Sample records for caras-revisada faces pain

  1. Valoración de la escala de dolor de caras-revisada (faces pain scale-revised para evaluar la intensidad del dolor pediátrico en niños castellano parlantes Assessment of the faces pain scale-revised for measuring pain severity in children

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    J. Miró


    Full Text Available Objetivos: El objetivo principal de esta investigación era determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española de la Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R como medida de la intensidad de dolor en niños castellano parlantes. Material y método: Para evaluar la validez y fiabilidad de la escala se utilizaron dos muestras independientes. La primera formada por 119 niños y adolescentes hospitalizados por motivos diferentes. Se les preguntó acerca de su estado afectivo utilizando la escala afectiva facial (EAF y acerca de la intensidad de su dolor utilizando la FPS-R y la escala analógica de color (EAC. La segunda muestra estaba formada por 231 escolares. En este caso se les pidió que se imaginaran en ocho situaciones dolorosas e hipotéticas, y que estimasen el nivel de intensidad de dolor asociado a cada una utilizando la FPS-R y la EAC. Resultados: En el grupo de sujetos hospitalizados, los informes sobre la intensidad del dolor fueron muy similares, independientemente de si se utilizaba la FPS-R o la EAC, los índices de correlación entre 0,82 y 0,91. La relación entre la intensidad de dolor y el estado afectivo de los niños también fue significativa estadísticamente (r = 0,33, p Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R as a measure of pain severity in Spanish-speaking children. Material and methods: In order to assess the validity and reliability of this scale, two independent samples were used. The first included 119 children and adolescents taken to the hospital due to different reasons. They were asked about their affective condition using the facial affective scale (FAS and about the severity of their pain using the FPS-R and the coloured analogue scale (CAS. The second sample included 231 schoolchildren. In this case, they were asked to imagine eight hypothetical painful situations and to estimate pain severity

  2. Validity, Sensitivity, and Responsiveness of the 11-Face Faces Pain Scale to Postoperative Pain in Adult Orthopedic Surgery Patients. (United States)

    Van Giang, Nguyen; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Thai, Duong Hong; Kuo, Shu-Yu; Tsai, Pei-Shan


    Pain is common in patients after orthopedic surgery. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale has not been validated for use in adult patients with postoperative pain. To assess the validity of the 11-face Faces Pain Scale and its ability to detect responses to pain medications, and to determine whether the sensitivity of the 11-face Faces Pain Scale for detecting changes in pain intensity over time is associated with gender differences in adult postorthopedic surgery patients. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale was translated into Vietnamese using forward and back translation. Postoperative pain was assessed using an 11-point numerical rating scale and the 11-face Faces Pain Scale on the day of surgery, and before (Time 1) and every 30 minutes after (Times 2-5) the patients had taken pain medications on the first postoperative day. The 11-face Faces Pain Scale highly correlated with the numerical rating scale (r = 0.78, p pain intensity, but not gender-time interaction effect, over the five time points was significant (F = 182.03, p Pain Scale is appropriate for measuring acute postoperative pain in adults.

  3. Neonatal pain facial expression: evaluating the primal face of pain. (United States)

    Schiavenato, Martin; Byers, Jacquie F; Scovanner, Paul; McMahon, James M; Xia, Yinglin; Lu, Naiji; He, Hua


    The primal face of pain (PFP) is postulated to be a common and universal facial expression to pain, hardwired and present at birth. We evaluated its presence by applying a computer-based methodology consisting of "point-pair" comparisons captured from video to measure facial movement in the pain expression by way of change across two images: one image before and one image after a painful stimulus (heel-stick). Similarity of facial expression was analyzed in a sample of 57 neonates representing both sexes and 3 ethnic backgrounds (African American, Caucasian and Hispanic/Latino) while controlling for these extraneous and potentially modulating factors: feeding type (bottle, breast, or both), behavioral state (awake or asleep), and use of epidural and/or other perinatal anesthesia. The PFP is consistent with previous reports of expression of pain in neonates and is characterized by opening of the mouth, drawing in of the brows, and closing of the eyes. Although facial expression was not identical across or among groups, our analyses showed no particular clustering or unique display by sex, or ethnicity. The clinical significance of this commonality of pain display, and of the origin of its potential individual variation begs further evaluation.

  4. Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective (United States)

    Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano


    Pain is an experience that none of us would like to have but that each one of us is destined to experience in our lives. Despite its pervasiveness, the experience of pain remains problematic and complex in its depth. Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves nociception as well as emotional and cognitive aspects that can modulate its perception. Following a brief discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain, the purpose of this review is to discuss the main psychological, neuropsychological, cultural, and existential aspects which are the basis of diverse forms of pain, like the pain of separation from caregivers or from ourselves (e.g., connected to the thought of our death), the suffering that we experience observing other people's pain, the pain of change and the existential pain connected to the temporal dimension of the mind. Finally, after a discussion of how the mind is able to not only create but also alleviate the pain, through mechanisms such as the expectation of the treatment and the hope of healing, we conclude by discussing neuropsychological research data and the attitude promoted by mindfulness meditation in relation to the pain. An attitude in which, instead to avoid and reject the pain, one learns to face mindfully the experience of pain.

  5. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

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    Matthias J Wieser


    Full Text Available The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: Pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not - or only partly - affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e. facial expressions of pain. Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing.

  6. Viewing pain and happy faces elicited similar changes in postural body sway.

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    Juan Gea

    Full Text Available Affective facial expressions are potent social cues that can induce relevant physiological changes, as well as behavioral dispositions in the observer. Previous studies have revealed that angry faces induced significant reductions in body sway as compared with neutral and happy faces, reflecting an avoidance behavioral tendency as freezing. The expression of pain is usually considered an unpleasant stimulus, but also a relevant cue for delivering effective care and social support. Nevertheless, there are few data about behavioral dispositions elicited by the observation of pain expressions in others. The aim of the present research was to evaluate approach-avoidance tendencies by using video recordings of postural body sway when participants were standing and observing facial expressions of pain, happy and neutral. We hypothesized that although pain faces would be rated as more unpleasant than the other faces, they would provoke significant changes in postural body sway as compared to neutral facial expressions. Forty healthy female volunteers (mean age 25 participated in the study. Amplitude of forward movements and backward movements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed that pain faces were the most unpleasant stimuli, and that both happy and pain faces were more arousing than neutral ones. Happy and pain faces also elicited greater amplitude of body sway in the anterior-posterior axes as compared with neutral faces. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between body sway elicited by pain faces and pleasantness and empathic ratings, suggesting that changes in postural body sway elicited by pain faces might be associated with approach and cooperative behavioral responses.

  7. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top-down and bottom-up mechanisms

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    Chun eZheng


    Full Text Available Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom-up or intentional (top-down fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom-up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information–induced attentional blink (AB using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationships between accuracy of target identification and individual traits (i.e., empathy and catastrophizing thinking about pain were also examined. The results demonstrated that task-relevant painful faces had a significant pain information–induced AB effect, whereas task-irrelevant faces a near-significant trend of this effect, supporting the notion that pain-related stimuli can influence the temporal dynamics of attention. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between response accuracy and pain catastrophizing score in task-relevant trials. These findings suggest that active scanning of environmental information related to pain produces greater deficits in cognition than does unintentional attention toward pain, which may represent the different ways in which healthy individuals and patients with chronic pain process pain-relevant information. These results may provide insight into the understanding of maladaptive attentional processing in patients with chronic pain.

  8. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top–down and bottom–up mechanisms (United States)

    Zheng, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei


    Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom–up) or intentional (top–down) fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom–up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information-induced attentional blink (AB) using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationships between accuracy of target identification and individual traits (i.e., empathy and catastrophizing thinking about pain) were also examined. The results demonstrated that task-relevant painful faces had a significant pain information-induced AB effect, whereas task-irrelevant faces showed a near-significant trend of this effect, supporting the notion that pain-related stimuli can influence the temporal dynamics of attention. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between response accuracy and pain catastrophizing score in task-relevant trials. These findings suggest that active scanning of environmental information related to pain produces greater deficits in cognition than does unintentional attention toward pain, which may represent the different ways in which healthy individuals and patients with chronic pain process pain-relevant information. These results may provide insight into the understanding of maladaptive attentional processing in patients with chronic pain. PMID:26082731

  9. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top-down and bottom-up mechanisms. (United States)

    Zheng, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei


    Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom-up) or intentional (top-down) fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom-up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information-induced attentional blink (AB) using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationships between accuracy of target identification and individual traits (i.e., empathy and catastrophizing thinking about pain) were also examined. The results demonstrated that task-relevant painful faces had a significant pain information-induced AB effect, whereas task-irrelevant faces showed a near-significant trend of this effect, supporting the notion that pain-related stimuli can influence the temporal dynamics of attention. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between response accuracy and pain catastrophizing score in task-relevant trials. These findings suggest that active scanning of environmental information related to pain produces greater deficits in cognition than does unintentional attention toward pain, which may represent the different ways in which healthy individuals and patients with chronic pain process pain-relevant information. These results may provide insight into the understanding of maladaptive attentional processing in patients with chronic pain.

  10. Multiple faces of pain : effects of chronic pain on the brain regulation of facial expression

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    Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Roy, Mathieu; Woo, Choong-Wan; Kunz, Miriam; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Sullivan, Michael J.; Jackson, Philip L.; Wager, Tor D.; Rainville, Pierre


    Pain behaviors are shaped by social demands and learning processes, and chronic pain has been previously suggested to affect their meaning. In this study, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with in-scanner video recording during thermal pain stimulations and use multilevel mediation a

  11. The compassionate brain: humans detect intensity of pain from another's face. (United States)

    Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Williams, Amanda C de C; Schürmann, Martin; Kalso, Eija; Hari, Riitta


    Understanding another person's experience draws on "mirroring systems," brain circuitries shared by the subject's own actions/feelings and by similar states observed in others. Lately, also the experience of pain has been shown to activate partly the same brain areas in the subjects' own and in the observer's brain. Recent studies show remarkable overlap between brain areas activated when a subject undergoes painful sensory stimulation and when he/she observes others suffering from pain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that not only the presence of pain but also the intensity of the observed pain is encoded in the observer's brain-as occurs during the observer's own pain experience. When subjects observed pain from the faces of chronic pain patients, activations in bilateral anterior insula (AI), left anterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior parietal lobe in the observer's brain correlated with their estimates of the intensity of observed pain. Furthermore, the strengths of activation in the left AI and left inferior frontal gyrus during observation of intensified pain correlated with subjects' self-rated empathy. These findings imply that the intersubjective representation of pain in the human brain is more detailed than has been previously thought.

  12. Prevalence of Referred Pain with Pulpal Origin in the Head, Face and Neck Region


    Mardani, Siamak; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Baharvand, Maryam


    INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of referred pain with pulpal source in the head, face and neck region among patients referred to Dental School of Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran, Iran in 2004. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients (55 males and 45 females) referred to oral medicine department of Shahid Beheshti Dental School evaluated via clinical and radiographic examination to seek their pain sources and sites. Inclusion cr...

  13. Face piercing (body art: choosing pleasure vs. possible pain and posture instability

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    Eric eMatheron


    Full Text Available Piercings (body art, i.e. with jewelry are more and more widespread. They can induce various complications such as infections, allergies, headaches, and various skin, cartilage, or dental problems which will lead to economic effects on health-care systems. We draw attention to other possible side effects resulting from face piercing complications such as eye misalignment, decreased postural control efficiency, and nonspecific chronic back pain. We found that the origin was pierced jewelry on the face. Removing the jewelry restored eye alignment, improved postural control, and alleviated back pain in a lasting way. This observation is important for health; further investigations would be of interest.

  14. The Utility of the Faces Pain Scale in the Assessment of Shoulder Pain in Turkish Stroke Patients: Its Relation with Quality of Life and Psychologic Status (United States)

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Ay, Saime; Oztuna, Derya; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Evcik, Deniz


    This study was planned to investigate the utility of the vertical Faces Pain Scale (FPS) in the assessment of pain in stroke patients using the shoulder pain model and to assess its utility in the Turkish patient population. The secondary aim was to analyze the association of FPS with the quality of life and depression in the study population.…

  15. Comparison of visual analogue scale and faces rating scale in measuring acute postoperative pain. (United States)

    Fadaizadeh, Lida; Emami, Habib; Samii, Kamran


    Several pain assessment tools have been proposed for use in different settings, but neither have been validated for all patients, especially Iranians. We conducted this study to compare the accuracy of two most commonly used tools for evaluation of pain intensity in a group of postoperative Iranian patients. All postoperative patients admitted to the surgical wards of Masih Daneshvari and Rasoul Akram Hospitals, Tehran, Iran were studied. During a two-month period, patients were evaluated for pain intensity within 24 hours of operation. Visual analogue scale and faces rating scale were used for this purpose. Eighty-two patients were enrolled into the study. Forty-eight patients underwent obstetrics and 34 had general surgeries. Using Spearman analysis, we found a linear correlation between the results of the two methods (P=0.952). Using multivariate analysis, we found that none of the variables such as age, gender, and education level had significant effects on correlation between visual analogue scale and faces rating scale. Visual analogue scale and faces rating scale are two pain assessment tools that can be used interchangeably for evaluation of acute postoperative pain.

  16. Experimental orofacial pain and sensory deprivation lead to perceptual distortion of the face in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Dagsdóttir, Lilja Kristín; Skyt, Ina; Vase, Lene; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Castrillon, Eduardo; Svensson, Peter


    Patients suffering from persistent orofacial pain may sporadically report that the painful area feels "swollen" or "differently," a phenomenon that may be conceptualized as a perceptual distortion because there are no clinical signs of swelling present. Our aim was to investigate whether standardized experimental pain and sensory deprivation of specific orofacial test sites would lead to changes in the size perception of these face areas. Twenty-four healthy participants received either 0.2 mL hypertonic saline (HS) or local anesthetics (LA) into six regions (buccal, mental, lingual, masseter muscle, infraorbital and auriculotemporal nerve regions). Participants estimated the perceived size changes in percentage (0 % = no change, -100 % = half the size or +100 % = double the size), and somatosensory function was checked with tactile stimuli. The pain intensity was rated on a 0-10 Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS), and sets of psychological questionnaires were completed. HS and LA were associated with significant self-reported perceptual distortions as indicated by consistent increases in perceived size of the adjacent face areas (P ≤ 0.050). Perceptual distortion was most pronounced in the buccal region, and the smallest increase was observed in the auriculotemporal region. HS was associated with moderate levels of pain VNRS = 7.3 ± 0.6. Weak correlations were found between HS-evoked perceptual distortion and level of dissociation in two regions (P sensory deprivation evoked perceptual distortions in all face regions and overall demonstrated the importance of afferent inputs for the perception of the face. We propose that perceptual distortion may be an important phenomenon to consider in persistent orofacial pain conditions.

  17. Importance of music for facing the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo


    Attempts to cope with the experience of pain have been numerous and have had a long history. Among others, mindfulness meditation is one of the oldest of them. It first emerged in ancient India and since then has been practiced up to the present, possibly as one of the most prevalent methods. There is a general consensus that the practice of such meditation can lead to a reduction of perceived pain most effectively, as argued by Fabbro and Crescentini [1]. As a first step of the attempt to practice such meditation, one is required not to defend oneself when faced with a painful experience, or to avoid or withdraw from the experience. However, this is not an easy task for anyone because humans, as Homo loquense[3], are born with an almost predispositional tendency to discard or to devalue conflicting knowledge because simultaneously holding conflicting cognitions makes them feel discomfort. Ancient Greeks already knew that, and in Aesop's fable, when a fox sees high-hanging grapes, his desire to eat grapes and inability to reach them are in conflict. The fox then overcomes this conflict by deciding that the grapes are sour and not worth eating. This conflict is the phenomenon referred to as cognitive dissonance in the field of psychology, and is closely connected to the entirety of human evolution. That is, the emergence of language must have led to the proliferation of cognitive dissonances, and if they had not been overcome, language and knowledge would have been discarded and further human evolution would have been stopped in its tracks. Thus, difficulty of facing pain is a "burden" imposed upon humans, who acquired language as a way to construct divergent and highly sophisticated cultures for their living.

  18. Effects of aromatherapy massage on face-down posture-related pain after vitrectomy: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Adachi, Naho; Munesada, Minako; Yamada, Noriko; Suzuki, Haruka; Futohashi, Ayano; Shigeeda, Takashi; Kato, Satoshi; Nishigaki, Masakazu


    Postoperative face-down posturing (FDP) is recommended to optimize the effects of intraocular gas tamponade after vitrectomy. However, patients undergoing FDP usually experience physical and psychological burdens. This 3-armed, randomized, single-center trial investigated the effects of aromatherapy on FDP-related physical pain. Sixty-three patients under FDP were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: aromatherapy massage with essential oil (AT), oil massage without essential oil (OT), and a control group. The AT and OT groups received 10 minutes of massage by ward nurses trained by an aromatherapist, while the control group received usual care. Outcomes were assessed as short-term (pre- to post-intervention) and long-term (first to third postoperative day) changes in physical pain in five body regions using face-scale. The AT and OT groups both revealed similar short-term pain reductions after intervention, compared with the control group. Regarding long-term effects, neither group experienced significant effects until the second day. Significantly more pain reduction compared with usual care occurred on the third day, mainly in the AT group, though there were few significant differences between the AT and OT groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that simple oil massage is an effective strategy for immediate pain reduction in patients undergoing FDP, while aromatherapy may have a long-term effect on pain reduction.

  19. Social dimensions of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini (United States)

    Avenanti, Alessio; Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Borgomaneri, Sara


    In this issue, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] provide an integrative review of neuroscientific, psychological, cultural and philosophical aspects of pain experience and discuss some critical examples of its regulation. Here we focus on the two main social phenomena that are addressed in the review, namely the 'pain of separation' and 'empathy for pain' and further support the idea that these phenomena are intrinsically linked to physical pain, which may provide a 'proximal' physiological base to further understand them. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary 'ultimate' bases of such phenomena and suggest that they are linked to the evolution of parental care in social animals and as such support the development of social bonds. We conclude by considering the effect that positive social relationships and empathy have on the experience of pain.

  20. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top-down and bottom-up mechanisms



    Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom-up) or intentional (top-down) fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom-up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information–induced attentional blink (AB) using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationshi...

  1. Painful faces-induced attentional blink modulated by top–down and bottom–up mechanisms



    Pain-related stimuli can capture attention in an automatic (bottom–up) or intentional (top–down) fashion. Previous studies have examined attentional capture by pain-related information using spatial attention paradigms that involve mainly a bottom–up mechanism. In the current study, we investigated the pain information-induced attentional blink (AB) using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, and compared the effects of task-irrelevant and task-relevant pain distractors. Relationshi...

  2. When my eyes bring pain to my soul, and vice versa: facing preconceptions in email and face-to-face interviews. (United States)

    Bjerke, Trond N


    What are the factors influencing the trustworthiness of data produced in email interviews? The main purpose of this article is to reflect on this issue by discussing two examples from my own experience of conducting email interviews in combination with face-to-face interviews. The main questions were: What different premises guide and shape the interpretation and analysis of subjects as text or as embodiment when interviews are conducted face-to-face or by email? Is the researcher more or less a victim of his or her own imagination and preconceptions when interviewing people via email, relying solely on the written text to understand who the Other is? From a constructivist-inspired interaction perspective, I suggest that other possible strategies of visibility emerge in the interaction between the interviewer and participant in email interviews. These strategies are rooted in the researcher's personal and embodied knowledge of the field under investigation.

  3. Improving recognition of pain by calling attention to its various faces

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    Kunz, M; Lautenbacher, S


    BACKGROUND: The ability to accurately recognize facial expressions of pain is known to affect clinical decision making and delivery of care. Although recognition accuracy for facial expressions of pain is well above chance level, substantial shortcomings have also been reported which stress the need

  4. Coping with Pain in the Face of Healthcare Injustice in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Mandernach, Molly W; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J


    To evaluate the pain coping strategies of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who experience healthcare injustice from either physicians or nurses during medical visits for pain management. It is unknown how patients' coping with pain relates to their experiences of healthcare injustice from physicians or nurses. This descriptive comparative study included adult outpatients with SCD who completed the PAINReportIt(®), Healthcare Justice Questionnaire(©), and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-SCD. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare justice from physicians were praying-hoping and from nurses were praying-hoping, calming self-statements, diverting attention, and increasing behavioral activity. In contrast, frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare injustice from physicians were catastrophizing and isolation and from nurses were isolation. Patients who experienced healthcare justice used different sets of pain coping strategies than those who experienced healthcare injustice during medical visits for pain management.

  5. Calibrated prevalence of disabling chronic pain according to different approaches: a face-to-face cross-sectional population-based study in Southern Spain (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Rueda, María; Cantero-Braojos, Miguel


    Objectives To calculate the prevalence of disabling chronic pain (DCP) and to offer a more representative and accurate estimation by applying different calibration techniques. Settings 2011 Andalusian Health Survey, a cross-sectional population survey based on face-to-face home interviews. Participants 6507 people aged 16 years or older and living in Andalusia, Spain. Outcomes Design weights, linear calibration based on marginals and on crossings, and model-assisted calibration were used to estimate the prevalence and variance of DCP, for the whole sample and for the domains of sex and age groups (16–44; 45–64; +65). Results Calibration variables were sex, age groups and educational level. In the whole sample, DCP prevalence calibration reduced by more than 5.2% and 8.2% the estimated prevalences and variances, respectively, obtained with the design weights. Regarding the domains, prevalence reductions are from 33% to 1%, and variance reductions are from 0.2% to 1%. Model-assisted calibration is the best technique to estimate DCP prevalence for the whole population and crossing calibration for their domains, although with almost no differences compared to marginal calibration. Conclusions The validity and accuracy of estimations of DCP prevalence are improved by calibration adjustments. Model-assisted calibrated prevalence of DCP is 10.78% for the whole population, being at least 2-fold higher in women in all age groups. The results and methodology developed could be useful in clinical and population-based studies on chronic pain and disability. PMID:28137930


    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Vukšić, Željka; Simonić-Kocijan, Sunčana; Braut, Vedrana; Braut, Alen; Uhač, Ivone


    This study investigated the relationship between chronic head, face and neck pain, and the level of depression in Croatian war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The presence of self-reported pain, pain on digital palpation, and pain severity in masticatory and neck muscles, temporomandibular joints and sinuses, as well as the level of depression were assessed in a group of war veterans with PTSD (n=52). Control groups consisted of war veterans without PTSD (n=50) and healthy men that were not engaged in war actions and were free from PTSD (n=50). The number of self-reported pain and number of painful sites were correlated with the level of depression. More self-reported pain and painful sites were recorded in the group of war veterans with PTSD as compared with either war veterans without PTSD or healthy men. Furthermore, PTSD patients mostly suffered from severe depression. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between all investigated pain parameters and level of depression. As the most important finding, the present study demonstrated chronic head, face and neck pain to be related to depression in PTSD patients.

  7. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale of pain assessment

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    Edna Aparecida Bussotti


    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain.Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%.Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%.Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP

  8. Different neural correlates of facing pain with mindfulness: Contributions of strategy and skill. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini (United States)

    Gard, Tim


    As Fabbro and Crescentini [1] state at the beginning of their perspective article, pain is an inevitable, complex and multifaceted phenomenon. While acute pain fulfills an important alerting function, persistent pain is considered maladaptive and associated with unnecessary suffering. The definition of pain "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage" indicates the presence of sensory and emotional components [2]. In the brain the sensory aspects of pain, or its intensity, is associated with activations in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex while the emotional aspects of pain or pain unpleasantness are related to brain activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [3,4]. Physical and emotional pain have overlapping mechanisms [5,6] as Fabbro and Crescentini [1] discuss with respect to social exclusion, empathy and the pain of separation including the fear of death.

  9. Cognitive modulation of pain and predictive coding. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini (United States)

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A.


    Pain is a phenomenologically complex experience whose sensory and psychological dimensions are deeply intertwined. In their perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the physiological and neural mechanisms underlying nociception and its cognitive modulation within the broader concept of suffering, which includes psychological pain [2] in its culturally mediated and existentially nuanced forms. The tight link between affective and cognitive processes, on the one hand, and pain, on the other, is illustrated by examining in turn the placebo effect, empathy for other people's afflictions, clinical depression, and the role that mindfulness-based practices may play in alleviating suffering.

  10. Systematic review of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability scale for assessing pain in infants and children: is it reliable, valid, and feasible for use? (United States)

    Crellin, Dianne J; Harrison, Denise; Santamaria, Nick; Babl, Franz E


    The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale is one of the most widely used behavioural observation pain scales. However, the psychometrics of the scale have not been adequately summarised and evaluated to provide clear recommendations regarding its use. The aim of this study was to rigorously evaluate the reliability, validity, feasibility, and utility of the scale for clinical and research purposes and provide recommendations regarding appropriate use of the scale. Databases searched were MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO (using the Ovid, PubMed, and Ebscohost platforms), The Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and Cochrane Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Psychometric evaluation studies reporting feasibility, reliability, validity, or utility data for the FLACC scale applied to children (birth to 18 years) and randomised controlled trials (RCT) using the FLACC scale to measure a study outcome in infants and children. Data extraction included study design, population demographics, and psychometric data. Analysis involved in this study are quality assessment of the psychometric evaluation studies and the RCTs using the COSMIN checklist and the Jadad scale, respectively, and narrative synthesis of all results. Twenty-five psychometric evaluations studies and 52 RCTs were included. The study population, circumstances, and quality of the studies varied greatly. Sufficient data addressing postoperative pain assessment in infants and children exist. Some positive data support the psychometrics of the scale used to assess postoperative pain in children with cognitive impairment. Limited and conflicting data addressing procedural pain assessment exist. Content validity and scale feasibility have had limited psychometric evaluation. There are insufficient data to support the FLACC scale for use in all circumstances and populations to which is currently applied.

  11. Orofacial pain: a primer. (United States)

    De Rossi, Scott S


    Orofacial pain refers to pain associated with the soft and hard tissues of the head, face, and neck. It is a common experience in the population that has profound sociologic effects and impact on quality of life. New scientific evidence is constantly providing insight into the cause and pathophysiology of orofacial pain including temporomandibular disorders, cranial neuralgias, persistent idiopathic facial pains, headache, and dental pain. An evidence-based approach to the management of orofacial pain is imperative for the general clinician. This article reviews the basics of pain epidemiology and neurophysiology and sets the stage for in-depth discussions of various painful conditions of the head and neck.

  12. On the mutual effects of pain and emotion: facial pain expressions enhance pain perception and vice versa are perceived as more arousing when feeling pain. (United States)

    Reicherts, Philipp; Gerdes, Antje B M; Pauli, Paul; Wieser, Matthias J


    Perception of emotional stimuli alters the perception of pain. Although facial expressions are powerful emotional cues - the expression of pain especially plays a crucial role for the experience and communication of pain - research on their influence on pain perception is scarce. In addition, the opposite effect of pain on the processing of emotion has been elucidated even less. To further scrutinize mutual influences of emotion and pain, 22 participants were administered painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli while watching dynamic facial expressions depicting joy, fear, pain, and a neutral expression. As a control condition of low visual complexity, a central fixation cross was presented. Participants rated the intensity of the thermal stimuli and evaluated valence and arousal of the facial expressions. In addition, facial electromyography was recorded as an index of emotion and pain perception. Results show that faces per se, compared to the low-level control condition, decreased pain, suggesting a general attention modulation of pain by complex (social) stimuli. The facial response to painful stimulation revealed a significant correlation with pain intensity ratings. Most important, painful thermal stimuli increased the arousal of simultaneously presented pain expressions, and in turn, pain expressions resulted in higher pain ratings compared to all other facial expressions. These findings demonstrate that the modulation of pain and emotion is bidirectional with pain faces being mostly prone to having mutual influences, and support the view of interconnections between pain and emotion. Furthermore, the special relevance of pain faces for the processing of pain was demonstrated.

  13. Vivências de mulheres à dor no infarto do miocárdio Vivencias de mujeres frente al dolor en el infarto del miocardio Experiences of women in face of pain from acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi


    to understand the meanings of the experience of pain suffered by women during acute myocardial infarction (AMI and to identify their immediate actions in face of pain. This qualitative research used the Symbolic Interactionism theory and the Grounded Theory methodology. Forty-three wo-men were interviewed at the University Hospital. The central category expressing the pain experience was that it was "a break with day-to-day life". The categories that expressed such break revealed that in face of increasing pain those women felt dominated and afraid of dying because they had lost control over their bodies and their lives. They did not recognize the occurrence of AMI and at first resisted to look for assistance by attempting to alleviate the pain. In face of the unbearable pain and their impotence to control it, they asked for God's salvation and help from surrounding people and finally resorted to medical assistance.

  14. Groin pain (United States)

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg: This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  15. Pharmacotherapy for Orofacial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Angky Soekanto


    Full Text Available The sensation of pain is the means by which the body is made urgently aware of the presence of tissue damage. Pain represents a protective reflex for self-preservation. It is often pain that brings the patient to the dental office but also can be the factor that keeps the patient from seeking treatment at the appropriate time. Pain control is of great importance in dental practice. The clinician has to know the financial neuroanatomy, peripheral and central nervous system pathways, pain modulating system and various categories of pain of the head, neck and and face. Psychological and psychosocial factors also contribute to pain, whether pain arises endogenously from pathologic processes or exogenously from trauma or even dental treatment. The dentist’s task is threefold: first, to establish the correct diagnosis, second to find the cause of the pain, and third to select the treatment plan that addresses the patient’s complaint. By knowing the classification of orofacial pain, the clinician will easily make a diagnosis and determine the cause of the pain. After establishing the physical diagnosis it is easy then to determine the therapy to be made. The treatment in managing dental pain from pharmacotherapy is still effective using analgesic and local anasthetic drug.  

  16. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan


    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  17. A cultura permeando os sentimentos e as reações frente à dor La cultura permeando los sentimentos y las reacciones frente al dolor Culture permeating the feelings and the reactions in the face of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Denardin Budó


    descriptive-explanatory research whose data were collected through semi-structured interviews and evaluated qualitatively. The emerging themes were grouped into categories. It was observed that "the meaning of pain" revealed the preponderance of the comprehen-sion of pain as a physical matter. It also showed that pain is related to emotional, sentimental, religious and human circumstances as well. "The reaction of men and women in the face of pain" is perceived differently according to the gender. In questions such as "How do you feel when you are in pain?" the answers varied between affective, cognitive and behavioral.

  18. The Effect of“Face Pain Three Needles” combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine on PTN with Simplified Mcgill Pain Questionnaire%简化 McGill 表评定“面痛三针”结合中药对 PTN 的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫改霞; 孟燕; 刘正楠; 邢文堂


    目的:用简化McGill量化表评定“面痛三针”结合中药对PTN的影响。方法75例原发性三叉神经痛患者随机分成中药组、针刺组、针药组,每小组25例。中药组辨证选方、针刺组“面痛三针”加循经取穴、针药组前两种治法均用。每周6次,1周为一疗程,观察并收集治疗4周前后患者痛阈值和简化McGill量化表中PRI感觉项、PRI情感项、PRI总分、VAS以及PPI项评分。结果三组在治疗后痛阈值较治疗前明显提高,而量化表中PRI感觉项、PRI情感项、PRI总分、VAS以及PPI评分均较治疗前降低明显,具有显著差异(P<0.05)。治疗后针药组痛阈值较中药组、针刺组升高最显著,具有显著差异(P<0.05);针药组量化表中PRI感觉项、PRI情感项、PRI总分、VAS以及PPI评分降低最明显,具有显著差异( P<0.05)。结论三组中,“面痛三针”结合中药治疗减轻PTN患者的疼痛程度最显著,并可改善患者的不良情绪,其效果优于单纯的中药或针刺治疗。%Objective To estimate the clinical effect of the combination of “face pain three needles” and traditional Chinese medicine on PTN with simplified McGill pain questionnaire.Methods 75 cases of patients suffered from primary trigeminal neuralgia were randomized into traditional Chinese medicine group, acupuncture group and needle medicine group, with 25 in each group.The doctors used syndrome differentiation choice for the traditional Chinese medicine group.Acupuncture group used “pain three needles” and acupoint along the meridian.Needle medicine group applied the methods of traditional Chinese medicine group and acupuncture group.All the patients received treatment six times a week, and we regarded six times as one course, with four courses in all.Simplified McGill pain questionnaire and the pain threshold were adopted to assess the clinical effect of the three groups before and after the

  19. Abdominal pain (United States)

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  20. Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  1. Heel pain (United States)

    Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. However, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... on the heel Conditions that may cause heel pain include: Swelling and pain in the Achilles tendon ...

  2. Flank pain (United States)

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  3. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  4. Pediatric pain management: the multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odell S


    Full Text Available Shannon Odell,1,2 Deirdre E Logan1,21Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Chronic pain in children and adolescents is a growing problem and one that is increasingly being addressed with multidisciplinary treatment teams. This review summarizes different multidisciplinary clinics, focusing specifically on intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation centers. This review offers a summary of the challenges faced by these programs and areas for future study.Keywords: pediatric pain rehabilitation, pediatric chronic pain, interdisciplinary, pain associated disability

  5. Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  6. Postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B


    also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree......Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...

  7. Pelvic Pain (United States)

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  8. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  9. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher


    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  10. Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines (United States)

    ... Shortfall Questionnaire Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines Prevention and WellnessStaying Healthy ...

  11. [Therapy for atypical facial pain]. (United States)

    Ishida, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko


    Atypical facial pain is a pain in the head, neck and the face, without organic causes. It is treated at departments of physical medicine, such as dental, oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology, cerebral surgery, or head and neck surgery. In primary care, it is considered to be a medically unexplained symptom (MUS), or a somatoform disorder, such as somatization caused by a functional somatic syndrome (FSS) by psychiatrists. Usually, patients consult departments of physical medicine complaining of physical pain. Therefore physicians in these departments should examine the patients from the holistic perspective, and identify organic diseases. As atypical facial pain becomes chronic, other complications, including psychiatric complaints other than physical pain, such as depression may develop. Moreover, physical, psychological, and social factors affect the symptoms by interacting with one another. Therefore, in examining atypical facial pain, doctors specializing in dental, oral and maxillofacial medicine are required to provide psychosomatic treatment that is based on integrated knowledge.

  12. Pain in School: Patterns of Pain-Related School Impairment among Adolescents with Primary Pain Conditions, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Pain, and Pain-Free Peers. (United States)

    Agoston, Anna Monica; Gray, Laura S; Logan, Deirdre E


    Children with chronic pain frequently experience impairment in the school setting, but we do not yet understand how unique these struggles are to children with primary pain conditions compared to peers with disease-related pain or those without chronic pain symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine school functioning, defined as school attendance rates, overall quality of life in the school setting, and school nurse visits among adolescents with primary pain conditions, those with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-related pain, and healthy peers. Two hundred and sixty adolescents participated in the study, including 129 with primary pain conditions, 61 with JIA, and 70 healthy comparison adolescents. They completed self- and parent-reported measures of school function. Findings show that as a group, youth with primary pain conditions reported more school absences, lower quality of life in the school setting, and more frequent school nurse visits compared to both adolescents with JIA-related pain and healthy peers. We conclude that compared to those who experience pain specific to a disease process, adolescents with primary pain conditions may face unique challenges in the school setting and may require more support to help them succeed in school in spite of pain.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun


    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun


    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  15. Low back pain - acute (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that ...

  16. Orofacial Pain (United States)

    ... spasms in the head, neck and jaw; migraines, cluster or frequent headaches; or pain with the teeth, ... periods of time. Signs that may indicate a headache of dental origin include: ; Pain behind the eyes ...

  17. Urination Pain (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... decreased appetite or activity irritability nausea or vomiting lower back pain or abdominal (belly) pain wetting accidents (in potty- ...

  18. Period Pain (United States)

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  19. [Oral pain]. (United States)

    Benslama, Lotfi


    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  20. Back Pain (United States)

    ... Oh, my aching back!", you are not alone. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, ... 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to ...

  1. Pain Assessment (United States)

    ... acupuncture, chiropractic care, massage or other manual therapies, yoga, herbal and nutritional therapies, or others. This information helps the health care provider understand the nature of the pain or the potential benefits of treatment. The goals of the comprehensive pain ...

  2. Breast pain (United States)

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  3. Phantom Pain (United States)

    ... the pain, such as reading or listening to music. Stay physically active. Get your exercise by doing ... Sept. 16, 2014. Alviar MJM, et al. Pharmacologic interventions for treating phantom limb pain. Cochrane Database of ...

  4. Neck Pain (United States)

    ... antidepressants for pain relief. Therapy Physical therapy. A physical therapist can teach you correct posture, alignment and neck- ... therapy, under supervision of a medical professional and physical therapist, may provide relief of some neck pain, especially ...

  5. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block (United States)

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan


    Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918

  6. Phantom Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Andre; Vanduynhoven, Eric; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank; Pope, Jason E.; Mekhail, Nagy


    Phantom pain is pain caused by elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers after amputation or deafferentation. The reported incidence of phantom limb pain after trauma, injury or peripheral vascular diseases is 60% to 80%. Over half the p

  7. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)


    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  8. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Reyes M


    Full Text Available Marcela Romero-Reyes, James M Uyanik Orofacial and Head Pain Service, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Radiology and Medicine, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Some of the most prevalent and debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures. Orofacial pain (OFP can arise from different regions and etiologies. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are the most prevalent orofacial pain conditions for which patients seek treatment. Temporomandibular disorders include a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ or both. Trigeminal neuropathic pain conditions can arise from injury secondary to dental procedures, infection, neoplasias, or disease or dysfunction of the peripheral and/or central nervous system. Neurovascular disorders, such as primary headaches, can present as chronic orofacial pain, such as in the case of facial migraine, where the pain is localized in the second and third division of the trigeminal nerve. Together, these disorders of the trigeminal system impact the quality of life of the sufferer dramatically. A multidisciplinary pain management approach should be considered for the optimal treatment of orofacial pain disorders including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Keywords: pain, orofacial, neuropathic, TMD, trigeminal, headache

  9. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion. (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi


    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  10. Spontaneous pain attacks: neuralgic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, L.G.


    Paroxysmal orofacial pains can cause diagnostic problems, especially when different clinical pictures occur simultaneously. Pain due to pulpitis, for example, may show the same characteristics as pain due to trigeminal neuralgia would. Moreover, the trigger point of trigeminal neuralgia can either b

  11. Pain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Foulkes


    Full Text Available Pain, which afflicts up to 20% of the population at any time, provides both a massive therapeutic challenge and a route to understanding mechanisms in the nervous system. Specialised sensory neurons (nociceptors signal the existence of tissue damage to the central nervous system (CNS, where pain is represented in a complex matrix involving many CNS structures. Genetic approaches to investigating pain pathways using model organisms have identified the molecular nature of the transducers, regulatory mechanisms involved in changing neuronal activity, as well as the critical role of immune system cells in driving pain pathways. In man, mapping of human pain mutants as well as twin studies and association studies of altered pain behaviour have identified important regulators of the pain system. In turn, new drug targets for chronic pain treatment have been validated in transgenic mouse studies. Thus, genetic studies of pain pathways have complemented the traditional neuroscience approaches of electrophysiology and pharmacology to give us fresh insights into the molecular basis of pain perception.

  12. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition (United States)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak


    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  13. Neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colloca, Luana; Ludman, Taylor; Bouhassira, Didier


    Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, including peripheral fibres (Aβ, Aδ and C fibres) and central neurons, and affects 7-10% of the general population. Multiple causes of neuropathic pain have been described and its incidence is likely to increase owing...... to the ageing global population, increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and improved survival from cancer after chemotherapy. Indeed, imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory somatosensory signalling, alterations in ion channels and variability in the way that pain messages are modulated in the central...... nervous system all have been implicated in neuropathic pain. The burden of chronic neuropathic pain seems to be related to the complexity of neuropathic symptoms, poor outcomes and difficult treatment decisions. Importantly, quality of life is impaired in patients with neuropathic pain owing to increased...

  14. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie


    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  15. Central pain. (United States)

    Singh, Supreet


    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  16. Managing cancer pain: frequently asked questions. (United States)

    Induru, Raghava R; Lagman, Ruth L


    For a variety of reasons, cancer pain is often undertreated, adversely affecting the quality of life for patients and caregivers. To manage cancer pain effectively, physicians need to understand its pathogenesis, how to assess it, how to treat it, and, in particular, how to optimize opioid treatment. We discuss common questions faced by physicians in everyday practice.

  17. [Hypnosis for chronic pain of children]. (United States)

    Célestin-Lhopiteau, Isabelle


    A child or adolescent can suffer from chronic pain. Whatever the causes, it can trap the child in a specific process whereby they focus on the pain, fearing that it will appear and experiencing anxiety. Hypno-analgesia and hypnotherapy enable them to escape this process and find within themselves the capacity to face up to the pain. Moreover, these techniques offer them an autonomy which they can use in all areas of their life.

  18. Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain



    Background: Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress, and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain. Method: A non-clinical (247 students) and a clinical (223 pain patients) sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Beck Depression Inventory, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequen...

  19. Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain



    Background Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain. Method A non-clinical (247 students) and a clinical (223 pain patients) sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequency Results In...

  20. Neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Re


    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is the expression of a dysfunction or primary lesion of a nerve in the peripheral or central nervous system, or both, rather than the biological signal transmitted by the nerve following peripheral nociceptor activation. It represents about 20% of all painful syndromes, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5%, however is actual incidence is hard to pinpoint due to the difficulties encountered in distinguishing it from chronic pain, of which it represents a significant percentage, on account of the not infrequent concurrence of conditions. It is crucial to recognise the variety of symptoms with which it can present: these can be negative and positive and, in turn, motor, sensitive and autonomic. In public health terms, it is important to emphasise that the diagnosis of neuropathic pain does not in most cases require sophisticated procedures and does not therefore weigh on health expenditure. In clinical practice, a validated scale (the LANSS is mentioned is useful for identifying patients presenting neuropathic pain symptoms. Therapy is based on three categories of medication: tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptics and opioids at high doses: neuropathic pain has a bad reputation for often resisting common therapeutic approaches and responding less well that nociceptor pain to monotherapy. Therapeutic strategies are all the more adequate the more they are based on symptoms and therefore on the pain generation mechanisms, although the recommendations are dictated more by expert opinions that double-blind randomised trials.

  1. Orofacial pain management: current perspectives. (United States)

    Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Uyanik, James M


    Some of the most prevalent and debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). Orofacial pain (OFP) can arise from different regions and etiologies. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most prevalent orofacial pain conditions for which patients seek treatment. Temporomandibular disorders include a number of clinical problems that involve the masticatory musculature, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. Trigeminal neuropathic pain conditions can arise from injury secondary to dental procedures, infection, neoplasias, or disease or dysfunction of the peripheral and/or central nervous system. Neurovascular disorders, such as primary headaches, can present as chronic orofacial pain, such as in the case of facial migraine, where the pain is localized in the second and third division of the trigeminal nerve. Together, these disorders of the trigeminal system impact the quality of life of the sufferer dramatically. A multidisciplinary pain management approach should be considered for the optimal treatment of orofacial pain disorders including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities.

  2. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser


    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  3. Mapping Teacher-Faces (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian


    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  4. Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela


    Full Text Available Pain disorder is a psychiatric disorder diagnosed when the pain becomes the predominant focus of the clinical presentation and causes significant distress or impairment. Besides the high economic impact, there is a reciprocal relationship with the affective state. Pain is a subjective sensation and its severity and quality of experience in an individual is dependent on a complex mix of factors. In the treatment of acute pain, the primary purpose is pain relief, while chronic pain typically requires a combination of psychotropic drugs. In this context, it is also important to recognize and treat depression. Psychological treatments aimed at providing mechanisms to allow patients to "control and live with the pain" rather than aspire to eliminate it completely. A growing group of researchers proposes the elimination of the chapter of Somatoform Disorders and the modification of the category "psychological factors affecting a medical condition" to "psychological factors affecting an identified or feared medical condition" with clinical entities as ubchapters, largely based upon Diagnostics for Psychosomatic Research criteria.

  5. Fetal pain? (United States)

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O


    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development.

  6. [Musculoskeletal pain]. (United States)

    Casser, H-R; Schaible, H-G


    Among the clinically relevant pain conditions, pain in the musculoskeletal system is most frequent. This article reports extensive epidemiological data on musculoskeletal system pain in Germany and worldwide. Since back pain is most frequent, the diagnostics and therapeutic algorithms of acute, recurring, and chronic lower back pain in Germany will be particularly addressed. The importance of the physiologic-organic, the cognitive-emotional, the behavioral, and the social level to diagnostics and treatment will be discussed. We will also focus on osteoarthritic pain and address its epidemiology, clinical importance, and significance for the health care system. This article will list some reasons why the musculoskeletal system in particular is frequently the site of chronic pain. The authors believe that these reasons are to be sought in the complex structures of the musculoskeletal system; in the particular sensitivity of the deep somatic nociceptive system for long-term sensitization processes, as well as the ensuing nervous system reactions; and in the interactions between the nervous and immune systems. The article will give some insights into the research carried out on this topic in Germany.

  7. Treatment of persistent pain from torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Amanda C de C; Amris, Kirstine


    the nature of persistent pain means that pain is largely overlooked and untreated in torture survivors. We carried out a systematic review on treatments for pain from torture, but found few studies and little use of current understanding and evidence. We discuss this in the context of treating pain......Torture and the conditions under which it is inflicted often leave persistent painful disorders. Because there may be no lasting signs, persistent pain is often misconceived as a somatic representation of psychological distress, also common after torture. This serious failure to understand...... associated with psychological distress and of the broader problems faced by the refugee and torture survivor that may take priority over pain. We propose clinical and research implications for this neglected field....

  8. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Kids > What a Pain! Kids and ... something doctors call growing pains . What Are Growing Pains? Growing pains aren't a disease. You probably ...

  9. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo


    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  10. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, Miriam W. van; Wilgen, Paul van; Schans, Cees van der; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo


    Abstract Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibrom

  11. Chronic Pelvic Pain (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pelvic Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...

  12. Comunicação não-verbal de idosos frente ao processo de dor Comunicación no verbal de ancianos frente al proceso del dolor Nonverbal communication of elderly patients facing the pain process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Araújo Machado


    Full Text Available Este estudo de natureza qualitativa tem por objetivo identificar por meio da interpretação dos enfermeiros, quais os mecanismos encontrados pelos pacientes idosos para expressar a dor quando estão impossibilitados de utilizar a comunicação verbal. Foi realizado com seis enfermeiros, em uma unidade de clínica médica de um hospital de São Paulo, destinada ao atendimento de idosos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista com um roteiro semi estruturado, gravadas e transcritas para análise hermenêutica. Os dados foram agrupados em categorias analíticas selecionadas sobre dor e comunicação, onde foi verificado que interagindo com o paciente, o enfermeiro percebe atitudes e alterações (sinais e sintomas de dor, que ao serem interpretadas e identificadas rapidamente propiciam melhoria da assistência de enfermagem.Este estudio de naturaleza cualitativa tuvo como objectivo identificar por medio de la interpretación de los enfermeros, cuales mecanismos encontrados por los enfermos ancianos para expresar el dolor cuando se inhabilitan de utilizar la comunicación verbal. Fue llevada con seis enfermeros, en una unidad de la clínica medica de un hospital de São Paulo, direccionado a la atención de ancianos. Los datos fueron recogidos por medio de entrevista con una planilla semi estructurada generadas o transcritas para el analisis hermenéutica. Los datos fueron agrupados en categorías analíticas seleccionadas en dolor y la comunicación, donde fue verificado que obrando recíprocamente con el enfermo, el enfermero percibe actitudes y las alteraciones (señales y síntomas del dolor, que al seren interpretadas y identificadas rápidamente ellas mejoran la atención de enfermería.This qualitative study aims at identifying which mechanisms are used by elderly patients to express pain when they are not able to use verbal communication. It relies on the accounts and interpretations of 6 nurses working in a clinical service unit

  13. Leg pain (United States)

    ... to a muscle cramp (also called a charley horse ). Common causes of cramps include: Dehydration or low ... overstretched muscle ( strain ) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon ( tendinitis ) Shin splints (pain in ...

  14. Knee pain (United States)

    ... of home treatment What to Expect at Your Office Visit Your health care provider will perform a ... pain and inflammation. You may need to learn stretching and strengthening exercises. You also may need to ...

  15. Heel Pain (United States)

    ... Heel pain is generally the result of faulty biomechanics (walking gait abnormalities) that place too much stress ... by the chronic irritation that sometimes accompanies an athletic lifestyle. Resting provides only temporary relief. When you ...

  16. Shoulder pain (United States)

    ... or damaged. This condition is called rotator cuff tendinitis or bursitis. Shoulder pain may also be caused ... recommend such exercises. If you are recovering from tendinitis, continue to do range-of-motion exercises to ...

  17. Fetal pain. (United States)

    Rokyta, Richard


    The fetus reacts to nociceptive stimulations through different motor, autonomic, vegetative, hormonal, and metabolic changes relatively early in the gestation period. With respect to the fact that the modulatory system does not yet exist, the first reactions are purely reflexive and without connection to the type of stimulus. While the fetal nervous system is able to react through protective reflexes to potentially harmful stimuli, there is no accurate evidence concerning pain sensations in this early period. Cortical processes occur only after thalamocortical connections and pathways have been completed at the 26th gestational week. Harmful (painful) stimuli, especially in fetuses have an adverse effect on the development of humans regardless of the processes in brain. Moreover, pain activates a number of subcortical mechanisms and a wide spectrum of stress responses influence the maturation of thalamocortical pathways and other cortical activation which are very important in pain processing.

  18. Habituating pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Møller, Jeppe Lykke


    In this article, we investigate the relations between discursive practices within the Danish construction industry and the perceived pain, physical deterioration, and strain affecting the construction workers. Of central importance is the widely accepted hegemonic discourse on physical strain...... and pain as unavoidable conditions in construction work. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews performed in eight case studies within four different construction professions, workers’ descriptions of physical strain and its relation to the organizational and social context are analyzed through concepts...... the industry reproduce physical strain and the habituation of pain as unquestioned conditions in construction work. The understanding of this mutual reinforcement of the necessity of physically straining, painful, high-paced construction work provides fruitful perspectives on the overrepresentation...

  19. Neck pain



    Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis, and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but becomes chronic in about 10% of people.Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration–deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident.

  20. Neonatal pain. (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M


    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback.

  1. Pain relief can be painful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bindra


    Full Text Available Mandibular nerve block is periodically used procedure used to treat neuralgic pain in the distribution of trigeminal nerve. It is a commonly performed block in outpatient settings at our institute. We present a case of an elderly edentulous patient with trigeminal neuralgia who suffered recurrent temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation following mandibular nerve block. The patient presented with complaints of severe pain, inability to close mouth, and eat food since 2 days. Anterior closed reduction of TMJ resulted in reduction of joint and immediate pain relief. However, the maneuver failed due to recurrent dislocation of the joint. A Barton dressing was applied to prevent another dislocation. This was followed by autologous blood injection into the joint. This case focuses on the preponderance of clinical evaluation and accentuates the need for additional forethought to be taken during pain procedures, particularly in the geriatric population.

  2. Specific and number of comorbidities are associated with increased levels of temporomandibular pain intensity and duration


    Dahan, Haissam; Shir, Yoram; Velly, Ana; Allison, Paul


    Background Temporomandibular pain disorder (TMD) is a common pain condition in the face. People with TMD report multiple pain comorbidities. The presence of fibromyalgia and migraine in people with TMD is associated with an increase in TMD pain intensity and duration. However, data on the relationship between increasing number of pain comorbidities and TMD pain are rare. The aims of this study were: firstly to evaluate the extent to which increasing number of comorbidities is associated with ...

  3. [Myofascial pain syndrome--fascial muscle pain]. (United States)

    Partanen, Juhani; Ojala, Tuula; Arokoski, Jari P A


    Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome, i.e. fascial muscle pain may occur in several areas of the body, particularly in the neck-shoulder region. The muscle pain symptom in the neck-shoulder region is commonly termed tension neck pain or nonspecific neck pain, but myofascial pain syndrome can also be distinguished into its own diagnosis. This review deals with the clinical picture of myofascial pain syndrome along with pathophysiological hypotheses and treatment options.

  4. Sex Differences in Parent and Child Pain Ratings during an Experimental Child Pain Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C Moon


    Full Text Available Research in the field of pediatric pain has largely ignored the role of fathers in their children’s pain experiences. The first objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the presence of mothers versus fathers on children’s subjective ratings, facial expressions and physiological responses to acute pain. The second objective was to examine whether child and parent sex influence parents’ proxy ratings of their children’s pain. The final objective was to compare levels of agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ assessments of their children’s pain. Participants included 73 children (37 boys, 36 girls, four to 12 years of age, along with 32 fathers and 41 mothers. Children undertook the cold pressor pain task while observed by one of their parents. During the task, the children’s heart rates and facial expressions were recorded. Children provided self-reports and parents provided proxy reports of child pain intensity using the seven-point Faces Pain Scale. Neither child nor parent sex had a significant impact on children’s subjective reports, facial expressions or heart rates in response to acute pain. Fathers gave their sons higher pain ratings than their daughters, whereas mothers’ ratings of their sons’ and daughters’ pain did not differ. Kappa statistics and t tests revealed that fathers tended to be more accurate judges of their children’s pain than mothers. Overall, this research highlights the importance of examining both parent and child sex differences in pediatric pain research.

  5. [Forefoot pain]. (United States)

    Damiano, Joël


    Forefoot chronic pain is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice. Mechanical pathology of the forefoot, usually called static metatarsalgia, represents the most frequent reason for consultation in pathology of the foot. The cause is a functionnal disorder or anatomic derangement of the forefoot architecture. Metatarsalgia can originate from a wide range of affections. Etiologies of chronic pain are described from medial to lateral with first ray pathologies (hallux valgus, hallux rigidus and sesamoid pathology) and first ray insufficiency, pathologies of the second, third and fourth ray and intermetatarsal spaces (second ray syndrome, Freiberg's disease, Morton neuroma, stress or bone insufficiency metatarsal fractures, intermetatarsal bursitis) and fifth ray pathology (lateral bursitis, quintus varus). Sometimes forefoot pain could also be caused by chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis) with a risk of structural metatarsophalangeal joints alteration. The pathology of the toes can, more rarely, explain a forefoot pain. So, several pathologic conditions can produce forefoot pain and the diagnostic approach must always be based on the anamnesis and clinical examination. In a second time if the cause is difficult to establish based solely on clinical findings, radiography and ultrasonography are today the most usefull auxiliary investigations.

  6. Cuidado humanístico e percepções de enfermagem diante da dor do recém-nascido Atención humanística y percepciones de enfermería delante de dolor del recién nacido Humanistic care and nursing perceptions facing the pain of newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luíza Paula de Aguiar Lélis


    predominantemente no farmacológicas, involucrando acciones desarrolladas al recién nacido y ambiente de la unidad.This study aimed to apprehend the meaning of the care provided by nurses to newborns in painful procedures and know the interventions performed by nurses to relieve the pain of newborns. Descriptive study carried out in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in Fortaleza-CE-Brazil in July 2010. The subjects were ten nurses and the data collection happened through a questionnaire. Data were organized in three categories: The meaning of care facing the pain of newborns; Humanized care with newborns; and Nursing interventions facing the pain of newborns. These were analyzed under the light of the humanistic theory of Paterson and Zderad. It was verified that the care to newborns should be addressed to minimize the stress factors during the painful situation, and the interventions mentioned were predominantly non-pharmacological, involving actions developed with newborns and the Unit environment.

  7. The language of pain: A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Rathnam


    Full Text Available Background: Pain perception is a very controversial topic in child patients. It is affected by various factors such as fear, anxiety, previous experiences, parental factors, and pain threshold. The communication of such pain by the child to the parent is also very confusing with children having rudimentary and developing communication skills. A study to evaluate the pain perception of children and the parental understanding of the children′s pain would be helpful in this scenario. The effect on behavior due to pain is also attempted in this particular study. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 children aged between 5-13 years accompanied by either parent was performed. Data collection was done with the help of questionnaires, which assessed the parental understanding of the child′s pain. Pain perception recording was done with the Visual Analog Scale of Faces (VASOF. The behavior of the child was noted using the Frankl′s behavior rating scale. Data was collated and statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 10 software. Results and conclusion: The results show that parental factors such as education, work culture, influence parental understanding of pain. VASOF proves to be a reliable tool for pain perception in children. Behavior of the child shows a positive correlation to pain perception.

  8. Cognitive behavioural treatment programme for chronic neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, M.


    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) often face serious secondary health conditions, including different types of pain. Neuropathic pain is often rated by them as the most severe type of pain. Pharmacological interventions are often insufficiently effective in providing neuropathic pain relief and,

  9. Painful menstrual periods (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... related activities for a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of ...

  10. Pain (PDQ) (United States)

    ... opioids: Buprenorphine . Codeine . Diamorphine . Fentanyl . Hydrocodone . Hydromorphone . Methadone . Morphine (the most commonly used opioid for cancer pain). ... may also help by offering spiritual care and social support . For more ... the risk of drug interactions . Drugs taken together can change how they work ...

  11. Finger pain (United States)

    ... hands from the cold. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: Your finger pain is caused by injury ... to Expect at Your Office Visit The health ... will be asked questions about your medical history and symptoms. You may have an x- ...

  12. Penis pain (United States)

    ... the condition causing priapism. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you notice any of the following: An erection that does not go away (priapism). Seek immediate medical attention. Pain that lasts for more than 4 ...

  13. Achilles Pain. (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  14. [Elbow pain]. (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Miintyselkii, Pekka; Havulinna, Jouni


    Pain and disability in the elbow are not as common as in the neck, shoulder or wrist, for example. The elbow may, however, present disorders that may in a prolonged state be difficult and cause significant loss of working capacity. These include epicondylitis, osteoarthritis and entrapment of the ulnar nerve.

  15. Sleep disorders and chronic craniofacial pain: Characteristics and management possibilities. (United States)

    Almoznino, Galit; Benoliel, Rafael; Sharav, Yair; Haviv, Yaron


    Chronic craniofacial pain involves the head, face and oral cavity and is associated with significant morbidity and high levels of health care utilization. A bidirectional relationship is suggested in the literature for poor sleep and pain, and craniofacial pain and sleep are reciprocally related. We review this relationship and discuss management options. Part I reviews the relationship between pain and sleep disorders in the context of four diagnostic categories of chronic craniofacial pain: 1) primary headaches: migraines, tension-type headache (TTH), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hypnic headache, 2) secondary headaches: sleep apnea headache, 3) temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) and 4) painful cranial neuropathies: trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic trigeminal neuropathy, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Part II discusses the management of patients with chronic craniofacial pain and sleep disorders addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as sleep disorders and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities.

  16. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  17. When Sex Is Painful (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  18. Emotional Components of Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J Hale


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current definitions of pain suggest that emotion is an essential component of pain, however, the presumed relationship between emotion and pain, and the specific emotions that are involved in pain experiences have yet to be clarified.

  19. An Evolutionary Perspective on Pain Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leander Steinkopf


    Full Text Available Pain serves as a signal to elicit care from others. In turn, displaying pain might be attractive because of the benefits it might bring. Additionally, displaying pain is easy, because helpers distinguish poorly between genuine pain and faked pain. Hence, helpers face the problem of distinguishing true sufferers from free riders, while sufferers face the problem of communicating need convincingly. This article will propose solutions to these adaptive problems. Based on theoretical arguments and on empirical insights from lie detection research, it will be argued that the credibility of pain signals cannot be found in features of the signal itself, but in its context. Namely, pain is obviously credible when the context features unforgeable cues, such as an open wound or the enlarged abdomen of a pregnant woman, but also external cues such as the ice water in cold pressor tasks. In absence of such cues, pain can become credible through costly consequences, such as refraining from rewarding behaviors for a significant period. However, these adaptive mechanisms for communicating need may not be shaped for modern circumstances such as experimental settings and therapeutic encounters.

  20. About (above) a face - a face



    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  1. About (above a face - a face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin


    Full Text Available This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  2. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain. (United States)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars


    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity.

  3. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars


    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...... level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity....

  4. Undertreatment of caner pain. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Lee, Shiu-Yu C


    Pain is a burdensome symptom that can commonly exist chronically along the cancer trajectory. Uncontrolled pain will impact on cancer patients' quality of life, even further negatively affect cancer survivors' employment. Based on systemic reviews of studies for past 10 years, the paper reported that although there is enormous advancement on the knowledge of cancer pain and pain management, studies still documented undertreatment of cancer pain globally. Additionally, pain distress a significant portion of cancer survivors. The pain in cancer survivors distinct from the pain related with cancer, instead emphasize on pain related with cancer treatment, such as neuropathic pain, muscular syndrome. Evidence-based pain management with common pain problems in cancer survivors is lacking. Further studies are needed to understand the pain in cancer survivors and to develop effective strategies in helping cancer survivors to manage their pain.

  5. Peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic craniofacial pain. (United States)

    Slavin, K V


    Treatment of neuropathic pain in the region of head and face presents a challenging problem for pain specialists. In particular, those patients who do not respond to conventional treatment modalities usually continue to suffer from pain due to lack of reliable medical and surgical approaches. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been used for treatment of neuropathic pain for many decades, but only recently it has been systematically applied to the craniofacial region. Here we summarize published experience with PNS in treatment of craniofacial pain and discuss some technical details of the craniofacial PNS procedure.

  6. [Treatment of pain in hospital paediatrics]. (United States)

    Molina, J; Sagaseta de Ilúrdoz, M; Busto, N; Lezáun, I; Cía, M L; Carrascosa, S; Azanza, M J


    The paper presents a review of pain at the paediatric age, which can be considered a question of maximum interest given the novel application of analgesia or other procedures for avoiding and controlling the different types of pain in the course of normal practice during childhood. After a brief introduction on the history of pain and the scarce attention that it has received until recently, the concepts and different actions for dealing with pain are set out, which depend on its aetiology and localisation: pain in oncology, post-operational pain, pain in chronic or acute diseases, pain in intensive care, etc. Tables are presented with the normal doses used at these ages in the different situations required by the child and which the professional might find himself facing. The non-pharmacological attitude is set out as this can be of great use in the initial stages of controlling pain at these ages, and the different forms of sedation and analgesia at the paediatric age are explained, with regard to the medicines employed, the form of administering them and the importance of a multidisciplinary team: paediatricians, child anaesthetists, nursing personnel as well as the necessary technical support for taking the corresponding action.

  7. [The bioethical principlism model applied in pain management]. (United States)

    Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pessoa, Ana Paula da Costa; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Pereira, Lilian Varanda


    An integrative literature review was developed with the purpose to analyze the scientific production regarding the relationships between pain and the principles of bioethics (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice). Controlled descriptors were used in three international data sources (LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE), in April of 2012, totaling 14 publications categorized by pain and autonomy, pain and beneficence, pain and nonmaleficence, pain and justice. The adequate relief of pain is a human right and a moral issue directly related with the bioethical principlism standard model (beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). However, many professionals overlook the pain of their patients, ignoring their ethical role when facing suffering. It was concluded that principlism has been neglected in the care of patients in pain, showing the need for new practices to change this setting.

  8. Chest Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams-Vahdati


    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute chest pain is an important and frequently occurring symptom in patients. Chest pain is often a sign of ischemic heart disease. Associated findings of electrocardiograph (ECG are rather heterogeneous, and traditional cardiac biomarkers such as Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB suffer from low cardiac specificity and sensitivity. In this study cost effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers single quantitative measurement was examined.Methods: The present descriptive-analytic study conducted on patients who were asked for troponin I and CK-MB. All patients who referred to Emergency unit of Tabriz Imam Reza educational-medical center during January 2012 to July the 2013 were included in study. All patients included in the study were documented in terms of age, sex, working shift of referring, main complaint of patient, symptoms in referring, ECG findings, and results of troponin I and CK-MB tests.Results: In this study, 2900 patients were studied including 1440 (49.7% males and 1460 (50.3% females. Mean age of patients was 62.91 (SD=14.36. Of all patients 1880 (64.8% of patients referred during 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. and 1020 (35.2% patients were referred during 8 p.m. to 8 a.m. The sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers’ test in diagnosing Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS disease was calculated as 44.8% and its specificity was 86.6%. For diagnosing Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI, sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers’ test was 72.2% and its specificity was 86%. None of patients who were finally underwent unstable angina diagnosis showed increase in cardiac enzymes.Conclusion: In conclusion, cardiac biomarkers can be used for screening acute chest pains, also cost effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers, appropriate specificity and sensitivity can guarantee their usefulness in emergency room.

  9. Pain and Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Dickenson, Anthony H


    Cancer pain, especially pain caused by metastasis to bone, is a severe type of pain, and unless the cause and consequences can be resolved, the pain will become chronic. As detection and survival among patients with cancer have improved, pain has become an increasing challenge, because traditional...... therapies are often only partially effective. Until recently, knowledge of cancer pain mechanisms was poor compared with understanding of neuropathic and inflammatory pain states. We now view cancer-induced bone pain as a complex pain state involving components of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain...... but also exhibiting elements that seem unique to cancer pain. In addition, the pain state is often unpredictable, and the intensity of the pain is highly variable, making it difficult to manage. The establishment of translational animal models has started to reveal some of the molecular components involved...

  10. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes. (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola


    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  11. Children's selective attention to pain and avoidance behaviour: the role of child and parental catastrophizing about pain. (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L


    The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing about pain (ie, rumination, magnification, and helplessness). Participants were 59 children (31 boys) aged 10-16 years and one of their parents (41 mothers). Children performed a dot-probe task in which child facial pain displays of varying pain expressiveness were presented. Child avoidance behaviour was indexed by child pain tolerance during a cold-pressor task. Children and parents completed measures of child and parent pain catastrophizing, respectively. Findings indicated that both the nature of child selective attention to pain and the impact of selective attention upon child avoidance behaviour were differentially sensitive to specific dimensions of child and parental catastrophizing. Specifically, findings showed greater tendency to shift attention away from pain faces (i.e.,, attentional avoidance) among children reporting greater pain magnification. A similar pattern was observed in terms of parental characteristics, such that children increasingly shifted attention away from pain with increasing levels of parental rumination and helplessness. Furthermore, child attentional avoidance was associated with greater avoidance behaviour (i.e., lower pain tolerance) among children reporting high levels of pain magnification and those whose parents reported greater rumination about pain. The current findings corroborate catastrophizing as a multidimensional construct that may differentially impact outcomes and attest to the importance of assessing both child and parental characteristics in relation to child pain-related attention and avoidance behaviour. Further research directions are discussed.

  12. Emotion regulatory function of parent attention to child pain and associated implications for parental pain control behaviour. (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Sütterlin, Stefan; Caes, Line; Moors, Agnes


    We investigated the function of parental attention to child pain in regulating parental distress and pain control behaviour when observing their child performing a painful (cold pressor) task (CPT); we also studied the moderating role of parental state anxiety. Participants were 62 schoolchildren and one of their parents. Parental attention towards or away from child pain (ie, attend to pain vs avoid pain) was experimentally manipulated during a viewing task pairing unfamiliar children's neutral and pain faces. Before and after the viewing task, parental distress regulation was assessed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a subsequent phase, parents observed their own child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behaviour (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress, which was assessed via self-report before and after observation of child CPT performance. Eye tracking during the viewing task and self-reported attention to own child's pain confirmed successful attention manipulation. Further, findings indicated that the effect of attentional strategy on parental emotion regulation (indexed by HR, self-report) and pain control behaviour depended on parents' state anxiety. Specifically, whereas low anxious parents reported more distress and demonstrated more pain control behaviour in the Attend to Pain condition, high anxious parents reported more distress and showed more pain control behaviour in the Avoid Pain condition. This inverse pattern was likewise apparent in physiological distress indices (HR) in response to the initial viewing task. Theoretical/clinical implications and further research directions are discussed.

  13. Pain and the ethics of pain management. (United States)

    Edwards, R B


    In this article I clarify the concepts of 'pain', 'suffering', 'pains of body', 'pains of soul'. I explore the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives patients a strong prima facie right to freedom from unnecessary and unwanted pain and which places upon medical professionals two concomitant moral obligations to patients. First, there is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis, treatment and research. Next, there is the duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated. I develop in some detail that individuality of pain sensitivity must be taken into account in fulfilling these obligations. I explore the issue of the relevance of informed consent and the right to refuse treatment to the matter of pain relief. And I raise the question of what conditions, if any, should override the right to refuse treatment where pain relief is of paramount concern.

  14. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr


    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  15. Measuring postoperative pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.F.M. van


    Many patients experience pain after surgery. Adequate pain treatment begins with a reliable pain assessment. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used for this purpose; patients are asked to score their pain on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 indicates no pain and 10 indicates the worst imaginable

  16. Head and face reconstruction (United States)

    ... work together. Head and neck surgeons also perform craniofacial reconstruction operations. The surgery is done while you are deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia ). The surgery may take ...

  17. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces. (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander


    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  18. The pain of pain: challenges of animal behavior models. (United States)

    Barrett, James E


    Berend Olivier has had a long-standing interest in the utility of animal models for a wide variety of therapeutic indications. His work has spanned multiple types of models, blending ethological, or species typical and naturalistic behaviors, along with methodologies based on learned behavior. He has consistently done so, from an analytical as well as predictive perspective, and has made multiple contributions while working in both the pharmaceutical industry and within an academic institution. Although focused primarily on psychiatric disorders, Berend has conducted research in the area of pain in humans and in animals, demonstrating an expansive appreciation for the breadth, scope and significance of the science and applications of the discipline of pharmacology to these diverse areas. This review focuses on the use of animal models in pain research from the perspective of the long-standing deficiencies in the development of therapeutics in this area and from a preclinical perspective where the translational weaknesses have been quite problematic. The challenges confronting animal models of pain, however, are not unique to this area of research, as they cut across several therapeutic areas. Despite the deficiencies, failures and concerns, existing animal models of pain continue to be of widespread use and are essential to progress in pain research as well as in other areas. Although not focusing on specific animal models of pain, this paper seeks to examine general issues facing the use of these models. It does so by exploring alternative approaches which capture recent developments, which build upon principles and concepts we have learned from Berend's contributions, and which provide the prospect of helping to address the absence of novel therapeutics in this area.

  19. American Pain Society (United States)

    ... and Treated High-dose Opioid Treatment Associated with Mental Health and Medical Comorbidities Inadequate Pain Research Funding Hampers ... Chronic Neck Pain Press Room - Link of Preexisting Mental ... Nervous System Origins Yoga and Chronic Pain Have Opposite Effects on Brain ...

  20. Fighting Chronic Pain (United States)

    ... leg pain from clogged arteries Stomach/Digestive: Gallstones, intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis, ulcers, severe indigestion, severe gas pain, inflammatory bowel disease, colitis Urinary/Reproductive: Kidney stones, pelvic pain, vulvodynia, ...

  1. Pelvic Pain: Other FAQs (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Pain: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... more than one reason for my pain? Can pelvic pain affect my ability to become pregnant? Can alternative ...

  2. Soul Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jirek


    Full Text Available This study extends prior research on vicarious traumatization and emotion management by exploring a deeper, more life-altering effect of working with traumatized clients—namely, “soul pain.” Analyses of in-depth interviews with 29 advocates working with survivors of physical and sexual violence reveal that, as a direct consequence of hearing countless stories of human brutality, some staff members experience a profound wounding of their spirit. This finding expands our understanding of the occupational hazards of the helping professions by revealing another dimension of advocates’ lives—that of the soul or spirit—that may be affected by their work with trauma survivors.

  3. Social judgments from faces. (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron


    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  4. Personality factors and disorders in chronic pain. (United States)

    Weisberg, J N; Vaillancourt, P D


    It has long been recognized that there is a relationship between certain personality types and personality disorders (PD) and chronic nonmalignant pain (CP). The relationship, however, is far from understood and the physiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie it are unclear. Those who treat chronic pain face many challenges when dealing with individuals who have personality disorders and they often become frustrated when interacting with these patients. Patients with certain traits and personality disorders may continue to worry and ruminate about their symptoms long after the tissue pathology has resolved. Other individuals may overly rely on the clinician and assume a passive role in their treatment, thereby decreasing the likelihood for a positive outcome. Moreover, patients with personality disorders may be demanding (eg, borderline), self-absorbed (eg, narcissistic), or substance seeking (eg, antisocial, borderline). In an attempt to improve management of such patients, pain specialists have attempted to better understand the complex relationship between personality and chronic pain. In this article, we will review the predominant historical and current theories of pain and personality, discuss aspects of the gate-control theory of pain that may relate to personality, and discuss the diathesis-stress model of personality disorders in pain. Last, we will review studies of personality and personality disorders in chronic pain and their treatment implications. We conclude that, based on the underlying neurochemistry, there may be a direct or indirect link between PD and CP, but further prospective research, both on the biological and psychological relationship, should be conducted.

  5. Cancer and Pain Management



    Pain is the most common problems in cancer patients . Pain may occur due to stage of disease diagnosis, treatment processand treatment received. Today, there are many methods for pain control non-pharmacological and pharmacological. Nurse's responsibility to make a comprehensive assessment of pain, pain control, the individual and with his family to implement the chosen method of pain control, must be applied to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000): 751...

  6. Differential drug effects on spontaneous and evoked pain behavior in a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain (United States)

    Deseure, K; Hans, GH


    Purpose Baclofen and morphine have shown efficacy against mechanical allodynia after infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI). No drug effects have yet been reported on spontaneous trigeminal neuropathic pain. It has been proposed that the directed face grooming behavior that also develops following IoN-CCI offers a measure of spontaneous trigeminal neuropathic pain. Subjects and methods We examined the effects of a continuous 1-week infusion of 30 mg/day carbamazepine (the first-line drug treatment for trigeminal neuralgia), 1.06 mg/day baclofen, 4.18 mg/day clomipramine, and 5 mg/day morphine on spontaneous and mechanically evoked pain behavior (ie, directed face grooming and von Frey testing) in IoN-CCI rats. Results Isolated face grooming was significantly reduced in rats receiving carbamazepine and baclofen but not in clomipramine- or morphine-treated rats. All drugs showed significant antiallodynic effects; carbamazepine showed the strongest effects, whereas clomipramine had only minor efficacy. Conclusion The tested drugs have differential effects in the IoN-CCI model, and different neuropathological mechanisms may underlie the different somatosensory symptoms in this model. A mechanism-based approach may be needed to treat (trigeminal) neuropathic pain. The present data support IoN-CCI as a model of trigeminal neuralgia in which isolated face grooming is used as a measure of spontaneous neuropathic pain. PMID:28184169

  7. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For ...

  8. Pain Management: Post-Amputation Pain (United States)

    Pain Management Post-Amputation Pain Volume 8 · Issue 2 · March/April 1998 Text size Larger text Smaller text Java ... of the most frequently asked questions. Ideas about management are one of the frequent topics of conversation ...

  9. Early visceral pain predicts chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus;


    , and 3, 6, and 12months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale...

  10. Fetal pain perception and pain management. (United States)

    Van de Velde, Marc; Jani, Jacques; De Buck, Frederik; Deprest, J


    This paper gives an overview of current science related to the concept of fetal pain. We have answered three important questions: (1) does fetal pain exist? (2) does management of fetal pain benefit the unborn child? and (3) which techniques are available to provide good fetal analgesia?

  11. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents. (United States)

    Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida


    The presence of musculoskeletal pain was evaluated in adolescents. Pain was reported by 40% of respondents, benign joint hypermobility syndrome by 10%, myofascial syndrome by 5%, tendonitis by 2%, and fibromialgia by 1%. Logistical regression analysis indicated that sex and age were predictive of pain.



    Dr. B.Arun, MPT, PhD


    Low back pain was experienced by 50% of older adults that has threatened to quality of life. The economic cost of low back pain is more in older adults. Various literatures found that there is strong relationships exist between the low back pain and the psychosocial factors like sleep disturbances, depression, mood sway and chronic illness. Studies has found that depression is one of the commonest psychological problem faced by older adults which relates to other factors like pain, sleep dist...

  13. Spatiotemporal Facial Super-Pixels for Pain Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtoft, Dennis Holm; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    show that by employing super-pixels we can divide the face into three regions, in a way that only one of these regions (about one third of the face) contributes to the pain estimation and the other two regions can be discarded. The experimental results on the UNBC- McMaster database show...... that the proposed system using this single region outperforms state-of-the-art systems in detecting no-pain scenarios, while it reaches comparable results in detecting weak and severe pain scenarios....

  14. Face Search at Scale. (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K


    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  15. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z


    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  16. Adolescents' approach-avoidance behaviour in the context of pain. (United States)

    Fisher, Emma; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher


    Adolescents who experience pain often face competing goals and have to choose whether to approach (confront) or avoid pain. This study investigates the decisions adolescents make when their pain conflicts with a valued goal. Adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years (N = 170) completed questionnaires on general and pain-specific anxiety, courage, and dispositional avoidance. Adolescents were presented with 16 vignettes (8 high pain intensity, 8 low pain intensity), which described pain conflicting with a goal (eg, doing well at school, seeing friends). Adolescents rated goals for importance and reported how likely they would be to approach or avoid each pain. Adolescents were more likely to avoid and were more fearful of high pain intensity than low pain intensity vignettes. Pain anxiety predicted higher levels of avoidance for both pain intensities. General anxiety was not a significant predictor of avoidance for either pain intensity. Goal importance promoted approach of goals, but only when pain was described as intense. However, pain anxiety predicted avoidance beyond the importance of goals for high pain intensity vignettes. In addition, we compared approach-avoidance of adolescents with and without chronic pain; analyses revealed no differences in approach-avoidance behaviour. We also found that behavioural endurance was predictive of approach and dispositional avoidance predicted higher avoidance, but courage was not predictive of behaviour in this task. We adopt a motivational perspective when interpreting the findings and consider whether the fear-avoidance model should be extended to include the function of avoidance or approach in the pursuit of a desired goal.

  17. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)


    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain) (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is ...

  19. Postoperative Pain in Children After Dentistry Under General Anesthesia. (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Copp, Peter E; Haas, Daniel A


    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and duration of postoperative pain in children undergoing general anesthesia for dentistry. This prospective cross-sectional study included 33 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I and II children 4-6 years old requiring multiple dental procedures, including at least 1 extraction, and/or pulpectomy, and/or pulpotomy of the primary dentition. Exclusion criteria were children who were developmentally delayed, cognitively impaired, born prematurely, taking psychotropic medications, or recorded baseline pain or analgesic use. The primary outcome of pain was measured by parents using the validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) during the first 72 hours at home. The results showed that moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, defined as FPS-R ≥ 6, was reported in 48.5% of children. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain was 29.0% by FPS-R and 40.0% by PPPM at 2 hours after discharge. Pain subsided over 3 days. Postoperative pain scores increased significantly from baseline (P < .001, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test). Moderately good correlation between the 2 pain measures existed 2 and 12 hours from discharge (Spearman rhos correlation coefficients of 0.604 and 0.603, P < .005). In conclusion, children do experience moderate-to-severe pain postoperatively. Although parents successfully used pain scales, they infrequently administered analgesics.

  20. Painful Traumatic Trigeminal Neuropathy. (United States)

    Rafael, Benoliel; Sorin, Teich; Eli, Eliav


    This article discusses neuropathic pain of traumatic origin affecting the trigeminal nerve. This syndrome has been termed painful traumatic trigeminal neuropathy by the International Headache Society and replaces atypical odontalgia, deafferentation pain, traumatic neuropathy, and phantom toothache. The discussion emphasizes the diagnosis and the early and late management of injuries to the trigeminal nerve and subsequent painful conditions.

  1. Medications for back pain (United States)

    Back pain often goes away on its own over several weeks. In some people, back pain persists. It may not go away completely or ... at times. Medicines can also help with your back pain. OVER-THE-COUNTER PAIN RELIEVERS Over-the-counter ...

  2. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh


    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  3. Pain and modulation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M


    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most important and sometimes difficult problems, that patients and physicians are encountered. It may be clinically acute or chronic, acute pain has usually definite cause and favourable response to treatment. On the other hand there are difficulties in diagnosis and management of chronic pain. Peripheral and cranial nerves convey pain impulses toward central nervous system, and modulations take place at several levels. Diagnosis of different pains, including nociceptive, nerve trunk pain and deafferentation types is essential to acceptable management. In this article we review pain pathway, neurotransmitters and modulation.

  4. Pain, emotion, headache. (United States)

    Bussone, Gennaro; Grazzi, Licia; Panerai, Alberto E


    Pain has been considered as part of a defensive strategy whose specific role is to signal an immediate active danger to the organism. This definition fits well for acute pain. It does not work well, however, for chronic pain that is maintained even in absence of an ongoing, active threat. Currently, acute and chronic pain are considered to be separate conditions. What follows is a review of the different theories about pain and its history. Different hypotheses regarding pain mechanisms are illustrated. New data emerging from scientific research on chronic pain (migraine in particular) involving innovative imaging techniques are reported and discussed.

  5. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based? (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu


    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  6. Differential diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders and other orofacial pain disorders. (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey P; de Leeuw, Reny


    There are many types of pain conditions that are felt in the orofacial structures. Most of the conditions treated by the dentist are associated with the teeth, periodontal structures, and associated mucosal tissues. This article focuses on the differential diagnosis of other common pain conditions the dentist will likely face, such as temporomandibular disorders, neuropathic pain disorders, and common headaches; and the clinical presentation of each. Controlling or reducing pain can be accomplished by controlling perpetuating factors such as parafunctional habits and by some simple behavioral modifications. Finally, this article offers some simple treatment considerations.

  7. Facilitated pro-nociceptive pain mechanisms in radiating back pain compared with localized back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas


    Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations at cPTT intensity), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain...

  8. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B.; Nikolajsen, L.; Kehlet, H.;


    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  9. Chronic pain after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsborg, B; Nikolajsen, L; Kehlet, Henrik;


    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a well-known adverse effect of surgery, but the risk of chronic pain after gynaecological surgery is less established. METHOD: This review summarizes studies on chronic pain following hysterectomy. The underlying mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic...... post-hysterectomy pain are discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chronic pain is reported by 5-32% of women after hysterectomy. A guideline is proposed for future prospective studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  10. Assessment of pain sensitivity in patients with deep bite and sex- and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte; Svensson, Peter


    AIMS: To compare pain sensitivity between deep bite patients and a sex- and age-matched control group with normal occlusion. METHODS: Pain sensitivity was assessed by injections of the excitatory amino acid glutamate into the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Intensity of glutamate-evoked pain...... was scored by the subjects ( n = 60) on a 0 to 10 cm visual analog scale. Subjects drew the perceived pain area on a face and arm chart and described the quality of pain on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Thresholds for cold detection, cold pain, cold tolerance, warmth detection, heat pain, and heat tolerance...... were assessed on the masseter and brachioradialis muscles. Pressure pain threshold and pain tolerance threshold were determined on the temporomandibular joint, masseter, anterior temporalis, and brachioradialis muscles. The differences between groups, age, and gender were tested by two-way ANOVA...

  11. Pain perception and modulation in acute and chronic pain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, L.C.J.


    This thesis describes the evaluation of pain perception in acute and chronic pain patients and the strength of the endogenous pain modulation system in chronic pain patients. Additionally, pain phenotypes are determined in patients with chronic pain. The ability of patients with acute pain after sur

  12. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines. (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F


    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines.

  13. Pain inhibits pain; human brainstem mechanisms. (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Macefield, V G; Henderson, L A


    Conditioned pain modulation is a powerful analgesic mechanism, occurring when a painful stimulus is inhibited by a second painful stimulus delivered at a different body location. Reduced conditioned pain modulation capacity is associated with the development of some chronic pain conditions and the effectiveness of some analgesic medications. Human lesion studies show that the circuitry responsible for conditioned pain modulation lies within the caudal brainstem, although the precise nuclei in humans remain unknown. We employed brain imaging to determine brainstem sites responsible for conditioned pain modulation in 54 healthy individuals. In all subjects, 8 noxious heat stimuli (test stimuli) were applied to the right side of the mouth and brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This paradigm was then repeated. However, following the fourth noxious stimulus, a separate noxious stimulus, consisting of an intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline into the leg, was delivered (conditioning stimulus). During this test and conditioning stimulus period, 23 subjects displayed conditioned pain modulation analgesia whereas 31 subjects did not. An individual's analgesic ability was not influenced by gender, pain intensity levels of the test or conditioning stimuli or by psychological variables such as pain catastrophizing or fear of pain. Brain images were processed using SPM8 and the brainstem isolated using the SUIT toolbox. Significant increases in signal intensity were determined during each test stimulus and compared between subjects that did and did not display CPM analgesia (ppain modulation circuitry provides a framework for the future investigations into the neural mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of persistent pain conditions thought to involve altered analgesic circuitry.

  14. Spirituality, religion, and pain. (United States)

    Unruh, Anita M


    Understanding the relationships between spirituality and health has become increasingly important in health research, including nursing research. Very little of the research thus far has focused on spirituality, religion, and pain even though spiritual views have been intertwined with beliefs about pain and suffering throughout history. Spiritual views can have a substantial impact on patients' understanding of pain and decisions about pain management. The author reviews the research literature on spirituality and pain from a historical perspective. The analysis is concerned with how spirituality and religion have been used to construct a meaning of pain that shapes appraisal, coping, and pain management. The clinical implications include respectful communication with patients about spirituality and pain, inclusion of spirituality in education and support programs, integration of spiritual preferences in pain management where feasible and appropriate, consultation with pastoral care teams, and reflection by nurses about spirituality in their own lives. A discussion of research implications is included.

  15. [The pain from burns]. (United States)

    Latarjet, J


    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  16. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa


    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  17. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh


    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  18. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin


    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  19. Pediatric pain management. (United States)

    Lederhaas, G


    It is now recognized that from the newborn period onwards, children are capable of experiencing pain. This includes the premature infant. The challenge for healthcare providers is to incorporate methods of pain assessment and treatment into their daily practices. The child's understanding of pain closely follows the cognitive and behavioral model developed by Jean Piaget. Based on these developmental stages, pain assessment measures have been developed. Pharmacologic advances have accompanied this improved understanding of infant, child, and adolescent psychology. While acute pain accounts for the majority of children's experiences, recurrent/chronic pain states do occur (e.g. sickle cell related and neuropathic) and can be effectively treated.

  20. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable. Develo....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  1. Assessing the pain of people with a learning disability. (United States)

    Kingston, Karen; Bailey, Carol

    This article highlights the inequalities in health-care provision experienced by people with a learning disability, particularly the issue of pain and the barriers people with a learning disability face when trying to have their pain properly recognized and managed. The authors describe the process followed by their learning disability service in producing a pain protocol that attempted to overcome these barriers. They also examine the pain assessment tool that is now used in the authors learning disability service. Lastly, the article considers why a specially designed pain assessment tool was deemed more appropriate than any of the standardized assessment tools available and looks at the reasons why assessment tools should be presented in an accessible format that enables people with a learning disability to alert healthcare professionals to their pain and receive appropriate treatment.

  2. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng


    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  3. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis. (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie


    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  4. A Face Farce?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Some people proclaim the success of the facial transplant operation marks the advent of a new era, one in which changing face will be as normal as changing clothing. Teng Li, a doctor with the Plastic Surgery Hospital affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, believes facial transplant surgery should be encouraged as a scientific exploration, though he cautioned that experiments on animals

  5. Two Faces of Japan. (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.


    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  6. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit


    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...

  7. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Qian


    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  8. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer


    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  9. Facing Up to Death (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler


    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  10. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance


    Claus-Christian Carbon; Martina Grüter; Thomas Grüter


    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, ...

  11. Loin pain hematuria syndrome. (United States)

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans


    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  12. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability. (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta


    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  13. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  14. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain (United States)

    ... Living with Hepatitis » Managing Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the hepatitis C is worsening. Pain associated with hepatitis C Some patients with hepatitis C feel discomfort ...

  15. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain) (United States)

    Diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the ... the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain ...

  16. Cancer Pain Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony


    reorganization within segments of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord receiving nociceptive input from the bone are discussed. Changes in certain neurotransmitters implicated in brain modulation of spinal function are also altered with implications for the affective components of cancer pain. Treatments......Mechanisms of inflammatory and neuropathic pains have been elucidated and translated to patient care by the use of animal models of these pain states. Cancer pain has lagged behind since early animal models of cancer-induced bone pain were based on the systemic injection of carcinoma cells....... This precluded systematic investigation of specific neuronal and pharmacological alterations that occur in cancer-induced bone pain. In 1999, Schwei et al. described a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain that paralleled the clinical condition in terms of pain development and bone destruction, confined...

  17. Perspectives in Pancreatic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Salim


    Full Text Available This review describes some of the mechanisms which are thought to be important in the causation of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Both medical and surgical techniques for treating this pain are described.

  18. Eldercare at Home: Pain (United States)

    ... or "heaviness" or “misery.” Look for behavior or body language that looks like a response to pain. An ... to communicate about pain in words. Behaviors or body language to look for include facial expressions such as ...

  19. Endometriosis and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Orlandini


    Full Text Available In some patients endometriosis causes persistent or chronic pain and is a specialistic algologic problem. Considering various possible pathogenic pain mechanisms, when pain therapy of endometriosis cannot be etiologic, far from be only symptomatic, it is based on a pathogenetic criterion. We must consider that in endometriosis can be a pain due to activation of nociceptors sensibilized by endometriosic tissues (tissutal nociceptive pain unresponding to NSAIDs and opioids or a pain due to the nerve damage by nerve compression from endometriosic cistis or by involvement of nerve structures in scar tissue (neuropathic pain unresponding to antinociceptive therapy but responding, at least partially, to some neuropathic specific pain drugs and to electrostimulation of the nerve system.

  20. Acupuncture for Pediatric Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Golianu


    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a growing problem in children, with prevalence as high as 30.8%. Acupuncture has been found to be useful in many chronic pain conditions, and may be of clinical value in a multidisciplinary treatment program. The basic principles of acupuncture are reviewed, as well as studies exploring basic mechanisms of acupuncture and clinical efficacy. Conditions commonly treated in the pediatric pain clinic, including headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain, as well as perioperative pain studies are reviewed and discussed. Areas in need of further research are identified, and procedural aspects of acupuncture practice and safety studies are reviewed. Acupuncture can be an effective adjuvant in the care of pediatric patients with painful conditions, both in a chronic and an acute setting. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, as well as trials of comparative effectiveness are needed.

  1. Prevent Back Pain (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or ...

  2. Phytotherapy for pain relief. (United States)

    Zareba, Grazyna


    Pain is considered the third most common healthcare problem disabling more individuals than heart disease and cancer together. Although pharmacological pain management offers a significant relief in several pain-related diseases, many patients turn to its supplementation with complementary and alternative medicine. Botanicals used in pain therapy can contribute to restoring the quality of life to a patient and may effect and enhance conventional pain management. Herbal analgesic use in several pain-related diseases such as rheumatologic diseases, back pain, cancer, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and migraine will be discussed. In addition, this review describes botanicals with known analgesic activity for which randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials assessing their efficacy in different pain-related diseases have been published and which have been recently evaluated in many systematic reviews with well-described methodology.

  3. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain



    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold hea...

  4. Pain in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Mafrica


    Full Text Available Pain is a homeostatic mechanism that intervenes to protect the organism from harmful stimuli that could damage its integrity. It is made up of two components: the sensory-discriminative component, which identifies the provenance and characteristics of the type of pain; and the affective-motivational component, on which emotional reflexes, following the painful sensation, depend.There is a system for pain control at an encephalic and spinal level, principally made up of the periaqueductal grey matter, the periventricular area, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the pain-inhibition complex situated in the posterior horns of the spinal cord. Through the activation of these pain-control systems, the nervous system suppresses the afference of pain signals. Endogenous opioids represent another analgesic system.In the course of various studies on pain transmission in Down patients, the reduced tolerance of pain and the incapacity to give a qualitative and quantitative description emerged in a powerful way. All of these aspects cause difficulty in evaluating pain. This is linked to several learning difficulties. However, it cannot be excluded that in these anomalies of pain perception, both the anatomical and the neurotransmitter alteration, typical of this syndrome, may hold a certain importance.This fact may have important clinical repercussions that could affect the choice of therapeutic and rehabilitative schemes for treatment of pathologies in which pain is the dominant symptom, such as postoperative pain. It could influence research on analgesics that are more suitable for these patients, the evaluation of the depth of analgesia during surgical operation, and ultimately, absence of obvious pain manifestations. In conclusion, alterations of the central nervous system, neurotransmitters, pain transmission, and all related problems should be considered in the management of pain in patients with Down's syndrome, especially by algologists and

  5. Ketogenic Diets and Pain


    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.


    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  6. Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care. (United States)

    Borghi, Camila Amaral; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Damião, Elaine Buchhorn Cintra; Guedes, Danila Maria Batista; Silva, Ellen Maria Reimberg da; Barbosa, Silvia Maria de Macedo; Polastrini, Rita Tiziana


    A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with the aim of understanding the experience of children and adolescents under palliative care when managing pain daily and how they describe the intensity, quality and location of pain. We used Piaget's theory of cognitive development as a theoretical framework and oral history as a methodological framework. We found four themes: describing pain; seeking a life closer to normality, despite pain and disease; using a variety of alternatives for pain control; and living with damaged physical appearance. Although pain is a limiting factor in the lives of children and adolescents, we found that they faced their daily pain and still had a life beyond pain and illness. In addition, we highlight the relevance of nurses' understanding that effective management of pain in children is essential for a normal life and less suffering.

  7. Living with pain: the experience of children and adolescents in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Amaral Borghi


    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with the aim of understanding the experience of children and adolescents under palliative care when managing pain daily and how they describe the intensity, quality and location of pain. We used Piaget’s theory of cognitive development as a theoretical framework and oral history as a methodological framework. We found four themes: describing pain; seeking a life closer to normality, despite pain and disease; using a variety of alternatives for pain control; and living with damaged physical appearance. Although pain is a limiting factor in the lives of children and adolescents, we found that they faced their daily pain and still had a life beyond pain and illness. In addition, we highlight the relevance of nurses’ understanding that effective management of pain in children is essential for a normal life and less suffering.

  8. Back Pain During Pregnancy (United States)

    ... hurting your back when you exercise. How can pregnancy hormones contribute to back pain? To prepare for the ... of the baby through the birth canal, a hormone relaxes the ligaments in the ... back pain during pregnancy? To help prevent back pain, be aware of ...

  9. Growing Pains (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A ... olds and, later, in 8- to 12-year-olds. Signs and Symptoms Growing pains always concentrate in the muscles , rather than ...

  10. Central Pain Syndrome (United States)

    ... or hands. Central pain syndrome often begins shortly after the causative injury or damage, but may be delayed by months or even years, especially if it is related to post-stroke pain. × Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

  11. 21. Phantom pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.P.; Vanduynhoven, E.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.; Pope, J.E.; Mekhail, N.


    Phantom pain is pain caused by elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers after amputation or deafferentation. The reported incidence of phantom limb pain after trauma, injury or peripheral vascular diseases is 60% to 80%. Over half the p

  12. Pain and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jorian Hendry Gerwin


    The ability to sense pain may be considered as a prerequisite for human survival. The experience of pain helps humans to avoid the execution of actions that can seriously endanger their lives; pain is therefore evolutionarily predisposed to interrupt and capture attention. However, this supposed int

  13. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar B,


    Full Text Available Congenital Insensitivity to Pain belongs to the family of Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies (HSAN. It is a rare disorder of unknown etiology associated with loss of pain sensation. Cognition and sensation is otherwise normal and there is no detectable physical abnormality. We report a case of Congenital Insensitivity to Pain in a 3 year old female child.

  14. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels


    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school...

  15. Pain and patienthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, WJ


    Objective: The objective of this study was to identify possible differences between chronic pain patients (consumers) and persons with chronic pain lasting >1 year who had not consulted a doctor because of the pain during the last year (nonconsumers). Group differences were studied from the perspect

  16. History of facial pain diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Jensen, Troels S


    Premise Facial pain refers to a heterogeneous group of clinically and etiologically different conditions with the common clinical feature of pain in the facial area. Among these conditions, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), persistent idiopathic facial pain, temporomandibular joint pain, and trigeminal...

  17. Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain. (United States)

    Marsicano, Elizabeth; Vuong, Giao Michael; Prather, Charlene M


    Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain are numerous. These causes are reviewed in brief here, divided into 2 categories: acute abdominal pain and chronic abdominal pain. They are further subcategorized by location of pain as it pertains to the abdomen.

  18. Electrocortical evidence for preferential processing of dynamic pain expressions compared to other emotional expressions. (United States)

    Reicherts, Philipp; Wieser, Matthias J; Gerdes, Antje B M; Likowski, Katja U; Weyers, Peter; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul


    Decoding pain in others is of high individual and social benefit in terms of harm avoidance and demands for accurate care and protection. The processing of facial expressions includes both specific neural activation and automatic congruent facial muscle reactions. While a considerable number of studies investigated the processing of emotional faces, few studies specifically focused on facial expressions of pain. Analyses of brain activity and facial responses elicited by the perception of facial pain expressions in contrast to other emotional expressions may unravel the processing specificities of pain-related information in healthy individuals and may contribute to explaining attentional biases in chronic pain patients. In the present study, 23 participants viewed short video clips of neutral, emotional (joy, fear), and painful facial expressions while affective ratings, event-related brain responses, and facial electromyography (Musculus corrugator supercilii, M. orbicularis oculi, M. zygomaticus major, M. levator labii) were recorded. An emotion recognition task indicated that participants accurately decoded all presented facial expressions. Electromyography analysis suggests a distinct pattern of facial response detected in response to happy faces only. However, emotion-modulated late positive potentials revealed a differential processing of pain expressions compared to the other facial expressions, including fear. Moreover, pain faces were rated as most negative and highly arousing. Results suggest a general processing bias in favor of pain expressions. Findings are discussed in light of attentional demands of pain-related information and communicative aspects of pain expressions.

  19. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  20. Automated Face Recognition System (United States)


    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  1. Emotional mimicry signals pain empathy as evidenced by facial electromyography. (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Yu-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei


    Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy.

  2. Painful Intercourse Is Significantly Associated with Evoked Pain Perception and Cognitive Aspects of Pain in Women with Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD


    Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.

  3. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols


    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  4. Managing phantom pain. (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay


    Since the first medical description of post-amputation phenomena reported by Ambrose Paré, persistent phantom pain syndromes have been well recognized. However, they continue to be difficult to manage. The three most commonly utilized terms include phantom sensation, phantom pain, and stump pain. Phantom limb sensation is an almost universal occurrence at some time during the first month following surgery. However, most phantom sensations generally resolve after two to three years without treatment, except in the cases where phantom pain develops. The incidence of phantom limb pain has been reported to vary from 0% to 88%. The incidence of phantom limb pain increases with more proximal amputations. Even though phantom pain may diminish with time and eventually fade away, it has been shown that even two years after amputation, the incidence is almost the same as at onset. Consequently, almost 60% of patients continue to have phantom limb pain after one year. In addition, phantom limb pain may also be associated with multiple pain problems in other areas of the body. The third symptom, stump pain, is located in the stump itself. The etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of phantom pain are not clearly defined. However, both peripheral and central neural mechanisms have been described, along with superimposed psychological mechanisms. Literature describing the management of phantom limb pain or stump pain is in its infancy. While numerous treatments have been described, there is little clinical evidence supporting drug therapy, psychological therapy, interventional techniques or surgery. This review will describe epidemiology, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, and treatment modalities. The review also examines the effectiveness of various described modalities for prevention, as well as management of established phantom pain syndromes.

  5. The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience. (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H


    Healthy children are often required to repeatedly undergo painful medical procedures (eg, immunizations). Although memory is often implicated in children's reactions to future pain, there is a dearth of research directly examining the relationship between the 2. The current study investigated the influence of children's memories for a novel pain stimulus on their subsequent pain experience. One hundred ten healthy children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a laboratory pain task and provided pain ratings. Two weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories as well as their expectancies about future pain. One month following the initial laboratory visit, children again completed the pain task and provided pain ratings. Results showed that children's memory of pain intensity was a better predictor of subsequent pain reporting than their actual initial reporting of pain intensity, and mediated the relationship between initial and subsequent pain reporting. Children who had negatively estimated pain memories developed expectations of greater pain prior to a subsequent pain experience and showed greater increases in pain ratings over time than children who had accurate or positively estimated pain memories. These findings highlight the influence of pain memories on healthy children's expectations of future pain and subsequent pain experiences and extend predictive models of subsequent pain reporting.

  6. Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers. (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J


    This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.

  7. Myofascial low back pain. (United States)

    Ramsook, Ryan R; Malanga, Gerard A


    Low back pain is a common condition that is encountered by both primary care physicians as well as various specialists, which include: orthopedic surgeons, physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, neurologists, rheumatologists, and pain management specialists. Associated muscular pain is very common and often a reactive response from nociception from other structures. Myofascial pain may arise, which is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) that are located in fascia, tendons, and/or muscle. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, assessment, and recommended treatment options for myofascial low back pain.

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Orofacial Pain



    The sensation of pain is the means by which the body is made urgently aware of the presence of tissue damage. Pain represents a protective reflex for self-preservation. It is often pain that brings the patient to the dental office but also can be the factor that keeps the patient from seeking treatment at the appropriate time. Pain control is of great importance in dental practice. The clinician has to know the financial neuroanatomy, peripheral and central nervous system pathways, pain modul...

  9. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research. (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J


    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  10. A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain in Children: Hereditary Angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özçeker


    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HA is a rare, autosomal-dominant genetic disorder presenting with recurrent attacks of angioedema. The most commonly involved organs include the extremites, face, neck, upper respiratory tract, genital region and the gastrointestinal tract. Edema of the intestinal mucosa can cause temporary obstruction and severe abdominal pain that can be confused with acute abdomen. Pediatricians and emergency physicians should keep in mind this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of severe abdominal pain.

  11. Pain in burn patients. (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M


    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  12. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;


    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  13. Pain emotion and homeostasis. (United States)

    Panerai, Alberto E


    Pain has always been considered as part of a defensive strategy, whose specific role is to signal an immediate, active danger. This definition partially fits acute pain, but certainly not chronic pain, that is maintained also in the absence of an active noxa or danger and that nowadays is considered a disease by itself. Moreover, acute pain is not only an automatic alerting system, but its severity and characteristics can change depending on the surrounding environment. The affective, emotional components of pain have been and are the object of extensive attention and research by psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and also pharmacologists. Pain itself can be considered to share the same genesis as emotions and as a specific emotion in contributing to the maintenance of the homeostasis of each unique subject. Interestingly, this role of pain reaches its maximal development in the human; some even argue that it is specific for the human primate.

  14. Avicenna's concept of pain. (United States)

    Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I


    Ibn Sina (Latin name - Avicenna, 980-1037) is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity) were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change) of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  15. Avicenna's concept of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Tashani


    Full Text Available Ibn Sina (Latin name – Avicenna, 980–1037 is a famous Muslim physician who wrote The Canon of Medicine. Pain-related writings within The Canon were identified and analysed and compared to Galen and Modern Pain Theory. We found evidence in The Canon that Avicenna challenged Galen's concept of pain. Galen insisted that injuries (breach of continuity were the only cause of pain. In contrast, Avicenna suggested that the true cause of pain was a change of the physical condition (temperament change of the organ whether there was an injury present or not. Avicenna extended Galen's descriptions of 4 to 15 types of pain and used a terminology that is remarkably similar to that used in the McGill Pain Questionnaire.

  16. Age-dependent face detection and face categorization performance. (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas


    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature.

  17. Pain in aquatic animals. (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U


    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  18. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces


    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.


    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  19. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa


    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  20. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab


    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  1. Mechanisms of cardiac pain. (United States)

    Foreman, Robert D; Garrett, Kennon M; Blair, Robert W


    Angina pectoris is cardiac pain that typically is manifested as referred pain to the chest and upper left arm. Atypical pain to describe localization of the perception, generally experienced more by women, is referred to the back, neck, and/or jaw. This article summarizes the neurophysiological and pharmacological mechanisms for referred cardiac pain. Spinal cardiac afferent fibers mediate typical anginal pain via pathways from the spinal cord to the thalamus and ultimately cerebral cortex. Spinal neurotransmission involves substance P, glutamate, and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors; release of neurokinins such as nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb) in the spinal cord can modulate neurotransmission. Vagal cardiac afferent fibers likely mediate atypical anginal pain and contribute to cardiac ischemia without accompanying pain via relays through the nucleus of the solitary tract and the C1-C2 spinal segments. The psychological state of an individual can modulate cardiac nociception via pathways involving the amygdala. Descending pathways originating from nucleus raphe magnus and the pons also can modulate cardiac nociception. Sensory input from other visceral organs can mimic cardiac pain due to convergence of this input with cardiac input onto spinothalamic tract neurons. Reduction of converging nociceptive input from the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract can diminish cardiac pain. Much work remains to be performed to discern the interactions among complex neural pathways that ultimately produce or do not produce the sensations associated with cardiac pain.

  2. Pain after earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeletti Chiara


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009. Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%. Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations.

  3. Craniofacial Pain as the Sole Sign of Prodromal Angina and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Review and Report of a Rare Case


    Fazlyab, Mahta; Esnaashari, Ehsan; Saleh, Mojgan; Shakerian, Farshad; Akhlagh Moayed, Davood; Asgary, Saeed


    Orofacial pain can arise from different regions and etiologies. Some of the most debilitating pain conditions arise from the structures innervated by the trigeminal system (head, face, masticatory musculature, temporomandibular joint and associated structures). The problem with referred pain is the misdiagnosis and unnecessary therapy directed to the pain location instead of its origin. When craniofacial pain is the sole sign of myocardial ischemia, failure to recognize its cardiac source can...

  4. Non-pharmacological treatments for pain relief: TENS and acupuncture. (United States)

    Coutaux, Anne


    Acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) are non-pharmacological methods that have been used for millennia to relieve pain. As with all complementary treatments, efficacy evaluations face two hurdles: the non-feasibility of double-blinding and the difficulty in identifying the optimal control population or treatment. Nevertheless, recent studies of good methodological quality have demonstrated benefits in many types of pain compared to conventional treatment. The mechanisms of action of acupuncture and TENS, which are increasingly well understood, involve endogenous pain control systems, cerebral plasticity, and nonspecific effects (e.g., expectations and placebo effect). No serious adverse effects have been reported. These data support the more widespread use of non-pharmacological pain management, most notably in patients with chronic pain inadequately relieved by medications alone.

  5. Ensuring Pain Relief for Children at the End of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Grégoire


    Full Text Available Pain management in the context of pediatric palliative care can be challenging. The present article reviews, through a case-based presentation, the nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods used to ensure adequate pain control in children facing end of life. Details on the impressive range of opioid dosages required and routes of administration are highlighted from published literature and clinical experience. Where available, evidence-based recommendations are provided. Potential side effects of pain medication and barriers to good pain control are discussed. Novel analgesics and innovative delivery methods are presented as future tools enhancing pain relief at the end of life. Some challenges to ethically grounded research in this important context of care are reviewed.

  6. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng


    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  7. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.


    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  8. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.


    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit

  9. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.


    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  10. The Perception and Estimation of Others' Pain according to Children. (United States)

    Grégoire, Mathieu; Bruneau-Bhérer, Rosée; Morasse, Karine; Eugène, Fanny; Jackson, Philip L


    Accurate interpretation of pain expressed by others is important for socialization; however, the development of this skill in children is still poorly understood. Empathy for pain models propose two main components (affective and cognitive), which develop at different stages of life. The study's objective was to investigate the children's ability between 3 and 12 years of age to detect and assess the pain intensity in others using visual stimuli depicting either facial expressions of pain or hands in painful contexts. 40 preschool children and 62 school-aged children were recruited. Children observed series of stimuli and evaluated the pain intensity depicted. Results demonstrated that children as young as three years old were able to detect and assess pain in both types of stimuli and this ability continued to improve until the age of 12. Participants demonstrated better detection performance with hands than with faces. Results were coherent with the idea that the two types of stimuli presented recruit different processes. Pain detection in hands appears to rely mostly on affective sharing processes that are effective early in life, while older children's higher ability to perceive pain in facial expressions suggests that this ability is associated with the gradual development of cognitive processes.

  11. The Perception and Estimation of Others' Pain according to Children (United States)

    Grégoire, Mathieu; Bruneau-Bhérer, Rosée; Morasse, Karine; Eugène, Fanny


    Accurate interpretation of pain expressed by others is important for socialization; however, the development of this skill in children is still poorly understood. Empathy for pain models propose two main components (affective and cognitive), which develop at different stages of life. The study's objective was to investigate the children's ability between 3 and 12 years of age to detect and assess the pain intensity in others using visual stimuli depicting either facial expressions of pain or hands in painful contexts. 40 preschool children and 62 school-aged children were recruited. Children observed series of stimuli and evaluated the pain intensity depicted. Results demonstrated that children as young as three years old were able to detect and assess pain in both types of stimuli and this ability continued to improve until the age of 12. Participants demonstrated better detection performance with hands than with faces. Results were coherent with the idea that the two types of stimuli presented recruit different processes. Pain detection in hands appears to rely mostly on affective sharing processes that are effective early in life, while older children's higher ability to perceive pain in facial expressions suggests that this ability is associated with the gradual development of cognitive processes. PMID:27493478

  12. The Perception and Estimation of Others’ Pain according to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Grégoire


    Full Text Available Accurate interpretation of pain expressed by others is important for socialization; however, the development of this skill in children is still poorly understood. Empathy for pain models propose two main components (affective and cognitive, which develop at different stages of life. The study’s objective was to investigate the children’s ability between 3 and 12 years of age to detect and assess the pain intensity in others using visual stimuli depicting either facial expressions of pain or hands in painful contexts. 40 preschool children and 62 school-aged children were recruited. Children observed series of stimuli and evaluated the pain intensity depicted. Results demonstrated that children as young as three years old were able to detect and assess pain in both types of stimuli and this ability continued to improve until the age of 12. Participants demonstrated better detection performance with hands than with faces. Results were coherent with the idea that the two types of stimuli presented recruit different processes. Pain detection in hands appears to rely mostly on affective sharing processes that are effective early in life, while older children’s higher ability to perceive pain in facial expressions suggests that this ability is associated with the gradual development of cognitive processes.

  13. Chapter 9--face sensorimotor cortex neuroplasticity associated with intraoral alterations. (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sessle, Barry J


    Loss of teeth or dental attrition is a common clinical occurrence associated with altered somatosensation and impaired oral motor behavior (e.g., mastication, deglutition, phonation). Oral rehabilitation aims at restoring these sensorimotor functions to improve patients' quality of life. Recent studies have implicated neuroplastic changes within the primary motor cortex (M1) in the control of limb motor behaviors following manipulations of sensory inputs to or motor outputs from the central nervous system as well as in learning and adaptation processes. However, limited data are available of the neuroplastic capabilities of face-M1 in relation to orofacial motor functions. The overall objective of our series of studies was to use intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of evoked muscle electromyographic activity to test if neuroplastic changes occur in the ICMS-defined motor representations of the tongue-protrusive (genioglossus, GG) and jaw-opening (anterior digastric, AD) muscles within the rat face-M1 and adjacent face primary somatosensory cortex (face-S1) following several different types of intraoral manipulations. We found that a change in diet consistency was not associated with statistically significant changes in AD and GG motor representations. However, incisor extraction resulted, one week later, in a significantly increased AD representation within the contralateral face-M1 and face-S1, and incisor trimming produced time-dependent changes in the AD motor representation. These novel findings underscore the neuroplastic capabilities of the face sensorimotor cortex and point to its possible role in adaptation to an altered peripheral state or altered sensorimotor behavior. Further insights into the neuroplastic capabilities of the face sensorimotor cortex promise to improve therapeutic strategies aimed at the restoration of oral functions, particularly in patients suffering from orofacial sensorimotor deficits or pain.

  14. Treatment of myofascial pain. (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Bean, Matthew C; Heckman, Thomas W; Jayaseelan, Dhinu; Moats, Nick; Nava, Andrew


    SUMMARY The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome and to provide clinicians with treatment recommendations. This paper reviews the efficacy of various myofascial pain syndrome treatment modalities, including pharmacological therapy, injection-based therapies and physical therapy interventions. Outcomes evaluated included pain (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold and range of motion. The evidence found significant benefit with multiple treatments, including diclofenac patch, thiocolchicoside and lidocaine patches. Trigger point injections, ischemic compression therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spray and stretch, and myofascial release were also efficacious. The authors recommend focusing on treating underlying pathologies, including spinal conditions, postural abnormalities and underlying behavioral issues. To achieve maximum pain reduction and improve function, we recommend physicians approach myofascial pain syndrome with a multimodal plan, which includes a combination of pharmacologic therapies, various physical therapeutic modalities and injection therapies.

  15. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla


    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  16. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin


    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  17. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete


    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology......Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence...

  18. Orofacial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Forssell, Heli; Grinde, Bjørn


    and dissolves after healing. Chronic pain, on the other hand, persists months and years after apparent tissue healing, and attempts to alleviate pain are challenging. Neuropathic pain occurs due to damage neurogenic structures in the peripheral and/or the central nervous system. It may occur in the absence......Pain of the oral mucosa is a common accompanying symptom of various oral mucosal lesions caused by local and systemic diseases. Pain of the oral mucosa is usually associated with a known cause of tissue damage, e.g. mucosal ulcer or erosion, and it generally responds to adequate treatment...... of any obvious noxious stimuli, and in the oral mucosal, the pain is often described as tingling and burning. In the oral cavity, burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is presently considered to have neuropathic background. It is important for dental practitioners to have a clear understanding of the various...

  19. Spatio-Temporal Pain Recognition in CNN-based Super-Resolved Facial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantonio, Marco; Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Rodriguez, Pau


    expression provides a way of efficient pain detection. When deep machine learning methods came into the scene, automatic pain detection exhibited even better performance. In this paper, we figured out three important factors to exploit in automatic pain detection: spatial information available regarding...... available UNBC-McMaster Shoulder Pain database. As a contribution, the paper provides novel and important information regarding to the performance of a hybrid deep learning framework for pain detection in facial images of different resolution....... to pain in each of the facial video frames, temporal axis information regarding to pain expression pattern in a subject video sequence, and variation of face resolution. We employed a combination of convolutional neural network and recurrent neural network to setup a deep hybrid pain detection framework...

  20. Pain research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In addition to investigating the anatomy,neurochemistry and neurophysiology of pain pathways,Chinese researchers have extended their work into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of sensory afferent transmission at the spinal cord level as well as cognitive processing in the brain.The mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia remains a subject of special interest for Chinese pain researchers,with the aim of combining clinical practice with the understanding of pain transmission and analgesic mechanism.

  1. Do doctors undertreat pain? (United States)

    Ruddick, William


    Routinely, physicians discount patients' pain reports and provide too little analgesia too late. Critics call them callous, sadistic, and Puritanical, but the causes of these clinical pratices are different -- namely, a psychological need to distance themselves from the pain they encounter and inflict, and more subtly, a peculiar concept of pain acquired in medical training. Physicians learn to think of pain as a symptom to observe and explore in diagnosing and monitoring disease -- not as a complaint to relieve quickly or fully. Moreover, pain-relief is regarded as subordinate to, and competing with, efforts to cure or maintain the life of a patient. This training, I suggest, gives physicians a new, clinical concept of pain at odds with their prior, lay concept of pain whose manifestations standardly call for sympathetic efforts at relief. The conceptual nature of this difference is obscured by thinking of pain as a solely private sensation, rather than as a sensation with public and social aspects (à la Wittgenstein). Although suppressed in certain clinical circumstances, these standard public and social aspects are shown in the very tests used in clinical pain research. This clinical pain concept is rooted in Medicine conceived as preeminently curative and life-prolonging. Physicians are, however, themselves undermining this professional self-definition (by treating AIDS and Alzheimer's patients; by no longer pressing their patients to 'fight to the end'; by collaborating with non-medical healers). Accordingly, pain-relief may gain greater therapeutic status, and, so too, the ordinary concept of pain that medical training has suppressed.

  2. Cancer and orofacial pain (United States)

    Salvemini, Daniela


    Background Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled “Orofacial Pain and Cancer” (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International “Advances in Oral Cancer” on the 22 July, 2016 in Donostia. Material and Methods We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant literature including reviews, systematic reviews and clinical cases, the significant and evidence-based mechanisms and mediators of cancer-associated facial pain, the diverse types of cancers that can be present in the craniofacial region locally or from distant sites that can refer to the orofacial region, cancer therapy that may induce pain in the orofacial region as well as discussed some of the new advancements in cancer pain therapy. Results There is still a lack of understanding of cancer pain pathophysiology since depends of the intrinsic heterogeneity, type and anatomic location that the cancer may present, making more challenging the creation of better therapeutic options. Orofacial pain can arise from regional or distant tumor effects or as a consequence of cancer therapy. Conclusions The clinician needs to be aware that the pain may present the characteristics of any other orofacial pain disorder so a careful differential diagnosis needs to be given. Cancer pain diagnosis is made by exclusion and only can be reached after a thorough medical history, and all the common etiologies have been carefully investigated and ruled out. The current management tools are not optimal but there is hope for new, safer and effective therapies coming in the next years. Key words:Pain, orofacial, facial, cancer. PMID:27694791

  3. Face Processing: Models For Recognition (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.


    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  4. Imaging of painful scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Alun; Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)


    Scoliosis is defined as a lateral deviation of the spine from the normal plumb line. Commonly, there is a rotational component and deviation also in the sagittal plane (kyphosis or hyperlordosis). When scoliosis presents in adults, it is often painful. In contrast, back pain in a child is considered rare, and serious underlying pathology should be excluded, particularly since idiopathic scoliosis is typically painless. A painful scoliosis in a child or adolescent, especially if the patient has a left-sided curve, should be examined thoroughly. The aim of this review is to illustrate the causes of a painful scoliosis in children, adolescents and adults. (orig.)

  5. Low back pain. (United States)

    Delitto, Anthony; George, Steven Z; Van Dillen, Linda R; Whitman, Julie M; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Shekelle, Paul; Denninger, Thomas R; Godges, Joseph J


    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these low back pain clinical practice guidelines, in particular, is to describe the peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to (1) treatment matched to low back pain subgroup responder categories, (2) treatments that have evidence to prevent recurrence of low back pain, and (3) treatments that have evidence to influence the progression from acute to chronic low back pain and disability.

  6. Patellofemoral pain syndrome. (United States)

    Collado, Hervé; Fredericson, Michael


    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) syndrome is a frequently encountered overuse disorder that involves the patellofemoral region and often presents as anterior knee pain. PFP can be difficult to diagnose. Not only do the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment remain challenging, but the terminology used to describe PFP is used inconsistently and can be confusing. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) seems to be multifactorial, resulting from a complex interaction among intrinsic anatomic and external training factors. Although clinicians frequently make the diagnosis of PFPS, no consensus exists about its etiology or the factors most responsible for causing pain. This article discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of PFP.

  7. Acute pain assessment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clear, Elaine


    The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage” (IASP, 1997). This definition of pain emphasises that it is neither a sensory nor an emotional experience, but a combination of both. It is a subjective experience influenced by physical, psychological and environmental factors that is assessed from a biopsychosocial perspective. The gold standard in assessing pain however is always what the patient says it is.

  8. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell


    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  9. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai


    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  10. Improvement of chronic facial pain and facial dyskinesia with the help of botulinum toxin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellies Maik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial pain syndromes can be very heterogeneous and need individual diagnosis and treatment. This report describes an interesting case of facial pain associated with eczema and an isolated dyskinesia of the lower facial muscles following dental surgery. Different aspects of the pain, spasms and the eczema will be discussed. Case presentation In this patient, persistent intense pain arose in the lower part of her face following a dental operation. The patient also exhibited dyskinesia of her caudal mimic musculature that was triggered by specific movements. Several attempts at therapy had been unsuccessful. We performed local injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A into the affected region of the patient's face. Pain relief was immediate following each set of botulinum toxin injections. The follow up time amounts 62 weeks. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A can be a safe and effective therapy for certain forms of facial pain syndromes.

  11. [Comparative studies of face recognition]. (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki


    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  12. Neurophysiological characterization of postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, B.; Christensen, B.


    pain on the painful side than on the unaffected side in pain patients, and was not observed in controls. Our findings showed large and small fiber dysfunction in both pain and pain-free patients but more profound in pain patients and with signs of central sensitization (abnormal temporal summation......). The specific finding of reduced pain detection threshold over the external inguinal annulus is consistent with damage to the cutaneous innervation territory of nervous structures in the inguinal region. The correspondence between pain location and sensory disturbance suggests that the pain is neuropathic...

  13. Pain coping strategies predict perceived control over pain. (United States)

    Haythornthwaite, J A; Menefee, L A; Heinberg, L J; Clark, M R


    Perceptions of control over pain and specific pain coping strategies are associated with a number of positive outcomes in patients with chronic pain conditions. Transactional models of stress have emphasized coping as a process that is both determined by, and influences appraisals of control. While perceptions of control and coping efforts are associated with better adjustment, little is known about the specific coping strategies that contribute to perceptions that pain is controllable. One hundred and ninety-five (65% female) individuals with chronic pain conditions admitted to an inpatient unit completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to predict perceived pain control from measures of pain severity and coping. After controlling for pain severity and education, coping self-statements and reinterpreting pain sensations predicted greater perceptions of control over pain, whereas ignoring pain sensations predicted lower perceptions of control over pain. The coping strategies did not interact with pain severity in predicting perceptions of control. Coping flexibility, or the number of pain coping strategies reported at a high frequency, also predicted perceptions of control over pain and did not interact with pain severity. The present findings suggest that, regardless of pain severity, the use of specific cognitive pain coping strategies may increase perceptions of control over pain. Since the existing coping literature largely identifies maladaptive pain coping strategies, it is especially critical to establish which pain coping strategies are adaptive. Specific cognitive strategies, particularly coping self statements, are important components for cognitive-behavioral interventions for chronic pain management. Future research will need to determine whether other adaptive cognitive strategies such as reinterpreting pain sensations can be

  14. Attention effects on vicarious modulation of nociception and pain. (United States)

    Khatibi, Ali; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Schrooten, Martien; Vlaeyen, Johan; Rainville, Pierre


    The observation of others' facial expressions of pain has been shown to facilitate the observer's nociceptive responses and to increase pain perception. We investigated how this vicarious facilitation effect is modulated by directing the observer's attention toward the meaning of pain expression or the facial movements. In separate trials, participants were instructed to assess the "intensity of the pain expression"(meaning) or to "discriminate the facial movements" in the upper vs lower part of the face shown in 1-second dynamic clips displaying mild, moderate, or strong pain expressions or a neutral control. In 50% of the trials, participants received a painful electrical stimulation to the sural nerve immediately after the presentation of the expression. Low-level nociceptive reactivity was measured with the RIII-response, and pain perception was assessed using pain ratings. Pain induced by the electrical stimulation increased after viewing stronger pain expressions in both tasks, but the RIII-response showed this vicarious facilitation effect only in the movement discrimination task at the strongest expression intensity. These findings are consistent with the notion that vicarious processes facilitate self-pain and may prime automatic nociceptive responses. However, this priming effect is influenced by top-down attentional processes. These results provide another case of dissociation between reflexive and perceptual processes, consistent with the involvement of partly separate brain networks in the regulation of cortical and lower-level nociceptive responses. Combined with previous results, these findings suggest that vicarious pain facilitation is an automatic process that may be diminished by top-down attentional processes directed at the meaning of the expression.

  15. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene


    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... of pain in dairy cattle under productionconditions....

  16. [Facial pain of cardiac origin]. (United States)

    Peñarrocha Diago, M; Silvestre Donat, F J; Rodriguez Gil, R


    Two cases of anginal pain limited to the mandible with secondary radiation of the pain to the neck and clavicular region are presented. Although the pain was initially diagnosed as odontogenic in origin, further historial workup suggest the suspicion of referred pain from coronary insufficiency. Appropriate medical referral confirmed diagnostic suspicions. Important aspects involved with differential diagnosis of referred anginal pain are also discussed.

  17. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo


    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM.

  18. Perception of pain and its control: all that we don’t know yet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tiengo


    Full Text Available Neurophysiology of pain is comprehensible (at least within certain levels until events related to classic physics are concerned. In order to face the topic of the perception of the pain we have to analyze the mental factors like the suggestion (placebo, the emotional events and the tone of humor. The perception of the pain can be explored in the world of quanti.

  19. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques


    Korra, Jyothi


    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  20. Body Pain Reporting in Tricare Eligible Beneficiaries with Orofacial Pain (United States)


    trigeminal nociceptive neurons and maintain orofacial pain conditions. Therefore, uncontrolled pain sources at any location can significantly impact... nociceptive 6 thresholds so that non- painful stimuli are interpreted as painful . If the pathophysiology of CS persists, peripheral noxious input may no...up-regulated central nociceptive processing in patients with masticatory myofascial pain . Journal of Orofacial Pain , 18(1), 41-45. 60. Sarlani E

  1. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation


    Laurence, Sarah


    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  2. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces. (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David


    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  3. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.


    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  4. Pain without nociceptors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minett, Michael S; Falk, Sarah; Santana-Varela, Sonia


    Nav1.7, a peripheral neuron voltage-gated sodium channel, is essential for pain and olfaction in mice and humans. We examined the role of Nav1.7 as well as Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in different mouse models of chronic pain. Constriction-injury-dependent neuropathic pain is abolished when Nav1.......7 is deleted in sensory neurons, unlike nerve-transection-related pain, which requires the deletion of Nav1.7 in sensory and sympathetic neurons for pain relief. Sympathetic sprouting that develops in parallel with nerve-transection pain depends on the presence of Nav1.7 in sympathetic neurons. Mechanical...... and cold allodynia required distinct sets of neurons and different repertoires of sodium channels depending on the nerve injury model. Surprisingly, pain induced by the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin and cancer-induced bone pain do not require the presence of Nav1.7 sodium channels or Nav1.8-positive...

  5. Assessment of pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forrest, M; Hermann, G; Andersen, B


    In a trial based on 52 patients admitted because of acute abdominal pain, we compared the assessment of pain intensity by doctors and patients according to a visual analogue scale. We found significant differences with regard to the median score of the doctors (3.4 cm) compared to the patients (6...

  6. Pain medications - narcotics (United States)

    ... it can make the pain difficult to control. Taking narcotics to control the pain of cancer or other medical problems does not itself lead to dependence. Store narcotics safely and securely ... When taking a narcotic, do not drink alcohol, drive, or ...

  7. Language and pain expression. (United States)

    Waddie, N A


    This paper arose during work for a BSc(Hons) dissertation, and considers the theoretical approach of Wittgenstein to pain analysis. This paper seeks to discuss one aspect of the research undertaken representing some of the findings which illustrate the association between pain and language.

  8. Breakthrough cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista;


    Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....

  9. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus


    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  10. Recurrent Abdominal Pain (United States)

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.


    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  11. Managing your chronic pain (United States)

    ... hanging from above or are stored at waist height. If your back pain is worse at work, talk to your boss. It may be that ... strong. If walking is too hard for you, work with a physical therapist to develop ... decrease your risk of being overweight, which can cause back pain. ...

  12. Recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children (United States)

    Recurrent abdominal pain continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team, and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions, and consider...

  13. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;


    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  14. Persistent postsurgical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Bischoff, Joakim Mutahi


    The prevalences of severe persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) following breast cancer surgery (BCS), groin hernia repair (GHR), and lung cancer surgery (LCS) are 13, 2, and 4-12 %, respectively. Estimates indicate that 80,000 patients each year in the U.S.A. are affected by severe pain...... and debilitating impairment in the aftermath of BCS, GHR, and LCS. Data across the three surgical procedures indicate a 35-65 % decrease in prevalence of PPP at 4-6 years follow-up. However, this is outweighed by late-onset PPP, which appears following a pain-free interval. The consequences of PPP include severe...... impairments of physical, psychological, and socioeconomic aspects of life. The pathophysiology underlying PPP consists of a continuing inflammatory response, a neuropathic component, and/or a late reinstatement of postsurgical inflammatory pain. While the sensory profiles of PPP-patients and pain...

  15. Victimization and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla


    Full Text Available Pain has several causes. It can be caused not only by operative trauma or cancer. Some patients suffer from pain as a result of being victims of violence. The aim of the study was to introduce diagnosis and treatment of pain problems in patients who are victims of violence, from a physician’s and a psychologist’s common perspective. Physical pain-related primary effects experienced by the victims of domestic violence go far beyond the results which are noticeable directly and confirmed visually in a forensic examination. In the present paper we introduce an ‘invisible’ group of secondary effects of violence. They appear in time, often after several years, in the form of a variety of psychosomatic disorders. The body is devastated insidiously and the secondary effects are visible as vegetative symptoms, a variety of psychosomatic disorders and pain, difficult to diagnose and treat.

  16. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Chung Ho


    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  17. How Is Pelvic Pain Treated? (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is pelvic pain treated? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... Page Content Treatment depends on the cause of pelvic pain, how intense the pain is, and how often ...

  18. Safer, More Effective Pain Management (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Safer, More Effective Pain Management Living with chronic pain can be challenging. It ... providers’ ability to offer safer, more effective pain management and supports clinical decision making about prescribing opioids. ...

  19. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children (United States)

    ... functional abdominal pain. Functional abdominal pain can be intermittent (recurrent abdominal pain or RAP) or continuous. Although ... tests are needed or whether a trial of diet changes, stress management or medication may be started. ...

  20. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang


    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  1. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber


    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  2. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker


    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  3. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie


    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  4. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination. (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang


    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  5. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia. (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken


    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  6. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang


    for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  7. Holistic processing predicts face recognition. (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel


    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  8. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik


    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  9. MRI and low back pain (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  10. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face. (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke


    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  11. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.


    The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the g

  12. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing. (United States)

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B


    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  13. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over? (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza


    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  14. Frequency of craniofacial pain in patients with ischemic heart disease (United States)

    Bakhshi, Mahin; Rezaei, Rezvan; Baharvand, Maryam


    Background Referred craniofacial pain of cardiac origin might be the only symptom of ischemic heart accidents. This study aimed to determine the frequency of craniofacial pain in patients with ischemic heart disease. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was accomplished on 296 patients who met the criteria of having ischemic heart disease. Data regarding demographics, medical history and referred craniofacial pain were recorded in data forms. In addition, patients underwent oral examination to preclude any source of dental origin. Chi-square test, Student’s t-test and backward regression model were used to analyze the data by means of SPSS software version 21. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 296 patients were studied comprising of 211 men (71%) and 85 women (29%) with the mean age of 55.8. Craniofacial pain was experienced by 53 patients out of 296, 35 (66%) of whom were male and 18 (34%) were female. None of the patients experienced craniofacial pain solely. The most common sites of craniofacial pain were occipital and posterior neck (52.8%), head (43.3%), throat and anterior neck (41.5%) respectively. We found no relationship between craniofacial pain of cardiac origin with age, diabetes, hypertension, and family history. On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between hyperlipidemia and smoking with craniofacial pain of cardiac origin. Conclusions Radiating pain to face and head can be expected quite commonly during a cardiac ischemic event. Dental practitioners should be thoroughly aware of this symptomatology to prevent misdirected dental treatment and delay of medical care. Key words:Craniofacial pain, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, referred pain. PMID:28149470

  15. Painful peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Bo


    Full Text Available Painful peripheral neuropathy (PPN is characterized by neuropathic pain (NP, which is accompanied by dysfunction of motor, sensory and autonomic nervous system. It always involves small nerve fibers, including A δ and C fibers. PPN can be classified into two types according to etiology: hereditary and acquired. Pain of PPN can manifest as spontaneous pain and stimulus-evoked pain (allodynia, hyperalgesia and hyperpathia. The manifestation of typical cases is length-dependent, which firstly involves the feet, and then progresses proximally and to the hands, presenting a glove-stock pattern. PPN can be either an isolated disease entity or part of other diseases. The former indicates idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (SFN, while the latter contains various diseases involving peripheral nerve fibers, including systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy with other causes. The accessory examinations of PPN include quantitative sensory testing (QST, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD, sympathetic skin response (SSR, etc. Among them, IENFD is the "golden standard" for SFN. The major therapeutic methods are to control primary diseases and relieve pain. Medications alleviating neuropathic pain consist of carbamazepine, pregabalin, gabapentin and amitriptyline, etc.

  16. Neuropathic pain in leprosy. (United States)

    Raicher, Irina; Stump, Patrick Raymond Nicolas Andre Ghislain; Baccarelli, Rosemari; Marciano, Lucia H S C; Ura, Somei; Virmond, Marcos C L; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel


    Nerve impairment is a key clinical aspect of leprosy and may present the distribution of mononeuropathy or multiple nerve trunks, small cutaneous nerve fibers, and free nerve endings. The clinical range of leprosy is determined by individual cell-mediated immune response to infection that also may play a role in different types of pain syndromes in leprosy. Previous studies reported a high prevalence of neuropathic pain in leprosy. In an Ethiopian study with 48 patients, pure nociceptive pain was experienced by 43% of patients and pure neuropathic pain (NeP) by 11% of patients. In an Indian study, 21.8% of leprosy patients had pain with neuropathic characteristics. These rates underlie the need to develop tools for the early diagnosis and detection of infection and its complications, such as nerve damage and pain. In a larger sample with leprosy-associated NeP (n = 90), we have applied the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 questions (DN4) and found sensitivity = 97.1% and specificity = 57.9%. The high sensitivity of this tool in leprosy patients suggests that it could be a valuable tool to screen for neuropathic pain in this population and could be used as part of health care programs aimed at detecting, treating, and rehabilitating leprosy in endemic areas.

  17. Painful neuropathy: Mechanisms. (United States)

    Lee-Kubli, Corinne A; Calcutt, Nigel A


    Painful neuropathy, like the other complications of diabetes, is a growing healthcare concern. Unfortunately, current treatments are of variable efficacy and do not target underlying pathogenic mechanisms, in part because these mechanisms are not well defined. Rat and mouse models of type 1 diabetes are frequently used to study diabetic neuropathy, with rats in particular being consistently reported to show allodynia and hyperalgesia. Models of type 2 diabetes are being used with increasing frequency, but the current literature on the progression of indices of neuropathic pain is variable and relatively few therapeutics have yet been developed in these models. While evidence for spontaneous pain in rodent models is sparse, measures of evoked mechanical, thermal and chemical pain can provide insight into the pathogenesis of the condition. The stocking and glove distribution of pain tantalizingly suggests that the generator site of neuropathic pain is found within the peripheral nervous system. However, emerging evidence demonstrates that amplification in the spinal cord, via spinal disinhibition and neuroinflammation, and also in the brain, via enhanced thalamic activity or decreased cortical inhibition, likely contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. Several potential therapeutic strategies have emerged from preclinical studies, including prophylactic treatments that intervene against underlying mechanisms of disease, treatments that prevent gains of nociceptive function, treatments that suppress enhancements of nociceptive function, and treatments that impede normal nociceptive mechanisms. Ongoing challenges include unraveling the complexity of underlying pathogenic mechanisms, addressing the potential disconnect between the perceived location of pain and the actual pain generator and amplifier sites, and finding ways to identify which mechanisms operate in specific patients to allow rational and individualized choice of targeted therapies.

  18. Neuromodulation of cancer pain. (United States)

    Prinsloo, Sarah; Gabel, Stephanie; Lyle, Randall; Cohen, Lorenzo


    Managing cancer-related chronic pain is challenging to health care professionals as well as cancer patients and survivors. The management of cancer-related pain has largely consisted of pharmacological treatments, which has caused researchers to focus on neurotransmitter activity as a mediator of patients' perception of pain rather than the electrical activity during neurobiological processes of cancer-related pain. Consequently, brain-based pain treatment has focused mainly on neurotransmitters and not electrical neuromodulation. Neuroimaging research has revealed that brain activity is associated with patients' perceptions of symptoms across various diagnoses. The brain modulates internally generated neural activity and adjusts perceptions according to sensory input from the peripheral nervous system. Cancer-related pain may result not only from changes in the peripheral nervous system but also from changes in cortical activity over time. Thus, cortical reorganization by way of the brain's natural, plastic ability (neuroplasticity) may be used to manage pain symptoms. Physical and psychological distress could be modulated by giving patients tools to regulate neural activity in symptom-specific regions of interest. Initial research in nononcology populations suggests that encouraging neuroplasticity through a learning paradigm can be a useful technique to help treat chronic pain. Here we review evidence that indicates a measurable link between brain activity and patient-reported psychological and physical distress. We also summarize findings regarding both the neuroelectrical and neuroanatomical experience of symptoms, review research examining the mechanisms of the brain's ability to modify its own activity, and propose a brain-computer interface as a learning paradigm to augment neuroplasticity for pain management.

  19. Characterizing individual painDETECT symptoms by average pain severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky A


    Full Text Available Alesia Sadosky,1 Vijaya Koduru,2 E Jay Bienen,3 Joseph C Cappelleri4 1Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 2Eliassen Group, New London, CT, 3Outcomes Research Consultant, New York, NY, 4Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA Background: painDETECT is a screening measure for neuropathic pain. The nine-item version consists of seven sensory items (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure, a pain course pattern item, and a pain radiation item. The seven-item version consists only of the sensory items. Total scores of both versions discriminate average pain-severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe, but their ability to discriminate individual item severity has not been evaluated.Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional, observational study of six neuropathic pain conditions (N=624. Average pain severity was evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, with severity levels defined using established cut points for distinguishing mild, moderate, and severe pain. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was followed by ridit analysis to represent the probability that a randomly selected subject from one average pain-severity level had a more favorable outcome on the specific painDETECT item relative to a randomly selected subject from a comparator severity level.Results: A probability >50% for a better outcome (less severe pain was significantly observed for each pain symptom item. The lowest probability was 56.3% (on numbness for mild vs moderate pain and highest probability was 76.4% (on cold/heat for mild vs severe pain. The pain radiation item was significant (P<0.05 and consistent with pain symptoms, as well as with total scores for both painDETECT versions; only the pain course item did not differ.Conclusion: painDETECT differentiates severity such that the ability to discriminate average pain also distinguishes individual pain item severity in an interpretable manner. Pain

  20. Children’s Self-Reports of Pain Intensity: Scale Selection, Limitations and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L von Baeyer


    Full Text Available Most children aged five years and older can provide meaningful self-reports of pain intensity if they are provided with age-appropriate tools and training. Self-reports of pain intensity are an oversimplification of the complexity of the experience of pain, but one that is necessary to evaluate and titrate pain-relieving treatments. There are many sources of bias and error in self-reports of pain, so ratings need to be interpreted in light of information from other sources such as direct observation of behaviour, knowledge of the circumstances of the pain and parents’ reports. The pain intensity scales most commonly used with children – faces scales, numerical rating scales, visual analogue scales and others – are briefly introduced. The selection, limitations and interpretation of self-report scales are discussed.

  1. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi


    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  2. Back pain in adults. (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R


    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed.

  3. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi


    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  4. Rheumatologists and neck pain. (United States)

    Smythe, H A


    Many authors have suggested that chronic pain syndromes are psychosocial in origin; maladaptive behaviours favoured by psychosocial and political factors. Sometimes this may be true, but neither the individual patients nor the accumulated scientific evidence deserve such a routine dismissal. In this editorial I will review issues of responsibility, the nature of referred pain and referred tenderness, evidence for the value of tender point examination as an objective measure, techniques of assessment of the cervical spine, techniques of assessment of pain behaviour, and the determinants of the specific symptom patterns associated with cervical injury.

  5. Cancer and orofacial pain



    Background Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled “Orofacial Pain and Cancer” (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International “Advances in Oral Cancer” on the 22 July, 2016 in Donostia. Material and Methods We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant l...

  6. Myofascial pelvic pain. (United States)

    Kotarinos, Rhonda


    Myofascial pelvic pain is fraught with many unknowns. Is it the organs of the pelvis, is it the muscles of the pelvis, or is the origin of the pelvic pain from an extrapelvic muscle? Is there a single source or multiple? In this state of confusion what is the best way to manage the many symptoms that can be associated with myofascial pelvic pain. This article reviews current studies that attempt to answer some of these questions. More questions seem to develop as each study presents its findings.

  7. Pain and nociception: mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain. (United States)

    Falk, Sarah; Dickenson, Anthony H


    Cancer pain, especially pain caused by metastasis to bone, is a severe type of pain, and unless the cause and consequences can be resolved, the pain will become chronic. As detection and survival among patients with cancer have improved, pain has become an increasing challenge, because traditional therapies are often only partially effective. Until recently, knowledge of cancer pain mechanisms was poor compared with understanding of neuropathic and inflammatory pain states. We now view cancer-induced bone pain as a complex pain state involving components of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain but also exhibiting elements that seem unique to cancer pain. In addition, the pain state is often unpredictable, and the intensity of the pain is highly variable, making it difficult to manage. The establishment of translational animal models has started to reveal some of the molecular components involved in cancer pain. We present the essential pharmacologic and neurobiologic mechanisms involved in the generation and continuance of cancer-induced bone pain and discuss these in the context of understanding and treating patients. We discuss changes in peripheral signaling in the area of tumor growth, examine spinal cord mechanisms of sensitization, and finally address central processing. Our aim is to provide a mechanistic background for the sensory characteristics of cancer-induced bone pain as a basis for better understanding and treating this condition.

  8. Maintenance of pain in children with functional abdominal pain (United States)

    A significant proportion of children with functional abdominal pain develop chronic pain. Identifying clinical characteristics predicting pain persistence is important in targeting interventions. We examined whether child anxiety and/or pain-stooling relations were related to maintenance of abdomina...

  9. No gain without pain: using pain tracking mobile Apps (United States)


    Chronic pain often remains untreated because tracking its causes and symptoms is difficult. By recording details of pain episodes, retrospectively analyzing data around pain and sharing it with experts, pain management can be demystified and better treatment options can be suggested. PMID:28293601

  10. Medicines for Pain: From Osteoarthritis to Muscle Pain (United States)

    Medicines for Pain: From Osteoarthritis to Muscle Pain Do you take pain medicines to treat headaches, migraines, back aches, and even joint pain? Then this ... use these types of medicine are:  People with osteoarthritis . Osteoarthritis happens when the cartilage of the joint ...

  11. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk


    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  12. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Biggelaar , van den Olivier


    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss th

  13. Modeling Social Perception of Faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, A.T.; Oosterhof, N.N.


    The face is our primary source of visual information for identifying people and reading their emotional and mental states. With the exception of prosopagnosics (who are unable to recognize faces) and those suffering from such disorders of social cognition as autism, people are extremely adept at the

  14. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad


    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  15. Age-invariant face recognition. (United States)

    Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K


    One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.

  16. Aging changes in the face (United States)

    ... gray or light blue eyes. Images Changes in face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, Rockword K, Young J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook ... management of the aging face. In: Robinson JK, Hanke CW, Siegel DM, Fratila ...

  17. Parallel Processing in Face Perception (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.


    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  18. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca


    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  19. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing. (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun


    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  20. Effective indexing for face recognition (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.


    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  1. Emotion-independent face recognition (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.


    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  2. Genetic specificity of face recognition. (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert


    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  3. Effect Supermint oil (Peppermint oil on children's pain during Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain during colonoscopy, especially in children, including the challenges faced by the medical team. The aim of study was investigation the analgesic effect Supermint oil (peppermint oil on pain in children during colonoscopy. Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial study, 101 children (7-14 years old candidate colonoscopy were randomly divided into two groups, respectively. About half an hour before the colonoscopy case group (n=51 was administrated oral drops Supermint oil (peppermint oil. Patients were filled a pediatric pain questionnaire. In control group (n=50 filled a questionnaire without any administration. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 and (T-test and Paired sample t-test, Corraletion,Man withney. Results: Mean value of pain, duration of colonoscopy in control group was 5/60+1/85 and in case group was 4/20+1/70 and this diference was significant (P

  4. Learning faces: similar comparator faces do not improve performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Jones

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that comparison of two similar faces can aid subsequent discrimination between them. However, the fact that discrimination between two faces is facilitated by comparing them directly does not demonstrate that comparison produces a general improvement in the processing of faces. It remains an open question whether the opportunity to compare a "target" face to similar faces can facilitate the discrimination of the exposed target face from other nonexposed faces. In Experiment 1, selection of a target face from an array of novel foils was not facilitated by intermixed exposure to the target and comparators of the same sex. Experiment 2 also found no advantage for similar comparators (morphed towards the target over unmorphed same sex comparators, or over repeated target exposure alone. But all repeated exposure conditions produced better performance than a single brief presentation of the target. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that repeated exposure produced equivalent learning in same sex and different sex comparator conditions, and also showed that increasing the number of same sex or different sex comparators failed to improve identification. In all three experiments, exposure to a target alongside similar comparators failed to support selection of the target from novel test stimuli to a greater degree than exposure alongside dissimilar comparators or repeated target exposure alone. The current results suggest that the facilitatory effects of comparison during exposure may be limited to improving discrimination between exposed stimuli, and thus our results do not support the idea that providing the opportunity for comparison is a practical means for improving face identification.

  5. Effects of context and individual predispositions on hypervigilance to pain-cues: an ERP study (United States)

    Dittmar, Oliver; Baum, Corinna; Schneider, Raphaela; Lautenbacher, Stefan


    Background Hypervigilance to pain is the automatic prioritization of pain-related compared with other stimuli. The processing of threat information is influenced by negative contexts. Therefore, we intended to explore such context effects on hypervigilance to pain-cues, taking individual differences in self-reported vigilance to pain into consideration. Methods In all, 110 healthy subjects viewed task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions (anger, happy, neutral, and pain) overlaid in half of the trials with a fine grid. The instructed task was to indicate the presence/absence of this grid. A threatening context was established by applying electrical stimuli slightly below pain-threshold. Using scores of Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, the sample was divided into high vs low pain vigilant subjects. Reaction times and event-related brain potentials were recorded. Results No distinct attentional processing of pain faces (based on the event-related brain potentials) was observed as a function of high levels of self-reported vigilance to pain and contextual threat induction. High pain vigilant subjects showed generally enhanced processing of emotional and neutral faces as indicated by parameters of early (early posterior negativity) and late (late positive complex) processing stages. This enhancement was abolished when electro-stimuli were presented. Conclusion Contextual threat does not enhance the attentional capture of pain-cues when they are presented concurrently with competing task demands. The study could, however, replicate a generally enhanced attentional processing of emotional cues in high pain vigilant subjects. This underpins that hypervigilance to pain is related to changes in emotional processing. PMID:26316802

  6. Pain and your emotions (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000417.htm Pain and your emotions To use the sharing features on this page, ... or hurting yourself What to do About Your Emotions A common type of therapy for people with ...

  7. Nonulcer Stomach Pain (United States)

    ... pumps. Over-the-counter proton pump inhibitors include lansoprazole (Prevacid 24HR) and omeprazole (Prilosec OTC). Stronger proton ... pain. Antibiotics. If tests indicate that a common ulcer-causing bacterium called H. pylori is present in ...

  8. Abdominal Pain Syndrome (United States)

    ... of the stomach) Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) Cholecystitis (inflammation of the gall bladder) Choledocholithiasis (passage of ... correct a problem. For example, pain due to cholecystitis (inflammation of the gall bladder) is usually treated ...

  9. Low back pain - chronic (United States)

    ... as scoliosis or kyphosis Medical problems, such as fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis Piriformis syndrome, a pain disorder ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  10. Physiotherapy for pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginnerup-Nielsen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Robin; Thorborg, Kristian


    OBJECTIVES: To empirically assess the clinical effects of physiotherapy on pain in adults. DESIGN: Using meta-epidemiology, we report on the effects of a 'physiotherapy' intervention on self-reported pain in adults. For each trial, the group difference in the outcome 'pain intensity' was assessed...... as standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% CIs. Stratified analyses were conducted according to patient population (International Classification of Diseases-10 classes), type of physiotherapy intervention, their interaction, as well as type of comparator group and risks of bias. The quality of the body...... 'no intervention' or of a sham-controlled design were selected. Only articles written in English were eligible. RESULTS: An overall moderate effect of physiotherapy on pain corresponding to 0.65 SD-units (95% CI 0.57 to 0.73) was found based on a moderate inconsistency (I(2)=51%). Stratified...

  11. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome]. (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M


    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  12. Pain: A Statistical Account (United States)

    Thacker, Michael A.; Moseley, G. Lorimer


    Perception is seen as a process that utilises partial and noisy information to construct a coherent understanding of the world. Here we argue that the experience of pain is no different; it is based on incomplete, multimodal information, which is used to estimate potential bodily threat. We outline a Bayesian inference model, incorporating the key components of cue combination, causal inference, and temporal integration, which highlights the statistical problems in everyday perception. It is from this platform that we are able to review the pain literature, providing evidence from experimental, acute, and persistent phenomena to demonstrate the advantages of adopting a statistical account in pain. Our probabilistic conceptualisation suggests a principles-based view of pain, explaining a broad range of experimental and clinical findings and making testable predictions. PMID:28081134

  13. Mechanisms of postoperative pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Yun


    @@ The practice of modern anaesthesiology has extended into perioperative medicine. Due to their expertise in analgesic drug pharmacology and peripheral nerve blocking, anaesthesiologists have pioneered in the management of acute postoperative pain. Effective postoperative analgesia reduces the incidence of postoperative chronic pain, improves the functioning of organs following surgery and shortens the hospital stay.1,2 Although a variety of analgesic techniques and preventative approaches are at the disposal of modem aneasthesiologists, including patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), patient controlled intravenous analgesia, multimodal analgesia and pre-empty analgesia.Despite this array of strategies, these predominantly opioid based techniques are still limited by side-effects such as vomiting, nausea, itching and urinary retention.To optimize further the management of acute postoperative pain, basic mechanisms of postoperative pain must be explored and new treatments must continue to be developed.

  14. Phantom limb pain (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 54. Nikolajsen L, Springer JS, Haroutiunian S. Phantom limb pain. In: Benzon HT, ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  15. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare (United States)

    ... this page: // Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the ...

  16. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete;


    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  17. Pain in osteochondral lesions. (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Rasch, Helmut; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Valderrabano, Victor


    Pain is the key symptom of patients suffering from osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle joint. Routine radiographic imaging methods for diagnosis and staging of OCL fail to visualize the pain-inducing focus within the joint. SPECT-CT (Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography) is a new hybrid imaging technique allowing exact digital fusion of scintigraphic and computer tomographic images. This allows precise localization and size determination of an OCL within the joint. Using this novel imaging method, we conducted a study to evaluate the correlation between pathological uptake within an OCL and pain experienced by patients suffering from this condition; 15 patients were assessed in the orthopaedic ambulatory clinic for unilateral OCL of the ankle joint. Pain status was measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A SPECT-CT was performed. All patients underwent CT-guided ankle injection with a local anesthetic and iodine contrast medium. The VAS score assessed immediately postinfiltration was compared with the preinterventional VAS score obtained in the outpatient clinic. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of the VAS score to ≤50% of the preinterventional score, if expected immediately after infiltration. Pain relief was found in all 15 patients. The results of our study show that there is a highly significant correlation between pain and pathological uptake seen on SPECT-CT, indicating that pathologically remodeled bone tissue is an important contributor to pain in OCL. Adequate addressing of involved bone tissue needs to be taken into consideration when choosing a surgical treatment method.

  18. Back pain and parenthood.


    Finkelstein, M M


    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reports of back pain in a working population are associated with parenthood. METHODS--A questionnaire survey of back pain in municipal fire fighters and police officers in a municipality in Ontario, Canada. The questionnaire was distributed to current employees of fire and police departments. The survey was completed by 129 fire fighters (68% of the active force) and 346 police officers (74% of the force). RESULTS--36% of the respondents complained of a ...

  19. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus


    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  20. Pain among professional orchestral musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Roessler, Kirsten K; Eichberg, Henning


    Professional musicians experience high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but only few studies have investigated how this pain is accepted by musicians.......Professional musicians experience high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but only few studies have investigated how this pain is accepted by musicians....

  1. Electronic diary assessment of pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in chronic low back pain patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; Peters, M.L.; Patijn, J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vlaeyen, J.W.


    The present study investigated the relationships between pain-related fear, attention to pain, and pain intensity in daily life in patients with chronic low back pain. An experience sampling methodology was used in which electronic diary data were collected by means of palmtop computers from 40 chro

  2. Prayer and physical pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Mehran


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Prayer is one of the most important religious ordinances and is one of the necessities of Islam. In spite of the progression of medicine science, it is sometimes seen that the mundane subjects become hopeless in curing physical diseases and this time, the hopeless man appeals to the Lord God. This review study was conducted to examine the positive and negative views regarding effectsof prayer on physical pains. Methods: This review article was carried on by studying about 30 related original articles and different scientific texts.  Results:In various studies, it is demonstrated that Islamic worships especially prayer are effective in treating most acute and chronic pains. But despite this, some studies indicate that there is no effectiveness or even there are negative effects of prayer on some physical pains. Conclusion: With regard to the above mentioned results,most studies support the positive effects of prayer on physical pains. So the medical staffs should alsopay attention to this besides medicinal remedies. In addition, by emphasizing on and advertising aboutthe advantages of practices likeprayer in the treatment of chronic pains, it would be possible to prevent people, especially the youth, from taking inadmissible drugs such as alcohol, narcotics or other illegal drugs. Further studies are recommended to explore the effects of prayer on different acute and chronic physical pains.

  3. [Chronic pain in geriatrics]. (United States)

    Kennes, B


    Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).

  4. Racial bias in neural empathic responses to pain. (United States)

    Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Baker, Katharine S; Reynolds, Katherine J; Batalha, Luisa; Cunnington, Ross


    Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming) and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to observed pain in

  5. Racial bias in neural empathic responses to pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sebastian Contreras-Huerta

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to

  6. A cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence of pain in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Mukai, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Shinji; Yasue, Ichiro; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Okochi, Tomo; Hirano, Shigeki; Kajio, Yusuke; Funahashi, Toshihiko; Akamatsu, Kaku; Ino, Kei; Okuda, Momoko; Tabuse, Hideaki; Iwata, Nakao


    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of physical pain in Japanese major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ) patients as well as in healthy controls (HCs). We also examined the association between their psychopathology and characteristics of pain according to a face-to-face survey by an experienced psychiatrist and psychologist. We analyzed 233 HCs, 94 MDD patients, and 75 SZ patients using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and SF-8 (all participants), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items (MDD patients), and the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (SZ patients). Although MDD patients experienced more pain than HCs, there was no difference in the prevalence of pain between SZ patients and HCs. Moreover, HCs with pain did not have higher SF-8 total scores than those without pain, whereas both MDD and SZ patients with pain had higher SF-8 total scores than those without pain. The severity of psychopathology in MDD and SZ patients was also positively associated with both the prevalence of pain and MPQ scores. MPQ scores were also associated with positive symptoms in SZ patients. Considering these results, physicians need to query MDD patients about physical pain during examination if they are to ensure a favorable and quick response to treatment. The severity of positive symptoms (i.e., clinical status) in SZ patients might also be associated with pain sensitivity, and warrants further investigation.

  7. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo


    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  8. Temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain


    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented levels of details and scale. Wearable sensors are opening up a new window on human mobility and proximity at the finest resolution of face-to-face proximity. As a consequence, empirical data describing social and behavioral networks are acquiring a longitudinal dimension that brings forth new challenges for analysis and modeling. Here we review recent work on the representation and analysis of temporal networks of face-to-face human proximity, based on large-scale datasets collected in the context of the SocioPatterns collaboration. We show that the raw behavioral data can be studied at various levels of coarse-graining, which turn out to be complementary to one another, with each level exposing different features of the underlying system. We briefly review a generative model of temporal contact networks that reproduces some statistical observables. Then, we shift our focus from surface ...

  9. Ethical considerations in face transplantation. (United States)

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H


    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  10. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku


    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  11. Cancer pain management: Basic information for the young pain physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPS Rana


    Full Text Available Cancer pain is multifactorial and complex. The impact of cancer pain is devastating, with increased morbidity and poor quality of life, if not treated adequately. Cancer pain management is a challenging task both due to disease process as well as a consequence of treatment-related side-effects. Optimization of analgesia with oral opioids, adjuvant analgesics, and advanced pain management techniques is the key to success for cancer pain. Early access of oral opioid and interventional pain management techniques can overcome the barriers of cancer pain, with improved quality of life. With timely and proper anticancer therapy, opioids, nerve blocks, and other non-invasive techniques like psychosocial care, satisfactory pain relief can be achieved in most of the patients. Although the WHO Analgesic Ladder is effective for more than 80% cancer pain, addition of appropriate adjuvant drugs along with early intervention is needed for improved Quality of Life. Effective cancer pain treatment requires a holistic approach with timely assessment, measurement of pain, pathophysiology involved in causing particular type of pain, and understanding of drugs to relieve pain with timely inclusion of intervention. Careful evaluation of psychosocial and mental components with good communication is necessary. Barriers to cancer pain management should be overcome with an interdisciplinary approach aiming to provide adequate analgesia with minimal side-effects. Management of cancer pain should comprise not only a physical component but also psychosocial and mental components and social need of the patient. With risk-benefit analysis, interventional techniques should be included in an early stage of pain treatment. This article summarizes the need for early and effective pain management strategies, awareness regarding pain control, and barriers of cancer pain.

  12. [Mechanisms by which acute orofacial pain becomes chronic]. (United States)

    Cahana, A; Forster, A


    Pain is a complex, multidimensional experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, cognitive, emotional and motivational dimensions. These dimensions in the orofacial region have particular expression since the face and mouth have special biological, emotional and psychological meaning to each individual. Orofacial pain is frequent. Epidemiological studies reveal a high prevalence of severe pain in syndromes such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD), burning mouth syndrome and toothaches, as well as an important role of psychosocial influences, contributing to the persistence of these syndromes. Many of the difficulties experienced by clinicians with the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic orofacial pain stem from a lack of recognition and understanding of these complex conditions, the various intricate bio-psycho-social interactions and the neurobiology behind the chronicisation of acute pain. This text strives to review the important advances and insights into the peripheral processes by which noxious stimuli activates or modulates nociceptive afferent input into the brainstem, the neural pathways in the brainstem and higher levels of the trigeminal (V) somatosensory system and the mechanisms involved in the plasticity of nociceptive transmission. We shall link this knowledge to clinical correlates and suggest a therapeutic approach in acute orofacial pain, in the attempt to avoid the development of chronic pain.

  13. Pain following spinal cord injury



    The aims of this thesis were to assess and characterise nociceptive and neuropathic pain, the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain treatment, and the influence of pain on the quality of sleep in a population following spinal cord injury (SCI). This thesis is divided into five separate studies: I. Pain in a Swedish spinal cord injury population. II. Gender related differences in pain in spinal cord injured individuals. III. Use of analgesic drugs in indi...

  14. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome. (United States)

    Simons, Laura E


    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  15. The periodontal pain paradox: Difficulty on pain assesment in dental patients (The periodontal pain paradox hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo


    Full Text Available In daily dental practice, the majority of patients’ main complaints are related to pain. Most patients assume that all pains inside the oral cavity originated from the tooth. One particular case is thermal sensitivity; sometimes patients were being able to point the site of pain, although there is neither visible caries nor secondary caries in dental radiograph. In this case, gingival recession and dentin hypersensitivity are first to be treated to eliminate the pain. If these treatments failed, pain may misdiagnose as pulpal inflammation and lead to unnecessary root canal treatment. Study in pain during periodontal instrumentation of plaque-related periodontitis revealed that the majority of patients feel pain and discomfort during probing and scaling. It seems obvious because an inflammation, either acute or chronic is related to a lowered pain threshold. However, in contrast, in this case report, patient suffered from chronic gingivitis and thermal sensitivity experienced a relative pain-free sensation during probing and scaling. Lowered pain threshold which accompanied by a blunted pain perception upon periodontal instrumentation is proposed to be termed as the periodontal pain paradox. The objective of this study is to reveal the possibility of certain factors in periodontal inflammation which may involved in the periodontal pain paradox hypothesis. Patient with thermal hypersensitivity who was conducted probing and scaling, after the relative pain-free instrumentation, thermal hypersensitivity rapidly disappeared. Based on the successful periodontal treatment, it is concluded that chronic gingivitis may modulate periodontal pain perception which termed as periodontal pain paradox

  16. New therapy for neuropathic pain. (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Chizuko; Yonezawa, Akihiko; Sakurada, Shinobu


    Neuropathic pain is one of the worst painful symptoms in clinic. It contains nerve-injured neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, chronic inflammatory pain, cancer pain, and postherpes pain, and is characterized by a tactile allodynia and hyperalgesia. Neuropathic pain, especially the nerve-injured neuropathy, the diabetic neuropathy, and the cancer pain, is opioid resistant pain. Since the downregulation of mu-opioid receptors is observed in dorsal spinal cord, morphine and fentanyl could not provide marked antihyperalgesic/antiallodynic effects in the course neuropathic pain states. The downregulation of mu-opioid receptors is suggested to be mediated through the activation of NMDA receptors. Moreover, at the neuropathic pain states, the increased expression of voltage-dependent Na+ channels and Ca2+ channels are observed. Based on the above information concerned with the pathophysiology of neural changes in neuropathic pain states, new drug treatments for neuropathic pain, using ketamine, methadone, and gabapentin, have been developed. These drugs show remarkable effectiveness against hyperalgesia and allodynia during neuropathic pain states. Oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor agonist, which has different pharmacological profiles with morphine. The remarkable effectiveness of oxycodone for neuropathic pain provides the possibility that mu-opioid receptor agonists, which have different pharmacological profile with morphine, can be used for the management of neuropathic pain.

  17. [The groin pain syndrome]. (United States)

    Janković, S; Delimar, D; Hudetz, D


    Groin pain is defined as tendon enthesitis of adductor longus muscle and/or abdominal muscles that may lead to degenerative arthropathy of pubic symphises in an advanced stage. Pubic region is a point where kinematic forces cross. The balance between the adductor and abdominal muscles is of great importance, as well as the elasticity of pubic symphises which enables movement of up to 2 mm and rotation of up to 3 degrees. The weakness of the abdominal muscle wall, known as the sportsman's hernia, is the most common cause of painful groin. Groin pain is the most common in soccer players (6.24% in Croatia). Most authors believe that the main cause of groin pain is the adductor muscle overload. When active, sportsmen start to feel a dull pain in the groin region. The adductor test is of great importance for physical examination; the patient should be lying supine with his hips abducted and flexed at 80 degrees. The test is positive if the patient, while attempting to pull his/her legs against pressing in the opposite direction, feels a sharp pain in the groins. The treatment of groin pain is complex and individual, as its causes may vary from patient to patient. Gradual physical therapy combined with pharmacotherapy should be effective in most cases. The latter includes nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. A physical therapy programme usually involves stretching and strengthening of adductor muscles, abdominal wall muscles, iliopsoas muscle, quadriceps, and hamstrings. In case that physical therapy and pharmacotherapy fail, surgery is needed, depending on the cause.

  18. More Than a Pretty Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The various facial make up designs in the Sichuan Opera are Chinese art treasures With the flick of a wrist,the intricate patterns painted on the opera performer’s face magically shift;the audience,awed

  19. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico


    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  20. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami


    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  1. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,


    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  2. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis


    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  3. Bracing Zonohedra With Special Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Gyula


    Full Text Available The analysis of simpler preliminary design gives useful input for more complicated three-dimensional building frame structure. A zonohedron, as a preliminary structure of design, is a convex polyhedron for which each face possesses central symmetry. We considered zonohedron as a special framework with the special assumption that the polygonal faces can be deformed in such a way that faces remain planar and centrally symmetric, moreover the length of all edges remains unchanged. Introducing some diagonal braces we got a new mechanism. This paper deals with the flexibility of this kind of mechanisms, and investigates the rigidity of the braced framework. The flexibility of the framework can be characterized by some vectors, which represent equivalence classes of the edges. A necessary and sufficient condition for the rigidity of the braced rhombic face zonohedra is posed. A real mechanical construction, based on two simple elements, provides a CAD prototype of these new mechanisms.

  4. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sheeba Rani; D Devaraj


    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition system, which has the ability to extract local features from any region of interest. Krawtchouk moment is used to extract both local features and global features of the face. The extracted features are fused using summed normalized distance strategy. Nearest neighbour classifier is employed to classify the faces. The proposed method is tested using ORL and Yale databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to recognize images correctly, even if the images are corrupted with noise and possess change in facial expression and tilt.

  5. Opioids for cancer pain: the challenge of optimizing treatment. (United States)

    Plante, Gérard E; VanItallie, Theodore B


    During 2007, 11.7 million US men and women of all ages suffered from some form of invasive cancer. During their illness, at least 70% (8.2 million) will experience pain sufficiently severe to require chronic opioid treatment. Cancer-induced pain is usually described under 3 headings: acute pain, chronic pain, and breakthrough pain. Among patients with chronic, persistent cancer pain controlled by around-the-clock analgesics, there is a high prevalence of breakthrough pain-often precipitated by some form of physical activity. Breakthrough pain seems best treated by a powerful, fast-acting opioid such as intravenous morphine or transmucosal fentanyl. At present, opioids are virtually the only analgesics capable of controlling moderate and severe cancer pain. In recent years, a veritable arsenal of opioids with a wide range of pharmacologic properties has become available for use in different pain situations. The World Health Organization has developed a 3-step "analgesic ladder" to guide management of cancer pain, based on the pain's severity, estimated by means of a 1 to 10 numeric rating scale. As the severity of the pain escalates, more potent (World Health Organization Step III) opioids are used. When faced with a difficult case of cancer pain, the physician must choose-from an array of options-the safest and most effective opioid analgesic and the most appropriate delivery system. Such decisions require an adequate understanding of the available opioids and experience with their use. The pharmacodynamic response to a given opioid depends on the nature of the receptor to which the opioid binds and its affinity for the receptor. Morphine activates the μ-opioid receptors, resulting in not only analgesia and sedation, but also euphoria, respiratory depression, constipation, and pruritus. The existence of a number of opioid receptor subtypes, each with its own repertoire of responses, has given rise to the hope (as yet unrealized) that an opioid can be found (or


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. B.Arun, MPT, PhD


    Full Text Available Low back pain was experienced by 50% of older adults that has threatened to quality of life. The economic cost of low back pain is more in older adults. Various literatures found that there is strong relationships exist between the low back pain and the psychosocial factors like sleep disturbances, depression, mood sway and chronic illness. Studies has found that depression is one of the commonest psychological problem faced by older adults which relates to other factors like pain, sleep disturbances ect.. Physiotherapy has been shown very effective in the management of chronic low back pain. Various approaches in physiotherapy play a major role in rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain. This study estimates to find out the effect of myofascial release therapy on pain related disability, quality of sleep and depression in older adults with chronic low back pain. Study is a single group pre test and post test design. 37 Patients with chronic low back pain were selected from a community setup. Selected subjects were undergone 6 weeks of myofascial release therapy along with moist heat therapy. At the end the outcome measured are pain related disability using pain disability index, Quality of sleep using Insomnia severity index and depression using beck depression inventory. The paired ‘t’ test was used to find out the differences between variables. The result showed that there was a significant improvement in the pre test and post test variables. The beck depression inventory was 21.3 (p<0.05%, and the pain disability index was 24.9 (p<0.05%. The study concludes that the myofascial release therapy is very effective in reducing the pain related disability, quality of sleep and depression on older adults with chronic low back pain.

  7. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O' Hagan, Molly J.


    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  8. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K


    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  9. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle


    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  10. The First National Pain Medicine Summit--final summary report. (United States)

    Lippe, Philipp M; Brock, Charles; David, Jose; Crossno, Ronald; Gitlow, Stuart


    Pain is ubiquitous. At some point in time it affects everyone. For many millions pain becomes chronic, a scourge that impacts every facet of life-work, hobbies, family relations, social fabric, finances, happiness, mood, and even the very essence of identity. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), pain is one of our most important national public health problems, a silent epidemic. In 1998, NIH reported that the annual amount spent on health care, compensation, and litigation related to pain had reached one hundred billion dollars ($100,000,000,000). Considering that health care costs have doubled since then, it is not unreasonable to assume that the costs related to pain care have doubled as well. Millions of patients suffer needlessly with acute pain, with cancer pain, and with chronic pain. The ineffective management of pain results in an escalating cascade of health care issues. Acute pain that is not treated adequately and promptly results in persistent pain that eventually causes irreversible changes in the nervous system. This translates into progressive bio-psycho-social epiphenomena resulting in further pain and disability. It creates a vicious cycle transforming a functional human being into an invalid who becomes a burden to family, to society, and to oneself. In the face of adequate medical science, adequate technical skills, and adequate resources the reality of delayed and inadequate pain care is paradoxical. This dilemma deserves close scrutiny and effective remediation. The American Medical Association (AMA), long dedicated to the need to improve pain care in this country, has been faced with this reality. It was from this vision that the idea of holding a Pain Medicine Summit was conceived. Resolution 321 (A-08) set in motion a process that would bring together a diverse group of stakeholders for the purpose of discussing the present and future status of pain care; a process that culminated in a broad-based coalition of physicians

  11. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks. (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma


    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  12. Painful Lumbosacral Plexopathy (United States)

    Ehler, Edvard; Vyšata, Oldřich; Včelák, Radek; Pazdera, Ladislav


    Abstract Patients frequently suffer from lumbosacral plexus disorder. When conducting a neurological examination, it is essential to assess the extent of muscle paresis, sensory disorder distribution, pain occurrence, and blocked spine. An electromyography (EMG) can confirm axonal lesions and their severity and extent, root affliction (including dorsal branches), and disorders of motor and sensory fiber conduction. Imaging examination, particularly gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, ensues. Cerebrospinal fluid examination is of diagnostic importance with radiculopathy, neuroinfections, and for evidence of immunoglobulin synthesis. Differential diagnostics of lumbosacral plexopathy (LSP) include metabolic, oncological, inflammatory, ischemic, and autoimmune disorders. In the presented case study, a 64-year-old man developed an acute onset of painful LSP with a specific EMG finding, MRI showing evidence of plexus affliction but not in the proximal part of the roots. Painful plexopathy presented itself with severe muscle paresis in the femoral nerve and the obturator nerve innervation areas, and gradual remission occurred after 3 months. Autoimmune origin of painful LSP is presumed. We describe a rare case of patient with painful lumbar plexopathy, with EMG findings of axonal type, we suppose of autoimmune etiology. PMID:25929915

  13. Pharmacogenomics of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma


    Full Text Available Variation in pain sensitivity and analgesic drug response is well recognized among individuals. Pharmacogenomics hypothesis dictates that a patient′s response to a drug or development of adverse drug effects may depend on variation in genetic profile, in particular, the different alleles for the same gene that an individual carries. A review of the role of genetic variations in determining the receptor sensitivity and modulation of pain, response to analgesics drugs and their interactions are presented in this article. It is already known that genomic variations affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various analgesic drugs. Genes related to the expression of mu-opioid receptor, ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1, catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT, Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been widely studied and show some promise in determining the drug response in individuals. Some recent studies on sodium channel mutations (SCN9A, SCN11A have been implicated in congenital insensitivity to pain. Voltage gated ion channels such as sodium, calcium and potassium channels are being targeted for development of novel analgesics. Based on the available research, the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics for personalized pain medicine is still in its infancy, but is promising. These are opening further opportunities for development of newer analgesics targeting pain receptors and ion channels.

  14. Cannabinoids and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Michael Walker


    Full Text Available Cannabinoids have been used to treat pain for many centuries. However, only during the past several decades have rigorous scientific methods been applied to understand the mechanisms of cannabinoid action. Cannabinoid receptors were discovered in the late 1980s and have been found to mediate the effects of cannabinoids on the nervous system. Several endocannabinoids were subsequently identified. Many studies of cannabinoid analgesia in animals during the past century showed that cannabinoids block all types of pain studied. These effects were found to be due to the suppression of spinal and thalamic nociceptive neurons, independent of any actions on the motor systems. Spinal, supraspinal and peripheral sites of cannabinoid analgesia have been identified. Endocannabinoids are released upon electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray, and in response to inflammation in the extremities. These observations and others thus suggest that a natural function of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands is to regulate pain sensitivity. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids remains an important topic for future investigations, with previous work suggesting utility in clinical studies of cancer and surgical pain. New modes of delivery and/or new compounds lacking the psychotropic properties of the standard cannabinoid ligands offer promise for cannabinoid therapeutics for pain.

  15. Neuropathic pain in children. (United States)

    Howard, Richard F; Wiener, Suzanne; Walker, Suellen M


    Neuropathic pain (NP), due to a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is not well documented or researched in children. NP is a clinical diagnosis that can be difficult, especially in younger children. Nevertheless, it is important to recognise NP, as pain mechanisms and consequently management and prognosis differ from other types of long-term pain. NP is common in adult pain clinics but many of the underlying disease states in which it occurs are infrequently or never encountered in paediatric practice. However, NP in childhood has been reported, even in the very young in certain clinical situations. Causes of NP include traumatic injury, complex regional pain syndrome type II, cancer and chemotherapy, chronic infection, neurological and metabolic disease, and inherited sensory nerve dysfunction. The clinical and laboratory study of traumatic peripheral nerve injury has revealed important age-related differences in clinical presentation and prognosis. It is clear that mechanisms operating during development can profoundly modify the consequences of nerve damage and NP. Clinically, diagnosis, assessment and treatment of NP are based on methods and evidence derived from data in adults. Improvements in the understanding and management of NP are likely to come from developmentally appropriate improvements in the clarity and consistency of diagnosis and systematic, well-researched approaches to treatment.

  16. Shoulder Pain After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten R; Andersen, Claus; Ørding, Helle


    OBJECTIVES: To study the time course of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery with respect to incidence, pain intensity, type of pain (referred versus musculoskeletal), and surgical approach. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Odense University Hospital, Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS: Sixty patients for major lung resection. INTERVENTIONS: Postoperative observation of ipsilateral shoulder pain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Postoperative numeric rating scale score of shoulder pain and thoracic pain and postoperative examination of the sites of shoulder pain...... for musculoskeletal involvement (muscle tenderness on palpation and movement) with follow-up 12 months after surgery. Clinically relevant pain was defined as a numeric rating scale score>3. Of the 60 patients included, 47 (78%) experienced ipsilateral shoulder pain, but only 25 (42%) reported clinically relevant...

  17. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua


    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  18. Intergroup relationships do not reduce racial bias in empathic neural responses to pain. (United States)

    Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Hielscher, Emily; Sherwell, Chase S; Rens, Natalie; Cunnington, Ross


    Perceiving the pain of others activates similar neural structures to those involved in the direct experience of pain, including sensory and affective-motivational areas. Empathic responses can be modulated by race, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by the perception of pain in people of the same race compared with another race. In the present study, we aimed to identify when racial bias occurs in the time course of neural empathic responses to pain. We also investigated whether group affiliation could modulate the race effect. Using the minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We examined event-related potentials from participants when viewing members of their own and the other team receiving painful or non-painful touch. We identified a significant racial bias in early ERP components at N1 over frontal electrodes, where Painful stimuli elicited a greater negative shift relative to Non-Painful stimuli in response to own race faces only. A long latency empathic response was also found at P3, where there was significant differentiation between Painful and Non-Painful stimuli regardless of Race or Group. There was no evidence that empathy-related brain activity was modulated by minimal group manipulation. These results support a model of empathy for pain that consists of early, automatic bias towards own-race empathic responses and a later top-down cognitive evaluation that does not differentiate between races and may ultimately lead to unbiased behaviour.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo


    Full Text Available Orofacial pain includes pain associated with the hard and soft tissues of the head, face, neck, and all of the intraoral structures. Upon painful episodes, consuming analgesics, or traditional medicine are relatively common. It is also a common sense that high cholesterol and hypertension may contribute to the pain. Since most pain sufferers are women, estrogen is proposed to be a modulator of pain perception. Nevertheless, the mechanism of pain modulation in women is still in controversy. Systemic manifestations of periodontal disease are widely accepted. However, the role of periodontal disease as an etiology of orofacial and musculoskeletal pain is rarely discussed. Recent study in medical psychoneuroimmunology may reveal the possibility of periodontal disease as an etiology of these painful symptoms. The objective of this study is to reveal the possibility of periodontal disease as an etiology of orofacial and musculoskeletal pain, resulting in the disappearing of the symptoms. Regarding to the amazing results, the conclusion is that especially in women, periodontal disease cause orofacial and muscoskeletal pain especially in women.

  20. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya


    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  1. Cross-correlation in face discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, William A.; Loffler, Gunter; Tucha, Lara


    An extensive body of literature suggests that face perception depends critically upon specialised face processing mechanisms. Although it seems clear that specialised face processing is required to explain face recognition, face discrimination is a simpler task that could possibly be solved with a g

  2. [Leading symptom shoulder pain]. (United States)

    Wittke, R


    Pain in the shoulder should prompt a systematic clinical examination that adheres closely to the functional anatomy. The basic examination of the shoulder joint comprises active and passive movements and isometric resistance tests with the aid of which external and internal rotation and abduction/adduction can be investigated. The results of these tests provide the physician with a "pattern of findings" which unequivocally identifies the pain-triggering structure. Accordingly, shoulder pain can be classified into four categories as proposed by Cyriax. As treatment, intra-articular injections of corticoids or local anesthetics as determined by findings, where necessary supported by physiotherapeutic measures. Rupture of a tendon, in particular in the case of an active patient, is an indication for surgery.

  3. Pain management in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burattin


    Full Text Available For over 30 years, the International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as «an unpleasant sensorial and emotional experience associated to real or potential tissue damage». Today, evident shortcomings still exist in the use of adequate analgesia, especially in the emergency medicine context: pain is the most common symptom amongst the Emergency Department patients (reaching a prevalence of over 60%, however, statistics reported in literature show that only 45% of patients receive analgesic prescriptions on discharge. In recent years, the influence of changes connected to accreditation standards has generated new expectations of healthcare professionals; although this aspect connected to the evolution of public health provides a stimulus to the evolution of the practical aspect of everyday clinical work, we must not forget that doctors take the Hippocratic oath, the ethical obligation to treat suffering and pain, which is especially pertinent to doctors working in Emergency conditions. The quality of the service provided with regard to pain-relief in ED cannot exclude an analysis of the local situation, the definition of roles, the extrinsication of potential with the ultimate aim of providing a service as close as possible to user hopes. Organisational efforts must be directed at reaching excellent quality levels, in which the monitoring of the activities performed takes place through the registration and periodic re-evaluation of the deriving data. Through this observational, prospective study, we intend to evaluate the effective prevalence of the pain symptom in the Emergency Department and the impact of the use of different classes of analgesia, also estimating the latency between the onset of the symptom and triage in order to quantify the efficacy of the analgesia practiced.

  4. Pain management in neurocritical care. (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Girbes, Armand


    The core challenge of pain management in neurocritical care is to keep the patient comfortable without masking or overlooking any neurological deterioration. Clearly in patients with a neurological problem there is a conflict of clinical judgement and adequate pain relief. Here we review the presentation, assessment, and development of pain in the clinical spectrum of patients with associated neurological problems seen in a general intensive care setting. Many conditions predispose to the development of chronic pain. There is evidence that swift and targeted pain management may improve the outcome. Importantly pain management is multidisciplinary. The available non-invasive, pharmacological, and invasive treatment strategies are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rajesh


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pain management in Polytrauma is a poorly-addressed concern at the time of active resuscitation. But, very often, pain assessment is also a challenge! Opioids belong to conventional analgesics of choice in any acute pain conditions. But, recently application of regional anaesthesia techniques and subanaesthetic doses of ketamine are satisfactorily employed. A clear understanding of neuropathic element of pain must be made as they require specific therapy. It must be emphasised that effective pain therapy is a multidisciplinary team work with active involvement of pain psychologist.

  6. Pain: Hope through Research (United States)

    ... often called reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome or causalgia . Fibromyalgia affects millions of Americans, more often women than ... face, and/or neck muscles. Physicians reach a diagnosis by listening to the individual’s description of the ...

  7. Painful tic convulsif. (United States)

    Pulsinelli, W A; Rottenberg, D A


    Painful tic convulsif is a syndrome restricted to paroxysmal dysfunction of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. It occurs primarily in women over the age of 50 years and is usually associated with an ectatic vertebrobasilar artery--less frequently an arteriovenous malformation or cholesteatoma--which compresses the trigeminal and facial nerve roots in the posterior fossa. In rare instances this syndrome may be caused by disseminated sclerosis. Because of the high incidence of posterior fossa lesions in painful tic convulsif, a complete neurological evaluation including computerised transaxial tomography and vertebrobasilar angiography should be performed in every case.

  8. Lower Abdominal Pain. (United States)

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S


    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation.

  9. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; jordan, alan; mikkelsen, connie

    . Many of these patients will become free of pain and disability! This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest information regarding Modic changes that the Danish research group was primarily responsible for after 10 years of intensive research. The book explains what the research...... results can mean for back pain patients and information is provided as to how Modic changes take place and develop as well developments that took place such that we are now able to provide effective treatment for more than 50% of patients that have been diagnosed with Modic changes type 1. Readers...

  10. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments. (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis


    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms.

  11. Imaging central pain syndromes. (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A


    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  12. Managing painful chronic wounds: the Wound Pain Management Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Patricia; Fogh, Karsten; Glynn, Chris;


    document persistent wound pain and not to develop a treatment and monitoring strategy to improve the lives of persons with chronic wounds. Unless wound pain is optimally managed, patient suffering and costs to health care systems will increase. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr......Chronic wound pain is not well understood and the literature is limited. Six of 10 patients venous leg ulcer experience pain with their ulcer, and similar trends are observed for other chronic wounds. Chronic wound pain can lead to depression and the feeling of constant tiredness. Pain related...... to the wound should be handled as one of the main priorities in chronic wound management together with addressing the cause. Management of pain in chronic wounds depends on proper assessment, reporting and documenting patient experiences of pain. Assessment should be based on six critical dimensions...

  13. Pain Measurement and Brain Activity: Will Neuroimages Replace Pain Ratings?


    Robinson, Michael E; Staud, Roland; Price, Donald D.


    Arguments made for the advantages of replacing pain ratings with brain imaging data include assumptions that pain ratings are less reliable and objective and that brain image data would greatly benefit the measurement of treatment efficacy. None of these assumptions are supported by available evidence. Self-report of pain is predictable and does not necessarily reflect unreliability or error. Since pain is defined as an experience, magnitudes of its dimensions can be estimated by well establi...

  14. Atypical face gaze in autism. (United States)

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca


    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  15. Predictors of pain resolution after varicocelectomy for painful varicocele

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Jun Park; Seung Soo Lee; Nam Cheol Park


    @@ Varicocelectomy is a management option for patients with painful varicocele.In this study,ere assessed the effectiveness of varicocelectomy for painful varicocele and examined the factors that might be predictive of outcome.All patients who underwent a varicocelectomy for pain between February 2007 and July 2009 were included.A review of patient medical records was conducted;patient age,body mass index WO,grade,location of the varicocele,testicular volume,duration and quality of the pain (dull,dragging,throbbing or sharp) and surgical technique (inguinal versus subinguinal) were documented.All parameters were compared with the resolution of pain (complete,partial or failure).We followed up on [53]of 104 patients (51.0%).Complete postoperative resolution of pain was reported by 28 patients (52.8%),whereas 22(41.5%) reported partial resolution.Only three patients (5.7%) reported failure.No relationship was observed between postoperative pain resolution and age,BMI,grade of varicocele,location of varicocele,lpsilateral testicular hypotrophy,quality of pain or surgical technique.The duration of pain before surgery was the only factor that correlated with postoperative pain resolution (univariate,P=0.004; multivariate,P=0.002).Our results indicate that varicocelectomy is an effective treatment for painful varicocele in properly selected patients,and that duration of pain before surgery may be predictive of outcome.

  16. Characterizing neuropathic pain profiles: enriching interpretation of painDETECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC


    Full Text Available Joseph C Cappelleri,1 Vijaya Koduru,2 E Jay Bienen,3 Alesia Sadosky4 1Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 2Eliassen Group, New London, CT, USA; 3Outcomes Research Consultant, New York, NY, USA; 4Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To psychometrically evaluate painDETECT, a patient-reported screening questionnaire for neuropathic pain (NeP, for discriminating among sensory pain symptoms (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure. Methods: The seven-item version of painDETECT provides an overall score that targets only sensory symptoms, while the nine-item version adds responses on two items to the overall score, covering pain course pattern and pain radiation. Both versions have relevance in terms of characterizing broad NeP. The nine- and seven-item versions of painDETECT were administered to subjects with confirmed NeP across six conditions identified during office visits to US community-based physicians. Responses on the sensory symptom items were dichotomized into “at least moderate” (ie, moderate, strongly, very strongly relative to the combined other responses (never, hardly noticed, slightly. Logistic regression of dichotomized variables on the total painDETECT score provided probabilities of experiencing each symptom across the range of painDETECT scores. Results: Both painDETECT versions discriminated among the symptoms with similar probabilities across the score ranges. Using these data, the probability of moderately experiencing each pain sensory item was estimated for a particular score, providing a pain profile. Additionally, the likelihood of experiencing each sensation was determined for a discrete increase in score, ie, the odds of at least a moderate sensation of burning (versus less than a moderate sensation was 1.29 for a 1-point increase, 3.52 for a 5-point increase, and 12.42 for every 10-point increase in the nine-item painDETECT score

  17. Beyond Pain and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun


    discourse on homosexual youth in Korea, protection discourse and pain discourse, the notion of identity itself will be critically examined and the girls' agency in destabilizing heteronormativity will be discussed. This study also deals with the appropriation of popular culture by the girls, suggesting...

  18. Pain and microcrystalline arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramonda


    Full Text Available Microcrystals are responsible for some of the most common and complex arthropathies which are often accompanied by intense, severe pain and inflammatory reactions. The main pathogens are crystals of monosodium urate (MSU, responsible for the gout, calcium pyrophosphate (CPP, which deposits also in various clinical forms of arthopathies, and basic calcium phosphate associated with osteoarthritis. In this context, the microcrystal arthritis is characterized by multiple, acute attacks followed by chronic pain, disability, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Given their chronic nature, they represent an ever more urgent public health problem. MSU and CPP crystals are also able to activate nociceptors. The pain in mycrocrystalline arthritis (MCA is an expression of the inflammatory process. In the course of these diseases there is an abundant release of inflammatory molecules, including prostaglandins 2 and kinins. Interleukin-1 represents the most important cytokine released during the crystal-induced inflammatory process. Therefore, clinically, pain is the most important component of MCA, which lead to functional impairment and disability in a large proportion of the population. It is fundamental to diagnose these diseases as early as possible, and to this aim, to identify appropriate and specific targets for a timely therapeutic intervention.

  19. Acetaminophen for Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Dideriksen, Dorthe; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke;


    strategies for acetaminophen use in chronic pain in both Embase and PubMed, 1,551 hits were obtained. Following cross-reference searches of both trials and 38 reviews, seven studies comparing acetaminophen in continuous dosing regimens of more than two weeks with placebo were included. The review...

  20. Pediatric acute pain management. (United States)

    Golianu, B; Krane, E J; Galloway, K S; Yaster, M


    The past decade has brought about an explosion of knowledge about the physiology of nociception and many new techniques for pain relief, new analgesic drugs, and new applications of old analgesic drugs. These techniques include methods of opioid administration by transdermal and transmucosal absorption and the use of neuraxial analgesia for the management of pain in children. Interest in the use of regional anesthesia in children has been rekindled, and analgesic properties and pre-emptive analgesic properties of many agents not typically considered analgesics, such as clonidine and ketamine, have been recognized. Perhaps the greatest advance has been the paradigm shift in the recognition that pain not only exists in infants and children but also is a significant cause of morbidity and even mortality. Given the unprecedented interest in pain management in adults and children, physicians can now look forward to the development of new methods of drug delivery and of receptor-specific drugs that divorce analgesia from the untoward side effects of existing analgesics. Improvement in the quality of life of hospitalized children also will occur.

  1. Pain inhibition by endomorphins. (United States)

    Przewłocki, R; Labuz, D; Mika, J; Przewłocka, B; Tomboly, C; Toth, G


    Spinal analgesic effects of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 were studied during acute, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain in rats chronically implanted with intrathecal cannulas. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (2.5-10 micrograms i.t.), as well as their analogues, increased the tail-flick and the paw pressure latencies. In a model of inflammatory pain, the formalin-induced behavior was attenuated by endomorphins; however, the effect studied was not dose-dependent and was less pronounced in comparison with that evoked by morphine. On the other hand, in rats with a sciatic nerve injury (crush), endomorphins antagonized allodynia in a dose-dependent manner, whereas morphine was found to be ineffective in a similar dose range. Endomorphins also exhibited an antinociceptive potency in rats tolerant to morphine. In conclusion, our results show a powerful analgesic action of endomorphins at the spinal level. The most interesting finding is a strong effect of endomorphins in neuropathic pain, which opens up a possibility of using these compounds in pain therapy.

  2. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin


    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatme

  3. Ketoprofen Dental Pain Study. (United States)

    Levin, L M; Cooper, S A; Betts, N J; Wedell, D; Hermann, D G; Lamp, C; Secreto, S A; Hersh, E V


    Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, recently approved as an over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic at a 12.5 mg dosage strength. This is the first published study which explores the analgesic efficacy and safety of ketoprofen 12.5 mg in patients experiencing pain following the removal of impacted third molars. This study was single-dose, double-blind and randomized utilizing a 6-hour in-patient evaluation period. Patients ingested a single dose of ketoprofen 12.5 mg (n = 30), ketoprofen 37.5 mg (n = 32) or placebo (n = 15) when their post-surgical pain reached at least a moderate intensity on a 5-point categorical (CAT) scale and greater than 50 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). Measures of pain intensity and relief were gathered every 20 minutes for the first 2 hours, and then hourly from hours 3 through 6. Adverse drug reactions were also recorded as they occurred. Both dosages of ketoprofen were significantly more efficacious than placebo (two way ANOVAs, p measures (SPID(VAS), SPID(CAT), TOTPAR) than placebo, with the exception of the 6-hr SPID(CAT) measure for ketoprofen 12.5 mg. No serious side effects were observed in this study. We conclude that ketoprofen in a dose range of 12.5 mg to 37.5 mg is a safe and effective analgesic for the relief of post-operative dental pain.

  4. Block That Pain! (United States)

    ... along with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major ...

  5. Neuropathic orofacial pain. (United States)

    Benoliel, R; Sharav, Y


    Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) is a challenging diagnostic problem. In some cases, symptomatology may be similar to that seen with dental pathology, resulting in unwarranted dental treatment. Rarely, NOP can herald serious disease or central tumors, and early diagnosis can be life-saving. The following review outlines the classification, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of the more common NOP entities.

  6. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah


    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authors minimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  7. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah


    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  8. American Academy of Pain Medicine (United States)

    ... Chronic Pain August 1, 2016 [Source: NPR] 'Pain Paradox' Discovery Provides Route to New Drugs July 28, ... Advocacy Practice Management Education Annual Meeting Contact Us Privacy Policy Sitemap Close Members Only Alert Message Please ...

  9. Post surgical pain treatment - adults (United States)

    ... of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology . 2012;116:248-73. PMID: 22227789 www.ncbi. ... chap 18. Sherwood ER, Williams CG, Prough DS. Anesthesiology principles, pain management, and conscious sedation. In: Townsend ...

  10. Pain in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.C.P.; Besse, K.; Wagemans, M.; Zuurmond, W.; Giezeman, M.J.; Lataster, A.; Mekhail, N.; Burton, A.W.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.


    Pain in patients with cancer can be refractory to pharmacological treatment or intolerable side effects of pharmacological treatment may seriously disturb patients' quality of life. Specific interventional pain management techniques can be an effective alternative for those patients. The appropriate

  11. [Pharmacological treatment of chronic pain]. (United States)

    Willimann, Patrick


    The pharmacological treatment of chronic pain differs from acute pain management. In chronic non-cancer pain patients pharmacological treatment is only one element of an interdisciplinary approach. Not pain reduction only but gain in physical and social functioning is mandatory for continuation of therapy. The developpement of a strategy is the most important and difficult step toward an individual and sustained pharmacological pain treatment. Simple practical guidelines can help to find an individual therapeutic straight. Outcome parameters have to be determined. Check-ups for discontinuation of the therapy have to be done periodically. Exact documentation of effect and side effects prevents ungrateful and potential dangerous treatments. The WHO ladder remains the cornerstone of pharmacological pain treatment. Further analgesics as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are important in treatment of neuropathic or mixed pain states. Special considerations have to be done in opioid treatment of non-cancer pain regarding the lack of evidence in long term outcome and possible side effects and risks.

  12. How Is Pelvic Pain Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is pelvic pain diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... needed to help diagnose the cause of the pelvic pain. These tests or procedures may include 1 , 2 : ...

  13. Epidural injections for back pain (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  14. Neurophysiological characterization of postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Christensen, Bente;


    Inguinal herniotomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures and chronic pain affecting everyday activities is reported in approximately 10% of patients. However, the neurophysiological changes and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of postherniotomy pain are not known in detail, the...

  15. The clinical application of teaching people about pain. (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Zimney, Kory; O'Hotto, Christine; Hilton, Sandra


    Teaching people about the neurobiology and neurophysiology of their pain experience has a therapeutic effect and has been referred to as pain neuroscience education (PNE). Various high-quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. Research studies, however, by virtue of their design, are very controlled environments and, therefore, in contrast to the ever-increasing evidence for PNE, little is known about the clinical application of this emerging therapy. In contrast, case studies, case series, and expert opinion and perspectives by authorities in the world of pain science provide clinicians with a glimpse into potential "real" clinical application of PNE in the face of the ever-increasing chronic pain epidemic. By taking the material from the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, case series, case studies, and expert opinion, this article aims to provide a proposed layout of the clinical application of PNE. The article systematically discusses key elements of PNE including examination, educational content, and delivery methods, merging of PNE with movement, goal setting, and progression. This perspectives article concludes with a call for research into the clinical application of PNE.

  16. Smiling in Pain: Explorations of Its Social Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kunz


    Full Text Available Studies of facial responses during experimental and clinical pain have revealed a surprising phenomenon, namely, that a considerable number of individuals respond with a smile. So far, it is not known why smiling occurs during pain. It is possible that the “smile of pain” is socially motivated (e.g., reinforcing social bonds while undergoing an unpleasant experience. The present studies were conducted in an attempt to address the role of social motives in smiling during pain. In two studies, we varied the quantitative (level of sociality and qualitative (properties of the relationship between interactants components of the situations in which participants received painful stimulation. Participants’ faces were video-recorded and the occurrence of smiling was assessed. The occurrence of smiling differed depending on stimulus intensity and the properties of the relationship between interactants. Smiling occurred more often during the painful compared to nonpainful stimulation. Whereas the presence of a stranger (experimenter reduced the smiling behavior, the presence of an intimate other increased it. Slight variations in the level of sociality, however, had no effect on the degree of smiling. Social motives possibly aimed at strengthening social bonds and thus ensuring social support appear to underlie smiling during pain.

  17. Eye-tracking analysis of face observing and face recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Iskra


    Full Text Available Images are one of the key elements of the content of the World Wide Web. One group of web images are also photos of people. When various institutions (universities, research organizations, companies, associations, etc. present their staff, they should include photos of people for the purpose of more informative presentation. The fact is, that there are many specifies how people see face images and how do they remember them. Several methods to investigate person’s behavior during use of web content can be performed and one of the most reliable method among them is eye tracking. It is very common technique, particularly when it comes to observing web images. Our research focused on behavior of observing face images in process of memorizing them. Test participants were presented with face images shown at different time scale. We focused on three main face elements: eyes, mouth and nose. The results of our analysis can help not only in web presentation, which are, in principle, not limited by time observation, but especially in public presentations (conferences, symposia, and meetings.

  18. The Pain Management in Orthodontics (United States)

    Shenoy, Nandita; Shetty, Siddarth; Ahmed, Junaid; Shenoy K., Ashok


    Pain and discomfort are the frequent side-effects of the orthodontic therapy with fixed appliances. The people who experience orthodontic pain are likely to self-medicate with nonprescription pain relievers before seeing the dentist. It is imperative for an orthodontist to address questions that might arise in a clinical setting from the viewpoint of the clinicians and the patients/parents. This article will provide an overview of the current management strategies which are employed for alleviating orthodontic pain. PMID:23905155

  19. Pain after groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Nielsen, R;


    -90 years, pain was scored (none, light, moderate or severe) at rest, while coughing and during mobilization, daily for the first postoperative week and after 4 weeks. Pain scores were added together over the first postoperative week. RESULTS: On days 1, 6 and 28, 66, 33 and 11 per cent respectively had...... moderate or severe pain while coughing or mobilizing. Total pain scores were higher while coughing or mobilizing than at rest (P coughing or mobilizing (P0

  20. Neuronal mechanism for neuropathic pain


    Zhuo Min


    Abstract Among different forms of persistent pain, neuropathic pain presents as a most difficult task for basic researchers and clinicians. Despite recent rapid development of neuroscience and modern techniques related to drug discovery, effective drugs based on clear basic mechanisms are still lacking. Here, I will review the basic neuronal mechanisms that maybe involved in neuropathic pain. I will present the problem of neuropathic pain as a rather difficult task for neuroscientists, and we...

  1. Face Recognition in Uncontrolled Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey Shyam


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of facial image representation for face recognition in uncontrolled environment. It is named as augmented local binary patterns (A-LBP that works on both, uniform and non-uniform patterns. It replaces the central non-uniform pattern with a majority value of the neighbouring uniform patterns obtained after processing all neighbouring non-uniform patterns. These patterns are finally combined with the neighbouring uniform patterns, in order to extract discriminatory information from the local descriptors. The experimental results indicate the vitality of the proposed method on particular face datasets, where the images are prone to extreme variations of illumination.

  2. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  3. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif


    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  4. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü


    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on‐site and on‐time. At this point, the use of smart cameras ‐ of which the popularity has been increasing ‐ is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image‐processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high‐ bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general‐purpose processors. In smart cameras ‐ which are real‐life applications of such methods ‐ the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola‐Jones face detection method ‐ which was reported to run faster on PCs ‐ was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub‐region and mask‐based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed‐point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub‐ regions and from each sub‐region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements ‐ like face expression, illumination, etc. ‐ were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for

  5. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire


    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  6. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit


    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  7. Endpoints in pediatric pain studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Monique); I. Ceelie (Ilse); D. Tibboel (Dick)


    textabstractAssessing pain intensity in (preverbal) children is more difficult than in adults. Tools to measure pain are being used as primary endpoints [e.g., pain intensity, time to first (rescue) analgesia, total analgesic consumption, adverse effects, and long-term effects] in studies on the eff

  8. The Paradox of Painful Art (United States)

    Smuts, Aaron


    Many of the most popular genres of narrative art are designed to elicit negative emotions: emotions that are experienced as painful or involving some degree of pain, which people generally avoid in their daily lives. Traditionally, the question of why people seek out such experiences of painful art has been presented as the paradox of tragedy, and…

  9. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  10. Electronic momentary assessment in chronic pain (II): pain and psychological pain responses as predictors of pain disability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorbi, M.J.; Peters, M.L.; Kruise, D.A.; Maas, C.J.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bensing, J.M.


    Objectives and Methods: More than 7,100 electronic diaries from 80 patients with chronic pain (mean: 89.3, range 30-115) entered multilevel analyses to establish the statistical prediction of disability by pain intensity and by psychological functioning (fear avoidance, cognitive, and spousal pain r

  11. Methylglyoxal evokes pain by stimulating TRPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Andersson

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is a severe complication of long-standing diabetes and one of the major etiologies of neuropathic pain. Diabetes is associated with an increased formation of reactive oxygen species and the electrophilic dicarbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MG. Here we show that MG stimulates heterologously expressed TRPA1 in CHO cells and natively expressed TRPA1 in MDCK cells and DRG neurons. MG evokes [Ca(2+]i-responses in TRPA1 expressing DRG neurons but is without effect in neurons cultured from Trpa1(-/- mice. Consistent with a direct, intracellular action, we show that methylglyoxal is significantly more potent as a TRPA1 agonist when applied to the intracellular face of excised membrane patches than to intact cells. Local intraplantar administration of MG evokes a pain response in Trpa1(+/+ but not in Trpa1(-/- mice. Furthermore, persistently increased MG levels achieved by two weeks pharmacological inhibition of glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for detoxification of MG, evokes a progressive and marked thermal (cold and heat and mechanical hypersensitivity in wildtype but not in Trpa1(-/- mice. Our results thus demonstrate that TRPA1 is required both for the acute pain response evoked by topical MG and for the long-lasting pronociceptive effects associated with elevated MG in vivo. In contrast to our observations in DRG neurons, MG evokes indistinguishable [Ca(2+]i-responses in pancreatic β-cells cultured from Trpa1(+/+ and Trpa1(-/- mice. In vivo, the TRPA1 antagonist HC030031 impairs glucose clearance in the glucose tolerance test both in Trpa1(+/+ and Trpa1(-/- mice, indicating a non-TRPA1 mediated effect and suggesting that results obtained with this compound should be interpreted with caution. Our results show that TRPA1 is the principal target for MG in sensory neurons but not in pancreatic β-cells and that activation of TRPA1 by MG produces a painful neuropathy with the behavioral hallmarks of diabetic

  12. Artificial faces are harder to remember. (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan


    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  13. Measurement properties of painDETECT by average pain severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC


    Full Text Available Joseph C Cappelleri,1 E Jay Bienen,2 Vijaya Koduru,3 Alesia Sadosky4 1Pfizer, Groton, CT, 2Outcomes research consultant, New York, NY, 3Eliassen Group, New London, CT, USA; 4Pfizer, New York, NY, USA Background: Since the burden of neuropathic pain (NeP increases with pain severity, it is important to characterize and quantify pain severity when identifying NeP patients. This study evaluated whether painDETECT, a screening questionnaire to identify patients with NeP, can distinguish pain severity. Materials and methods: Subjects (n=614, 55.4% male, 71.8% white, mean age 55.5 years with confirmed NeP were identified during office visits to US community-based physicians. The Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form stratified subjects by mild (score 0–3, n=110, moderate (score 4–6, n=297, and severe (score 7–10, n=207 average pain. Scores on the nine-item painDETECT (seven pain-symptom items, one pain-course item, one pain-irradiation item range from -1 to 38 (worst NeP; the seven-item painDETECT scores (only pain symptoms range from 0 to 35. The ability of painDETECT to discriminate average pain-severity levels, based on the average pain item from the Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form (0–10 scale, was evaluated using analysis of variance or covariance models to obtain unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, ethnicity, time since NeP diagnosis, number of comorbidities mean painDETECT scores. Cumulative distribution functions on painDETECT scores by average pain severity were compared (Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Cronbach's alpha assessed internal consistency reliability. Results: Unadjusted mean scores were 15.2 for mild, 19.8 for moderate, and 24.0 for severe pain for the nine items, and 14.3, 18.6, and 22.7, respectively, for the seven items. Adjusted nine-item mean scores for mild, moderate, and severe pain were 17.3, 21.3, and 25.3, respectively; adjusted seven-item mean scores were 16.4, 20.1, and 24.0, respectively. All pair

  14. Back pain during growth. (United States)

    Hasler, Carol C


    It is wrong to believe that back pain only burdens adults: the yearly incidence during growth ranges from 10-20%, continuously increasing from childhood to adolescence. Rapid growth-related muscular dysbalance and insufficiency, poor physical condition in an increasingly sedentary adolescent community or - vice versa - high level sports activities, account for the most prevalent functional pain syndromes. In contrast to adults the correlation of radiographic findings with pain is high: the younger the patient, the higher the probability to establish a rare morphologic cause such as benign or malignant tumours, congenital malformations and infections. In children younger than 5 years old, the likelihood is more than 50%. The following red flags should lower the threshold for a quick in-depth analysis of the problem: Age of the patient 4 weeks, history of tumour, exposition to tuberculosis, night pain and fever. High level sport equals a biomechanical field test which reveals the biologic individual response of the growing spine to the sports-related forces. Symptomatic or asymptomatic inhibitory or stimulatory growth disturbances like Scheuermann disease, scoliosis or fatigue fractures represent the most frequent pathomorphologies. They usually occur at the disk-growth plate compound: intraspongious disk herniation, diminuition of anterior growth with vertebral wedging and apophyseal ring fractures often occur when the biomechanical impacts exceed the mechanical resistance of the cartilaginous endplates. Spondylolysis is a benign condition which rarely becomes symptomatic and responds well to conservative measures. Associated slippage of L5 on S1 is frequent but rarely progresses. The pubertal spinal growth spurt is the main risk factor for further slippage, whereas sports activity - even at a high level - is not. Therefore, the athlete should only be precluded from training if pain persists or in case of high grade slips. Perturbance of the sagittal profile with

  15. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond


    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  16. The Face of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Have you ever seen the man in the moon?If you look closelyat the moon on some nights, you can see the face of the man in themoon. Some people say that they can see an old man carryingsticks. Others see a girl reading a book. These pictures are madeby the mountains (山脉) and plains (平原) of the moon.

  17. The Two Faces of Micropolitics. (United States)

    Hoyle, Eric


    Demystifies the two "faces" of micropolitics. "Policy micropolitics" distinguishes between micropolitics and management and focuses on the relationship between school micropolitics and the wider macropolitical context. "Management micropolitics" makes no clear micropolitics/management distinction and focuses on educators' strategies to pursue…

  18. Face recognition, a landmarks tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, Gerrit Maarten


    Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their a

  19. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues. (United States)

    Broadbent, Marianne


    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  20. Cool Styles for Your Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    GLASSES are a part of modern fashion. The right spectacle frames can not only add some demureness to you, but also perfect your face. To choose suitable frames for yourself, you must first know your own features. Comb all your hair backwards to show your entire features clearly in front of the

  1. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve (United States)

    Tervo, John N.


    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  2. Repetition priming from moving faces. (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki


    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  3. Facing a dark winter. Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truijen, A.


    Albania is once again facing a dark winter. The country has already been suffering power cuts lasting a couple of hours a day for the past seventeen years, Drought, increased power consumption and political maladministration are the factors underlying the electricity problems that have now mushroomed into a national crisis.

  4. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves


    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  5. The periodontal pain paradox: Difficulty on pain assesment in dental patients (The periodontal pain paradox hypothesis)



    In daily dental practice, the majority of patients’ main complaints are related to pain. Most patients assume that all pains inside the oral cavity originated from the tooth. One particular case is thermal sensitivity; sometimes patients were being able to point the site of pain, although there is neither visible caries nor secondary caries in dental radiograph. In this case, gingival recession and dentin hypersensitivity are first to be treated to eliminate the pain. If these treatments fail...

  6. Sleep position and shoulder pain. (United States)

    Zenian, John


    The overuse theory for musculoskeletal joint pain cannot explain adequately the occurrence of shoulder pain in those who do not engage in activities that involve repeated and stressful use of the shoulder since the percentage of the painful right shoulders usually does not match the percentage of dominant right arms in such individuals. An alternative hypothesis is presented to propose that shoulder pain is caused by postural immobility in the decubitus or side position during sleep. Prolonged pressure on the shoulder caused by the weight of the thorax can produce enough damage to cause subsequent shoulder pain. In order to test this hypothesis, a preliminary study was carried out to compare the laterality of shoulder pain with the laterality of sleep position. The calculated laterality ratios for sleep position and shoulder pain were found to be strikingly similar, suggesting a causal relationship between the two phenomena. However, the prevalence of shoulder pain in the general population was found to be smaller than the percentage of the time people would spend sleeping in the decubitus position. This discrepancy could be explained by the idea that in order for shoulder pain to develop subjects may have to spend longer times in the same decubitus position before changing to another position than the average person would. Additional evidence from published clinical studies also supports the postural theory of shoulder pain. More studies can be done to test this hypothesis by focusing on the sleep habits of patients with shoulder pain. According to the present hypothesis shoulder pain should for the most part occur on the side that the patient preferred to sleep on before the onset of shoulder pain. The postural theory of shoulder pain provides the possibility for a new and noninvasive method to treat shoulder pain by the modification of posture during sleep.

  7. The business of pain medicine: the present mirrors antiquity. (United States)

    Kulich, Ronald; Loeser, John D


    The practice of pain medicine is often considered a fledgling field, as are the economic, business, and related ethical issues associated with providing these services. This article first traces the history of pain care and its relationships to industry and business, as well as the impact of government regulations over the ages. The authors challenge the view that the commonly discussed health care issues facing pain medicine are new by tracing the business and regulatory-related antecedents of pain care practice from the first through 21st century. The controversies associated with the practice of delivering pain-related health care services in an ethical manner are discussed with specific reference to the early work of clinicians, health care activists, and policy makers. The early activities of noteworthy individuals such as Pliny the Great, Hua T'o, John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., William Morton, Henry and William James, Heinrick Dresser, and other recent health care activists are reviewed. Issues of practitioner liability and regulatory restrictions on practice are also discussed in a historical context. The authors conclude that familiar ethical dilemmas commonly arose in past centuries, and history may be repeating itself with respect to the concerns now being discussed within our field. These arguments are reflected against the pain medicine Ethics Charters of the American Academy of Pain Medicine throughout the document. Finally, we outline the challenges for the present and future. With an understanding of these eight historical events as a backdrop, we may be at an opportune time to better address these issues in a manner that could provide the most effective pain care in our society.

  8. Management of chronic visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S


    ' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations......Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological...... in central pain processing....

  9. Pain Expression as a Biometric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    . Thus, in this paper we investigated the relevance of pain expression from facial video to be used as a biometric or soft-biometric trait. In order to do that, we employed a biometric person recognition scenario by using features obtained from the pain expression pattern found in the temporal axis...... of subjects’ videos. The results confirmed that the pain expression patterns have distinctive features between the subjects of the UNBC McMaster shoulder pain database. We concluded that as the pain expression patterns have subjective features as a biometric, this can also cause the difference between self...

  10. Diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D


    Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS.

  11. [Pain perception of the fetus]. (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos


    Author presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available information about fetal pain perception. In this context the article discusses the concept of pain sensation, its evolution during intrauterine life and its physical and biochemical signs. Only the last mentioned phenomena allow deduction with regard to the severity of pain related stress reaction, in the absence of objective yardstick for measuring the intensity of pain felt by the fetus. The discussion also involves pain associated with birthing process and extends to its possible alleviation.

  12. Neck pain in different cephalalgias


    E. A. Chechet; G. R. Tabeeva


    The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia) in patients with headache (cephalalgia). Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cer...

  13. Pain-related catastrophizing in pain patients and people with pain in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M. J.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Versteegen, G. J.


    Background Catastrophizing is a defining factor in the pain experience and strongly contributes to the prediction of various aspects of health. Catastrophizing is not just present in pain patients, but may also be present in people with non-clinical pain. The aim of the present study is to investiga

  14. Pain-related catastrophizing in pain patients and people with pain in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.J. de; Struys, M.M.; Versteegen, G.J.


    BACKGROUND: Catastrophizing is a defining factor in the pain experience and strongly contributes to the prediction of various aspects of health. Catastrophizing is not just present in pain patients, but may also be present in people with non-clinical pain. The aim of the present study is to investig

  15. New pain-relieving strategies for topical photodynamic therapy (United States)

    Halldin, Christina B.; Paoli, John; Sandberg, Carin; Ericson, Marica B.; Gonzalez, Helena; Wennberg, Ann-Marie


    PDT is an effective method when treating multiple actinic keratoses (field cancerization). The major side effect is pain. Our objectives were to investigate the pain-relieving effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and peripheral nerve blocks during PDT of field cancerization (FC) of the face and scalp. Patients with field cancerization were included in three studies. In the first study, we examined TENS with an application site on the adjacent dermatome from the PDT area in order to allow the use of water spray during PDT for FC of the scalp and face. In the second study, patients with FC in the facial area received unilateral supraorbital, infraorbital and/or mental nerve blocks. The non-anaesthetised side of the treatment area served as control. In the third study, with similar methodology as in the second study, occipital and supraorbital nerve blocks were combined for FC of the forehead and scalp. The results of the studies strongly support the use of nerve blocks as pain relief during PDT. The use of TENS provided a limited pain reduction, but TENS might be an alternative if the patient disapproves of the use of nerve blocks or is afraid of injections.

  16. Face to Face : The Perception of Automotive Designs. (United States)

    Windhager, Sonja; Slice, Dennis E; Schaefer, Katrin; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Thorstensen, Truls; Grammer, Karl


    Over evolutionary time, humans have developed a selective sensitivity to features in the human face that convey information on sex, age, emotions, and intentions. This ability might not only be applied to our conspecifics nowadays, but also to other living objects (i.e., animals) and even to artificial structures, such as cars. To investigate this possibility, we asked people to report the characteristics, emotions, personality traits, and attitudes they attribute to car fronts, and we used geometric morphometrics (GM) and multivariate statistical methods to determine and visualize the corresponding shape information. Automotive features and proportions are found to covary with trait perception in a manner similar to that found with human faces. Emerging analogies are discussed. This study should have implications for both our understanding of our prehistoric psyche and its interrelation with the modern world.

  17. Face detection by aggregated Bayesian network classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.V.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    A face detection system is presented. A new classification method using forest-structured Bayesian networks is used. The method is used in an aggregated classifier to discriminate face from non-face patterns. The process of generating non-face patterns is integrated with the construction of the aggr

  18. Pain relativity in motor control. (United States)

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N


    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts.

  19. [Multidisciplinary treatment of orofacial pain]. (United States)

    Geurts, J W; Haumann, J; van Kleef, M


    The diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain can be complex. The differential diagnosis is very extensive. Therefore, multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment are often indicated. The diagnosis of chronic pain also entails the investigation of psychological factors. This is because psychological problems can play a role in the chronification of pain, but they can also be a consequence of chronic pain. Patients with persistent orofacial complaints should be seen by a medical team consisting of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, a neurologist, an anaesthesiologist/pain specialist, a dentist-gnathologist, an orofacial physical therapist, and a psychologist or psychiatrist specialising in orofacial pain. Treatment options should be discussed, taking into account literature concerning their effectiveness. The general conclusion is that much research remains to be done into the causes of, and treatments for, orofacial pain.

  20. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  1. Pain and Coping in Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    . Understanding the online religious activities and experiences of people participating in stressful and painful rituals calls for a methodology integrating objective measures and subjective assessment. This research project involves functional imaging technology (fMRI), measures of physiological processes (EKG......Both pain and religious rituals are complex phenomena. On the one hand pain is often understood as an object for natural science, but on the other hand pain is always defined as a psychological and subjective experience, leaving room for psychology and the humanities. Rituals, like pain, are framed...... by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors, which indicates that a bottom-up and a top-down approach in the study of pain and religion should interact instead of co-exist. This paper presents the initial framework of an interdisciplinary study of pain and coping in the religious mind...

  2. Pain in the hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Aleksandrovich Olyunin


    Full Text Available Pathological changes that develop in the hip joints (HJ have different origins and mechanisms of development, but their main manifestation is pain. The nature of this pain cannot be well established on frequent occasions. The English-language medical literature currently classifies such disorders as greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS. Its major signs are chronic pain and local palpatory tenderness in the outer part of HJ. The development of GTPS may be associated with inflammation of the synovial bursae situated in the greater tronchanter, as well as with tendinitis, myorrhexis, iliotibial band syndrome, and other local changes in the adjacent tissues or with systemic diseases. So GTPS may be characterized as regional pain syndrome that frequently mimics pain induced by different diseases, including myofascial pain syndrome, osteoarthrosis, spinal diseases, etc.

  3. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte


    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  4. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt


    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  5. TRP channels and pain. (United States)

    Julius, David


    Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.

  6. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang


    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  7. Face Detection and Face Recognition in Android Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU


    Full Text Available The quality of the smartphone’s camera enables us to capture high quality pictures at a high resolution, so we can perform different types of recognition on these images. Face detection is one of these types of recognition that is very common in our society. We use it every day on Facebook to tag friends in our pictures. It is also used in video games alongside Kinect concept, or in security to allow the access to private places only to authorized persons. These are just some examples of using facial recognition, because in modern society, detection and facial recognition tend to surround us everywhere. The aim of this article is to create an appli-cation for smartphones that can recognize human faces. The main goal of this application is to grant access to certain areas or rooms only to certain authorized persons. For example, we can speak here of hospitals or educational institutions where there are rooms where only certain employees can enter. Of course, this type of application can cover a wide range of uses, such as helping people suffering from Alzheimer's to recognize the people they loved, to fill gaps persons who can’t remember the names of their relatives or for example to automatically capture the face of our own children when they smile.

  8. Pain Management Task Force (United States)


    Additionally, the Task Force consulted with the Samueli Institute, a non-profit research organization that supports the scientific investigation of healing...and its role in medicine and health care. The Samueli Institute has been working on several research projects related to military and Veterans’ pain... Samueli communication). The CAM subgroup of the TF studied the issues surrounding credentialing and licensing of CAM providers. The tiered

  9. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail:; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  10. Nonarthritic hip joint pain. (United States)

    Enseki, Keelan; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; White, Douglas M; Cibulka, Michael T; Woehrle, Judith; Fagerson, Timothy L; Clohisy, John C


    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these clinical practice guidelines is to describe the peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to nonarthritic hip joint pain.

  11. Craniofacial Pain: Brainstem Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Sessle


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research advances in animals that have identified critical neural elements in the brainstem receiving and transmitting craniofacial nociceptive inputs, as well as some of the mechanisms involved in the modulation and plasticity of nociceptive transmission. Nociceptive neurones in the trigeminal (V brainstem sensory nuclear complex can be classified as nociceptive-specific (NS or wide dynamic range (WDR. Some of these neurones respond exclusively to sensory inputs evoked by stimulation of facial skin or oral mucosa and have features suggesting that they are critical neural elements involved in the ability to localize an acute superficial pain and sense its intensity and duration. Many of the V brainstem nociceptive neurones, however, receive convergent inputs from afferents supplying deep craniofacial tissues (eg, dural vessel, muscle and skin or mucosa. These neurones are likely involved in deep pain, including headache, because few nociceptive neurones receive inputs exclusively from afferents supplying these tissues. These extensive convergent input patterns also appear to be important factors in pain spread and referral, and in central mechanisms underlying neuroplastic changes in V neuronal properties that may occur with injury and inflammation. For example, application of the small fibre excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil into the temporomandibular joint, masseter or tongue musculature induces a prolonged but reversible enhancement of responses to cutaneous and deep afferent inputs of most WDR and NS neurones. These effects may be accompanied by increased electromyographic activity reflexly induced in the masticatory muscles by mustard oil, and involve endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate and opioid neurochemical mechanisms. Such peripherally induced modulation of brainstem nociceptive neuronal properties reflects the functional plasticity of the central V system, and may be involved in the development of

  12. Masseter thickness, endurance and exercise-induced pain in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology. (United States)

    Farella, Mauro; Bakke, Merete; Michelotti, Ambra; Rapuano, Alessia; Martina, Roberto


    The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular features of the masseter muscle in subjects with different vertical craniofacial morphology. Fifteen short-faced (mandibular plane-Frankfurt plane angle or = 23 degrees) male students participated. The thickness of the masseter was assessed by ultrasonography. Onset and endurance of exercise pain were recorded during sustained biting at a level of 15% of maximum voluntary contraction and 30 micro V electromyographic activity. Pain and fatigue was measured on visual analog scales before and after the biting, as well as before and after 10 min chewing. Statistical comparison showed that the masseter muscle was significantly thicker (+15%) in the short-faced than the normal- to long-faced subjects. The pain onset time and endurance time were also consistently shorter in short-faced subjects, whereas the intensity of pain and fatigue did not differ significantly between the two groups. Multiple stepwise regression showed positive influence from the mandibular plane inclination and the masseter thickness on the pain onset time and endurance time. The present findings support the concept that subjects with different craniofacial morphology show neuromuscular differences.

  13. Perceptual load effects on processing distractor faces indicate face-specific capacity limits


    Thoma, Volker; Lavie, Nilli


    The claim that face perception is mediated by a specialized ‘face module’ that proceeds automatically, independently of attention (e.g., Kanwisher, 2000) can be reconciled with load theory claims that visual perception has limited capacity (e.g., Lavie, 1995) by hypothesizing that face perception has face-specific capacity limits. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of face and non-face perceptual load on distractor face processing. Participants searched a central array of eith...

  14. Unconstrained Face Verification using Deep CNN Features


    Chen, Jun-Cheng; Patel, Vishal M.; Chellappa, Rama


    In this paper, we present an algorithm for unconstrained face verification based on deep convolutional features and evaluate it on the newly released IARPA Janus Benchmark A (IJB-A) dataset. The IJB-A dataset includes real-world unconstrained faces from 500 subjects with full pose and illumination variations which are much harder than the traditional Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) and Youtube Face (YTF) datasets. The deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is trained using the CASIA-WebFace ...

  15. Investigation of Central Pain Processing in Post-Operative Shoulder Pain and Disability


    Valencia, Carolina; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark; Wu, Samuel S.; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael; Farmer, Kevin; George, Steven Z.


    Measures of central pain processing like conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) have been described to assess different components of central pain modulatory mechanisms. Central pain processing potentially play a role in the development of postsurgical pain, however, the role of CPM and SHPR in explaining postoperative clinical pain and disability is still unclear.

  16. Social cognition in Williams syndrome: face tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova


    Full Text Available Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style. The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions, the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  17. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning. (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka


    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  18. The relationship between ethnicity and the pain experience of cancer patients: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingfai Kwok


    Full Text Available Background: Cancer pain is a complex multidimensional construct. Physicians use a patient-centered approach for its effective management, placing a great emphasis on patient self-reported ratings of pain. In the literature, studies have shown that a patient′s ethnicity may influence the experience of pain as there are variations in pain outcomes among different ethnic groups. At present, little is known regarding the effect of ethnicity on the pain experience of cancer patients; currently, there are no systematic reviews examining this relationship. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature in October 2013 using the keywords in Group 1 together with Group 2 and Group 3 was conducted in five online databases (1 Medline (1946-2013, (2 Embase (1980-2012, (3 The Cochrane Library, (4 Pubmed, and (5 Psycinfo (1806-2013. The search returned 684 studies. Following screening by inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text was retrieved for quality assessment. In total, 11 studies were identified for this review. The keywords used for the search were as follows: Group 1-Cancer; Group 2- Pain, Pain measurement, Analgesic, Analgesia; Group 3- Ethnicity, Ethnic Groups, Minority Groups, Migrant, Culture, Cultural background, Ethnic Background. Results: Two main themes were identified from the included quantitative and qualitative studies, and ethnic differences were found in: (1 The management of cancer pain and (2 The pain experience. Six studies showed that ethnic groups face barriers to pain treatment and one study did not. Three studies showed ethnic differences in symptom severity and one study showed no difference. Interestingly, two qualitative studies highlighted cultural differences in the perception of cancer pain as Asian patients tended to normalize pain compared to Western patients who engage in active health-seeking behavior. Conclusion: There is an evidence to suggest that the cancer pain experience is different between

  19. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich


    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  20. The effect of programmed distraction on the pain caused by venipuncture among adolescents on hemodialysis. (United States)

    Alhani, Fatemah


    Pain is described as the fifth vital sign, and inadequate pain management is linked to numerous immediate and long-term negative outcomes. Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures and one of the most frequently performed ones, and children and adolescents on hemodialysis are anxious about repeated venipunctures. Distraction is one of the most effective ways to relieve pain, and nurses are responsible for pain control. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to test the effect of programmed distraction on the pain caused by venipuncture among adolescents on hemodialysis. All of the pediatric hemodialysis centers in Tehran (three centers) were assigned to case group (one center with 21 patients) and control groups (two centers with a total of 21 patients) randomly. The Wong-Baker face pain scale was used to assess pain caused by venipuncture. Assessing of pain was done in 12 sessions in both case and control groups. Three first sessions were held without intervention (pretest) and the next nine sessions were held with distraction intervention (posttest). To cause distraction, the adolescents were asked to look at two similar pictures and tell the number of differences between them during venipuncture. Results showed that case and control groups matched in demographic variables and pain intensity. After distraction, pain intensity during venipuncture significantly decreased (p=.003); but this decrease began from the sixth session; at the five first sessions, pain intensity had not changed. This study shows the effect of distraction with a simple, inexpensive, and quick way for decreasing the pain caused by venipuncture. We recommend that the reasons of the intervention's delay in effect be assessed in future studies.