas para exame microscópico em vários períodos de transplante, foi padronizado. Verificou-se a integração dos fragmentos enxertados de pele humana e de quelóide em períodos tardios (84 dias, uma vez que a avaliação microscópica revelou a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo dos fragmentos enxertados. Foi também possível observar, nos fragmentos enxertados, o epitélio, o aparecimento de infiltrado

  19. Experimental model in hamster (Mesocricetus auratus to study heterologous graft of scars and cutaneous diseases in plastic surgery Modelo experimental no hamster (Mesocricetus auratus para estudo de transplantes heterólogos de cicatrizes e doenças cutâneas em cirurgia plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus has in its cheek pouches sub-epithelium an "Immunologically Privileged Site" which allows the integration of homo- and heterologous graft. This paper describes some anatomical and histological characteristics of that site, as well as analyzes aspects related with its immune properties. It also focuses the advantages of this experimental model over other models which are natural or induced carriers of immunodeficiency. Based on both these advantages and literature, this study aims to establish this model, through the performance of heterologous graft, as another option for the investigation of scar disturbances, as keloids and other diseases which may interest Plastic Surgery, as benign cutaneous lesions, and malignant neoplasias such as skin carcinomas and melanomas. The work also addresses perspectives for using this model, which still is a source scarcely known by Brazilian medical class.O hamster sírio dourado (Mesocricetus auratus possui no subepitélio de suas bolsas jugais um "Local de Privilégio Imunológico", permitindo a integração de homo e heteroenxertos. Este artigo descreve as características anatômicas e histológicas desse local, assim como os aspectos relativos as suas propriedades imunológicas. Cita, também, as vantagens desse modelo experimental sobre outros modelos portadores, naturais ou induzidos, de imunodeficiência. Com base nessas vantagens, e também baseado na literatura, tem o intuito de estabelecer esse modelo, mediante a realização de heteroenxertos, como uma outra opção para investigar distúrbios cicatriciais, como o quelóide, e doenças de interesse em Cirurgia Plástica, como lesões cutâneas benignas e neoplasias malignas como carcinomas e melanoma cutâneo. Tece, ainda, considerações sobre perspectivas de aplicações desse modelo, ainda bastante desconhecido entre a classe médica brasileira.

  20. Photoperiodic modulation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose transporters (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) expression in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rakesh; Haldar, Chandana

    2016-12-01

    Phenomenon of seasonal reproduction is being regulated by changes in day length or photoperiod. The molecular mechanism underlying the event of photoperiodic regulation of testis and thyroid functions along with glucose uptake transporters has never been reported for golden hamster, M. auratus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of photoperiod on the expression of key thyroid hormone receptor (TR-α), deiodinase-2 (Dio-2) and glucose uptake transporters (GLUT-1 & GLUT-4) in testicular germ cell and Leydig cells, and its correlation with the testicular androgen receptor (AR), germ cell proliferation factor (PCNA) and cell survival factor (Bcl-2) in testis of adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i.e. critical photoperiod (CP), short day (SD) and long day (LD) for 10weeks. LD induces upregulation of thyroidal and gonadal activity as evident by active thyroid gland and testicular histoarchitecture, peripheral total thyroid (tT3, tT4) and testosterone hormone profiles when compared with SD exposed hamsters. Further, LD increased the expression of testicular TR-α, Dio-2, GLUT-1, GLUT-4 along with testicular AR and glucose content thereby enhancing germ cell proliferation and survival as reflected by increased PCNA and Bcl-2 expression when compared to SD exposed hamsters. Thus, it can be suggested that testicular thyroid hormone status is being regulated by photoperiod and is possibly involved in seasonal adaptation to reproductive phenomenon of golden hamster.

  1. Técnica para obtenção do aparelho geniturinário e dosagem do PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus Technique for collecting blood for PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen dosing and genitourinary system obtaining in syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

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    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Expor a técnica utilizada na colheita de sangue para dosagem do PSA ( Prostate Specific Antigen e retirada do aparelho geniturinário no hamster sírio, Mesocricetus auratus, e correlacionar os achados do PSA com as alterações histológicas dos anexos sexuais desse roedor. Métodos: Foram usados no experimento trinta (n= 30 Hamsters: dez (n=10 animais considerados jovens com idade média no momento da morte de 47,5 dias e vinte (n=20 animais considerados adultos com idade superior à um ano. Após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam, foi colhido diretamente da veia cava, em nível de abdome superior, cerca de 1,5mL a 2,0mL de sangue para dosagem do PSA totalpelo método ELISA, com antígeno humano. Morriam após colheita do sangue. Constatado a morte do animal, fazia-se a laparotomia retirando-se em monobloco todo aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico dos anexos sexuais. Correlacionou-se o PSA com as alterações histológicas encontradas. Resultados: Os animais após serem anestesiados com cloridrato de quetamina e diazepam intraperitonealmente, obteve-se um excelente plano anestésico, que possibilitou colher via trans-dérmica da veia cava inferior em abdome superior sangue para dosagem do PSA. O animal morria após colheita do sangue. Fazia-se a laparotomia, com retirada em monobloco do aparelho geniturinário para estudo histológico e comparação das alterações encontradas nos anexos sexuais com o PSA dosado. Entre os Hamsters Jovens a média do PSA encontrado foi de 0,252ng/mL. Desvio Padrão (DP = 0,36. Entre os Hamsters adultos esta média foi de 0,325 ng/mL, DP= 0,12 . Quando comparou-se as médias do PSA entre os dois grupos de jovens e adultos obteve-se p= 0,0427. Dentre os Hamsters jovens, três apresentaram PSA não detectado. A análise histológica mostrou que, entre os animais jovens, não foi identificada qualquer alteração das estruturas microscópicas da próstata, ves

  2. Investigação do transplante heterólogo de quelóide na bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

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    Hochman Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração do transplante heterólogo de quelóide no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consiste de 18 hamsters machos, não isogênicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de quelóide foram obtidos de cicatrizes queloideanas da região mamária de paciente adulta parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de quelóide, totalizando 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica é realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante a comparação de fotografias padronizadas. À microscopia, considera-se a presença de vasos sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo do fragmento enxertado como critério de integração do mesmo. Outros eventos, como secreção de queratina, presença de infiltrados celulares e aspecto do epitélio e das fibras colágenas do quelóide, também são observados. RESULTADOS: A macroscopia revela intensa vascularização na bolsa até 12 dias de enxertia, e a presença constante de pigmentação castanho-escura nos fragmentos de quelóide enxertados. Na microscopia constata-se a integração dos fragmentos de quelóide pela presença de capilares sangüíneos no tecido conjuntivo. Observa-se, também, a presença de intenso infiltrado celular do tipo inflamatório até 12 dias, a permanência do epitélio do quelóide até 21 dias, e o aparecimento de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias. CONCLUSÃO: A bolsa jugal do hamster representa, a priori, modelo experimental para investigação do quelóide.

  3. Vitellogenin mRNA Expression in Wild Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus auratus)from Hun River%浑河流域野生鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋双双; 安立会; 郑丙辉; 赵艳民; 李子成; 陈浩; 赵兴茹; 刘代成

    2013-01-01

    为揭示浑河流域水环境内分泌干扰物对水生态的潜在风险,利用兼并引物扩增获得鲫鱼卵黄蛋白原(Vtg)和核糖体蛋白L-7(RPL-7)基因部分碱基序列(分别为825和450 bp),建立以RPL-7为内参基因、定量鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的实时定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)方法,并将该方法用于定量浑河野生鲫鱼肝组织Vtg基因表达分析.结果显示:与上游对照点(S1)相比,7月下游各点(S4~S8)雄鱼、S4和S6点雌鱼肝组织的Vtg mRNA表达水平皆显著升高(P <0.05);11月在雄鱼中未检出Vtg mRNA的有效表达,雌鱼也仅在S2和S3点的表达水平升高(P<0.05).研究表明,浑河流域野生鲫鱼尤其是在7月明显受到了环境雌激素类物质的影响.另外,qRT-PCR方法能够灵敏检测出鲫鱼Vtg基因表达的时空差异.

  4. 草海鲫鱼的年龄和生长%Age and Growth of Crucian Carp Cauratus auratus in Caohai Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金娜; 周其椿; 安苗; 谈冰畅; 邰定敏

    2014-01-01

    The age and growth of crucian carp Cauratus auratus found in alpine wetland Caohai Lake , Guizhou province ,were studied by scales as annual ring method .The results showed that there were 5 age classes ranging from 1 to 5 in the population of the crucian carp in CaoHai Lake ,with preponderant age classes of 1-3 years old ,accounting for 96 .34% of the total population .Most of the crucian carp had body length of 52 .0-240 .0 mm ,primarily within the range between 90 .0 mm and 150 .0 mm (81 .97% ) ,and body weight ranging from 4 .8 g to 582 .4 g ,mainly between 30 g and 120 g (83 .89% ) .The ratio of ♀ to♂was found to be 8∶1 ,more females than males in the crucian carp in CaoHai Lake ,and length-weight power function relationship of the crucian carp showed the exponent b =s with isometrical growth by scale annulus .The growth of the crucian carp was described as Von Bertalanffy equation ,with L∞ =259 .67 mm ,m∞ =481 .94 g ,k=0 .1537 ,t0 = -0 .6506 and body weight growth inflexion point of 6 .28 .Com-pared with 1980’s ,the simple age structure of the crucian carps in CaoHai Lake is featured by more small individuals and the declined population in the resources .%以生活在高寒湿地草海中鲫鱼的鳞片作为鉴定年龄的材料,对其种群开展年龄结构与生长特性研究。研究结果表明,草海鲫鱼种群由1~5龄共5个年龄组组成,以低龄个体为主,1~3龄个体占96.34%,体长分布主要集中在90~150mm(81.97%),体质量分布主要集中在30~120g(83.89%)。群体总性比为♀∶♂=8∶1,体长和鳞径呈幂函数关系,体长和体质量呈幂函数关系且幂指数接近3,属于匀速生长类型,因此可用VonBertalanffy方程来描述其生长特性,相关生长参数分别为:渐近体长L∞=259.67mm,渐近体质量m∞=481.94g,k=0.1537,t0=-0.6506龄,体质量生长拐点Ti=6.28龄。与20世纪80年代相比,目前草海中

  5. Integração do enxerto heterólogo de pele humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Integration of human skin heterologous graft into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch sub-epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hochman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a integração de enxertos de pele total humana no subepitélio da bolsa jugal do hamster (Mesocricetus auratus. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu de 18 hamsters machos, exogâmicos, com 10 a 14 semanas de idade. Fragmentos de pele humana normal foram obtidos de pele excedente de mastoplastia redutora de paciente parda. Cada hamster foi enxertado em ambas as bolsas com fragmentos de pele, perfazendo um total de 36 fragmentos enxertados. Os animais foram distribuídos, em 6 grupos, para exame dos fragmentos enxertados com 5, 12, 21, 42, 84 e 168 dias. Uma avaliação macroscópica foi realizada comparando a bolsa contendo o fragmento enxertado em cada período com a mesma bolsa no pós-operatório imediato, mediante fotografias padronizadas. Na avaliação microscópica foi adotado como critério de integração a presença de vasos sangüíneos na derme dos enxertos. Observou-se também a presença de queratina, melanócitos, infiltrado celular e aspecto do tecido conjuntivo. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação macroscópica foi observada uma reação vascular em torno dos fragmentos até 12 dias do implante, e a presença de pigmentação castanho-escura a partir de 42 dias. À microscopia, integraram-se 80,64% dos fragmentos enxertados, inclusive no grupo de 168 dias. Observou-se infiltrado celular inflamatório até 12 dias, a presença de melanócitos a partir de 42 dias e uma hialinização do tecido conjuntivo após 84 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Fragmentos de pele humana integram-se no tecido celular subcutâneo da bolsa jugal do hamster, mantêm-se vascularizados por 168 dias, e conservam o epitélio íntegro até 21 dias. O subepitélio da bolsa representa modelo experimental de investigação da fisiologia de pele humana ex vivo.PURPOSE: To describe the integration of total human skin into hamster (Mesocricetus auratus cheek pouch. METHODS: The sample was formed by 18 male hamsters, outbred, aging between 10 and 14 weeks. Fragments of

  6. Parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocricetus auratus L. alimentado con base en harina de lombriz roja (Eisenia spp. y fuentes convencionales

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    L. Cova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante 21 días el efecto de cuatro dietas proteicas con base en harina de Lombriz Roja (Hl (Eisenia spp. (nivel de inclusión de Hl: D1: 21; D2: 24; D3: 27 y D4: 30% y dos alimentos convencionales: Conejarina ® (D0 y Ratarina® (D5 en algunos parámetros hematológicos y bioquímicos en el hámster dorado (Mesocrisetus auratus L. mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado para un factor, en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela. El hematocrito (37.65-41.01%, la hemoglobina (10.83-12.25%, la bilirrubina total, directa e indirecta (0.20-0.40; 0.10-0.22; 0.10-0.20mg/ dL, respectivamente, las lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad (Vldl (15.12-41.27mg/dL; los triglicéridos (95.42-190.54mg/dL; así como los valores de Calcio (Ca (9.83-12.32 mg/dL y Potasio (4.24-5.43mg/dL no exhibieron diferencias significativas entre dietas (P>0,05. Los leucocitos (Lto, las plaquetas (Plq, el conteo diferencial (neutrófilos/linfocitos (Linf/eosinófilos, la glicemia (Glc, la amilasa, el colesterol total, las lipoproteínas de elevada (Hdl y baja densidad y el Fósforo mostraron variaciones sustanciales entre los tratamientos (P<0,05. Los niveles crecientes de proteína de las dietas no afectaron los parámetros evaluados. Sin embargo, se observó una relación negativa entre la inclusión de Hl y las cantidades de Lto (r=-0.76**, Plq (r=-0.76**, Linf (r=-0.71**, Glc (r=-0.58* y Hdl (r=-0.50*. La adición de hl en proporciones de 24, 27 y 30% para obtener alimentos formulados entre 13.5 y 19.6% de proteína, para M. auratus, afecta algunos de los parámetros hematológicos y la concentración sérica de metabolitos relacionados con la composición nutricional de la dieta.

  7. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the accumulation of this element in fish tissues and can influence vital physiological processes.

  8. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene on modulating vitellogenin expression in primary culture of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yong; C. K. C. Wong; XU Ying; M. H. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the precursor of yolk protein. Its expression and secretion are estrogen-regulated and are crucial for oocyte maturation. An in vitro xenoestrogen screening model was established by measuring Vtg induction in cultured primary hepatocytes from crucian carp. Vtg production was detected by biotin-avidin sandwich ELISA method while Vtg and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA induction were measured by semi- quantitative PCR-primer dropping technique. Vtg and Vtg mRNA were dose-dependently induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.2-200 ng/mL) in hepatocytes of crucian carp. Co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with either 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD, 0.1-4 pg/mL) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5-1000 ng/mL) resulted in a reduction of Vtg production and an increment of CYP1A1 mRNA expression both in a dose dependent manner, indicating the anti-estro-genic effects of the compounds. However, at lower tested concentrations, TCDD (0.1, 0.2 pg/mL), B[a]P (5 ng/mL) seemed to have a potentiating effect on Vtg expression and secretion, although by their own these compounds had no observable estrogenic effect on Vtg induction. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulators, 1 nmol/L-1 μmol/L), and β-naphtho-flavone (β-NF, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducing compounds, 2.5-1000 ng/mL) also were employed to study the possible interactions in DES-induced Vtg expression. In co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with β-NF or tamoxifen, the decrease in Vtg production did parallel induction of CYP1A1 for β-NF, but tamoxifen inhibited Vtg induction did not parallel induced CYP1A1 expression in all test concentrations. On the contrary, it was found that in co-treatment of the TCDD-induced hepatocytes with DES, TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA production was inhibited by DES also. These results implicated a possible cross talk between estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways in the hepatocytes.

  9. [Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalikova, O V; Eliseĭkina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them.

  10. Freshness Variation of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) during Chilled Storage%鲫鱼在冷藏过程中的鲜度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖枫; 康怀彬; 辛利

    2007-01-01

    本实验利用感官评价、化学(TVBN值和pH值)和微生物(细菌总数)指标的分析,研究了鲫鱼在真空包装和非真空包装两种条件下贮藏于3±1℃时新鲜度的变化.实验结果表明贮藏在真空包装条件下能够延缓鲫鱼的腐败变质,贮藏过程中感官评分呈下降趋势,表明在两种贮藏条件下鲫鱼的新鲜度随时间延长而降低.贮藏过程中TVBN值都有升高,而非真空包装组样品中细菌生长的速度要高于真空包装组.%The quality changes of crucian carp stored in two different conditions: vacuum packing and non-vacuum packing,both at temperature of 3 ±1 ℃, were evaluated by sensory assessment, chemical(total volatile basic nitrogen and pH) and microbial (total viable counts) analysis. Storage in vacuum packing was more effective than non-vacuum packing, in delaying spoilage of the crucian carp. It was observed that the appearance score decreased with storage time, indicating the progressive loss of freshness in both vacuum packing and non-vacuum packing storage conditions. There was an increase in total viable counts over the period of storage. Bacteria grew more quickly in non-vacuum packing samples than in vacuum packing ones.

  11. Tracing the accumulation and effects of mercury uptake in the previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio by autometallography and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, Otilia

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to apply the AMG technique for localization of mercury at the light and electron microscopic level in the ovary of crucian carp after exposure to mercuric chloride and to find out if this heavy metal induces expression of caspase-3. Depending on the stage of ovarian follicle development, two patterns of mercury accumulation have been found in previtellogenic ovary of crucian carp. The first mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the early previtellogenic oocyte without zona radiata. In these oocytes, mercury accumulates into an ooplasmic region that seems to correspond to the Balbiani body (32-65 microm oocyte diameter), throughout the cytoplasm (84-116 microm oocyte diameter) and in the cortical cytoplasm (approximately 180 microm oocyte diameter). The second mercury accumulation pattern has been found in the late previtellogenic oocyte with cortical alveoli (229-330 microm oocyte diameter). Ultrastructural observations have shown grains of silver-enhanced mercury inside coated vesicles, the cortical lysosome-like bodies or multivesicular bodies and cortical alveoli. Immunohistochemistry reaction for caspase-3 was positive in nuclei of the early previtellogenic oocyte and Balbiani body.

  12. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  13. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-11-21

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure.

  14. THE INDUCTION OF MICRONUCLEUS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ACETAMIPIRID INSECTICIDE ON THE GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS AFTER THE TIME TREATMENT OF 24 AND 72 HOURS

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    Smajl Rizani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of environmental, pollution by mutagen substances are created micronucleus, which are genetically defects, which may cause mutation and cancerous diseases. Based in this fact, we have attempted to do a research, which will prove that genetically damages are as result of environment pollution. Our research is based in Micronucleus-test method, according to Schmid. This method is used to be observed micronucleus, as mentioned above are created as result of environment pollution in blood of living organism. As we expected, during the research with this method, we have faced in genetically damage as aftermath of our environment pollution for research. For the research we have decided fish (goldfish, whereas environment pollution is created referring to our needs about research. The result is astonishing. As higher is level of pollution the higher will be the number of micronucleus, more precisely number of genetically damages. We have used 50 fish for our research diffused in five aquariums, distinguished by dose and day of treatment with insecticide. As our environmental pollutant for research we used acetamipirid insecticide in goldfish. The research has resulted what has proved by Schmid with Micronucleus-Test method, which proved the presence of genetic damages harmonized with the amount of pollution. Our research opens the way for safe research in environment polluting to see real situation on the ground and the ability to make managerial policies to prevent pollution, moreover to prevent many diseases caused by such pollution.

  15. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  16. Comprobación in vivo de la capacidad antibacterial de Oedogonium capillare contra Vibrio fluvialis en pez Dorado Carassius auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana López Simeón; Pilar Negrete Redondo; Jorge Romero Jarero

    2007-01-01

    El uso de antibióticos de forma indiscriminada para el control de infecciones de origen bacteriano en cultivos de organismos acuáticos, administrados de forma sistemática, ha provocado la presencia de plásmidos-R en cepas bacterianas de alto riesgo para la acuicultura, por lo que es importante estudiar nuevas alternativas naturales no solamente para prevenir las infecciones bacterianas, también para evitar el uso de antibióticos. El alga Oedogonium capillare presentó, en estudios previos in v...

  17. Effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Hematological Indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-li Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Ditch Constructed Wetland unit (DCW was integrated into an outdoor RAS with four fishponds. This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS on growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of the rearing fish. During a 165-days culture period, the DCW effectively reduced the influent concentrations of nutrients and can keep a good water quality at acceptable concentrations for growth of the fish. Growth performance, body composition and hematological indicators of Allogynogenetic crucian carp were closely related to water quality of their living environment. The RAS had improved the growth performance and quality of Allogynogenetic crucian carp.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF BETA-CYPERMETHRIN ON GLUTAMIC- PYRUVIC TRANSAMINASE (GPT) AND GLUTAMIC-OXALOACETIC TRANSAMINASE (GOT) ACTIVITIES FROM CRUCIAN CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS) SERUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are considered as possible sub-stitutesfor some organophosphate carbamates or organochlo-rine insecticides,and have been used extensivelyfor morethantwo decades[1].Pyrethroids are preferred over otherinsecticides because of their easy degradation into non-toxic or less toxic metabolites under natural conditions.Consequently,there has recently beena dramatic increaseinthe use of pyrethroid pesticides to control insect pests.However,synthetic pyrethroids were also reported to bemore toxi...

  19. Glucose, amino acids and fatty acids directly regulate ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Canosa, Luis Fabián; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-04-01

    Ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are two peptidyl hormones primarily involved in food intake regulation. We previously reported that the amount of dietary carbohydrates, protein and lipids modulates the expression of these peptides in goldfish in vivo. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the effects of single nutrients on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas. First, immunolocalization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in goldfish hepatopancreas cells was studied by immunohistochemistry. Second, the effects of 2 and 4hour-long exposures of cultured intestine and hepatopancreas sections to glucose, l-tryptophan, oleic acid, linolenic acid (LNA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on ghrelin and nesfatin-1 gene and protein expression were studied. Co-localization of ghrelin and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the cytoplasm of goldfish hepatocytes was found. Exposure to glucose led to an upregulation of preproghrelin and a downregulation of nucb2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine. l-Tryptophan mainly decreased the expression of both peptides in the intestine and hepatopancreas. Fatty acids, in general, downregulated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the intestine, but only the longer and highly unsaturated fatty acids inhibited preproghrelin. EPA exposure led to a decrease in preproghrelin, and an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 expression in hepatopancreas after 2h. These results show that macronutrients exert a dose- and time-dependent, direct regulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the intestine and hepatopancreas, and suggest a role for these hormones in the digestive process and nutrient metabolism.

  20. Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan plus BCG induces a Th1 type immune response but does not protect Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus and BALB/c mice against Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Tonui

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Leishmania donovani-derived lipophosphoglycan (LPG plus Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniosis in susceptible BALB/c mouse and Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus models was investigated. Following a triple vaccination with a total dose of 150 µl BCG plus 60 µg or 30 µg of LPG for hamsters and BALB/c mice respectively, there were no noticeable side effects both locally and systemically; implying that the molecule was safe at this dosage level. Vaccinated animals demonstrated an activation of both the humoral as well as cell-mediated responses to LPG, which correlated with resistance against the disease. Protection by LPG plus BCG, was however, poor as the remaining immunized animals showed disease progression leading to severity of the disease as illustrated by emaciation, mass loss and heavy splenic parasitaemia in hamsters. These data nevertheless suggest that it may be rewarding to further evaluate the potential of LPG as a vaccine candidate in leishmaniosis using other adjuvants, which may enhance its immunogenicity.

  1. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): absence of vasopressin expression in standard and wild-derived hamsters and galanin regulation by seasonal changes in circulating sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborea, M; Ansel, L; Weinert, D; Steinlechner, S; Pévet, P; Klosen, P

    2010-02-03

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a nucleus of the forebrain highly sensitive to sex steroids and containing vasopressin neurons implicated in several social- and reproduction-related behaviours such as scent-marking, aggression, pair bonding and parental behaviour. Sexually dimorphic vasopressin expression in BNST neurons has been reported in almost all rodents, with the notable exception of the Syrian hamster. In this species, vasopressin expression is completely absent in the BNST. Because almost all Syrian hamsters used in research are derived from a very small breeding stock captured in 1930, we compared commercially available Syrian hamsters with a recently captured, wild-derived breeding stock. We checked for vasopressin expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Vasopressin expression in BNST neurons was completely absent in both breeding stocks, confirming the absence of BNST vasopressin expression in Mesocricetus auratus and ruling out a breeding artefact. Because vasopressin expression in BNST neurons appears to be strictly dependent on circulating sex steroids, the absence of vasopressin expression in Syrian hamster BNST neurons might be due to an insensitivity of these neurons to sex steroids. BNST vasopressin neurons also express galanin. Although galanin expression in the BNST is not sexually dimorphic in the Syrian hamster, it appears to be regulated by sex steroids. In the Djungarian hamster, photoperiodically driven seasonal variations of circulating sex steroids result in a seasonal rhythm of galanin expression in BNST neurons. We analysed the sex steroid dependence of galanin expression in the Syrian hamster. Castration and short photoperiod-induced sexual quiescence both resulted in downregulation of galanin mRNA in cell bodies (BNST) and immunoreactivity in the fibres (lateral septum). Testosterone supplementation of short photoperiod-adapted animals was able to restore galanin expression. Thus Syrian

  2. Study on the Ultrastructure of Sphereovirus and Cell Pathology in Hormonal Cell of Adenohypophysis of Carassius Auratus%金鱼(Carassius auratus)腺垂体激素细胞中的球形病毒及其细胞病理学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明; 汝少国; 孙修勤; 邴欣; 范瑞青; 谢嘉琳

    2003-01-01

    利用电镜技术,在金鱼腺垂体促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞中发现了一种球形病毒及其发生基质.该病毒在细胞核中形成不规则形态的包涵体,病毒粒子直径为80~100 nm,呈中等电子密度,无囊膜.病毒侵染造成了促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞的核膜溶解,染色质变性解体,内质网膨胀以及线粒体内嵴与外膜的溶解.此外,病毒的增殖导致了腺垂体中大量促性腺激素细胞、促甲状腺激素细胞和促生长激素细胞的凋亡.

  3. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  4. Response of GSTase and Liver Esterase in Goldfish (Carrasius auratus) and Topmouth Gudegon (Pseudorasbora parva) after Sublethal Exposure to Cyhalofop-butyl and Profurite-aminium%氰氟草酯、杀虫安亚致死剂量对金鱼Carrasius auratus和麦穗鱼Pseudorasbora parva肝脏酯酶及谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    研究了10%千金乳油(有效成分:氰氟草酯)和78%杀虫安可溶性粉剂对金鱼和麦穗鱼肝脏酯酶及谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)活性的亚致死剂量效应.发现杀虫安(0.234 mg*L-1)对两种鱼的GST活性均具诱导作用,而氰氟草酯(1,2 mg*L-1)仅诱导了麦穗鱼的GST活性;当杀虫安与氰氟草酯混合处理时,对麦穗鱼GST活性的诱导效应最为明显.在一定的浓度范围内,氰氟草酯(1,2 mg*L-1)和杀虫安(0.117,0.234 mg*L-1)均可诱导金鱼肝脏酯酶活性;对麦穗鱼肝脏酯酶而言,杀虫安为诱导作用,氰氟草酯则抑制其活性.研究结果表明:两种酶的活性直接或间接地受供试药剂的影响,两种试鱼对氰氟草酯和杀虫安的生物反应存在差异.%Investigations were carried to assess the sublethal effects of a herbicide clincher (100 EC) containing cyhalofop-butyl [100 g (a.i)*L-1] as the active ingredient and the insecticide profurite-aminium [78% SP, 780 g (a.i)*kg-1] on liver esterases and hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva). GST was found to be induced in both goldfish and topmouth gudgeon by the profurite-aminium at concentration of 0.234 mg*L-1. Clincher both at concentration of 1 and 2 mg*L-1 caused GST induction in topmouth gudgeon. The mixture of clincher and profurite-aminium had the highest effect in topmouth gudgeon 722.3 nmol*(min-1*mg-1 protein) with a possible indication of additive toxicity. Liver esterases were induced by both clincher (1 and 2 mg*L-1)and profurite-aminium (0.117 and 0.234 mg*L-1) in goldfish. In topmouth gudgeon liver esterases were induced by profurite-aminium but inhibited by clincher. It is suggested that the two biotransformation enzymes may be directly or indirectly affected by the tested chemicals and that there are differences between them.

  5. Study on the quality changes of Carassius Auratus during storage between refrigeration and partial freezing%鲫鱼在冷藏和微冻贮藏下品质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越华; 俞所银; 任青; 包建强

    2013-01-01

    Sensory assessment,pH,2-th iobarbituric acid value (TBA),volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N),K value and aerobic plate count were used as the assessment standards for the sake of studying the quality change of Crucian which were stored by the way of refrigeration (4℃) and partial freezing (-3℃).Results showed that the sensory assessment had reached the upper limit after 8d and 24d stored at 4℃ and-3℃ respectively.The TBA value stored at 4℃ on the 14th day was 1.29mg/100g,however it was 1.58mg/100g at-3℃ on the 30th day.The TVB-N value stored for 8days at 4℃ was 18.76mg/100g,meanwhile,it reached 18.52mg/100g when stored at-3℃ at 24th day.At 4℃ stored for 8d and-3℃ stored for 24d,the K value were 56.7% and 53.2% separately.The aerobic plate count of Crucian stored for 12d at 4℃ was 7.02lg cfu/g,at-3℃ on the 30th day it reached 5.78lg cfu/g.Talking all indicators of changes,the shelf life were 8d and 24d respectively at 4℃ and-3℃ condition.Compared with refrigeration,the partial freezing conditions would increase the shelf life obviously.%以感官品质、pH、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)、总挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)和鲜度指标K值、细菌总数为指标,研究鲫鱼在冷藏(4℃)和微冻(-3℃)贮藏中品质的变化规律.结果表明,鲫鱼在4℃和-3℃贮藏条件下,分别在第8d和第24d达到感官品质接受上限.4℃条件下第14d TBA值为1.29mg/100g,-3℃贮藏条件下第30d TBA值为1.58mg/100g.4℃条件下贮藏8d TVB-N值为18.76mg/100g,-3℃贮藏24d TVB-N值为18.52mg/100g.4℃贮藏8d和-3℃贮藏24d的鲫鱼K值分别为56.7%和53.2%.4℃贮藏12d细菌总数为7.02lg cfu/g,3℃贮藏30d为5.78lg cfu/g.综合各指标变化,4℃和-3℃条件下鲫鱼的货架期分别为8d和24d,与冷藏相比,微冻能明显的延长鲫鱼的货架期.

  6. Transparent crucian carp Carassius auratus, a fish model suitable for study in vivo%透明鲫——一个适合活体研究的鱼类模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯彬; 汪学杰; 常藕琴; 刘春; 王芳; 马必勇; 梁慧丽; 吴淑勤

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解鲫成体透明的原因,探讨该性状的应用特性,为透明鲫作为水生实验动物材料系统开发提供基础.方法 对透明鲫进行繁殖,并观察其后代性状,了解透明性状的遗传规律;体视镜观察透明鲫色素细胞的种类与分布,并与鲫比较;组织切片和压片确认微孢子虫对透明鲫的感染,并观察感染症状的变化.结果 鲫的透明性状可以遗传,大部分后代表现为通体透明,心、肝、肾、肠、鳔、鳃、脊椎等组织器官肉眼清晰可见.与正常鲫比较,透明鲫的主要色素细胞为黄色素细胞,并未发现虹彩色素细胞,黑色素细胞的数量也大为减少.微孢子虫对鱼体的感染过程可直观观察,病原的扩散和空间分布能实时获得,具普通鱼类无法比拟的应用优势.结论 虹彩色素细胞的缺失是鲫透明突变的结构基础.由于透明鲫内部器官可直接观测,无需依靠解剖或复杂仪器系统,在同一动物身上可能获得一系列的动态试验数据,或可作为模型材料广泛应用于生命科学不同领域.%Objective To better understand the mechanism of transparency in adult crucian carp, explore its application and provide more evidence to support it as a novel aquatic animal model. Methods The transparent crucian carp was bred,and the phenotype of offsprings was examined to learn the inheritance of the transparent character. A stereo-microscope was used to examine the types and patterns of chromatophores in transparent and common crucian carps. The fish infected with microsporidia were closely monitored. Tissue sections and wet-mounted squashes were prepared to observe the parasites in muscle tissues, and tissue sections were used to characterize the pathological changes under the light microscope. Results The transparent fish were healthy and fertile, showing a inherent character. The mutants manifested as entire transparent body. The main internal organs, such as heart, liver, gut, kidney, swim bladder, gills, and spinal cord, in living fish were visible by naked eye. Compared with common crucian carp, the main chromatophores in the transparent fish was xanthophore, loss of iridophore, and the number of melanophore was reduced. The process of microsporidia infection in transparent mutants can be directly visualized in vivo, and the dynamic, spatial pattern of pathogen invasion could be acquired in a real-time manner, superior to other conventional fish models. Conclusions The absence of iri-dophores underlies the transparent mutant of crucian carp histologically. The changes of internal organs in transparent fish can be observed directly, do not require anatomical or other delicate instruments. A series of dynamic data are likely to be observed from a single transparent fish, therefore, it is expected to be widely used in life science studies.

  7. Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, as a model for studies of the effects of ionizing radiation. [Radiosensitivity of Poecilia formosa, Carassius auratus, Ictalurus punctatus, and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in laboratory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Hart, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the viviparous teleost, Poecilia formosa, (Amazon molly) may have wide potential use for aquatic radiation studies. The Amazon molly is a naturally occurring gynogenetic species, in which the eggs are activated after mating with the males of closely related species, without the subsequent genetic contribution from the male. The offspring of a single original female constitute a clone, having identical genotypes. Clones of the genetically homogeneous Amazon molly may prove to be equally as valuable to aquatic radiobiologists as the inbred rodent lines have been to mammalian studies. In many other respects the Amazon molly is a satisfactory laboratory animal. It is robust, easy to rear, and has large broods of young when fully grown. Maintenance costs are low. Details are given of the conditions under which colonies reproduce.

  8. 转青鱼生长激素基因异源四倍体鲫鲤%Black Carp GH Gene Transgenic Allotetraploid Hybrids of Carassius auratus red var.(♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯浩; 傅永明; 骆剑; 吴慧; 刘筠; 刘少军

    2011-01-01

    The ecological risk is the “bottleneck” for commercialization of transgenic fish. The sterile transgenic triploid fish derived from hydrating the transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is one of the keys to solve this problem.The “all fish” gene construct (pbcAbcGHc) containing Black Carp B-actin gene promoter and cDNA of growth hormone (GH) gene from the same species was introduced into the fertilized eggs of the allotetroploid fish through microinjection. The contrast cultivation results show that the weight and body length of PO of the transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days were much larger than those of the controls. PCR assay was applied among 60 transgenic allotetraploid fish of 150 days and the integration ratio of the exogenous transplant gene in the genome of the caudal fin is 90%. The transplant gene could be detected in 13 of 20 samples from the sperm of the male transgenic tetraploid fish.The RT-PCR result demonstrates that the transcription of exogenous GH gene could be found in the muscle, liver,kidney and oval of the biggest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed PO of the Black Carp GH gene transgenic tetraploid fish with outstanding growth rate, which made the solid foundation for the pure line establishment of the transgenic tetraploid fish and for developing the sterile transgenic triploid fish.%生态安全性是转基因鱼走向市场的瓶颈,通过转基因四倍体鱼同转基因二倍体鱼杂交获得不育的转基因三倍体鱼是解决该问题的有效途径之一.本研究构建了青鱼β-actin基因启动子和青鱼生长激素(GH)基因精确连接的"金鱼"基因pbcAbcGHc;并采用显微注射法将pbcAbcGHc 导入异源四倍体鲫鲤受精卵.对照养殖结果表明,150日龄的转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤原代(P0)的体重及体长明显大于对照组.选择60尾P0代转基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,采用PCR方法检测出外源青鱼GH基因在P0代转基因四倍体尾鳍基因组DNA中的整合率为90%;对20尾雄性P0代转基因四倍体精液样本的PCR检测发现,13个样本具有外源青鱼GH基因的整合.在一尾生长速度显著的P0代转基因四倍体鲫鲤的肌肉、肝脏、肾脏和卵巢组织中可检测到外源青鱼GH基因的转录.本研究成功获得了具有明显生长优势的P0代转青鱼GH基因异源四倍体鲫鲤,为建立转青鱼GH基因异源四倍体鲫鲤纯系和研制不育的转基因三倍体鱼奠定了基础.

  9. Effects of Roxarsone on Na+-K+-ATPase Activity and DNA Damage in Carassius auratus%洛克沙胂对鲫鱼两种生态毒理学指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强; 李浩; 张斌

    2009-01-01

    采用静态试验法,将鲫鱼暴露于4、16、64 mg·L-1洛克沙胂中48、96、144 h后,检测了鱼鳃、.肾脏和肝的Na+-K+-ATP酶活性.结果表明,在同一组织中,随着处理浓度的提高.洛克沙胂对鲫鱼各组织Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制作用增强.对于不同组织.同一处理浓度的洛克沙胂对鲫鱼鳃中Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制作用更为明显,其次是肝和肾(P<0.01).在同一浓度下,洛克沙胂对鲫鱼各组织Na+-K+-ATP酶活性抑制率呈明显的时间-效应关系,暴露时间越长,抑制率越高(P<0.01).此外,单细胞凝胶电泳试验(SCGE)结果表明,鲫鱼暴露于0.5、1、2 mg·L-1洛克沙胂中72 h能引起鲫鱼肾细胞明显的DNA损伤,并在设定剂量范围内呈现一定的剂量-效应关系;同时,鲫鱼肾细胞于体外暴露于1、10、100、500、1 000mg·L-1洛克沙胂3、6、12 h后,可引起严重的DNA损伤.

  10. 洛克沙胂在鲫鱼体内的残留及消除动力学研究%Studies on the residue and elimination of roxarsone in Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永学; 陈杖榴; 刘志昌; 陈展飞

    2004-01-01

    本文对洛克沙胂在鲫鱼体内的砷残留及消除动力学进行了研究,鲫鱼在室内水池洛克沙胂溶液10 mg/L(以As计)中连续暴露15天进行富集残留试验后转入清水中进行消除试验.采用微波消解处理和氢化物-原子荧光光度法测定鱼鳃、肌肉、血清和内脏中总砷含量.结果表明,砷在鱼体内的表现为吸收和分布较快,肌肉和血清中总砷水平仅为0.3~0.4 mg/kg,内脏中残留最高达30.25 mg/kg.洛克沙胂在鲫鱼组织中消除符合一级速率动力学过程,消除半衰期(t1/2)为2.5~2.8 h,鱼鳃中砷浓度在初始2 h内下降快,此后消除较慢,t1/2为9.45 h.

  11. 二倍体鲫鲤F2产生不同倍性卵子的证据%Evidence of Different Ploidy Eggs Produced by Diploid F2 Hybrids of Carassius auratus (♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 孙远东; 罗凯坤; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    在检测到鲫鲤F2产生3种不同大小(直径分别为0.13 cm,0.17cm和0.2 cm)类型的卵子基础上,进行了F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)及F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)的交配实验.通过染色体计数和流式细胞仪分析,在F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)后代中获得了四倍体、三倍体、二倍体鱼;在F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)后代中获得了四倍体和三倍体鱼.这两个交配组合后代中出现的不同倍性的鱼类为证明鲫鲤F2能产生三倍体、二倍体和单倍体卵子提供了进一步证据.F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)中雄性四倍体鱼的存在说明在四倍体后代中存在基因型为XXXY的个体.对上述两个交配组合后代的四倍体鱼和三倍体鱼的性腺结构观察表明:四倍体鱼是可育的,而三倍体鱼是不育的.作者认为鲫鲤F2能够产生二倍体和三倍体卵子与核内复制机制和生殖细胞的融合有关.%Based on the presence of three types of eggs with different diameters 0.13, 0.17 and 0.2 cm, we made two crosses: F2 (♀)by × diploid red crucian carp (♂), and F2 (♀) × F10 tetraploid (♂). The ploidy levels of the progeny of the two crosses were examined chromosome counting and DNA content measurement by flow cytometer. In the offspring of the former cross, tetraploids, triploids, and diploid were obtained. In the progeny of the latter cross, tetraploids and triploids were observed. The production of the different ploidy level fish in the progeny of the two crosses provided a further evidence that F2 might generate triploid, diploid and XXXY probably existed in the tetraploid progeny. The gonadal structures of the tetraploids and triploids indicated that both female and male tetraploids were fertile and the triploids were sterile. We concluded that the formations of different ploidy level eggs from F2 were contributed by endoreduplication and fusion of germ cells.

  12. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe;

    2010-01-01

    and nitrite on the O2 consumption rate and isometric twitch force development in electrically paced ventricular preparations during hypoxia, and measured O2 affinity and nitrite reductase activity of the purified heart Mbs of both species. Upon hypoxia (9% O2), O2 consumption and developed force decreased...

  13. Distribution and elimination of enrofloxacin in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio%恩诺沙星在异育银鲫体内的组织分布及消除规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方星星; 刘秀红; 丁相卿; 赵文婷; 刘文斌; 陆承平

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of enrofloxacin ( EF) in tissues was investigated after single intravenous (i. v. ) and oral ( p. o. ) administration of 10 mg·kg‐1 body weight in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp at 24-26 ℃. The tissue concentration of EF was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography( HPLC). A two-compartment model kinetics was observed following i. v. administration. The plasma concentration-time data following p. o. administration showed a double peak-shaped curve, indicating the possibility of enterohepatic recirculation of EF in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. The absorption of EF was very good with a bio-availability( F) of 86%. After both administrations, the distribution of drug was extensive, the AUC in kidney, muscle, Hepatopancreas,gill and blood was 624.2,965.9,721.8,298.0,239.6 μg·h·mL‐1 and 465-3,343.1,542.9,411.4,205.9 μg·h·mL‐1, respectively;the Cmax in five tissues was 33.48,16.91,26.44,18.71 μg·g‐1 and 15.30 μg·mL‐1 ,9.20,5.39,7.78,6.88 u.g·g‐' and 4.50 μg·mL‐l,respectively. The depletion time of EF was considerably long,the Tl/2β of drug in five tissues was 169.0,141.4, 113.4,36.7,63.5 h and 27. 3,49. 2,77.0,38.5,62. 7 h,respectively. Conclusion: EF administered p. o. at a dose of 10 mg·kg‐1 might offer a good option for the treatment of infectious diseases in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp,while its relatively long T1/2β indicated a long withdrawal period.%在24 ~26℃水温条件下,以10mg·kg-1剂量,用高效液相色谱法检测组织中药物浓度,研究静脉注射和口服给药后恩诺沙星在健康异育银鲫组织内的代谢分布规律.结果表明:静脉注射后,药物在组织中代谢动力学特征符合二室模型;口服给药后,药物吸收良好,生物利用度(F)为86%,组织药物浓度-时间曲线呈现双峰,推测是由于药物在异育银鲫体内的肠肝循环作用所致.静脉注射和口服两种给药方式下,恩诺沙星在异育银鲫体内均具有良好的组织分布,肾脏、肌肉、肝胰脏、鳃和血液5种组织中的药物浓度时间曲线下总面积(AUC)分别为624.2、965.9、721.8、298.0、239.6μg·h·mL-1和465.3、343.1、542.9、411.4、205.9μg·h·mL-1,最大药物浓度(Cmax)分别为33.48、16.91、26.44、18.71μg·g-1和15.30μg·mL-1,9.20、5.39、7.78、6.88μg·g-1和4.50μg·mL-1;药物在各组织中消除时间较长,消除半衰期(T1/2β)分别为169.0、141.4、113.4、36.7、63.5h和27.3、49.2、77.0、38.5、62.7h.结论:恩诺沙星以10mg·kg-1剂量单次口服给药,对细菌引起的异育银鲫病可以起到较好的治疗作用,但需注意药物残留问题.

  14. 虹鳟性激素与免疫活动的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义; 韩晓冬

    1999-01-01

    Gonadal maturation is accompanied with adrenocortical bypertrophy in salmonid fish. Sex hormones may also modulate the function of the immune system in fish. In goldfish, Carassius auratus , plasma IgM levels had relations to gonadal maturation. The administra-

  15. Study on accumulation of 137Cs in aquatic organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengDing-Hua; CheungT

    1998-01-01

    The organisms were cultivated for 7d in well water contaminated with 137Cs,The experimental results show that the accumulation level of tissues of carassius auratus had the order of gill>viscera>epidermis(including scales)>bone(including head and tail)>flesh.The concentration capability of them had the order of shrimp>carassius auratus>ophiocephalus argus,The concentration factors(CF) of shrimp was 12.6 times of that of ophiocephalus argus.

  16. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    2002-01-01

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  17. Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates.

  18. Organización circadiana del comportamiento alimentario de la lubina (Dicentrarchus labrax) y el carpín (Carassius auratus) : sincronización por el alimento y la luz / Francisco Javier Sánchez Vázquez ; directores Salvador Zamora Navarro, Juan Antonio Madrid Pérez.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    1995-01-01

    Tesis-Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. D 452. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. D 520. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. T.M.-1261.

  19. 金鱼PP2A调节亚基PR55γ基因的克隆及表达分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF THE GENE ENCODING THE PR55/Bγ OF PP-2A IN GOLDFISH.CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珺琼; 谢斯思; 陈培超; 邹立军; 刘文彬; 肖亚梅; 刘少军; 刘筠; 李万程

    2011-01-01

    蛋白磷酸酶2A是一种重要的丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白磷酸酶,对于调控多细胞的生命活动起重要作用.以金鱼大脑为材料,运用RT-PCR技术克隆得到PP2A调节亚基B55家族中PR55γ基因编码区部分序列.结果显示PR55γ基因eDNA长1218 bp,编码的多肽共含405个氨基酸.序列分析表明,该基因编码的蛋白与已知其他物种对应的PR55γ蛋白质均有着很高的同源性.用RT-PCR的方法检测了PR55γ基因在金鱼不同组织和胚胎发育不同时期的mRNA表达水平.结果表明,PR55γ基因表达呈现明显的组织和胚胎发育阶段差异性.在成体组织中,仅在大脑和鳍中有表达.在胚胎发育过程中,PR55γ从神经胚开始出现,整体呈现上升趋势,在出膜期达到最高水平.据此推测,PR55γ基因可能在金鱼胚胎发育中具有多种重要作用.%The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is an important posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that modulates the functional status of more than thirty percent of total cellular proteins.In the present study, we reported the molecular cloning of a partial cDNA coding for the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A from the brain of goldfish through 5' RACE PCR strategy.The partial PR55γ cDNA contained 1218 nucleotides which encoded a deduced partial protein of 405 amino acids.Sequence homology analysis showed that the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A displayed a high level of amino acid identity with the counterpart from other species including human and rat, indicating the conservation of PR55/Bγ.RT-PCR analysis revealed that PR55/Bγ mRNA was specifically expressed in the brain and fin of goldfish.Our demonstration that PR55/Bγwas expressed in the fish fin was a novel finding for the first time.This result suggested that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit in fish likely played an important role in swimming, balancing and sensitivity to the water environment.Moreover, during the development of goldfish, PR55/Bγ mRNA was initially detected at neurula stage, suggesting that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit was likely implicated in control of the brain development differentiation in fish.Furthermore, we found that PR55/Bγ became gradually increased from the optic vesicle stage and reached a peak level at the muscle movement stage, and thereafter, PR55/Bγ mRNA maintained at this level with slight fluctuation from heart beat to hatching larvae.These results indicated that PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit was actively regulating the development processes of these different stages.The consistent developmental expression patterns of PR55/Bγ (Fig.2) and the catalytic subunits (PP-2Ac)[28]also supported that PR55/Bγ may regulate fish development in holoenzyme, which was different from that of certain regulatory subunits of PP-2A[20-22].Thus, our present study demonstrated that the specific PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as regulatory subunit may play an important role in regulating fish development.In addition, PP-2A containing PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit may play important roles of homeostasis in brain and fin.

  20. Effects of exogenous cortisol on TSH-β subunit mRNA level and serum thyroid hormone levels of Carassius auratus gibelio%外源性皮质醇对异育银鲫TSH-β mRNA表达和血清甲状腺激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲宪成; 杨艳红; 刘颖; 周正峰; 崔严慧

    2007-01-01

    运用Sybr Green Ⅰ荧光定量RT-PCR方法和放射免疫方法(RIA)分析了外源性皮质醇(cortisol)对异育银鲫促甲状腺激素β亚基(TSH-β)mRNA表达和血清甲状腺激素水平的影响.实验设计为10周,实验组每两周注射一次0.2 mg/kg体重的cortisol(用57%酒精溶解),对照组注射同剂量的57%酒精.实验期间没有投喂饲料.在本实验条件下,研究结果显示:注射3次外源性cortisol后,异育银鲫TSH-β mRNA表达量与对照组相比略有下降;注射5次后,与对照组相比显著降低(P<0.05).另一方面,RIA结果显示:注射3次外源性cortisol后,实验组与对照组相比,血清甲状腺激素T3和T4含量虽略有升高,但无显著差异;而注射5次后显著升高(P<0.05).以上结果提示:外源性cortisol能够影响异育银鲫脑下垂体-甲状腺轴.

  1. 3种不同血清型副溶血弧菌对异育银鲫的急性毒性研究%The Acute Toxicity Test about the Different Serological Type of Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Carassius auratus gibelio var.Songpu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小亮; 贺中华; 田甜; 李波

    2009-01-01

    在静水条件下,采用1×109 CFU/ml,1×108 CFU/ml,1×107 CFU/ml,1×106 CFU/ml,1×103 CFU/ml的副溶血弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)对异育银鲫幼苗进行人工注射感染,通过96小时急性毒性试验,测定不同浓度副溶血弧菌血清型对异育银鲫LC50值和安全浓度.结果显示,血清型为01:KⅢ,01:KⅥ,05:KⅣ的副溶血弧菌对异育银鲫96小时的LC50值分别为7.9×106 CFU/ml,2.0×106 CFU/ml,7.9×106 CFU/ml.异育银鲫对血清型01:KⅢ,01:KⅥ,05:KⅣ的安全浓度分别为6.3×104 CFU/ml,1.66×103 CFU/ml,3.7×103 CFU/ml.

  2. 蒲公英水提物对鲫鱼生长、鱼体成分、消化酶和免疫系统的影响%Effects of Aqueous Extract of Taraxacum Mongolicum Hand-mazz.on Growth Performance, Muscle Composition, Digestive Enzyme and Immune System of Carassius Auratus Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小玉; 沈明浩

    2010-01-01

    本试验将蒲公英水提物添加在鲫鱼饲料中喂养鲫鱼70 d,观察研究蒲公英水提物对各组鲫鱼的生长、鱼体成分、消化酶和免疫系统的影响.结果表明,添加4%、2%的蒲公英水提物能促进鲫鱼的生长,对鲫鱼的肉质有改善作用,能显著提高鲫鱼的淀粉酶和蛋白酶活性(P0.05);4%、2%的蒲公英水提物能显著提高鲫鱼血清碱性磷酸酶的活性(P<0.05).

  3. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed deprivation and randomly distributed into the 12 tanks (40 fish per tank). The tanks were randomly assigned the four diets. Fifty fish were taken from the remaining fish and frozen for initial fish body chemical analysis. During the experiment, an excess amount of feed was fed to fish and uneaten feed were collected after 1h in each feeding, dried at 60℃ and reweighed. Leaching rate of uneaten feed in tanks was estimated by placing weighed feeds into a tank without fish for 1 h and then recovering, drying and reweighing. The average leaching rate was used to calibrate the amount of uneaten feed. Faeces were collected after uneaten feed collection at the start of the experiment and through all the experiment period after 7d. To minimize nutrient leaching in faeces, only fresh and intact faeces were collected. Faeces were dried at 70℃ for digestibility determination. At the end of the trial, the fish were starved for 1 d and batch weighed. Fish were killed by a blow on the head and blood samples were collected (24h after last feeding) from the caudal vein of six fish from each tank at the end of the feeding trial by using heparinized syringes. Blood was centrifuged at 3500 r/min for 15 min, plasma-separated and stored at - 80 ℃. The remaining fish in each tank were taken for final fish body composition analysis. The results showed that feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE) decreased significantly (p < 0. 05). Apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCp) significantly increased (p < 0. 05), but ADC of dry matter and energy decreased (p < 0.05). Total nitrogen intake (TNI), apparent nitrogen intake (ANI), faecal nitrogen output (FNO), non-faecal nitrogen excretion (NFE) and nitrogen retention (NE) significantly decreased with the increasing dietary soybean meal (p < 0. 05), but nitrogen load (NL) significantly increased (p < 0. 05). Levels of plasma glucose, triacylglycerol and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly with the increasing dietary soybean meal (p < 0. 05), but plasma cholesterol concentration and lysozyme activities decreased (p <0. 05). In conclusion, the results from this study showed adverse effects of inclusion of the soybean meal in diets on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. The palatability was not negatively affected when soybean meal was included in the diets. Unbalanced amino acid composition of soybean meal diets seem to be the main reason to influence growth performance and nitrogen load of gibel carp.

  4. EFFECT OF FAECAL COLLECTION INTERVAL AND DIETARY MEAT AND BONE MEAL LEVELS ON DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS IN GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉含量对异育银鲫(Carassiusauratus gibelio) 消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 雷武; 韩冬; 杨云霞

    2008-01-01

    本研究探讨了通过收集器不同粪便收集时间和饲料中肉骨粉(MBM)含量对异育银鲫干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的表观消化率 (ADC) 影响.不同梯度(0, 20, 40, 60, 80 ,100%)的肉骨粉替代鱼粉(FM) 蛋白配制成六种等氮 (粗蛋白: 410 g/kg) 等能 (总能: 18 kJ/g) 的饲料,通过11周的饲养实验,实验开始后2周开始收集粪便,收集时间分别是:排粪后 1 min, 投喂后4h和16h. 结果表明,干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率明显随粪便收集时间增加而升高(p0.05). 干物质、蛋白、能量、磷的消化率随饲料中肉骨粉含量的增加呈线性或近线性下降.因此,在消化率测定中应该尽快收集排出的粪便以保证消化率的真实性.消化率是影响肉骨粉利用一个因素.%The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of faecal collection interval (using a settling column) and the levels of dietary meat and bone meals (MBM) on the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) for dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus in gibel carp. Six iso-nitrogenous (crude protein: 410 g/kg) and iso-energetic (gross energy: 18 kJ/g) diets were used in which fish meal (FM) protein was gradually replaced by MBM at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. These diet combinations were fed to juvenile gibel carp for 11 weeks. The faecal samples were collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment using a settlement column starting 1 min after excretion started, or 4h and 16h after feeding. The results showed that the ADCs of dry matter, protein, energy and phosphorus increased significantly as the time from excretion to faecal collections increased while not being significant for the high MBM inclusion diets. ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, energy and phosphorus decreased linearly or almost linearly with the increase in dietary MBM levels. These findings suggest that faeces should be collected soon after they had settled under the conditions of this study for digestibility determination while rapid leaching is apparently responsible for this false reading of digestibility with increasing sampling interval. It is also apparent that the digestibility is one of the problems affecting the use of MBM in juvenile gibel carp.

  5. Histopathology and pathophysiology ofCarassius auratusgibelio infected byMyxobolus pharynae%异育银鲫咽碘泡虫病组织病理与病理生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振伟; 陆宏达; 操艮萍; 刘俊杰; 毛毛

    2016-01-01

    咽碘泡虫(Myxobolus pharynae)病是近几年发生在江苏省盐城地区的大丰、射阳和滨海以及周边地区,引起养殖异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)大批死亡的一种黏孢子虫病,咽碘泡虫只特异地寄生在异育银鲫的咽部组织内,为了阐明该病对鱼体的损伤作用,我们对不同患病时期的异育银鲫的组织病理和疾病中期的病理生理进行研究。组织病理结果表明:疾病初期病鱼咽部略有轻度充血,咽碘泡虫以营养体阶段寄生在咽部黏膜下层的组织中,并开始形成由成纤维细胞包裹的小孢囊,其他组织器官无病理损伤现象;疾病中期由于小孢囊数量增加和囊内营养体分裂增殖并逐步发育为成熟孢子后体积增大,构成的大孢囊使咽部显著膨大,包裹小孢囊的结缔组织囊壁充血,逐步萎缩而变薄,成纤维细胞核固缩坏死,咽部黏膜层中的上皮细胞淡染、核固缩坏死,味蕾失去应有的结构,鳃组织细胞在鳃小片间严重增生,肾部分区域出现细胞坏死,肾小球肿胀,肾小管上皮细胞出现滴状玻璃样变性,肝、脾、肠和前肾无病理变化现象;疾病后期小孢囊囊壁、黏膜下层和黏膜层组织细胞进一步坏死崩解,出现孔洞,成熟孢子、坏死组织和血液一并流出孔洞,病鱼肠腔中有许多来自坏死的咽部组织细胞和成熟孢子,其他组织器官病理变化与疾病中期相似。疾病中期病鱼的病理生理分析结果表明:病鱼红细胞数量和大小、血红蛋白浓度、血栓细胞数量、血清总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、血糖、谷丙转氨酶、谷草转氨酶和碱性磷酸酶都分别极显著低于健康鱼(P0.05)。由于咽碘泡虫的寄生部位鱼咽部严重膨大堵塞口咽腔并引发鳃组织增生、肾的损伤和贫血等变化,进一步发展为咽部组织坏死破裂出现孔洞流血,导致病鱼无法摄食

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15121-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Carassius auratus COL1A3 mRNA for ... 37 0.78 S58135( S58135 )hyphally regulated protein - yeast ...r Scribbler ... 37 0.78 ( P46591 ) RecName: Full=Hyphally-regulated protein; Flags: Precur... 37 0.78 BX2941

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-04-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-04-0022 sp|Q90309|OPSUV_CARAU Ultraviolet-sensitive opsin (Ultraviolet co...ne photoreceptor pigment) dbj|BAA12889.1| ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigment [Carassius auratus] Q90309 1e-173 87% ...

  8. Foraging Behavior in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus: Effect of the Distance among Multiple Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cabrera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of travel and the efficiency in foraging behavior was evaluated in four hamsters searching for food within an enclosure with multiple patches. Two different distances among patches were randomly arranged: Near-Patches (10 cm separation and Distant-Patches (21.5 cm separation. Subjects obtained the food by mounting over the cylinders (stations placed in the enclosure of 110 cm2. Results showed that in both, Near and Distant conditions, the distance between responses was longer in late stages of the trials then in early stages. Nonetheless, the most choices to adjacent stations were in Distant-Patches condition, while skips and diagonal-station choices were more frequently showed in the Near-Patches condition.

  9. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  10. Usefulness of immature golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus as a model for uterotrophic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the sensitivity of immature hamster uterotrophic assay to reference oestrogen agonists/antagonists in order to develop a sensitive model for evaluation of endocrine-active compounds in diets. After performing a baseline for control animals, the sensitivity of immature females (postnatal day 18 to reference compounds was evaluated in a three-day uterotrophic assay. The absolute and adjusted dry uterine weights, fold induction over control for absolute wet uterine weight, and wet uterine weight/body weight ratio (% were used as endpoints. The significantly active doses for reference oestrogens were as follows: 0.6 μg/kg for 17α-ethinyloestradiol (s.c.; 1 μg/kg/day (s.c. and 40 μg/kg (p.o. for diethylstilboestrol; 40 mg/kg (s.c. and 160 mg/kg (p.o. for bisphenol A. Co-treatment with tamoxifen at a dose of 1 mg/kg significantly antagonised the uterotrophic effect induced by 1 μg/kg 17α-ethinyloestradiol, and showed the attenuated proliferative effect in histopathological examination. We found immature hamster uterotrophic assay as a sensitive model that could be a good alternative to the rat assay.

  11. Morfología de la nefrona de "sparus auratus" / Adelina Zuasti Elizondo.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuasti Elizondo, Adelina

    1983-01-01

    Resumen de Tesis - Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. DEPOSITO. DPT 86 2389. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. DEPOSITO. DPT 107 1122. MEDICINA ARRIXACA. DEPOSITO. DPT-S E-4 14. NEBRIJA. DEPOSITO. F 16 791.

  12. THE EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOK WORM IN GOLDEN HAMSTER, MESOCRICETUS AURATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khazan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  13. Intranasal vaccination with leishmanial antigens protects golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus against Leishmania (Viannia Braziliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzinei da Silva-Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous results have shown that oral and intranasal administration of particulate Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis antigens (LaAg partially protects mice against L. amazonensis infection. However, vaccination studies on species of the subgenus Viannia, the main causative agent of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in the Americas, have been hampered by the lack of easy-to-handle bio-models that accurately mimic the human disease. Recently, we demonstrated that the golden hamster is an appropriate model for studying the immunopathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (Viannia braziliensis. Using the golden hamster model, our current study investigated whether the protective effect of intranasal immunisation with LaAg can be extended to L. braziliensis infection.Golden hamsters vaccinated with either two intranasal (IN doses of LaAg (10 µg or two intramuscular doses of LaAg (20 µg were challenged 2 weeks post-vaccination with L. braziliensis. The results showed that IN immunisation with LaAg significantly reduced lesion growth and parasitic load as well as serum IgG and IgG2 levels. At the experimental endpoint on day 114 post-infection, IN-immunised hamsters that were considered protected expressed IFN-γ and IL10 mRNA levels that returned to uninfected skin levels. In contrast to the nasal route, intramuscular (IM immunisation failed to provide protection.These results demonstrate for the first time that the nasal route of immunisation can induce cross protection against L. braziliensis infection.

  14. Melatonin synthesis under calcium constraint in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Kulczkowska, E.; Kalamarz, H.; Guerreiro, P.M.G.; Flik, G.

    2008-01-01

    Brain or blood plasma melatonin was analysed as a measure for pineal melatonin production in sea bream. Access to calcium was limited by diluting the seawater to 2.5‰ and removing calcium from the diet or by prolonged feeding of vitamin D-deficient diet. Interactions/relations between melatonin and

  15. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two...... different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order...

  16. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  17. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species.

  18. Organization and Variation Analysis of 5S rDNA in Different Ploidy-level Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp × Topmouth Culter

    OpenAIRE

    Weiguo He; Qinbo Qin; Shaojun Liu; Tangluo Li; Jing Wang; Jun Xiao; Lihua Xie; Chun Zhang; Yun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets...

  19. Study of parasites native and introduced species of fish in Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgnia, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Seven native and introduced species of fish in south east Caspian Sea coast examined for parasite infestation during 2004-2006. Native fishes include Barbus capito, Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus frisii kutum, Rutilus rutilus, Stizostidion lucioperca, Alosa caspia persica, 24 ecto and endo parasites were found in different organs of 7 species of fishes of them 2 of the metazoan 12 species of crustacean Lernaea cyprinacea , Lamproglena pukhella nematodea and cestodea parasite were...

  20. Performance Analysis for Lateral-Line-Inspired Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    frequency is encoded in the nerve fibers connected to the lateral line [10], indicating that at least some high level information about vortices is being...Mogdans. Responses to dipole stimuli of anterior lateral line nerve fibres in goldfish, carassius auratus, under still and running water conditions...M. Humphreys. Wall-pressure-array measure- ments beneath a separating/ reattaching flow region. Physics of Fluids, 15(3):706–717, March 2003. [37

  1. Oscillatory change of SR-protein kinase activities during oocyte maturation meiosis in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲安; 曹丹; 桂建芳

    2000-01-01

    The SR-protein kinase activity was analyzed and the cytological changes were observed during oocyte maturation in bisexual transparent color crucian carp ( Carassius auratus color variety). The results revealed that the SR-protein kinase activity was sensitive to the artificially induced spawning hormones, and the change of oscillatory activity was similar to that of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) kinase that regulates meiotic cell cycle in fish.

  2. Seasonal morphological and biochemical changes of Dahlgren cells implies a potential role of the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) in the reproduction cycle of teleostean fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng; Mu, Rui

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize recent research on the seasonal morphological and biochemical changes of Dahlgren cells in the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) of the freshwater teleosts carp Carassius auratus. The quantitative proof for these seasonal changes in the morphology and biochemistry of Dahlgren cells reflects the relationship between the CNSS and the reproduction cycle of fish and implies that the CNSS is probably involved in the reproduction process of fish.

  3. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  4. Despopulação neuronal cardíaca em hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus cronicamente infectados com o Trypanosoma cruzi Cardiac neuronal depopulation in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Chapadeiro

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter um modelo experimental que permitisse estabelecer a despopulação (desnervação neuronal cardíaca procurou-se pesquisar o comportamento do sistema nervoso intracardíaco em hamsters cronicamente infectados com o T. cruzi. Para tal fim, realizaram-se contagens dos neurônios do plexo nervoso autonômico intracardíaco em hamsters inoculados com 35.000 formas sangüíneas de três cepas diferentes, sacrificados 5, 8 e 10 meses depois da infecção. Demonstrou-se, pela primeira vez, destruição neuronal significativa num modelo experimental, similar à que ocorre na doença de Chagas humana.The aim of this study was to obtain an experimental animal model of destruction of cardiac neurons in order to investigate the behavior of the cardiac nervous system of hamsters chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. We counted the neuronal cells of the cardiac autonomic nervous plexus in hamsters inoculated with 35 000 blood forms of three different T. cruzi strains and killed 5, 8 and 10 months after infection. We showed for the first time severe neuronal destruction in an experimental animal model with characteristics similar to those observed in human Chagas'disease.

  5. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    these neuropeptides serve as neuromodulators to coordinate female sexual behavior with the limited window of fertility has not been thoroughly explored. In the present study, either intact or ovariectomized, hormone-treated female hamsters were implanted for fifteen days with chronic release osmotic pumps filled...

  6. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  7. Infección experimental del hámster (Mesocricetus auratus con metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Huiza F

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Un hámster hembra adulta infectada oralmente con 11 metacercarias de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus murió a los 10 días de ser infectado. A la autopsia del animal, se observaron y recuperaron 5 ejemplares juveniles de Paragonimus mexicanus (peruvianus aún móviles: 2 en tejido pulmonar, 2 en cavidad toráxica y 1 en tejido graso del peritoneo abdominal.

  8. Structural and Functional Studies of the Protamine 2-Zinc Complex from Syrian Gold Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus) Spermatids and Sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Cheryl E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-08-30

    The research described in this dissertation consists of four major areas: (1) sequence analysis of protamine 2 from Muroid rodents to identify potential zinc-binding domain(s) of protamine 2; (2) structural studies of the protamine 2-zinc complex from Syrian Gold hamster sperm and spermatids to elucidate the role of zinc during spermiogenesis; (3) structural studies of an unique protamine 2-zinc complex from chinchilla sperm; and (4) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of soluble complexes of hairpin oligonucleotides with synthetic arginine-rich peptides or protamine 1 isolated from bull sperm. First, zinc was quantitated in spermatids and sperm by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to determine whether zinc is present in the early stages of spermiogenesis. The PIXE results revealed the zinc content varies proportionately with the amount of protamine 2 in both spermatid and sperm nuclei. An exception was chinchilla sperm containing twice the amount of protamine 2 than zinc. Further analyses by PIXE and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of zinc bound to protamines isolated from hamster sperm confirmed the majority of the zinc is bound to protamine and identified the zinc ligands of protamine 2 in hamster spermatids and sperm in vivo. These studies established that zinc is bound to the protamine 2 precursor in hamster spermatids and the coordination of zinc by protamine 2 changes during spermiogenesis. Finally, the sequence analysis combined with the XAS results suggest that the zinc-binding domain in protamine 2 resides in the amino-terminus. Similar analyses of chinchilla sperm by XAS were performed to clarify the unusual PIXE results and revealed that chinchilla has an atypical protamine 2-zinc structure. Two protamine 2 molecules coordinate one zinc atom, forming homodimers that facilitate the binding of protamine 2 to DNA and provide an organizational scheme that would accommodate the observed species-specific protamine stoichiometry in mammalian sperm. Based on these results, we propose the binding of zinc to protamine 2 molecules stabilizes a dimerization domain in other mammalian sperm. Future experiments will use the knowledge we gained of the interactions between protamine 1 and DNA from the NMR studies to obtain structural data for the DNA-protamine 2-zinc complex.

  9. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of exposure to a 950MHz electromagnetic field (EMF emitted from cellular phones on serum testosterone and cortisol hormones rate of adult male Syrian Hamster were evaluated. Seventy two male Hamster in 3 groups include: group 1 or control group, group 2 or expose for 10 days and under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone for 1 h daily group 3 or expose for 50 days and under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily. In final, blood samples collected for determine of the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum. Results showed that in long term exposure EMF (group 3 testosterone and cortisol levels were increased (p<0.01, but both of cortisol and testosterone hormones in short term EMF exposure (group 2 did not significantly change. In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects.

  10. Placental activin A is required for follicular development during the second half of pregnancy in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Chie; Arakawa, Sayoko; Shi, Zhanquan; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-04-01

    Numerous antral follicles develop during the second half of pregnancy in the golden hamster even though LH and FSH are maintained at basal levels. To investigate the possible hormone actions of activin A associated with follicular development, pregnant golden hamsters were placentectomized on day 6 of pregnancy and animals were sacrificed at day 8, 10, 12, or 14 of pregnancy. There was a drastic decrease in the plasma concentrations of activin A from day 10 of pregnancy in the operated group compared to the controls. Positive immunohistochemical staining of inhibin/activin subunits betaA and betaB in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta revealed the source of activin A, AB, or B. The number of healthy follicles did not change until day 12 between the operated and the control groups, but decreased in numbers in the operated groups thereafter. The decreased concentrations of inhibin A, B, and estradiol-17beta in the operated groups at day 10 and 12 correlated well with the number of mature follicles in response to hCG treatment. In conclusion, we revealed that activin A secreted from the placenta induces folliculogenesis to maintain the high levels of estradiol-17beta needed to induce uterine dilatation for fetus growth and impending parturition.

  11. Aging in the vestibular nuclear complex of the male golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): anatomic and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Suárez, C; Navarro, A; Díaz, C; Alvarez, J C; González del Rey, C; Tolivia, J

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of senescence on the vestibular nuclear complex twenty brainstems from male golden hamsters between 3 and 27 months-old were used and the possible variations in the number of neurons, neuronal morphology and nuclear volume were studied. The neuron profiles were drawn with a camera lucida and Abercrombie's method was used to estimate the total number of neurons. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov with the correction of Lilliefors was used to evaluate the fit of our data to a normal distribution and a regression analysis was done to decide if the variation of our data with age was statistically significant. The results of the present study are relevant only for male animals and the effect of senescence could be different in female vestibular nuclear complex. Aging affects the volume of the superior and lateral vestibular nuclei, as well as the nuclear neuronal diameter of the medial vestibular nucleus, but no significant neuronal loss has been appreciated in vestibular nuclear complex related with age. During the aging process we have observed that the distribution of neurons within the vestibular nuclei of the golden hamster does not show important changes and most of their morphometric parameters do not vary significantly.

  12. Melatonin prevents dexamethasone-induced testicular oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of melatonin on dexamethasone (Dex), an extensively used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive synthetic glucocorticoid, induced testicular oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in golden hamster. Hamsters were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7): group I - control; group II - melatonin treated (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ); group III - Dex treated (7 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) and group IV - combination of Dex and melatonin. All the injections were administered intraperitoneally for seven consecutive days. The histopathological changes, specific biochemical markers, including antioxidative enzymes, plasma melatonin level and the markers for germ cell apoptosis were evaluated. Dex administration decreased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX ), plasma melatonin level and melatonin receptor (MT1) expression with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and altered testicular histopathology which might culminate into increased germ cell apoptosis as evident from increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression. However, melatonin pre-treatment enhanced enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX with a simultaneous decrease in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression. Our findings clearly suggest that melatonin improved defence against Dex-induced testicular oxidative stress and prevented germ cell apoptosis, suggesting a novel combination therapeutic approach for management of male reproductive health.

  13. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post‐mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen...... anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...... by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed...

  14. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  15. [The effect of magnetic fields on the activity of proteinases and glycosidases in the intestine of the crucian carp Carassius carassius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V; Krylov, V V

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated by the example of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius) that a 1-hour stay of fish in a combined magnetic field with resonance parameters for calcium ions decreases the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of their intestinal enzymes. It has been found that a 1-hour exposure to a combined magnetic field with resonance parameters for potassium ions has almost no effect on the activity of proteinases, but it decreases the amylolytic activity. It has been noted that the activity of proteases and glycosidases is lower under hypomagnetic conditions. Upon the inversion of the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, the proteolytic activity of the intestinal mucosa in C. carassius decreases, while the amylolytic activity becomes higher compared to the control. Possible effects of magnetic fields on the activity of digestive hydrolases in fish are discussed.

  16. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified brain acetylcholinesterase of three freshwater fishes by organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaonan, Li; Xianchuan, Xie; Guonian, Zhu; Yajun, Tan

    2004-07-14

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was purified from the brain of three fresh-water fishes, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and rainbow trout (Oncorrhychus mykiss, formerly named Salmo gairdneri) by PEG2000/phosphate-salt two phases extraction, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Kinetic characters and resistance to inhibition of crude and purified enzymes by organophosphates were then studied. Although the crude enzyme from the trout displayed a different specific activity, kinetic curve, Vmax, and sensitivity to inhibition by oxidized malathion and triazopos compared with the two cyprinoids (i.e. topmouth gudgeon and goldfish), the purified enzymes of all the three species showed no significant difference in all aspects. The result suggested a negligible intrinsic difference of brain AChEs among the tested species.

  17. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furhan T. Mhaisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided.

  18. Consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos por peces ornamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Franco Archundia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre alternativas de alimento para especies acuáticas con alto potencial económico, es uno de los principales temas de estudio en la acuicultura. En la presente investigación se evaluó el consumo de pre-adultos de mosquito por cuatro especies ícticas ornamentales: Carassius auratus, Pterophyllum scalare, Danio rerio y Xiphophorus helleri. El diseño experimental consistió en cuatro tratamientos, con tres réplicas. Cada ensayo se realizó de manera independiente entre especies. En cada acuario (1 l se colocaron dos peces juveniles, con peso húmedo y longitud total (promedio ± desviación estándar conocidos. Se suministraron en un tratamiento 100 larvas y en otro 100 pupas de mosquito. La tasa diaria de consumo de larvas y pupas se registró a un intervalo de tres horas durante un ciclo de 24 horas por especie. El peso húmedo de pre-adultos de mosquito difirió 5.20% y el seco 37.69%; en ambos casos, superior en las pupas (p < 0.001. Los peces fueron más activos durante la fase luminosa, 09:00-18:00 h, evidenciado por una mayor tasa de consumo de larvas y pupas de mosquito. Carassius auratus presentó el mayor consumo de larvas/pez/24 horas 131.33 ± 4.16 y de pupas/pez/24 horas 86.16 ± 3.20. Lo anterior difirió significativamente con respecto a P. scalare, D. rerio y X. helleri (p < 0.001. Finalmente, Carassius auratus presentó la mayor capacidad de consumo de pre-adultos de mosquitos.

  19. Conocimiento actual sobre la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens) en el estado de Durango, México

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Charre-Medellín; Celia López-González; Abraham Lozano; Ana Fabiola Guzmán

    2011-01-01

    Se revisó el estado del conocimiento sobre la distribución de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis) para el estado de Durango, México, con base en bibliografía previa y 2 nuevos registros basados en excretas. Sólo 3 de los reportes históricos disponibles estuvieron documentados con evidencia física u observaciones. El análisis de las excretas reveló principalmente restos de peces, en su mayoría nativos. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus y Scartomy...

  20. Seasonal fluctuation of Myxobolus gibelioi (Myxosporea) plasmodia in the gills of the farmed allogynogenetic gibel carp in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂堂; 姚卫建; 龚小宁; 汪建国; 聂品

    2003-01-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of the plasmodia of Myxobolus gibelioi Wu et Wang, 1982 in the gill filaments of the allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in a fish pond in Hubei Province of China was investigated from August 1999 to July 2000. A total of 445 fish was examined; the overall prevalence of the plasmodium infection in the fish was 64.94% and mean abundance of plasmodia was 11.65 ± 27.85 (mean ± SD). Significant seasonal changes in prevalence and mean abundance, with higher levels of the plasmodia infection from late spring to autumn, were observed.

  1. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    ), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...... Province during August-October 2011. A total of 389 tilapias sized 2.33-1450.00 g were collected from 30 farms, and examined for FZT metacercariae by the pepsin digestion method. Ten percent of the farms surveyed had fish with FZT infections. The overall FZT prevalence in fish was 1.5% and the infection...

  2. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Lincoln Barroso de Magalhaes

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  3. Molecular Phylogenetics of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) Originated from Freshwater Fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Maneepitaksanti, Worawit; Nantarat, Nattawadee

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis, and Carassius auratus, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.

  4. Molecular Phylogenetics of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) Originated from Freshwater Fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Maneepitaksanti, Worawit; Nantarat, Nattawadee

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis, and Carassius auratus, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future. PMID:28285504

  5. Color change of the snapper (Pagrus auratus) and Gurnard (Chelidonichthys kumu) skin and eyes during storage: effect of light polarization and contact with ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Murat O; Stewart, Kelsie; Fletcher, Graham C; Alçiçek, Zayde

    2014-12-01

    Ten gurnard and 10 snapper were stored on ice. One side always contacted the ice; the other side was always exposed to air. At different intervals for up to 12 d, the fish were placed in a light box, and the images of both sides were taken using polarized and nonpolarized illumination. Image analysis resulted in average L*, a*, and b* values of skin, and average L* values of the eyes. The skin L* value of gurnard changed significantly over time while that of snapper was substantially constant. The a* and b* values of both fish decreased over time. The L* values of eyes were significantly lower for polarized images, and significantly lower for the side of fish exposed to air only. This may be a concern in quality evaluation methods such as QIM. The difference of colors between the polarized and nonpolarized images was calculated to quantify the reflection off the surface of fish. For accurate measurement of surface color and eye color, use of polarized light is recommended.

  6. Evolución de la ultraestructura del aparato de Golgi durante la meyosis y la espermiogénesis en el hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña, Francisco; Malavasi, Jollyana

    2016-01-01

    Las transformaciones ultraestructurales del aparato de Golgi fueron estudiadas durante la meyosis y la espermiogénesis, período en el cual sufre la mayor variación morfológica y fisiológica. Durante la meyosis se presenta como una organela de gran tamaño, formada por dictiosomas y dos tipos de vesículas: unas en la zona central (200-500 nm de diámetro) y otras, en la parte externa (40-100 nm de diámetro).Durante la espermiogénesis temprana, las vesículas de la zona central se fusionan, dando ...

  7. Avaliação dos efeitos de fármacos imunomoduladores na infecção de Hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, POR Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Loss, 1911)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Regina Costa Dias

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, no hamster, os efeitos imuno-parasitológicos da administração de fármacos imunomoduladores na infecção por Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Foram avaliadas quatro classes de drogas (imunossupressores, anticorpos anti-linfocitários, anti-inflamatórios e anti-histamínicos). Entre os imunosspressores, foram testadas a ciclosporina A (CsA) e a prednisolona. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com CsA, não interfere na ancilostomíase experimental. Já o tratame...

  8. 洛克沙胂对鲫鱼暴露胁迫的毒性效应%Toxic effects of roxarsone on Carassias auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永学; 陈杖榴; 陈展飞; 刘志昌

    2004-01-01

    进行了洛克沙胂对鲫鱼的急性毒性试验,通过急性暴露胁迫对抗氧化系统的影响进行了探讨.试验发现,洛克沙胂对鲫鱼的急性毒性较低,24 h LC50为181.69 mg/L,48 h LC50和96 h LC50均为176.57 mg/L. 30、45 mg/L(以As计)洛克沙胂连续暴露5 d,鲫鱼脑和肝乳酸脱氢酶受到显著抑制(P<0.05)并呈剂量-效应关系.鱼脑和肝的丙二醛含量显著升高(P<0.05).鲫鱼脑、肝和鳃组织的超氧化物歧化酶活性在初期显著升高(P<0.05),但在试验后期随剂量增高而受到显著抑制(P<0.05).鱼脑谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶受到极显著的抑制(P<O.01).结果表明:洛克沙胂对鲫鱼巯基酶和抗氧化功能有明显抑制,鱼脑和肝脏氧化损伤最明显,呈现剂量-效应关系.

  9. PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan; Brinca, Lilia; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-08-01

    The endocrine factors prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) are believed to have counteracting effects in the adaption of fish to changes in environmental salinity. In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed. In vitro PRL secretion from pituitaries of SW-adapted fish was unaltered in response to an osmotic challenge, while GH secretion increased in the lowest osmolality (230 mOsm/kg). In contrast, both GH and PRL secretion by pituitaries from FW challenged fish was significantly increased (pPRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (pPRL secretion was not different from SW animals. GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (pPRL and GH increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Despite the increase in PRL expression, no increase in total PRL secretion occurred and although in gills a 2-fold increase in the osmoregulatory marker, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was detected, profound haemodilution and a cumulative mortality of 40% occurred in sea bream placed in FW. Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW.

  10. Estudio inmunocitoquímico y ultraestructural del pancreas endocrino de mugil auratus y mugil saliens L. / Maria Teresa Lozano Parejo.

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Parejo, María Teresa

    1984-01-01

    Tesis-Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Citologia e Histologia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. D 113. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. TM 3317.

  11. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information.

  12. Testicular histomorphometry and the proliferative and apoptotic activities of the seminiferous epithelium in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) during regression owing to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Saez, F J; Madrid, J F; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2015-05-01

    During the non-breeding season some animals exhibit testicular atrophy, decreased testicular weight and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter accompanied by depletion of the seminiferous epithelium. Some cellular factors involved in this depletion are changes in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the Syrian hamster this depletion has been studied histologically and in terms of the involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium of fully regressed testes. The objectives of this study included the histomorphometrical characterization of the testis and the determination of the proliferative and apoptotic activity of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium during testicular regression owing to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three established regression groups: mild regression (MR), strong regression (SR), and total regression (TR). Morphometrically a gradual decrease in total tubular area and in the testicular, tubular, and epithelial volumes was observed during testicular regression. Interstitial and luminal volumes decreased from the MR group onwards. The tubular length decreased from MR to SR. As regards spermatogonial proliferation, only an initial decrease in proliferative activity was observed, whereas apoptotic germ cell activity increased throughout regression. The number of germ cells studied decreased throughout the process of testicular regression. In conclusion, testicular regression in Syrian hamster comprises two histomorphometrical phases, the first involving a decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter and volume and the second involving shortening of the seminiferous tubule and a decrease in interstitial volume. At the cellular level, there is an initial decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis involving all germ cells. At the end of regression, the proliferative and apoptotic activities of the spermatogonia recover the values observed prior to regression in preparation for recrudescence.

  13. The study of genetic diversity within Carassius genera, based on sequencing some mitochondrial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Liliana IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the genetic diversity within Carassius genera, studying individuals from isolated aquatic populations in Romania, by analysing the sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes: cytochrome b (Cyt b, mitochondrial control region (D-loop and cytochrome c oxidase I (COX I. The nucleotide sequence variation of the three genes were used to study the mtDNA divergence for Carassius genera individuals and to examine the phylogenetic relationships within analyzed populations.Based on the alignment of cytochrome b gene sequences from individuals belonging to Carassius genera from analyzed populations, 21 haplotypes have been identified: two of them were found in four of the six analyzed populations and one in two of studied populations. Regarding the D-loop sequences there were identified 20 haplotypes: four of them were found in two or more populations. Following COX I sequence alignment, from individuals of the Carassius genera, in the six populations were identified 22 haplotypes, but only one was found in four of the analyzed populations. Phylogeographic aspects of the D-loop showed that there are common haplotypes between Buzău (Buzău River, Buzău County, Romania, Sofroneşti (Sofroneşti Lake, Vaslui County, Romania Delta (Fortuna Lake, Danube Delta, Romania and Băile Felix (Bihor County, Romania populations, and for COX I between Buzău (Buzău River, Buzău County, Romania, Tăuteşti (Tăuteşti Lake, Iaşi County, Romania, Delta (Fortuna Lake, Danube Delta, Romania and Băile Felix (Bihor County, Romania populations. From the analysis of all sequences, it was found that the rate of occurrence of transitions is greater than the occurrence of transversions.

  14. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  15. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: cross-species painting reveals natural allotetraploid origin of a Carassius female with 206 chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knytl, M; Kalous, L; Symonová, R; Rylková, K; Ráb, P

    2013-01-01

    A single female with 206 chromosomes and another 26 females with 156 chromosomes identified as Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio, and 5 individuals with 100 chromosomes identified as crucian carp, C. carassius, were sampled during field survey in one locality in the upper Elbe River. To identify the origin of females with high chromosome numbers, comparative karyotype analysis, GISH, with whole C. carassius DNA as probe and phylogenetic positions of sampled individuals revealed by cytochrome b mitochondrial marker were performed. GISH showed consistently bright labeling of 50 chromosomal elements out of 206, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of C. carassius. The position of these females with high chromosome numbers in a reconstructed phylogenetic tree was within the clade of C. gibelio, documenting its affiliation to C. gibelio mitochondrial, i.e. maternal lineage. Our findings indicated that the mother of the female with high chromosome numbers was a gynogenetically reproducing 156-chromosome C. gibelio female and the father a bisexually reproducing C. carassius male. We, therefore, hypothesized that the C. gibelio × C. carassius allopolyploid female with 206 chromosomes arose by a mechanism of sperm genome addition to an unreduced egg of the mother.

  16. Comparative analysis of intermuscular bones in fish of different ploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhong, Zezhou; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Shaojun; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-01

    We documented the number, morphology, and distribution of intermuscular bones in five fishes of different ploidy: Carassius auratus (Abbr.WCC, 2n=100), Carassius auratus variety PengZe (Abbr.PZCC, 3n=150), improved triploid crucian carp (Abbr.ITCC, 3n=150), improved red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., Abbr.IRCC, ♀, 2n=100), and improved allotetraploids (Abbr.G×AT, ♂, 4n=200). The number of intermuscular bones in WCC, PZCC, and G×AT ranged from 78 to 83 ([Formula: see text]=81), 80 to 86 ([Formula: see text]=84), and 77 to 84 ([Formula: see text]=82), respectively. The numbers in ITCC and IRCC were significantly lower, ranging from 77 to 82 ([Formula: see text]=79) and 58 to 77 ([Formula: see text]=71), respectively. The average number of intermuscular bones in each sarcomere, ranked in order from highest to lowest, was 0.721 (WCC), 0.673 (PZCC), 0.653 (G×AT), 0.633 (ITCC), and 0.608 (IRCC). There was no difference between ITCC and G×AT or between G×AT and PZCC. However, the average number of intermuscular bones in the sarcomeres of ITCC, WCC, and PZCC differed significantly, as did that of IRCC and the four other kinds of fish. The intermuscular bone of these five fishes was divided into seven shape categories, non-forked (), one-end-unequal-bi-fork (), one-end-equal-bi-fork (Y), one-end-multi-fork, two-end-bi-fork, two-end-multi-fork, and tree-branch types. Generally, the morphological complexity was higher in the anterior intermuscular bones than in the posterior body. The number of intermuscular bones was similar but not equal between the left and right sides of the body. ITCC had significantly fewer intermuscular bones than either WCC or PZCC, making it of greater commercial value. Additionally, IRCC and ITCC had fewer intermuscular bones than WCC. Our observations are significant in both fish bone developmental biology and genetic breeding.

  17. Biomagnification of DDT and its metabolites in four fish species of a tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Skipperud, Lindis; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations and biomagnifications of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were examined in four fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and Carassius auratus) from Lake Ziway, Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Paired stomach content analysis, and stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ(15)N, ‰) and carbon (δ(13)C, ‰) were used to study the trophic position of the fish species in the lake. 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDD were the main DDTs identified in the fish samples, with 4,4'-DDE as the most predominant metabolite, with mean concentration ranging from 1.4 to 17.8 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). The concentrations of DDTs found in fish from Lake Ziway were, in general lower than those found in most studies carried out in other African Lakes. However, the presence of DDT in all tissue samples collected from all fish species in the lake indicates the magnitude of the incidence. Moreover, the observed mean 4,4'-DDE to 4,4'-DDT ratio below 1 in C. auratus from Lake Ziway may suggest a recent exposure of these species to DDT, indicating that a contamination source is still present. 4,4'-DDE was found to biomagnify in the fish species of the lake, and increases with trophic level, however, the biomagnification rate was generally lower than what has been reported from other areas. Significantly higher concentrations of 4,4'-DDE were found in the top consumer fish in Lake Ziway, C. gariepinus than in O. niloticus (t=2.6, P<0.01), T. zillii (t=2.5, P<0.02) and C. auratus (t=2.2, P<0.03).

  18. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  19. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fishes from Taihu Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb contents were determined in Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis which were caught from Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that, (1) the Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd contents in the edible parts of four fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994), but the Zn contents were higher than the Criterion; (2) Cd contents were the highest in the liver of fish, Pb contents were almost the same in all organs of fish, the Cr contents mainly enriched in the skin and gonads, Zn contents were the highest in the gonad (♀), and Cu contents were the highest in the liver; (3) the total metal accumulation was the greatest in the liver and the lowest in the muscle. The total metal accumulation was the highest in C. auratus L. This investigation indicated that fish products in Taihu Lake were still safe for human consumption, but the amount consumed should be controlled under the Chinese Food Health Criterion to avoid excessive intake of Zn.

  20. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  1. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  2. Sensory acceptability and fatty acid profile of fish crackers made from Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, our aim was to consider the production of fish crackers using Carassius gibelio and to investigate the fatty acid profile and sensory quality of the fish crackers. Fish cracker mixture with a ratio 3.5:1.5 (minced fish/wheat starch was obtained. Based on the total minced fish and starch level, 1.75% salt, 0.25% black pepper, 2% sunflower oil, 1% baking powder and 10% cold water (4 °C were added and stirred until a homogenous mixture was obtained. The mixture was compressed in an extractor and baked. The moisture content of minced fish (CMF, cracker dough (CD and crackers (CCr was 77.73 ± 0.14%, 63.10 ± 2.18% and 7.95 ± 0.67% respectively. The n6/n3 ratio of crackers was 2.61 ± 0.20, PUFA/SFA ratio 2.28 ± 0.06 and DHA/EPA ratio 1.81 ± 0.01. The overall acceptability score obtained by the sensory evaluation of panelists was very high (8.09 ± 0.25.

  3. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  4. Utilization and Quality of Fish Fingers from Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent İZCİ*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish fingers were produced from Carassius gibelio and evaluated through nutritional parameters. The fish finger nutritional composition changed with pre-frying process. The moisture, crude fat, crude protein and crude ash contents of fish fingers were determined as 56.543 ± 0.113, 10.507 ± 0.116, 15.577 ± 0.382 and 2.027 ± 0.133, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially C 18:1 ω-9 and C18: 2 ω-6 increased with pre-frying process. The values of pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N changed significantly (P<0.05 between fresh fish meat and pre-frying fingers. Scores for flavor, texture, color, odour and general acceptability of frying fish fingers were determined as 8.235 ± 0.207, 8.412 ± 0.193, 8.294 ± 0.206, 8.353 ± 0.170 and 8.471 ± 0.151, respectively.

  5. EFFECT OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT PH ON THE LEVEL OF ECTOPARASITE INFESTATION, PROTEIN AND LYSOZYME CONTENT IN SOME CYPRINID SPECIES (CYPRINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kurovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of рН values of the aquatic environment on the level of ectoparasite infestation, protein and lysozyme content in organs and serum of some cyprinid species in experimental conditions. Methodology. The objects of the study were yearlings of Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva caught in ponds of fish farm “Nyvka” (Kiev region in spring. Fish were kept in experimental conditions at neutral pH water (6.8-7.2 and a temperature of 17-18оC. To study the changes in the level of fish parasite infestation at different pH values, we used carp yearlings, as an object, the most infected with parasites. Fish were placed in aquariums with water pH of 5.0-5.5 (slightly acidic environment and 8.5-9.0 (slightly alkaline environment for 5 days. Thereafter, the ectoparasites were counted on fish body surface and gills. The protein content in serum and tissue extracts of organs (liver, kidney, spleen of Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva infected and uninfected ectoparasites, after holding them in slightly acidic or slightly alkaline environment for 8 days, was determined by Lowry’s method, while lysozyme content was determined by a diffusion method on agar. Findings. A comparative assessment of the number of ectoparasites (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp. on fish body surface and gills, the content of protein and lysozyme in serum and organs at different pH values of aquatic environment has been presented. It was demonstrated that the number of ectoparasites on fish body surface and gills was significantly reduced when keeping the fish in both slightly acidic and slightly alkaline environments. In infected Carassius auratus gibelio, a reduction in the protein and lysozyme content in liver, kidney and serum was observed only in the neutral pH environment compared to uninfected individuals. In the slightly acidic or slightly alkaline

  6. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs) related to research published in "Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish" (Takahashi et al., 2016) [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  7. 乐果对金鱼的急性毒性影响%Acute Toxicity Influence on Goldfish by Dimethoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢进金; 齐兆明; 陈琳钦; 林娟娟; 冯琳; 谢进辉

    2006-01-01

    用改进的寇氏法(karber)测定了乐果对金鱼(Carassius auratus)的急性毒性.急性试验经150mg/L、188.4mg/L、234.4mg/L、291.7mg/L、360mg/L乐果暴露4d,在15℃~20℃下,24、48、72、96h的LTm值分别为297.17、289.13、259.12、238.67mg/L,其95%置信限分别为284.25~310.67、275.17~303.81、243.33~275.93、223.98~254.33mg/L.

  8. Estado de las poblaciones de anfibios en un parque urbano de Pamplona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosá, A., Arias, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones aisladas de tres anfibios (Triturus marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelophylax perezi han sido muestreadas entre 2005 y 2007, en primavera y finales de verano, en un canal y tres estanques de un parque urbano céntrico de la ciudad de Pamplona. Los 8 adultos censados en 2005 de T. marmoratus han podido desaparecer en los años siguientes, a causa de unas obras urbanas realizadas junto al parque. La estima de la población de A. obstetricans se acerca al millar de adultos. Su periodo reproductor se extiende hasta septiembre, y una parte de la población larvaria inverna sin metamorfosear. El ajardinamiento de la zona, la contaminación del agua y la presencia de depredadores y competidores introducidos, como Procambarus clarkii y Carassius auratus, ponen en peligro la supervivencia de los anfibios.

  9. Correlation between biochemical parameters and susceptibility of freshwater fish to malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Shao-Non; Fan De-Fang

    1996-07-01

    Acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of malathion was tested using five species of freshwater fish, namely, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus), nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Correlation was found between susceptibility and biochemical parameters such as activity of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and in vitro resistance of the enzyme to inhibition (IC50) of malaoxon (a major metabolite of malathion). The in vitro study also showed that malaoxon instead of malathion was the main inhibitor of AChE. Susceptibility to malathion was considerably changed as the fish was pretreated with piperonyl butoxide (PB, a P-450 inhibitor) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase), respectively. Toxicity of malathion was significantly increased by TPP, but the responses of fish to PB were quite different among species. This suggested that both carboxylesterase and monooxygenase played an important role in susceptibility determination, and great variations existed among species in activity of monooxygenase.

  10. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, respectively. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were decreased in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish following 15 and 30d of exposure, respectively. In DEHP treated goldfish, gnrh3, kiss1 and its receptor (gpr54) mRNA levels did not change during the experimental period. In E2 treated goldfish, gnrh3 mRNA levels were...... decreased at day 7, but kiss1 and gpr54 mRNA levels were increased at day 30 of exposure. The mRNA levels of genes encoding testicular LH and androgen receptors remained unchanged in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish. In contrast to E2 treated goldfish, vitellogenin production was not induced in DEHP treated...

  11. Studies on the Developmental Potentiality of Cultured Cell Nuclei of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxi Chen, Yonglan Yi, Minrong Chen, Xingqi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus. This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a sexually mature adult fish from short-term cultured kidney cell nucleus of an adult crucian carp. Results of the experiment implied that the subcultured cell nuclei of fish blastula cells and the specialized somatic cell nuclei of adult fish still retained their developmental totipotency, and thus, it indicated that there is a possibility of fish somatic cell breeding through the use of nuclear transplantation.

  12. 银鲫精巢特异的Ly-6/uPAR相关蛋白的分子克隆及其特征分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF TESTIS-SPECIFIC Ly-6/uPAR RELATED PROTEIN IN GIBEL CARP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 刘珍; 周莉; 李志; 桂建芳

    2015-01-01

    The members of Ly-6/uPAR superfamily distribute widely in many metazoans. All proteins from this family have at least one conserved Ly-6/uPAR (LU) domain which is composed of about 70 to 100 amino acids, and contain 8 to 10 cysteine residues with a defined disulfide-bonding pattern. The members of Ly-6 family are classified into two subfamilies, namely GPI-anchored membrane proteins and secreted proteins, according to whether they possess the glycophosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored signal sequence in the C-terminus. In this study, we cloned and characterized a new member of Ly-6 superfamilyingibel carp(Carassius auratus gibelio). The full-length sequence of this gene con-sisted of 570 base pairs that encoded 99 amino acids and had only one LU domain. Our analysis using on-line bioinfor-matic software showed that this protein might have one signal peptide but no GPI-anchor signal sequence, thus could be a type of secreted protein. We conducted RT-PCR to detect its expression in different tissues and found that this protein was specifically expressed in testis. According to its characteristics, we named the geneCarassius auratus gibelio testis- specific Ly-6/uPAR related protein (CagTslurp).In situhybridization revealed the expression ofCagTslurpin sper-matogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids, but not in somatic cells. These results in-dicated that theCagTslurp gene might play a role in spermatogenesis of gibel carp.%Ly-6/uPAR基因超家族(Ly-6 SF)成员广泛地存在于后生动物中,开展该家族相关功能基因研究具有重要的意义.研究从银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)中鉴定到一个该家族新成员, cDNA全长为570 bp,其中开放阅读框长度为300 bp,编码99个氨基酸,生物软件预测该蛋白含有一个LU结构域,不含GPI锚信号序列, N端含有信号肽,表明其可能为Ly-6基因超家族中分泌型蛋白.组织表达分析显示,该基因只在银鲫精巢中特异表达,

  13. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the freshwater fish, crucian, from the Han river and the Kum river, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, G.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Moon, J.Y.; Lee, S.I.; Kim, H.; Song, H. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Even though polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were prohibited from producing and using for a long time, it is still identified in the every environmental media including biota. Since PCBs are lipophilic and persistent, they concentrate readily in the tissue and accumulate exponentially as they move through the food chain. Crucian (Carassius auratus) is most widely living freshwater fish in Korea. So crucian was selected as a representative freshwater fish in this study to determine the accumulation level and distribution characteristics of PCBs. In this study, we attempted to investigate the accumulation profile of individual PCB congeners in the muscle of freshwater fish crucian from the two major rivers, the Han River and Kum River, in Korea.

  14. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species : A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1998-01-01

    information is available about the ecology, spread and survival of atypical strains in water. The commonly used therapeutic methods for the control of diseases in farmed fish caused by atypical A. salmonicida are generally effective against the atypical strains. Resistance to different antibiotics......, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations....... The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected...

  15. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  16. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  17. Diversity of lampreys and fishes of the Upper Vistula River drainage, Poland: present state and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been some 57 lamprey and fish species recorded in the Upper Vistula Riverdrainage (S-E Poland. Among these there are a number of species-complexes (Carassius auratus, Gobiogobio, Cobitis taenia with unresolved taxonomy. Identity of some others (Barbus waleckii, Romanogobioalbipinnatus, Cottus gobio is questionable and needs a review. Phylogenetic relationships of anotherones (Eudontomyzon mariae, Lampetra planeri, Lampetra fluviatilis is also under debate. Knowledgeabout the distribution of many species is very scarce and needs to be filled. In the current work webriefly summarise present state of the diversity and classification of lampreys and fishes of the UpperVistula drainage and point some urgent questions that have arose in recent years and are waiting fornew solutions.

  18. Changes of fishery resources after the construction of cascade hydropower stations from Longyang gorge to Liujia gorge in upper stream of Yellow River%黄河上游龙羊峡至刘家峡河段梯级水电站建设后鱼类资源变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军; 冯慧; 李科社; 杨兴中; 李芳; 张军燕

    2009-01-01

    2005-2007年对黄河上游龙羊峡至刘家峡河段干流的鱼类资源进行了调查.结果显示:在整个调查期间共采集到鱼类35种,分属于4目8科;渔获物主要种类为花斑裸鲤(Gymnodiptyis(Gymnocypris)eckloni Horzenstein)、麦穗鱼(Pseudorasbora parva)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)、鲫(Carassius auratus(Linnaeus))、池沼公鱼(Hypomesus olidus)、小型鳅科鱼类,如花鳅(Cobitis taenia Linnaeus)等;土著鱼类,如黄河雅罗鱼(Leuciscus chuanchicus(Kessler))等种群呈衰退趋势,外来引入鱼类,如池沼公鱼(Hypomesus olidus)等种群呈增长趋势.

  19. Bis(o-methylserotonin)-containing iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes as new cellular imaging dyes: synthesis, applications, and photophysical and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Cristina; Silva López, Carlos; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Diniz, Mario; Bastida, Rufina; Capelo, Jose Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and scope of a new versatile emissive molecular probe functionalized with a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety containing methylserotonin groups as binding sites for metal ion recognition. The synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the in vitro imaging capability of the iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(N-N)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+), in which ppy is 2-phenylpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and N-N is a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand functionalized with two methylserotonin groups to serve as binding sites for metal ion recognition, is reported. The uptake of these compounds by living freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) was studied by fluorescence microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of ligand N-N and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+) in this species was also investigated.

  20. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Moaeen-Ud-Din; Li Guo Yang

    2009-04-01

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatto to identify somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in each species. To date, we have identified a minimum of two genes of somatostatin and five somatostatin receptor genes in mammalian species with variable forms. We established a clear evolutionary history of the somatostatin system and traced the origin of the somatostatin system to 395 million years ago (MYA), identifying critical steps in their evolution.

  1. Defensive allomones in three species ofHypselodoris (gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Cantabrian sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Avila, C; Martinez, E; Ortea, J; Trivellone, E; Cimino, G

    1993-02-01

    ThreeHypselodoris species,H. villafranca, H. cantabrica, and H. tricolor, have been studied in order to further investigate the defensive strategies of Chromodorididae mollusks from Iberian coasts. All animals possess large amounts of furanosesquiterpenoids, probably derived from their diet of sponges. The products are transferred and stored in specific sites of the mantle (mantle dermal formations, MDFs) to be used as chemical deterrents against predators. Chemical analysis of CantabrianHypselodoris species has led to the characterization of eight sesquiterpenoids. Among these, six have been found previously in both sponges and nudibranchs, while two are new natural products.Hypselodoris species cooccurring in the same area contained comparable mixtures of sesquiterpenoids. However, two populations ofH. cantabrica from different sites of the Cantabrian sea showed different metabolic patterns. All sesquiterpenoids induce feeding deterrence inCarassius auratus and two are also toxic toGambusia affinis.

  2. Conocimiento actual sobre la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens en el estado de Durango, México Current status of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Charre-Medellín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el estado del conocimiento sobre la distribución de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis para el estado de Durango, México, con base en bibliografía previa y 2 nuevos registros basados en excretas. Sólo 3 de los reportes históricos disponibles estuvieron documentados con evidencia física u observaciones. El análisis de las excretas reveló principalmente restos de peces, en su mayoría nativos. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus y Scartomyzon austrinus no se habían registrado previamente en la dieta de L. longicaudis en México. La presencia de la nutria neotropical en las partes altas y media de 3 grandes cuencas (Mezquital-San Pedro, Nazas y Grande de Santiago apunta a la importancia de preservar las cabeceras de estos ríos, donde la nutria puede persistir aún cuando sus partes bajas tengan un fuerte efecto antropogénico.An update on the state of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis for the state of Durango, Mexico is presented based on the revision of literature reports and the addition of 2 new records. Upon revision, only 3 of the previous reports are supported by physical evidence or observations; and 2 more are newly documented records based on scats. Analysis of these samples indicated that the main items consumed by otters in Durango were mostly native fishes. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus and Scartomyzon austrinus had not been recorded previously in the neotropical otter's diet. Neotropical otters are able to persist at the headwaters of at least 3 major basins (San Pedro-Mezquital, Nazas, and Grande de Santiago even though strong anthropogenic disturbances have already occurred downstream, thus pointing to the need of effective conservation strategies for these areas.

  3. Investigations in associated protozoa-bacterial infections of cyprinids from a fish farm situated on the Jijia river in N-E of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laz?r

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2011 in cyprinid farms located in Iasi on the Jijia river, several infections with bacterial strains and macroscopical external cysts on the skin were diagnosedwhich developed as a result of the stress induced by biotic and abiotic factors. On the examination of the cyst contents the presence of numerous spores was observed, mostly of the Dermocystidium sp genusThe samples were taken from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio and crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio species from the fish farm as well as from the Jijia River. 35 fish were examined, all of them showing cysts, fragmentation of their dorsal fin and congestion of the gills. Histological examination of the skin showed a field of multiple dermal cysts with round light eosinophilic formations (14-16µm containing a central refractable body similar to that reported for Dermocystidium sp. Gills samples were taken from the affected areas for the SEM examination with the purpose of evaluating not only aspects of normal morphology, but also aspects of some modifications of the affected areas as well as the presence of the etiologically incriminated bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens. The isolates were identified through phenotypic methods. All the strains that showed mobility and oxidase-positivity were tested using API 20 NE strip. Consequently, they were taxonomically grouped into the species Pseudomonas fluorescens. The scanning electron microscope (SEM was used for the first time in the characterization of the bacterial lesions produced by Pseudomonas strains on Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio gills. The diagnosis of septicemia with conditional pathogen species of Pseudomonas fluorescens was correlated with the results of the physico-chemical investigations of water and the data concerning the breeding conditions of the investigated livestock.

  4. cDNA cloning of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and expression of the active region as myofibril-bound serine proteinase inhibitor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Long; Cao, Min-Jie; Shi, Chao-lan; Wei, Xiao-Nan; Li, Huan; Du, Cui-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) (EC 5.3.1.9) can act as a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) inhibitor (MBSPI) in fish. In order to better understand the biological information of the GPI and its functional domain for inhibiting MBSP, the cDNA of GPI was cloned from crucian carp (Carassius carassius) with RT-PCR, nested-PCR and 3'-RACE. The result of sequencing showed that the GPI cDNA had an open reading frame of 1662bp encoding 553 amino acid residues. After constructing and comparing the three-dimensional structures of GPI and MBSP, the middle fragment of crucian carp GPI (GPI-M) was predicted as a functional domain for inhibiting MBSP. Then the crucian carp GPI-M gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the recombinant GPI-M (rGPI-M) with molecular mass of approximately 21kDa in the form of inclusion bodies. The rGPI-M was obtained at an electrophoresis level purity of approximately 95% after denaturation and dialysis renaturation.

  5. Validação de um radioimunoensaio para a quantificação de metabólitos fecais de testosterona em hamster Sírio (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Odile M Chelini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelo para o estudo de diversas doenças humanas, o hamster tem sido objeto de numerosos estudos comportamentais e envolvendo estresse e/ou comportamento agonístico que supõem, muitas vezes, o monitoramento das flutuações hormonais nos indivíduos envolvidos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi confirmar a adequação de um conjunto comercial para dosagem de testosterona em sangue humano para a quantificação de metabólitos fecais de testosterona (MFT em hamsters Sírios machos e fêmeas. Dez machos foram submetidos a um desafio com um agonista de GnRH para estimular a atividade testicular, elevando os níveis circulantes de testosterona. Cinco fêmeas receberam uma injeção de testosterona enquanto cinco outras receberam uma injeção de solução salina. Amostras de fezes coletadas antes e depois dos procedimentos, assim como amostras fecais de 20 fêmeas gestantes coletadas ao longo da gestação foram analisadas com um conjunto comercial para radioimunoensaio. Um pico de MFT 12h após a injeção seguido de uma queda abaixo do nível basal comprovou que, nos machos, as alterações nos níveis de MFT refletem as alterações da concentração de testosterona no sangue. Nestes observou-se um ciclo circadiano das concentrações de MFT com acrofase no início do período claro correspondendo ao ciclo descrito para as concentrações sanguíneas na literatura. Nas fêmeas a administração de testosterona exógena provocou uma elevação importante dos níveis de MFT, mas as concentrações medidas ao longo da gestação não refletiram o padrão dos níveis sanguíneos do hormônio endógeno. O conjunto para radioimunoensaio para testosterona em sangue humano mostrou-se adequado para o monitoramento da função testicular no hamster macho, mas um ensaio mais específico seria necessário para as fêmeas.

  6. Histopathological changes caused by the metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) in the gut of the gibel carp, Carassius gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, K

    2005-01-01

    Metacestodes of Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855) were found in the gut of some gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) specimens from a Hungarian water reservoir. Location of metacestodes in the freshly opened gut was marked with disseminated, red-coloured, pinhead-sized nodules in the anterior part of the intestine. In histological sections, metacestodes were found in a hole inside the propria layer of the intestinal folds. The worms were in direct contact with the host tissue without being encapsulated as a result of host reaction. In some specimens with extruded rostellum the rostellar hooks were bored into the host tissue and suckers grabbed pieces of the surrounding connective tissue. Around the worms, congested capillaries and formation of macrophages were seen in the lysed connective tissue.

  7. Deriving freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium for the protection of aquatic life in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater quality criteria of sulphocyanic sodium(NaSCN) were studied on the basis of the features of the aquaticbiota in China, and with Reference to U.S.EPA's guidelines. Acutetests were performed on twelve different domestic species todetermine 48h-EC50/96h-EC50 (or 96h-LC50) values for NaSCN. 21dsurvival-reproduction test with Daphnia magna, 60d fry-juvenilepart life stage test with Carassius auratus gibelio and 96h growthinhibition test with Lemna minor were also conducted to estimatelower chronic limit/upper chronic limit values. In the acute tests,D.magna was the most sensitive species to NaSCN followed by Tilapiamossambia, Cyprinus carpio and C.auratus gibelio in turn. The finalacute value of NaSCN was 2.699 mg/L. In the chronic tests,reproduction of daphnids were significantly reduced by NaSCN at 1.0mg/L. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 5.96 to 19.1. A finalchronic value of 0.2530 mg/L was obtained and a final plant valuewas 1346 mg/L. A criterion maximum concentration (1.349 mg/L) anda criterion continuous concentration (0.2530 mg/L) were derivedrespectively. The results of this study may provide useful data toderive national WQC for NaSCN as well as the procedures of derivingWQC of other chemicals for the protection of aquatic biota in China.

  8. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  9. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (♂) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0 became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A1). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A1 fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A1, there were 85% tetraploids (A1-4n), 10% triploids (A1-3n) and 5% diploids (A1-2n), suggesting that diploid A0 could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A0 was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A1, only A1-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A1-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A1-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A1-4n developed well and mainly contained Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ-stage oocytes. The Ⅳ-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of Ⅳ-stage oocytes. Because A1-2n and A1-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A1-4n fish not

  10. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with

  11. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  12. Identification of two metallo- thionein isoforms by molecu-lar cloning of their cDNAs infresh-water fish, crucian carp(Carassius-cuvieri)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Generally, there are two major isoforms of me- tallothionein (MT)in mammals. In this study two cDNAs of metallothionein, MT-A and MT-B, in a fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The homology of their reading frame is about 92.3%. The sequence analysis of both cDNAs gave the structures of coding regions corresponding to 60 amino acid residues, and the structures of complete 3′-untranslated regions in which a significant difference in the size of their 3′-untranslated regions (130 bp for MT-A and 280 bp for MT-B) exists. The results of amino acid sequenc-ing of both MT-1 and MT-2 purified by HPLC are identical to those deduced from MT cDNA genes, indicating that MT-1 is from MT-A gene and MT-2 is from MT-B gene respec-tively. No blocking in the N-terminal of MT-2 isoform was the first case found in vertebrates, most of which were block-ed by acetylation. These results suggest that there were dif-ferential controls at the transcription level and after transla-tion of these two MT isoforms. And this gives a clue to un-derstand the diversities of their functions.

  13. Massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio in the upper Elbe basin associated with herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, Tomá; Kalous, Luká; Vesel, Tomá; Krásová, Eva; Reschová, Stanislava; Rylková, Katerˇina; Kulich, Pavel; L, Miloslav Petrt; Pokorová, Dagmar; Knytl, Martin

    2012-12-27

    From 22 May to 10 June 2011 massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio was observed in alluvial Lake Řehacˇka close to the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. More than 1400 kg of dead fish were collected and no other fish species were affected. Further molecular and cytogenetic investigation of fish (n = 232) revealed that the Rˇehacˇka population of Prussian carp consisted exclusively of gynogenetic triploid females. The causative agent was identified by means of molecular and electron microscopy as a herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2). This is the first report of CyHV-2 from the Czech Republic and the second finding worldwide of CyHV-2 causing mass mortality of C. gibelio. Some other localities in the upper Elbe River basin where C. gibelio was affected are also noted. We assume that the massive wave of deaths of all female gynogenetic Prussian carp can be attributed to limited genetic variation and the favourable conditions for development of viral disease.

  14. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaiKun Luo, Jun Xiao, ShaoJun Liu, Jing Wang, WeiGuo He, Jie Hu, QinBo Qin, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Yun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200 by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀ and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂. We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100. We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100 and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150, respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

  15. Genetic relationships among members of the Ichthyobodo necator complex: implications for the management of aquaculture stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, H A; Litaker, R W; Noga, E J

    2005-02-01

    Abstract Ichthyobodo necator (costia) is a common and important flagellate parasite that infests the skin and gills of many freshwater and marine fish. Costia infestations are often fatal and cause significant aquaculture losses worldwide. Recently it has been demonstrated that Ichthyobodo is a multispecies complex with differing host preferences. Knowing if those species have broad or narrow host specificity has important implications for the management of costia. To address the question of host specificity, genomic DNA was isolated from Ichthyobodo trophonts collected from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, koi, Cyprinus carpio, mirror carp, C. carpio, goldfish, Carassius auratus, channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene from each isolate was analysed with previously published Ichthyobodo sequences using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) from six isolates were also PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Both the SSU rRNA phylogenetic analysis and the ITS rRNA sequence data support grouping the 22 Ichthyobodo isolates examined into a complex of nine different species. Many of these species were frequently isolated from multiple hosts, indicating that exchange of infested fish from one region to another has a high potential for spreading the disease. In one instance, the same species was obtained from marine and freshwater fish, further suggesting that certain Ichthyobodo species may not be limited by salinity.

  16. The Effects of Ghrelin on Energy Balance and Psychomotor Activity in a Goldfish Model: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goldfish (Carassius auratus has a number of merits as a laboratory animal, and we have extensively identified the mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates food intake in this species. For the first time, we have purified and characterized 11 molecular variants of ghrelin that are present in goldfish intestine and shown that 17-residue ghrelin, the predominant form with n-octanoyl modification, is biologically active and implicated in the regulation of food intake as an endogenous orexigenic factor. Ghrelin and its receptor system are present not only in peripheral tissues such as stomach and intestine, but also in the central nervous system. Recent studies have also revealed that a number of neuropeptides are widely distributed in the brain in key areas of emotional regulation, and their role as modulators of behavioral states is being increasingly recognized. Interestingly, administration of ghrelin induces an orexigenic effect and also modifies locomotor activity, suggesting the involvement of ghrelin in feeding control and regulation of energy balance. Information derived from studies of ghrelin has been increasing, and important results have been obtained from both fish and mammals. Here, we present an overview of the effects of ghrelin on energy balance and psychomotor activity in the goldfish as an animal model. The available data provide an insight into evolutionary background of ghrelin's multiple actions on energy homeostasis in vertebrates.

  17. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  18. Detection of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in healthy cyprinid seed stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Won, Kyoung-Mi; Kim, Jin-Woo; Jee, Bo-Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Hong, Suhee

    2014-11-13

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) disease is a lethal disease in common carp, an important food fish in Asian countries, the seed of which is used in restocking programs for freshwater fishery management. We inspected apparently healthy seed stock of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and Siberian crucian carp Carassius auratus for the presence of KHV using PCR-based diagnostic tests as a part of a stock enhancement program from 2009 to 2010 in Korea. Consequently, KHV was detected from 24 of 232 inspections with yearly detection percentages of 5.2% in 2009 and 15.5% in 2010 using PCR primer sets for TK or SphI-5 as recommended by the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Results indicate that the SphI-5 primer set was slightly more sensitive than the TK primer set, as shown by a higher detection rate. To determine the genotype of the KHV strains detected in this study, ORF40-specific PCR amplification was conducted, and the PCR products from 6 samples showed 100% nucleotide sequence identity with a Japanese strain (GenBank accession number AP008984) but not with US (DG657948) and Israeli strains (DG177346). This report conclusively demonstrated the presence of KHV in externally healthy seed of common carp and Siberian crucian carp, indicating a possible risk that subclinically infected seed stock can be released with a potential threat to wild populations.

  19. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  20. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  1. 韩国华津浦湖的鱼类区系%FISH FAUNA OF THE HWAJINPO LAKE, KOREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUNKIL Choi; OSAMU Mitamura; YASUSHI Seike; KAORU Fujinaga

    2006-01-01

    The Fish fauna of the Hwajinpo Lake, one of the lagoons on the east coast of Korea, was investigated during six days between November,2003 and May,2004. Fifteen species belonging to eight families and six orders were collected. Among the 15 species recorded, brackish water and/or marine fishes were represented by six species, while three additional species were identified as migratory fish, and six species were purely freshwater fish. During the six months, all of the survey period with six sampling dates, nine species belonging to six families were collected at Station 1, with Chaenogobius urotaenia presenting the highest biomass (39 % ). Twelve species belonging to six families were collected at Station 2, with Carassiu cuvieri showing the highest biomass (20 % ). Five species belonged to three families at Station 3, with Hemiculter eigenmanni showing the highest biomass (69 % ). The dominant and subdominant species were C. cuvieri ( 16% ), Carassius auratus and Tribolodon hakonensis ( 14% ), respectively. Also, diversity indices were 0.95 ( Station 3) and 2.08 ( Station 2), while the dominant indices were 38.40 ( Station 2) and 87.18 ( Station 3 ). The evenness indices were calculated with 0.59 ( Station 3 ) and 0.84 ( Station 2).

  2. Removal of Ammonia in a Recirculating Aquaculture by Submerged Plants under LED Illumination%工厂化水体LED光照沉水植物对氨氮的吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世成; 郭常有; 蒋树义; 曹广斌

    2013-01-01

    本文研究了沉水植物伊乐藻(Elodea nuttallii)在白色LED灯处理水产养殖中氨氮的效果.在50×33cm和45×28cm鱼缸中放人体质量150±5g鲫(Carassius auratus)7尾,放入伊乐藻1.2 kg,应用白色LED灯为光源,用遮光纸遮光,放入28w循环泵进行交叉循环.12d饲养结果表明:伊乐藻不仅可吸收养殖排泄的氨氮、增加水体溶解氧,而且养殖鱼类代谢的二氧化碳可以促进沉水植物生长,具有生态循环利用的效能,为进一步研究循环水养殖的生态利用提供了参考.

  3. 温度、种内标准代谢差异与鲫幼鱼力竭运动后过量耗氧的关系%Relationships between water temperature and intraspecies standard metabolic rate difference and juvenile Crucian caratus excess oxygen consumption after exhaustive exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国伟; 曹振东; 付世建

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨温度和种内标准代谢差异对鲫(Carassius auratus)幼鱼运动后过量耗氧特征的影响,分别在15和25℃下测定实验鱼的标准代谢率(SMR)和力竭运动后耗氧率(MO2),并计算力竭运动后过量耗氧总量(EPOC)、力竭恢复过程中的最大代谢率(MMR)、代谢范围和恢复时间.结果表明:与15℃相比,25℃下SMR、MMR、代谢范围和EPOC均显著升高,而恢复时间无显著差异;2个温度下,实验鱼种内个体SMR与MMR呈正相关,与EPOC呈负相关,实验温度对上述相关关系均无显著影响.由此可见,除恢复时间外,温度对鲫幼鱼力竭运动后的其他过量耗氧参数均有显著影响,但并不影响SMR与MMR和EPOC的相关性.

  4. Comparative studies on in vitro sperm decondensation and pronucleus formation in egg extracts between gynogenetic and bisexual fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JIAN LI; JIAN FANG GUI

    2003-01-01

    A cell-free system based upon the egg extracts from gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)or bisexual red common carp (Cyprinus carpio red variety) was developed to investigate developmentalbehaviors of the demembranated sperm nuclei. Both red common carp and gibel carp sperm nuclei coulddecondense fully and form pronuclei in the red common carp egg extracts. Gibel carp sperm nuclei couldalso decondense fully and form pronuclei in the gibel carp egg extracts, but red common carp sperm nucleicould not decondense sufficiently in the same extracts. The significant differences of morphological changeswere further confirmed by ultrastructural observation of transmission electron microscopy. The data furtheroffer cytological evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetically reproducing gibel carp. Inaddition, the sperm nuclei in vitro decondensation is dependent on the pH in the extracts, and the decon-densed efficiency is optimal at pH 7. However, no DNA replication was observed in the two kinds of eggextracts during the incubation period of the sperm nuclei. It is suggested that the egg extracts preparedfrom the gynogenetic gibel carp should be a valid in vitro system for studying molecular mechanism ongynogenesis and reproduction mode diversity in fish.

  5. Screen for stage-specific expression genes between tail bud stage and heartbeat beginning stage in embryogenesis of gynogenetic silver crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A systemic study was initiated to identify stage-specific expression genes in fish embryogenesis by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. In this study, we presented a preliminary result on screen for stage-specific expression genes between tail bud stage (TBS) and heartbeat beginning stage (HBS) in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Two SSH plasmid libraries specific for TBS embryos and HBS embryos were constructed, and stage-specific expression genes were screened between the two stages. 1963 TBS positive clones and 2466 HBS positive clones were sampled to PCR amplification, and 1373 TBS and 1809 HBS PCR positive clones were selected to carry out dot blots. 169TBS dot blot positive clones and 272 HBS dot blot positive clones were sequenced. Searching GenBank by using these nucleotide sequences indicated that most of the TBS dot blot positive clones could not be found homologous sequences in the database, while known genes were mainly detected from HBS dot blot positive clones. Of the 79 known genes, 20 were enzymes or kinases involved in important metabolism of embryonic development. Moreover, specific expressions of partial genes were further confirmed by virtual northern blots. This study is the first step for making a large attempt to study temporal and spatial control f gene expression in the gynogenetic fish embryogenesis.

  6. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis of two Saprolegnia sp. (Oomycetes) isolated from silver crucian carp and zebra fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiao L; Wang, Jian G; Gu, Ze M; Li, Ming; Gong, Xiao N

    2009-05-01

    Two Saprolegnia isolates, JY isolated from silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) and BMY isolated from zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio Hamilton) came from infections occurring concurrently in different locations in China. To confirm whether the two isolates were from the same Saprolegnia clone, comparative studies have been carried out based on their morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics. Observations showed that morphologically (both asexual and sexual organs) the two isolates were broadly similar and both isolates underwent repeated zoospore emergence. Comparing 704 base pairs of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the 5.8S rDNA, we found isolates JY and BMY shared an identical ITS sequence with a minor variation (99.6% similarity). Forty available sequences for representatives Saprolegnia spp. belonged to four phylogenetically separate clades. The two studied isolates fell within clade I that comprised a group of isolates which showed almost an identical ITS sequence but had been identified as a number of different morphological species. Our findings suggest that isolates JY and BMY appear to belong to the S. ferax clade and this clade (I) contains a number of closely related phylogenetic species. This is distinct from the more common fish pathogenic isolates, which belong to the S. parasitica clade (III) and are characterized by having cysts decorated by bundles of long hooked hairs and two further clades (II and IV) containing largely saprotrophic or soil born species.

  7. Discriminant classification of different fish-species backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Feng; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Chun

    2012-11-01

    The complex structure of fish and multispecies composition complicate the analysis of acoustic data. Consequently, it is difficult to obtain a highly accurate rate of classification by using current approaches. This paper introduces two discriminating methods: the adaptive segmentation temporal centroid method and the wavelet packet multi-scale information entropy method. To verify and compare these two methods, an ex situ experiment has been performed with three kinds of fish: Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Yellow-headed catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and Bluntnose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephale). The backscattering signals of these fishes are obtained. Then the temporal centroid in the divided sub-segmentation of the backscattering envelope is calculated, and the multi-scale information entropy of the wavelet packet decomposition in different frequency bands is extracted. Finally, three kinds of fish are successfully classified by using a BP neural network. The result shows that the adaptive segmentation temporal centroid method is 4% more accurate than the wavelet packet multi-scale information entropy method.

  8. Analysis of matrix proteins of otolith in upside-down catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Okamoto, N.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    We have previously suggested that the calcium density of the otolith in upside-down swimming Synodontis nigriventris is lower than that in upside-up swimming Synodontis multipunctatus Biol Space Sci 2002 In this study we examined EDTA-soluble matrix proteins of otolith in the utricle of the catfish S nigriventris S multipunctatus and upside-up swimming Synodontis brichadi and goldfish Carassius auratus We detected two main bands about 55 kD and 80 kD with SDS-PAGE in the 3 species of the catfish In cntrast goldfish had the about 55 kD band alone The band of about 80 kD was consisted of two sub-bands a lighter and a heavier band A lighter band was observed in S brichadi and a heavier band was observed in S nigriventris S multipunctatus had the both bands Furthermore mass spectrometric analysis showed there were some proteins of molecular weight under 14 kD The molecular weights of the proteins were different among the fishes These results suggest that many different kinds of matrix protein may cause different degree of calcification in otolith formation

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha of teleosts: in silico characterization and homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- is known to be crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of TNF- protein of fish was analyzed using in silico approach. TNF- proteins selected from fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, zebra fish (Danio rerio, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, goldfish (Carassius auratus, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics with molecular weight, theoretical isoelectric point, extinction coefficient, aliphatic index, instability index, total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues, and grand average of hydropathicity were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. The “transmembrane region” and “TNF” domain were identified from protein sequences. The function prediction of proteins was also performed. Alpha helices and random coils were dominating in the secondary structure of the proteins. Three-dimensional structures were predicted and verified as good structures for the investigation of TNF- of fish by online server validation.

  10. Activity of esterases from different tissues of freshwater fish and responses of their isoenzymes to inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S N; Fan, D F

    1997-06-06

    Activity of nonspecific esterase from different tissues (i.e., liver, gallbladder, heart, intestine, and muscle) of five species of freshwater fish, namely, topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), goldfish (Carassius auratus), nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was tested using alpha-naphthyl acetate as substrate. The results indicated that activity of the enzyme was mainly concentrated in the digestive system (i.e., intestine, liver, bile). The overall activity was highest in nile tilapia, followed by mosquitofish, topmouth gudgeon, goldfish, and lowest in rainbow trout. Electrophoresis and the following in vitro treatment of the isoenzymes with triphenol phosphate (TPP, an inhibitor of carboxylesterase) indicated the TPP-sensitive esterase was mainly distributed in liver of the five species. The enzyme was not found in the other five tissues (including gill) except in gallbladder of topmouth gudgeon and goldfish. The correlation was obviously improved between susceptibility and detoxification capacity if activity of the TPP-sensitive esterase was employed instead of that of the nonspecific esterase to make the comparison. In vitro treatment of nonspecific esterase in liver with malaoxon proved that the active metabolite of malathion inhibited a different isoenzyme from the TPP-sensitive one.

  11. Inheritance of the complete mitochondrial genomes in three different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, C-P; Zhao, R-R; Hu, J; Liu, S-J; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Chen, Y-B; Qin, Q-B; Xiao, J; Duan, W; Liu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Diploid natural gynogenetic goldfish (2nGRCG), triploid hybrids (3nRB) and tetraploid hybrids (4nRB) are generated by distant hybridization of red common goldfish (RCG, Carassius auratus red var.) and blunt snout bream (BSB, Megalobrama amblycephala). In the present study, we obtained the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the hybrid offspring and compared them with the homologous sequences of RCG and BSB. All mtDNA sequences of these hybrids were 16,580bp in length, and the genes number, size, and order were quite similar to that of RCG. Genetic analysis revealed that the mtDNA sequences of these hybrids had high similarity (>99%) and low divergence (hybridization and polyploidization. Moreover, clade separation of hybrid offspring from their paternal BSB in the phylogenetic tree implies that phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA is incomplete for elucidating the true relationships between different species, particularly when they have undergone hybridization or allopolyploidization. Our study provides significant information for both evolution and genetic studies of mtDNA for hybrid species and allopolyploidization species.

  12. Role of oleoylethanolamide as a feeding regulator in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Ana B; Armirotti, Andrea; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J; Piomelli, Daniele; de Pedro, Nuria

    2014-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a bioactive lipid mediator, produced in the intestine and other tissues, which is involved in energy balance regulation in mammals, modulating feeding and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and possible role of OEA in feeding regulation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We assessed whether goldfish peripheral tissues and brain contain OEA and their regulation by nutritional status. OEA was detected in all studied tissues (liver, intestinal bulb, proximal intestine, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon and brainstem). Food deprivation (48 h) reduced intestinal OEA levels and levels increased upon re-feeding, suggesting that this compound may be involved in the short-term regulation of food intake in goldfish, as a satiety factor. Next, the effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of OEA on feeding, swimming and plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides were analysed. Food intake, swimming activity and circulating triglyceride levels were reduced by OEA 2 h post-injection. Finally, the possible interplay among OEA and other feeding regulators (leptin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, orexin and monoamines) was investigated. OEA actions on energy homeostasis in goldfish could be mediated, at least in part, through interactions with ghrelin and the serotonergic system, as OEA treatment reduced ghrelin expression in the intestinal bulb, and increased serotonergic activity in the telencephalon. In summary, our results indicate for the first time in fish that OEA could be involved in the regulation of feeding, swimming and lipid metabolism, suggesting a high conservation of OEA actions in energy balance throughout vertebrate evolution.

  13. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  14. A multiwall carbon nanotubes film-modified carbon fiber ultramicroelectrode for the determination of nitric oxide radical in liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhen; Li, Qing; Hu, Shengshui

    2005-02-01

    A novel chemically modified electrode based on the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) film-coated carbon fiber ultramicroelectrode (CFUE) has been described for the determination of nitric oxide radical (.NO). The electrochemical behaviors of MWNTs-modified CFUE have been characterized in 0.2 mmol L(-1) K(4)Fe(CN)(6) and 0.1 mol L(-1) KCl solution. The Nafion film was used to avoid some electroactive interferences. The amount of Nafion was optimized, and some possible interferents [such as nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), ascorbate, dopamine (DA), l-arginine (l-Arg), etc.] were tested and evaluated. The oxidation peak current of .NO increases significantly at the MWNT/Nafion-modified CFUE, in contrast to that at the bare and the Nafion-modified CFUE, and the oxidation peak potential is at 0.78 V (vs. SCE), which can be used for the detection of .NO. The oxidation peak current is linearly with the concentration of .NO from 2x10(-7) to 8.6x10(-5) mol L(-1), and the detection limit is 2x10(-8) mol L(-1). The liver mitochondria in Carassius auratus were isolated and .NO release from mitochondria was monitored by using this ultramicroelectrode system.

  15. Novel pentapeptide, PALAL, derived from a bony fish elicits contraction of the muscle in starfish Patiria pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hye Young; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-10-01

    A bioactive peptide mimicking peptide-signaling molecules has been isolated from the skin extract of fish Channa argus which caused contraction of the apical muscle of a starfish Patiria pectinifera, a deuterostomian invertebrate. The primary structure of the isolated pentapeptide comprises amino acid sequence of H-Pro-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-OH (PALAL) with a molecular mass of 483.7 Da. Pharmacological activity of PALAL, dosage ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-5) M, revealed concentration-dependent contraction of the apical muscles of P. pectinifera and Asterias amurensis. However, PALAL was not active on the intestinal smooth muscle of the goldfish Carassius auratus and has presumably other physiological roles in fish skin. Investigation of structure-activity relationship using truncated and substituted analogs of PALAL demonstrated that H-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-OH was necessary and should be sufficient to constrict apical muscle of P. pectinifera. Furthermore, the second alanine residue was required to display the activity, and the fifth leucine residue was responsible for its potency. Comparison with PALAL's primary structure with those of other known bioactive peptides from fish and starfish revealed that PALAL does not have any significant homology. Consequently, PALAL is a bioactive peptide that elicits a muscle contraction in starfish, and the isolation of PALAL may lead to develop other bioactive peptides sharing its similar sequence and/or activity. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Occurrence of parasites of the genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae in fish caught in Trasimeno lake, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers.

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of selected phenols with non-monotonic dose-response curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ChangAn; ZHANG AiQian; LIN Yuan; YIN DaQiang; WANG LianSheng

    2009-01-01

    Particular non-monotonic dose-response curves of many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) suggest the existence of diverse toxicity mechanisms at different dose levels. As a result, the biologi-cal activities of EDCs cannot be simply exhibited by unique EC/LD<,50. values, and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for non-monotonic dose-response relationship be-comes an unknown field in the environmental science. In this paper, nine phenols with inverted U-shaped dose-response curves in lymphocyte proliferation test of Carassius auratus were selected. The binding interactions between the phenols and several typical EDCs-related receptors were then explored in a molecular simulation study. The estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bacterial O2 sensing FixL protein (FixL), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were the target receptors in the study. Linear regression QSAR models for the low and high exposure levels of the compounds were developed separately. The results indicated that the lymphocyte proliferation in the low-dose range might involve ER-mediated process, while the proliferation inhibition in the high dose range was dominated by the acute toxicity of phenols due to receptor occupancy and cell damage.

  18. Resistance to change in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaki, Takeharu; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2004-05-31

    Resistance to change has been studied in several species such as humans, rats, and pigeons. We conducted two experiments using goldfish as subjects to examine the generality of the findings on resistance to change in a phylogenetically more primitive species. In Experiment 1, five goldfish (Carassius auratus) were trained on two-component multiple schedules with different variable-interval schedules in effect. When responding was disrupted by presenting free food during intercomponent intervals or by extinction, resistance to change was greater in the component with the higher reinforcement rates. In Experiment 2, identical variable-interval schedules were presented in two multiple-schedule components, but in one of the components response-independent food was delivered concurrently according to variable-time schedules. Baseline response rates were the same for both components, which is inconsistent with previous findings with other species that the addition of response-independent food decreases response rates. However, response rates in the component with added response-independent food showed the greater resistance to change, which is similar to findings in other species. The convergence of these results across various species confirms the generality of the findings on resistance to change.

  19. RESEARCH ABOUT ICHTHYOPARASITOFAUNA OF BANAT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Cojocaru

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2001 and 2002 were parasitologically examined 16 species of fishes (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama danubii, Alburnus alburnus, Gobio spp., Leuciscus cephalus, Tinca tinca, Pseudorasbora parva, Esox lucius, Silurus glanis, Stizostedion lucioperca, Perca fluviatilis, Lepomis gibbosus, Acipenser ruthenus. The fish came from rivers (Danube, Bega, Timis, Barzava, Nera and reservoirs (Surduc, Pischia, Sacosu Turcesc, Ghiroda,Ineu and irrigation chanell of Giroc-Chisoda. It has been performed the microscopical examination of gills and skin, as well as the macroscopical and stereomicroscopical examination of organs and muscles, being identified 45 species of parasites as follows:•Protozoa: 8 species (4 species of Myxozoa and 4 species of Ciliata. •Monogena: 5 species•Trematoda: 11 species•Cestoda: 8 species•Nematoda: 7 species•Acanthocephala: 4species•Anellida (Hirudina: 2 species•Crustacea: 5 species (Copepoda: 4 species, Branchiura:1 specia.The variety of parasites from the Banat fishes it is related with the diversity of the regional water conditions.

  20. Assessing the estrogenic potency in a Portuguese wastewater treatment plant using an integrated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mário S.Diniz; Rita Maurício; Mira Petrovic; Maria J.López De Alda; Leonor Amaral; Isabel Peres; Damiá Barceló; Fernando Santana

    2010-01-01

    The estrogenic potency of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using chemical and biological analyses,which showed that after the station treatment processes some of the selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) were still present in the treated effluent (e.g.,bisphenol A,alkylphenols,estrone).Thus,the most common endocrine EDCs were identified and quantified and the overall estrogenicity of the treated effluent assessed by integrating the results.Male goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used as biological indicators in a 28-day experiment.Viteliogenin (Vtg),gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices,steroids (17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) and histopathology were biomarkers used in fish to evaluate WWTP treated effluent estrogenicity,in combination with instrumental analyses.The results showed a significant increase (P<0.01) in plasma and liver Vtg,which were significantly correlated (r = 0.66;P<0.01).The gonadosmatic index was significantly (P<0.01) reduced in exposed fish.The steroid analyses revealed significant elevations in 17β-estradiol and depressed 11-ketotestosterone concentrations.The histological examinations show changes in exposed fish gonads,such as regressed testes and in some cases (43% to 75%) the development of ovo-testis in fish exposed to 50% and 100% treated effluent.

  1. Trematode Centrocestus formosanus infection and distribution in ornamental fishes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, César; Fajardo, Raúl; Enríquez, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ornamental fish species affected by the metacercariae of the digenean trematode Centrocestus formosanus and its distribution in 48 fish farms in Morelos, central Mexico. The parasite was found to form various numbers of branchial cysts in 11 of the 25 species analyzed. Goldfish Carassius auratus was the most commonly affected species; 20 of 30 farms were positive for this parasite, the fish showing severe clinical signs and having a high mortality rate. For the first time in the region, koi (a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio), zebrafish Danio rerio, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus (also known as the threespot gourami) were positive; meanwhile, Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus, which had previously been reported positive in other studies in this region, was found to be negative. The parasite was observed in fish from 27 of the 48 farms studied. Ten of 15 municipalities had farms that were positive for the parasite. These results suggest that the distribution of C. formosanus is closely related to the use of water that had been contaminated with the parasite and to the presence of a snail, the red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata.

  2. 鱼类肝脏酯酶的同工酶构成及其对磷酸三苯酯和马拉氧磷的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少南; 樊德方

    1999-01-01

    用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法分离了麦穗鱼(pseudorasbora parva),金鱼(Carassius auratus),尼罗罗非鱼(Tilapja nilotica),食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis),虹鳟(Salmo gairdneri)等五种鱼的肝脏酯酶的同工酶,以乙酸α-萘酯为底物测定了它们的活性,在麦穗鱼,金鱼,尼罗罗非鱼体内发现两条酶带,在食蚊鱼和虹鳟体内发现一条酶带,离体抑制率实验表明,五种鱼肝脏内均含有对磷酸三苯酶敏感的酶带,而对马拉氧磷敏感的酶带只存在于麦穗鱼,金鱼,尼罗罗非鱼体内,酯酶同工酶分布型的意义及与马拉硫磷选择毒性的关系在本文中进行了讨论。

  3. In vitro immunocompetence of two compounds isolated from Polygala tenuifolia and development of resistance against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Dactylogyrus intermedius in respective host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Guang-Lu; Zhu, Bin; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to isolate some compounds from methanol extract of Polygala tenuifolia and evaluate their immunostimulatory properties and antiviral activity using grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells and GCRV. By applying insecticidal bioassay-guided, chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified compounds were obtained. The changes of expression of selected immune genes (Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, MyD88 and IgM) in C. idella kidney cell lines were evaluated after exposure to these isolated compounds. The results showed that compound 1 and 2 up-regulated to varying degrees of Mx1, IL-1β, TNFα, and MyD88 in C. idella kidney cells. WST-8 kit assay verified the two compounds has no toxic effects on CIK cell, and furthermore, have in vitro antivirus activity. Especially, that there is keeping 79% cell viability when exposure to compound 2 (100 mg L(-1)). According to in vivo insecticidal assays against Dactylogyrus intermedius, compound 2 exhibited higher efficacy than compound 1, which was found to be 87.2% effective at the concentrations of 5 mg L(-1) and safe to goldfish (Carassius auratus). Besides, the purified compounds were identified by spectral data as: (1) 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol and (2) 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamic acid. Overall, the results indicate that bath administration of these compounds modulates the immune related genes in C. idella kidney cells and to some extent, eliminate the virus and parasitic infections.

  4. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  5. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  6. Ecological studies on medaka in a remained habitat in Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo LI; Huiguang FU

    2009-01-01

    Ecological studies were carried out in the remaining habitat for medaka (Oryzias latipes), a marsh in the suburbs of Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China. Sewage released from villages increases the nutrient levels in open water areas of the marsh, while in cattail (Typha angustifolia) and reed {Phragmites communis) beds the nutrient levels are decreased. There are fewer zooplanktons in the cattail and reed beds than in the open water areas. Sampling fishes with trap nets showed that medaka lived in dense populations in the cattail and reed beds, while the other three fish species, wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), and mud loach (Misgurnus bipartitus), occupied the open water areas in the marsh. A little amount of paradise fish (Macropodus chinensis) was also found in the marsh. Japanese freshwater shrimps {Macrobrachium nipponense) were found only in the influx canal from waterworks. Indoor aquarium experiments showed that the wild medaka in this marsh was easily cultured with commercial feed similar to domesticated strains. Some ecological aspects of the medaka were discussed based on the observations of the fish in the marsh.

  7. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  8. Chirping response of weakly electric knife fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) to low-frequency electric signals and to heterospecific electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, K D; DiBenedictis, B T; Banever, S R

    2010-07-01

    Brown ghost knife fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) can briefly increase their electric organ discharge (EOD) frequency to produce electrocommunication signals termed chirps. The chirp rate increases when fish are presented with conspecific fish or high-frequency (700-1100 Hz) electric signals that mimic conspecific fish. We examined whether A. leptorhynchus also chirps in response to artificial low-frequency electric signals and to heterospecific electric fish whose EOD contains low-frequency components. Fish chirped at rates above background when presented with low-frequency (10-300 Hz) sine-wave stimuli; at 30 and 150 Hz, the threshold amplitude for response was 1 mV cm(-1). Low-frequency (30 Hz) stimuli also potentiated the chirp response to high-frequency ( approximately 900 Hz) stimuli. Fish increased their chirp rate when presented with two heterospecific electric fish, Sternopygus macrurus and Brachyhypopomus gauderio, but did not respond to the presence of the non-electric fish Carassius auratus. Fish chirped to low-frequency (150 Hz) signals that mimic those of S. macrurus and to EOD playbacks of B. gauderio. The response to the B. gauderio playback was reduced when the low-frequency component (electric signals of heterospecific electric fish, and the low-frequency components of heterospecific EODs significantly influence chirp rate. These results raise the possibility that chirps function to communicate to conspecifics about the presence of a heterospecific fish or to communicate directly to heterospecific fish.

  9. Pathology Survey on a Captive-Bred Colony of the Mexican Goodeid, Nearly Extinct in the Wild, Zoogoneticus tequila (Webb & Miller 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Arbuatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Goodeid, Zoogoneticus tequila, is considered nearly extinct in the wild and it is maintained in captivity by the nonprofit international “Goodeid Working Group.” The unique Italian colony has produced about 180 fish so far. The observable diseases were registered and some fish were submitted, immediately after spontaneous death, to necroscopic and histopathologic exams. Encountered diseases included the following: 7 cases of scoliosis (2 males and 5 females; 2 fish with a similar congenital deviation of ocular axis; 1 adult male with left corneal opacity, presumably of traumatic origin; 1 female fish with a large subocular fluid-filled sac, histologically referable to a lymphatic cyst, similarly to the eye sacs of a Goldfish variety (Carassius auratus called bubble eye; and 1 female fish with recurrent abdominal distension consequent to distal bowel dilation and thinning, associated with complete mucosal atrophy, and comparable to intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndromes described in humans and various animal species. The absence of infectious or parasitic diseases, as well as the low incidence of diseases potentially related to environmental alterations or nutritional disorders such as spinal deformities, suggests the adequacy of breeding management techniques of Z. tequila for its conservation and reintroduction in to the original habitat in the near future.

  10. Pathology survey on a captive-bred colony of the Mexican Goodeid, nearly extinct in the wild, Zoogoneticus tequila (Webb & Miller 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuatti, Alessio; Della Salda, Leonardo; Romanucci, Mariarita

    2013-01-01

    The Mexican Goodeid, Zoogoneticus tequila, is considered nearly extinct in the wild and it is maintained in captivity by the nonprofit international "Goodeid Working Group." The unique Italian colony has produced about 180 fish so far. The observable diseases were registered and some fish were submitted, immediately after spontaneous death, to necroscopic and histopathologic exams. Encountered diseases included the following: 7 cases of scoliosis (2 males and 5 females); 2 fish with a similar congenital deviation of ocular axis; 1 adult male with left corneal opacity, presumably of traumatic origin; 1 female fish with a large subocular fluid-filled sac, histologically referable to a lymphatic cyst, similarly to the eye sacs of a Goldfish variety (Carassius auratus) called bubble eye; and 1 female fish with recurrent abdominal distension consequent to distal bowel dilation and thinning, associated with complete mucosal atrophy, and comparable to intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndromes described in humans and various animal species. The absence of infectious or parasitic diseases, as well as the low incidence of diseases potentially related to environmental alterations or nutritional disorders such as spinal deformities, suggests the adequacy of breeding management techniques of Z. tequila for its conservation and reintroduction in to the original habitat in the near future.

  11. Kármán vortex street detection by the lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnaud, Boris P; Bleckmann, Horst; Hofmann, Michael H

    2007-07-01

    Fish use the lateral line system for prey detection, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and spatial orientation. In addition the lateral line may be important for station holding and for the detection of the hydrodynamic trails (vortex streets) generated by swimming fish. We investigated the responses of anterior lateral line nerve fibers of goldfish, Carassius auratus, to unidirectional water flow (10 cm s(-1)) and to running water that contained a Kármán vortex street. Compared to still water conditions, both unidirectional water flow and Kármán vortex streets caused a similar increase in the discharge rate of anterior lateral line nerve fibers. If exposed to a Kármán vortex street, the amplitude of spike train frequency spectra increased at the vortex shedding frequency. This increase was especially pronounced if the fish intercepted the edge of a Kármán vortex street. Our data show that the vortex shedding frequency can be retrieved from the responses of anterior lateral line nerve fibers.

  12. Occurrence of Parasites of the Genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) in Fish Caught in Trasimeno Lake, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Valiani, Andrea; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Urbani, Eleonora; Lo Vaglio, Giovanni; Pascucci, Luisa; Franceschini, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri) of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers. PMID:28058245

  13. Ecologie comparée de deux espèces de Chrysichthys, poissons siluri-formes (Claroteidae du complexe lagunaire lac Nokoué-lagune de Porto-Novo au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleye, PA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A Study of Ecological Traits in Two Chrysichthys Species (C. auratus and C. nigrodigitatus ; Pisces, Claroteidae in the Lake Nokoue-Porto-Novo Lagoon (South Benin. The ecology traits have been studied in 2.738 Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and 990 C. auratus caught in 1990-1991 by artisanal fishing in Nokoue Lake and Porto-Novo Lagoon in Benin. The study evidences important differences between the two species. Indeed, the sexual maturity length is much smaller in C. auratus (8-79 cm than in C. nigrodigitatus (23.5-34.5 cm. C. nigrodigitatus grows faster than C. auratus (total length at 5 years of age, L5 = 40 cm and 30 cm, respectively and reaches larger size (maximum total lengths expected from Von Bertalanffy mode/s, L = 93 cm and 40 cm, respectively. About feeding ecology, C. auratus emerges as generalist feeder (Regularity indice Rv = 0.84 ; on the contrary, size and age related shifts were evidenced in C. nigrodigitatus (Regularity indices, Rv from 0.82 to 0.59. The eventuality for the two species to belong to two different types of life history and the effect of fishing on the populations have been discussed.

  14. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  15. Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp (Carassius cuvieri)%人工诱导雌核发育日本白鲫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远东; 张纯; 刘少军; 陶敏; 曾琛; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4 200 mJ/cm2 and 3 600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively.At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4±3.3)% vs. (33.8±1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7±0.3)% vs.(0.5±0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4℃ for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8±2.1)% and (29.4 ±3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7±3.4)% and (23.6±4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J × B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J × B crosses may be usefulin aquaculture.%分别用遗传失活的散鳞镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)、团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)精子诱导日本白鲫(Carassiuscuvieri)进行雌核发育.未经冷休克处理,用UV照射过

  16. The effects of different fish species on growth of submerged macrophytes%不同鱼类对沉水植物生长的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓平; 王玉兵; 杨桂军; 秦伯强; 杨宏伟

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophyte is an important component in ecological restoration of eutrophic waters. Fish is one of the impor⁃tant factors affecting the growth of submerged macrophytes. In the present study, the effects of three fish species( Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Parabramis pekinensis and Carassius auratus) on growth of four submerged macrophytes( Vallisneria natans, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttalli and Potamogeton malaianus) were studied. Results showed that the decline rates of submerged macro⁃phytes biomass were 19.2%, 82.1% and 16.6% in controls, C. idellus and P. pekinensis, respectively. However, submerged mac⁃rophytes biomass increased 12.5% in the C. auratus treatments. The rate of increase of Ceratophyllum demersum biomss was the highest among the four submerged macrophytes. The rate of increase of C. demersum biomass in controls, P. pekinensis and C. aura⁃tus treatments were 171.1%,113.9% and 265.5%, respectively, but that was -24.4% in C. idellus treatments. Moreover, all the three fish species inhibited the growth of Spirogyra which is one of the competitors of submerged macrophytes. The results of this study could be used for the fish management during the restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic waters.%沉水植物是富营养水体生态修复的重要组成部分,鱼类是影响沉水植物生长的重要因素之一.为了解鱼类对沉水植物生长的影响,研究3种鱼(草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鲫( Carassius auratus)、鳊( Parabramis pekinensis))对4种沉水植物(苦草( Vallisneria natans)、金鱼藻( Ceratophyllum demersum)、伊乐藻( Elodea nuttalli)、马来眼子菜( Potamogeton malaianus))生长的影响.结果显示,对照组、草鱼组和鳊组沉水植物生物量分别下降19.2%、82.1%和16.6%,而鲫组沉水植物生物量却增长12.5%.4种沉水植物中,金鱼藻生物量增长最高,其中对照组、鳊组和鲫组

  17. Molecular surveillance of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in goldfish cultured in China%金鱼鲤疱疹病毒Ⅱ型的分子诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉娟; 罗杨志; 刘学芹; 顾泽茂; 袁军法

    2013-01-01

    Originally described from Japan, Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) was present in at least five other countries and probably has a global distribution in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Up to now,CyHV-2 has drawn little attention and is rarely reported in China. Recently, silver prussian carp {Carassius auratus gibelio} farmed in Yancheng,Jiangsu Province, was reported by news to be infected by CyHV-2 and caused heavy economic losses. But little was known about the ways of virus transmission, potential reservoirs and sources of infection for this newly emerged virus. Goldfish can be a source of infection by carrying CyHV-2 but showing no clinical symptom. To understand the epidemiology of CyHV-2 in China,healthy goldfish from markets in different districts were tested for CyHV-2 by degenerate polymerase chain reaction of the viral polymerase gene followed by sequencing. Results demonstrated that CyHV-2 has a wide geographic distribution in China. Molecular study indicated that the sequences of DNA polymerase encoded by CyHV-2 isolated from goldfish in China were identical with the published sequence for CyHV-2. The helicase sequences of CyHV-2 from goldfish were also partially i-dentical with those from silver prussian carp cultured in China,suggesting that the virus carried by goldfish and silver prussian carp were the same. Between the isolates from goldfish and H. Fukuda from Japan, there was only one or two residues difference in the amino acid sequence of helicase or intercapsom-eric triplex protein,suggesting that the two isolates of CyHV-2 were highly similar,but not the same.%针对国内市场上流通的金鱼,开展CyHV-2的流行病学调查,并比较CyHV-2不同分离株的分子特征.结果显示:无明显临床症状的金鱼带毒率较高(13.89%),表明我国已有CyHV-2的分布.分子生物学研究显示,我国金鱼和异育银鲫来源的CyHV-2编码的解旋酶基因部分序列一致,表明异育银鲫来源的CyHV-2和金鱼来源的CyHV-2

  18. Spindlin在银鲫卵母细胞中磷酸化修饰分析%STUDIES ON PHOSPHORYLATION MODIFICATION OF SPINDLIN IN GIBEL CARP OOCYTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏; 王小磊; 桂建芳

    2011-01-01

    Spindlin最早在小鼠中被发现和命名,是MOS/MAP激酶通路的底物.实验室之前在银鲫卵母细胞中克隆并分离鉴定出具有同小鼠相似序列特征和表达特性的Spindlin,命名为CagSpin(Carassius auratus gibelio Spindlin).CagSpin是一个母源表达的蛋白,存在于卵母细胞生长、减数成熟以及早期胚胎发育过程中.研究结合去磷酸化和Western blot分析,检测到CagSpin在卵母细胞中发生磷酸化.进一步通过毛细管电泳(Capillary Electrophoresis,CE)对蛋白水解后的氨基酸残基进行分析,确定在银鲫卵母细胞中CagSpin 蛋白的苏氨酸残基(threonine,nr)被磷酸化,这一结果为CagSpin在卵母细胞中的磷酸化修饰提供了证据,表明磷酸化的CagSpin在银鲫卵子发生、卵母细胞成熟和卵-胚转换中可能起了重要作用.%Spindlin, first isolated in mouse, was a substrate in the MOS/MAP kinase pathway in oocytes. In previous study, we isolated a homolog in gibel carp and nominated it as Carassius auratus gibelio Spindlin (CagSpin). CagSpin was an oocyte-specific expression protein and presented dynamic distribution in nucleio in different stage of oocytes development. CagSpin associated with p-tubulin and chromosomes played important roles during oocyte maturation and oocyte-to-embyro transition. In this study, in order to explore the modification state of CagSpin in matured oocytes, we first analyzed the primary structure of CagSpin. The data showed that there were many possible phosphorylation sites in CagSpin. We performed dephosphorylation assay and Western blot detection to confirm the predicted posttranslational modification. Compared with the specific 28 kD protein band in normal matured egg extracts, a smaller protein band, about 27 kD, was detected in CIP (calf intestine alkaline phosphatase) treated matured egg extracts. The mobility shift clearly demonstrated that CagSpin was phosphorylated during oocyte maturation. Furthermore, Capillary

  19. Cloning and gene construction analysis of β-actin in Oreochromis aureus%奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin基因的克隆与结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海彦; 贾永义; 唐永凯

    2011-01-01

    β-actin在真核细胞的生理过程中起着重要作用,其序列具有高度保守性,是一种管家基因.通过RT-PCR方法克隆出奥利亚罗非鱼(Oreochromis aureus)β-actin的部分cDNA序列,其长度为424 bp,翻译成138个氨基酸,计算的蛋白质分子量为15.5 ku.氨基酸同源性分析显示,奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin与真鲷(Pagrus major)、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、青鳝(Oryzias latipes)、龙溪鳝(Rivulus marmoratus)的相似性最高,为99.3%;与鲫(Carassius auratus)、红鳍东方鲍(Takifugu rubripes)等其它鱼的相似性也较高,为97.8%~98.6%.此外,还克隆出了奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin相应的DNA序列,共619 bp.cDNA和DNA的序列比对显示克隆出的奥利亚罗非鱼β-actin含有2个内含子,这为将来设计β-actin荧光定量PCR引物以及测定其在不同组织中的表达量变化打下基础.%Eukaryotic β-actin gene plays an important role in physiological process and its sequence is highly conservative as a housekeeping gene. The partial cDNA encoding β-actin in Oreochromis aureus was isolated using RT-PCR. The cDNA isolated was 424 bp encoding 138 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 15.5 ku. The comparison analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of β-actin in O. aureus showed high similarity of 99.3% with those of Pagrus major, Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Rivulus marmoratus, and 97.8% ~ 98.6% homology with those of other fishes, such as Carassius auratus, Takifugu rubripes. The corresponding DNA sequence of O. aureus β-actin in size of 619 bp was also cloned. By comparing the sequences of cDNA and DNA, it was found that β-actin gene in O. aureus consisted of two introns. The present study provided some useful information in designing the β-actin primers for real time RT-PCR and evaluating the β-actin expression level for different tissues.

  20. Effects of vitamin C intervention on cadmium induced erythrocyte micronucleus of crucian carp%维生素C对镉导致鲫红细胞微核的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊斌; 王杨科; 解雷; 路宏朝; 王琦

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin C intervention on cadmium induced erythrocyte micronucleus of Carassius au-ratus, with the 0.5 mg/L cadmium solution as the control group , the 0.5 mg/L cadmium solution separately added 1 g, 2 g, 3 g/L of vitamin C(VC) were as experimental group.Firstly, C.auratus were separately exposure 5, 10, 15, 20 d. Then, blood smears were taken from crucian carp tail blood , microscopic examination , and the erythrocyte micronucleus rate was measured .The results showed that the erythrocyte micronucleus rate induced by cadmium increased linearly with time in the control group, y=0.158 7 X+2.516 7 (R2 =0.935 7).However, in the experimental group, the erythro-cyte micronucleus rate decreased with vitamin C concentration increasing and treatment time .The micronucleus rate was lowest for the experimental group with 3 g/L vitamin C and treating 20 d, and only 0.26%; contrast to the control group treating 20 d, control rate of micronucleus was 95.62%.The T-test results showed that the effect of vitamin C intervention on cadmium induced erythrocyte micronucleus rate was significant ( t>t0.01 ) , the effect increased with vitamin C concen-tration increasing .%为探究维生素C对镉导致鲫( Carassius auratus)红细胞微核的干预作用,用0.5 mg/L的镉溶液单一染毒作对照组,设置0.5 mg/L的镉溶液分别添加1、2、3 g/L的维生素C( VC)三组作为实验组。在染毒后的第5、10、15、20天分别取鲫尾部血液制作血涂片,镜检并统计红细胞微核率。结果显示:0.5 mg/L的镉溶液单一染毒对照组,镉诱发鲫红细胞产生微核率与时间呈现线性关系,回归函数为: y=0.1587 x+2.5167( R2=0.9357);实验组随着VC浓度增加和处理时间的延长,微核率降低,其中以0.5 mg/L Cd2++3 g/L VC组处理20 d的微核率最低,微核率为仅为0.26‰,与处理20 d的对照组相比,微核抑制率达到95.62%。 T

  1. Heavy metal distribution in tissues of six fish species included in human diet, inhabiting freshwaters of the Nature Park "Hutovo Blato" (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Rajković, Valentina; Bogut, Stjepan; Cacić, Milan; Horvatić, Janja

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) concentration in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney, gills, and gonads) of six fish species (carp: Cyprinus carpio, tench: Tinca tinca, pumpkinseed: Lepomis gibosus, prussian carp: Carassius auratus gibelio, hasselquist: Salmo dentex, eel: Anguilla anguilla) from the freshwaters of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and determine whether they are potentially harmful for human health if included in the diet. Fish were angled from the Svitava Lake in the second part of August of the year 2003, and fish tissues were stored at -18 degrees C until analysis. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the Veterinary Institute Brno, Czech Republic, and expressed as mg.kg(-1) of wet tissue. Concentration of mercury, lead, and arsenic in most tissues of all analyzed fish types is lower than the maximal allowed concentration (MAC) in most countries. Cadmium concentration is also low in muscles and gonads, but kidney, liver, and gill concentrations exceed MAC value in most countries. Hasselquist, an endemic type for that region, differs from other fish types in the fact that it has very low cadmium concentration in liver and kidney, but the highest concentration of arsenic in most tissues, especially muscles. In muscles and gonads of all fish types analyzed, Pb is present in higher concentration than Cd, whereas in liver, gills, and particularly kidney, the situation is opposite, suggesting diverse metabolic pathways and unequal bioaccumulation of these two metals in different fish tissues. Although the region of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not an agricultural territory, the intensive agricultural activities in the neighboring regions already result in high cadmium concentration in inner organs of fish species analyzed. Therefore, fish types in the freshwaters of the Park may be included in the human diet

  2. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Seyedeh F.; Mohd Daud, Hassan Hj.; Sharifpour, Issa; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Shankar, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793); snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910); koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758); broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864); goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758); climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792); and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701). The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01). Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of maturity

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study spatial and temporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River. Methods: This study was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured from three sites in the river. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fish including gill nets, cast net, electro-fishing and hook and lines. Associations between the distribution of fish species and the environmental variables were quantified by using canonical correspondence analysis. Results: The results showed that the fish assemblage consisted of 58 species representing 46 genera and 27 families belong to Osteichthyes except one (Carcharhinus leucas relate to Chondrichthyes. Number of species increased in summer and autumn months and sharply decreased in winter. Tenualosa ilisha was the most abundant species comprising 27.4% of the catch, followed by Carassius auratus (23.7% and Liza klunzingeri (10.6%. The dominance (D3 value for the main three abundant species was 61.7%. Nine species were caught for the first times from the river include eight marine. The overall values of diversity index ranged from 0.67 in March to 2.57 in October, richness index from 2.64 in January to 3.71 in September and evenness index from 0.22 in March to 0.73 in August. Conclusions: Spatially, the fish assemblages of Shatt Al-Arab River can be divided into three ecological fish guilds, namely, common species, seasonal species and occasional species.

  4. 力竭运动训练对锦鲫幼鱼无氧代谢能力的影响%The Effect of Exhaustive Exercise Training on the Anaerobic Metabolism for Juvenile Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏伟; 付世建; 彭姜岚; 曹振东

    2011-01-01

    将锦鲫(Carassius auratus)幼鱼20尾随机平均分成训练组和对照组,在25℃水温下每天饱足投喂1次;其中训练组实验鱼持续2周进行强度为每天2次的力竭运动训练;随后分别测量实验鱼力竭运动后的耗氧率并计算过量耗氧(EPOC);待力竭运动恢复8h后再分别取样测量肌乳酸、肝乳酸的含量和肌肉中乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、柠檬酸合成酶(CS)的活性.研究发现,力竭运动训练组与对照组的EPOC分别为(166.2±7.2)、(108.0±6.2) mg·kg-1,训练组显著高于对照组(p<0.05);肌乳酸含量分别是(17.4±0.8)、(25.4±1.7) μmol·g-1,训练组显著低于对照组(p<0.05);训练组实验鱼的肝乳酸含量、LDH和CS的活性与对照组之间均无显著差异.研究表明力竭运动训练有助于提高锦鲫幼鱼的无氧代谢能力;无氧代谢能力的提高可能与乳酸清除速率加快有关.

  5. Effect of the pesticide Deltamethrin on the Mauthner cells of Lake Balaton fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csillik, B; Fazakas, J; Nemcsók, J; Knyihár-Csillik, E

    2000-06-01

    Deltamethrin, a synthetic pesticide [(S)alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1R)-cis-3-(2.2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dim ethylcyclopropane-carboxylate] used for extermination of mosquitoes on the shores of lake Balaton, has been found to induce severe impairments of the nervous system of several Lake Balaton fish, such as carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelis Bloch), eel (Anguilla anguilla) and wels (Silurus glanis). It has been shown that Deltamethrin, in a concentration of 1 microgram/liter in the aquarium water, inhibits acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity of the giant Mauthner's nerve cells as well as of the axon terminals synapsing with these cells. Even more importantly, however, Deltamethrin in a concentration of 10 micrograms per liter, induces blockade of the expression of choline acetyltransferase in the bulbous axon terminals synapsing with the lateral dendrites of the Mauthner cells. Since, under normal conditions, the function of the Mauthner cells is to co-ordinate the C-start reaction, by which fish rapidly leave sites of nociceptive stimulation, it stands for reason to assume that Deltamethrin intoxicated fish may be prone to become victims of various factors which endanger survival of the individual. During the last decade, waves of fish deaths were observed in Lake Balaton, which is the largest fresh-water lake in Europe. Fish death coincided with airborne mosquito-killing campaigns. Results of the enzyme- and immunohistochemical studies described in this paper, together with the deleterious effects of Deltamethrin to the enteric nervous system of fish which has been reported earlier (Lang et al., 1997) suggest that fish death might be caused by the indiscriminate use of Deltamethrin airborne spray in the mosquito-extermination campaigns.

  6. Study on HSP70 Gene Expression in Different Tissue of Cyprinus carpio%鲤鱼HSP70基因组织表达差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚秋; 李瑞文

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate whether HSP70 can be used as a stress monitoring indicator in Cyprinus carpio breeding. [Method] Based on HSP70 sequence of Cyprinus carpio (AY120894), one pair of primers was designed and synthesized, while the total RNA of liver tissues in Cyprinus carpio was extracted. Some cDNA fragments of Cyprinus carpio HSP70 were cloned by RT-PCR, and its differential expression in various tissues such as heart, intestine, mucus, gonad, swim bladder, gill and fin in Cyprinus carpio was also studied. [Result] The cDNA sequence of 480 bp was obtained from Cyprinus carpio HSP70 gene by RT-PCR amplification. Homology comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence after sequencing and that of other types of fish showed that the homology among Cyprinus carpio, Danio rerio, Ohcorhynehus mylciss, Paralichthys olivaceus, Xiphophoorus maculates and Carassius auratus was 96%, 98%, 98%, 96%, 96% and 96% respectively. The expression of HSP70 was detected in eight tissues of Cyprinus carpio. The expression was the highest in heart, followed by swim bladder and fin, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). There was no significant difference among the expression in three tissues of intestine, mucus and fat (P>0.05), but their expression was significantly higher than those in gonad and gill (P<0.05). [Conclusion] HSP70 gene expression is a suitable criterion for monitoring the stress degree, stress capacity and healthy conditions in Cyprinus carpio breeding.

  7. The impact of geomorphology of marsh creeks on fish assemblage in Changjiang River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binsong; Xu, Wang; Guo, Li; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2014-03-01

    Tidal marshes are an important habitat and nursery area for fish. In the past few decades, rapid economic development in the coastal areas of China has led to the interruption and destruction of an increasing number of tidal marshes. The growing interest in tidal marsh restoration has increased the need to understand the relationship between geomorphological features and fish assemblages in the design of marsh restoration projects. We studied temporal variations in, and the effects of creek geomorphological features on, the estuarine tidal creek fish community. Using modified channel nets, we sampled fish monthly from March 2007 to February 2008 from seven tidal creeks along an intertidal channel system in Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve. Fourteen creek geomorphological variables were measured or derived to characterize intertidal creek geomorphological features. The Gobiidae, with 10 species, was the most speciesrich family. The most abundant fish species were Liza affinis, Chelon haematocheilus, and Lateolabrax maculatus. The fish community was dominated by juvenile marine transients, which comprised about 80% of the total catch. The highest abundance of fish occurred in June and July, and the highest biomass occurred in December. Canonical redundancy analyses demonstrated that depth, steepness, cross-sectional area, and volume significantly affected the fish species assemblage. L. affinis favored small creeks with high elevations. Synechogobius ommaturus, Acanthogobius luridus, and Carassius auratus preferred deep, steep creeks with a large cross-sectional area and volume. These findings indicate that the geomorphological features of tidal creeks should be considered in the conservation and sustainable management of fish species and in the restoration of salt marshes.

  8. Opisthorchis viverrini infection in the snail and fish intermediate hosts in Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Ha Thanh Thi; Dermauw, Veronique; Gabriël, Sarah; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn; Nguyen, Giang Thanh Thi; Dorny, Pierre

    2017-02-24

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic fish borne fluke, requires freshwater snails and fish as intermediate hosts. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in parts of Southeast Asia, including Central and South Vietnam. In this region the transmission by intermediate hosts has received little attention. Therefore, freshwater snails and wild fish from Bau My Tho, an opisthorchiasis endemic area in Binh Dinh Province were collected for examination of O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae, respectively. A total of 12,000 snails belonging to six families, of which 1616 Bithynia snails representing Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Bithynia funiculata; as well as 754 fish representing 12 species were examined. Shedding of O. viverrini cercariae was observed only in B. s. goniomphalos and B. funiculata, at infection rates of 0.86% and 0.14%, respectively. O. viverrini infection in Bithynia spp. was significantly associated with the habitat but not with the species and the shell size of Bithynia spp. O. viverrini metacercariae were found in 10 fish species representing both Cyprinidae and non-Cyprinidae families. The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in fish was significantly associated with species. Carassius auratus, a fish species commonly eaten raw, Rasbora aurotaenia and Puntius brevis had the highest prevalence of 74.0%, 55.8% and 31.6%, respectively. Sharing of the same snail and fish intermediate host species was found for O. viverrini and a O. viverrini duck-genotype that are sympatric in the study region. This study is the first to report on the intermediate host species of O. viverrini in Central Vietnam and indicates a high risk of acquiring opistorchiasis when eating raw fish dishes.

  9. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection.

  10. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  11. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo He

    Full Text Available Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100 × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48 were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC and only class IV from their male parent (TC. Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC and class IV from their male parent (TC. Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC, and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N. The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  12. Organization and variation analysis of 5S rDNA in different ploidy-level hybrids of red crucian carp × topmouth culter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Shaojun; Li, Tangluo; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Xie, Lihua; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC♀, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC♂, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp) in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC) and only class IV from their male parent (TC). Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC) and class IV from their male parent (TC). Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC), and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N). The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.

  13. Research on the changes of some physiological parameters in several fish species under the action of the talstar insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PONEPAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Talstar insecticide is labeled for numerous bugs and many other household pests and lawn pests. Bifenthrin is highly toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods. Bifenhrin LC50 values range from 0.0038 to17.8 μg/L and is only slightly toxic to both waterfowl and upland game birds (LD50 values range from 1.800 mg/kg to > 2.150 mg/kg. Bifenthrin had no effect on mollusks at its limit of water solubility. This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations – from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml Talstar/l water on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, number of erythrocytes on fish belonging to three species: prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.. The acute and subacute toxicity of Talstar insecticide was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. The Tlastar product, under the concentrations from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml/l water, produces, after one week of immersion, a significant decrease of the fish oxygen consumption. The insecticide has changed the fish respiratory rhythm in all investigated concentrations after seven days of exposure. The number of erythrocytes has significantly decrease after seven days of immersion at insecticide concentrations of 0.000625 ml Talstar/l water (bleak and perch and 0.00125 (prussian carp ml Talstar/l water. From the three investigated fish species, the perch proved to be the most sensitive to the action of the toxic substance, followed by the bleak and the prussian carp.

  14. Application of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, in the Murray-Darling Basin (southeastern Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is currently one of the most popular pre-screening tools for freshwater fishes. A recent upgrade has ensured its wider climatic relevance to countries with subtropical regions. This enhancement is of particular importance to Australia, which encompasses tropical, arid, and temperate zones, and where the introduction of non-native fish species poses a significant risk to biodiversity. In this study, 55 fish species previously evaluated in a U.K.-based calibration of FISK are reassessed for their potential invasiveness in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB; southeastern Australia), the continent's largest catchment encompassing arid and temperate climates. Approximately half of the species were classed as "medium risk" and the other half as "high risk," and the ≥19 threshold previously identified from the calibration study was confirmed. The three highest scoring species (common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio, goldfish Carassius auratus, and eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki) were those already present and invasive in the area, whereas nearly half of the tropical and subtropical species had lower scores compared to U.K. assessments, possibly because of climate change predictions of drier conditions across the MDB. There were some discordances between FISK and two Australian-based assessment protocols, one of which is qualitative and the other represents a simplified version of FISK. Notably, the Australian origins of FISK should provide for an additional reason for further applications of the tool in other RA areas (i.e., drainage basins) of the continent, ultimately encouraging adoption as the country's reference screening tool for management and conservation purposes.

  15. Spatiotemporal variability of ifsh assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul-Razak M Mohamed; Saddek A Hussein; Laith F Lazem

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study spatial and temporal variability of fish assemblage in the Shatt Al-Arab River. Methods: This study was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and transparency were measured from three sites in the river. Several fishing methods were adopted to collect fish including gill nets, cast net, electro-fishing and hook and lines. Associations between the distribution of fish species and the environmental variables were quantified by using canonical correspondence analysis. Results:The results showed that the fish assemblage consisted of 58 species representing 46 genera and 27 families belong to Osteichthyes except one (Carcharhinus leucas) relate to Chondrichthyes. Number of species increased in summer and autumn months and sharply decreased in winter. Tenualosa ilisha was the most abundant species comprising 27.4%of the catch, followed by Carassius auratus (23.7%) and Liza klunzingeri (10.6%). The dominance (D3) value for the main three abundant species was 61.7%. Nine species were caught for the first times from the river include eight marine. The overall values of diversity index ranged from 0.67 in March to 2.57 in October, richness index from 2.64 in January to 3.71 in September and evenness index from 0.22 in March to 0.73 in August. Conclusions:Spatially, the fish assemblages of Shatt Al-Arab River can be divided into three ecological fish guilds, namely, common species, seasonal species and occasional species.

  16. Molecular cloning of growth hormone receptor (GHR) from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ) and identification of its two forms of mRNA transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; GUO Qionglin; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was cloned from the liver of 2-year common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. ) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). Its open reading frame (ORF) of 1806 nucleotides is translated into a putative peptide of 602 amino acids, including an extracellular ligand-binding domain of 244 amino acids (aa), a single transmembrane domain of 24 aa and an intracellular signal-transduction domain of 334 aa. Sequence analysis indicated that common carp GHR is highly homologous to goldfish (Carassius auratus) GHR at both gene and protein levels. Using a pair of gene-specific primers, a GHR fragment was amplified from the cDNA of 2-year common carp, a 224 bp product was identified in liver and a 321 bp product in other tissues. The sequencing of the products and the partial genomic DNA indicated that the difference in product size was the result of a 97 bp intron that alternatively spliced. In addition, the 321 bp fragment could be amplified from all the tissues of 4-month common carp including liver, demonstrating the occurrence of the alternative splicing of this intron during the development of common carp. Moreover, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression level of GHR in tissues of 2-year common carp and 4-month common carp. The result revealed that in the tissues of gill, thymus and brain, the expression level of GHR in 2-year common carp was significantly lower than that of 4-month common carp.

  17. 额尔齐斯河几种鱼类寄生三代虫种类鉴定及系统发育%THE SPECIES IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC OF GYRODACTYLUS IN ERGIS RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 党瑞; 王新; 郝翠兰; 焦丽; 番林·古丽; 岳城

    2016-01-01

    对采自额尔齐斯河的银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch)、东方欧鳊(Abramis brama orientalis Berg)、黏鲈(Gymnocephalus cernua Linnaeus)、金鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum)感染的三代虫(Gyrodactylussp.)进行了研究,通过几丁质结构的形态测量与比较,初步鉴定寄生于银鲫的为细锚三代(G.sprostonae),寄生东方欧鳊的为秀丽三代虫(G.elegans),寄生黏鲈的为普氏三代虫(G.prostate),寄生金鳟的为细鳞鲑三代虫(G.brachymystacis).同时将测定的三代虫的ITS序列,与GenBank上三代虫序列进行比对分析,发现上述4种三代虫分别与细锚三代虫、秀丽三代虫、细鳞鲑三代虫、普氏三代虫的ITS同源性都在99.3%以上,进一步验证了形态学的鉴定结果.系统发育分析显示细鳞鲑三代虫和细锚三代虫位于G.(Limnonephrotus)亚属的一枝,秀丽三代虫和普氏三代虫位于G.(Gyrodactylus)亚属的一枝,而此两亚属亲缘关系较远.

  18. Cytotoxicity of cuprous oxide nanoparticles to fish blood cells: hemolysis and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liqiang, E-mail: chenlq@ynu.edu.cn; Kang Bin [Yunnan University, Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-security (China); Ling Jian [Yunnan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-03-15

    Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu{sub 2}O NPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties which are employed in a broad variety of applications. However, little is known about the adverse effects of Cu{sub 2}O NPs on organisms. In the current study, in vitro cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs (ca. 60 nm in diameter) to the blood cells of freshwater fish Carassius auratus was evaluated. A concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O NPs to red blood cells (RBCs) and the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes were revealed. The results showed that dosages of Cu{sub 2}O NPs greater than 40 {mu}g/mL were toxic to blood cells, and could cause serious membrane damage to RBCs. The EC{sub 50} value of Cu{sub 2}O NPs as obtained from RBCs and whole blood exposure was 26 and 63 {mu}g/mL, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species and the direct interaction between Cu{sub 2}O NPs and the cell membrane were suggested as the possible mechanism for cytotoxicity, and the intrinsic hemolytic active of Cu{sub 2}O NPs was the main contributor to the toxicity rather than solubilized copper ions. The adsorption of plasma proteins on the surfaces of Cu{sub 2}O NPs led to their aggregation in whole blood, and aggregate formation can significantly alleviate the hemolytic effect and subsequently mediate the phagocytosis of Cu{sub 2}O NPs by leukocytes.

  19. Screening Medicinal Plants for Use against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) Infection in Goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Ji, Jie; Ling, Fei; Chen, Yunhe; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qizhong; Wang, Gaoxue

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Methanol extracts of 24 traditional medicinal plants with potential anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in Goldfish Carassius auratus were investigated. Abrus cantoniensis, Citrus medica, Dioscorea collettii, and Polygonum multiflorum exhibited 100% activity and were selected for further evaluation by applying five solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water) for the extraction of the samples, followed by an in vivo bioassay. Among the plants tested, water, methanol, and ethyl-acetate extracts of P. multiflorum showed the highest efficacies; EC50 values (median concentration that results in 50% of its maximal effect) were 1.9, 5.4, and 9.1 mg/L, respectively, and extracts showed 100% efficacy against Dactylogyrus intermedius at 100, 12.5, and 25 mg/L. This was followed by ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and methanol extracts of Dioscorea collettii, which demonstrated 100% efficacy at 80, 80, and 120 mg/L and had EC50 values of 19.7, 27.1, and 37.8 mg/L, respectively, after 48 h of exposure. Chloroform and ethyl-acetate extracts of C. medica, which exhibited 100% efficacy against Dactylogyrus intermedius at 100 and 125 mg/L, revealed similar activity and had EC50 values of 58.7 and 51.3 mg/L, respectively. The ethyl-acetate and methanol extracts of A. cantoniensis exhibited the lowest activity and had EC50 values of 279.4 and 64.3 mg/L. Acute toxicities of these active extracts were investigated on Goldfish for 48 h. The findings indicated that extracts of the four plants can be developed as a preferred natural antiparasitic for the control of D. intermedius. Received June 15, 2013; accepted February 11, 2014.

  20. An integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Qingdao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Gong

    Full Text Available Various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. In this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index to evaluate the estrogenic activities in outlets from different stages of the leachate treatment process. The results indicated that 5 environmental estrogens (4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentrations in leachate samples were 6153 ng/L, 3642 ng/L, 2139 ng/L, 5900 ng/L, and 9422 ng/L, respectively. Leachate (1∶200 diluted induced the synthesis of plasma vitellogenin and led to decreased enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and gonadosomatic index in male goldfish (Carassius auratus after a 28-day exposure, while increased circulating 17β-estradiol level was also observed in males exposed to treated effluent. Although the target EEs were partially removed with removal rates varying from 87.2% to 99.77% by the "membrane bioreactor+reverse osmosis+aeration zeolite biofilter" treatment process, the treated effluent is still estrogenic to fish. The method combined chemical techniques with the responses of test organisms allowing us to identify the group of estrogen-like chemicals so that we were able to evaluate the overall estrogenic effects of a complex mixture, avoiding false negative assessments.

  1. 南方鲇CART基因cDNA克隆分析及组织分布%Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Tissue Distribution of CART Gene cDNA from Silurus meridionalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭焕文; 杨雁; 尹传龙; 李艳利; 张昊星

    2013-01-01

    采用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆得到南方鲇(Silurus meridionalis)的CART基因的全长cDNA序列,全长688bp,其中5′非翻译区长109 bp,ORF长357 bp,3′非翻译区222 bp,编码118个氨基酸.与其他脊椎动物的CART蛋白氨基酸序列比对发现,南方鲇CART与斑点叉尾鲴(letalurus punetaus)CART、金鱼(Carassius auratus)CART1、金鱼CART2、鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)CART1、鲤鱼CART2和人(Homo sapiens)CART同源性分别达到95.8%、72.0%、75.0%、72.9%、75.0%和52.5%,表现出较高的保守性.进化树结果显示,南方鲇的CART与斑点叉尾鮰聚为一支,与基于形态学的鱼类系统发育结论相吻合.组织分布分析表明南方鲇CART基因mRNA主要在脑中表达,与之功能相吻合.研究结果为该种鱼摄食调控机制的研究提供了新的基础资料.

  2. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  3. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  4. Cannabinoid receptors are widely expressed in goldfish: molecular cloning of a CB2-like receptor and evaluation of CB1 and CB2 mRNA expression profiles in different organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Erika; Pomatto, Valentina; Cerri, Fulvio; Campantico, Ezio; Mackie, Ken; Delpero, Massimiliano; Guastalla, Alda; Dati, Claudio; Bovolin, Patrizia; Franzoni, Maria Fosca

    2013-10-01

    Cannabinoids, the bioactive constituents of Cannabis sativa, and endocannabinoids, among which the most important are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, control various biological processes by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, namely CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. While a vast amount of information on the mammalian endocannabinoid system does exist, few data have been reported on bony fish. In the goldfish, Carassius auratus, the CB1 receptor has been cloned and its distribution has been analyzed in the retina, brain and gonads, while CB2 had not yet been isolated. In the present paper, we cloned the goldfish CB2 receptor and show that it presents a quite high degree of amino acid identity with zebrafish Danio rerio CB2A and CB2B receptors, while the percentage of identity is lower with the puffer fish Fugu rubripes CB2, as also confirmed by the phylogenetic analysis. The sequence identity becomes much lower when comparing the goldfish and the mammalian CB2 sequences; as for other species, goldfish CB2 and CB1 amino acid sequences share moderate levels of identity. Western-blotting analysis shows the CB2 receptor as two major bands of about 53 and 40 kDa and other faint bands with apparent molecular masses around 70, 57 and 55 kDa. Since the distribution of a receptor could give information on its physiological role, we evaluated and compared CB1 and CB2 mRNA expression in different goldfish organs by means of qReal-Time PCR. Our results show that both CB1 and CB2 receptors are widely expressed in the goldfish, displaying some tissue specificities, thus opening the way for further functional studies on bony fish and other nonmammalian vertebrates.

  5. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  6. Comparative studies on histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary of different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yu; LIU Shaojun; HUANG Weiren; ZHANG Jian; SUN Yuandong; ZHANG Chun; CHEN Song; LIU Jinghui; LIU Yun

    2006-01-01

    The histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary in diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids within and after the breeding season were comparatively studied. The result showed that there were six endocrine cell types in the pituitary of these three kinds of fishes, and there was an obvious difference in cell size among different ploidy level fishes. As for the same type of pituitary cells, the cell size was increased gradually with the increasing ploidy level. In the breeding season, the allotetraploid hybrids had higher proportion of gonadotropin cells (GTH) than triploids, and the triploids had higher proportion of GTH than diploids. The results were related to the earlier sexual maturity of allotetraploid hybrids and sterility of triploid cruclan carp. On the other hand, among the three kinds of fishes, the proportion of somatotropin (STH)cells in triploids crucian carp was the highest, whereas that in allotetraploid hybrids was the lowest.The results might be connected with the faster growth rate of triploids and slower growth rate of allotetraploid hybrids. In addition, in GTH cells of meso-adenohypophysis after the breeding season,there were many endocrine particles in triploids, while those endocrine particles were released from the cells in allotetraploids and diploids. This result showed that the sterility of triploid crucian carp might be related to the hormone which was not released from the GTH cells. In a word, the present study indicated that the differences in the structure of pituitary among different ploidy level fishes contributed to their difference in the growth rate and gonadal development.

  7. Identification of antiviralrelevant genes in the cultured fish cells induced by UV-inactivated virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    UV-inactivated grass carp hemorrhage virus (GCHV) can induce high titer of interferon in cultured CAB (crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) blastulae) cells, and thus defend host cells against the virus invasion. The mechanism is proposed that an antiviral state should be established in the host cells by activating expression of a set of antivi-ral-relevant genes. In this study, suppressive subtractive hy-bridization is applied to constructing a subtracted cDNA library with mRNAs isolated from UV-inactivated GCHV infected and mock-infected CAB cells. 272 differential cDNA fragments are identified by both PCR and dot blot from the subtractive cDNA library. Sequencing analysis reveals 69 genes, including 46 known gene homologues, and 23 unknown putative genes. The known genes include the genes involved in interferon signaling pathways, such as Stat1 and Jak1, the antiviral genes, such as Mx and Viperin, and a set of interferon-stimulated genes observed in mammalian cells. Most of the unknown putative genes contain AU-rich ele-ment in their sequences. Differential expressions of these genes are further confirmed by virtual Northern blot and RT-PCR. The data imply that UV-inactivated GCHV is not only able to induce production of interferon in the infected CAB cells, but also leads to the expression of a series of antiviral-relevant genes or immune-relevant genes, and therefore reveals that the signaling pathway of interferon system and antiviral mechanism in fish are similar to those in mammals.

  8. Diplomonad flagellates of some ornamental fish cultured in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonkob Viriyapongsutee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on diplomonad flagellates infection in some ornamental fishes in the family cichlidae i.e., angelfish(Pterophyllum scalare, oscar (Astronotus ocellatus, blue mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and the family osphronemidaei.e., Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens revealed that this parasite infected three out of four ornamental fish species,angelfish, oscar and blue mbuna. The highest infection was recorded in angelfish (90% followed by oscar (75.4% and bluembuna (61%, respectively. Identification of diplomonad flagellates from angelfish by means of morphological studies underlight and electron microscopes indicated that the parasite was Spironucleus vortens. The 14–days LD50 of S. vortens inangelfish was 2.99x103 cells. Histopathological changes of infected angelfish revealed granulomatous liver, numerousnumbers of melanomacrophage in the spleen and inflammation of the intestine. Susceptibility study of S. vortens to goldfish(Carassius auratus, guppy (Poecilia reticulata and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus indicated that they were resistant toartificial infection. In vitro examination of the growth inhibition assay of S. vortens indicated that dimetridazole and metronidazolewere effective in inhibiting parasite growth after 48 hrs exposure at concentrations of >4.0 μg/ml and >6.0 μg/ml,respectively. Magnesium sulfate at a concentration of >60 mg/ml inhibited the parasite growth after 72 hrs exposure. In vivoexamination of the dimetridazole efficiency on S. vortens infection indicated that dimetridazole at 4.0 μg/ml provided thehighest efficiency which could be used for treatment of spironucleosis in angelfish.

  9. Expression regulation of zebrafish interferon regulatory factor 9 by promoter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Zhang, Jian-She; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-12-01

    We previously showed that a fish interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) homologue, crucian carp Carassius auratus IRF9, displays constitutively nuclear localization and involvement in fish IFN-dependent JAK-STAT signaling; however, little is known about the expression regulation of fish IRF9. Here, we characterized the expression of zebrafish IRF9 by promoter analysis. Zebrafish IRF9 gene promoter contained several putative transcription factor binding sites, including one ISRE (IFN-stimulated response element), one GAS (IFN gamma activation sequence) and three GATEs (IFNγ ac