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Sample records for caraota phaseolus vulgaris

  1. Control de malezas con cobertura vegetal en el cultivo de la Caraota negra (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Weed control with vegetal mulch in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop.

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    Carlos Najul

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de evaluar el nivel de control de malezas con el uso de coberturas vegetales en el cultivo de la caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y determinar el efecto que sobre algunos componentes del rendimiento tienen estos métodos en comparación al control químico y manual, se condujo un ensayo bajo diseño de bloques al azar con ocho tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos de cobertura evaluados fueron: paja de Panicum maximum Jacq picada, entera, repicada y paja compostada, además de control químico (pendimetalin + linurón, dos tipos de control manual (desmalezado todo el ciclo y desmalezado a partir del inicio de la floración y un testigo siempre enmalezado. Se encontró que todos los métodos de cobertura alcanzaron más del 90% en el control de malezas a los 28 días después de la emergencia del cultivo, mientras que a 42 días sólo la paja picada mantuvo el nivel de control por encima del 90%. El mayor rendimiento del cultivo se obtuvo con el uso de la paja compostada con un valor de 2852,53 kg·ha-1, a pesar de que este tratamiento no produjo el mejor nivel de control de malezas, lo cual se atribuyó a los beneficios adicionales que habría producido la incorporación de este material orgánico al suelo. En el resto de los tratamientos de cobertura, así como en el control químico y desmalezado manual, se presentaron rendimientos similares entre sí y superiores al testigo.A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different kinds of weed control on the yield components of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Eight treatments consisting in the use of soil mulches based on straw of Panicum maximum Jacq. besides chemical and manual methods of weed control were used as follows: chopped, whole, very finely chopped, and composted straw; a chemical control (pendimethalin+linuron, two types of manual control (weeding for the whole crop cycle, and weeding starting at flowering, and a control (always with weeds. A

  2. Selección de la fecha de siembra como estrategia de adaptación a los efectos del estrés térmico sobre los rendimientos simulados de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en un área montano baja del centro-occidente de Venezuela Planting date selection as an adaptation strategy to elevated temperature effects on simulated yields of dry bean in a low mountainous area of Midwestern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    R Warnock de Parra; L Guillén; M Puche; Silva, O.; M Morros

    2007-01-01

    El estrés causado por las altas temperaturas sobre los rendimientos de sistemas de producción comerciales de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) con riego puede ser reducido a través de la optimización de la fecha de siembra. Empleando 41 años de información climática diaria, se cuantificaron y evaluaron los rendimientos simulados de siete materiales genéticos de caraota en un área (09°43´ N - 09°46´ N, 69°37´ O - 69°40´ O y 1228 msnm - 1502 msnm) productora ubicada en las estribaciones andinas d...

  3. Análisis de la tecnología local de producción de frijol caraota (phaseolus vulgaris l.) en la zona de vega del rio arauca

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    Valderrama N., Yhovana; Ñustez L., Carlos E.; Duarte D., Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo del fríjol negro o caraota constituye un importante renglón agrícola de impacto económico y social en el municipio de Arauquita (Arauca), donde cerca de 500 hectáreas se destinan para su siembra en los mesessecos de Octubre y Noviembre. En este municipio la caraota es un cultivo tradicional, en el cual se emplea poca tecnología y existe poca investigación. El producto se comercializa, principalmente, en Venezuela donde existe una alta demanda. Para analizar la Tecnología Local de P...

  4. Identificación de virus que se transmiten a través de semillas de caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) y fríjol (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers) en áreas productoras de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Z Peña; G. Trujillo

    2007-01-01

    Para conocer la incidencia de virus que se transmiten a través de la semilla en áreas productoras de caraota y fríjol, se evaluaron 53 materiales usados como semilla. Se seleccionaron aislamientos virales provenientes de las semillas sembradas en umbráculo protegido contra insectos; identificándose los aislamientos virales de caraota como: "Colombiana 1", "Colombiana 2" y "Tucutunemo" y el de fríjol como "Ojo negro". Para este estudio se multiplicó el material, se realizaron las pruebas de es...

  5. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated. PMID:15586693

  6. Análisis de la tecnología local de producción de frijol caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en la zona de vega del rio Arauca Local technology analysis of black bean production (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in area shore of the Arauca river

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama N. Yhovana; Ñustez L. Carlos E.; Duarte D. Alvaro

    1997-01-01

    El cultivo del fríjol negro o caraota constituye un importante renglón agrícola de impacto económico y social en el municipio de Arauquita (Arauca), donde cerca de 500 hectáreas se destinan para su siembra en los mesessecos de Octubre y Noviembre. En este municipio la caraota es un cultivo tradicional, en el cual se emplea poca tecnología y existe poca investigación. El producto se comercializa, principalmente, en Venezuela donde existe una alta demanda. Para analizar la Tecnología Local de P...

  7. Variabilidad espacial de la lámina de agua y rendimiento de la caraota (Phaseolus vulgaris L. bajo riego por aspersión Space variability of water sheet and yield of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under sprinkler irrigation

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    José Nicolás Ortiz Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la variabilidad y dependencia espacial de la lámina de riego aplicada y del rendimiento obtenido en el cultivo de caraota (Phaseolous vulgaris L., bajo riego por aspersión, se llevó a cabo un experimento durante 2010. Para ello se seleccionó, en la parte central de toda el área irrigada, una superficie de 10 m x 1 m con un aspersor en sus respectivos vértices. Dentro de ésta área, de manera sistemática, se ubicaron puntos de muestreo en forma de cuadrícula de 2 m x 2 m y en cuyo centro se colocaba un pluviómetro para colectar las láminas de agua aplicadas por los aspersores. El área de influencia de cada pluviómetro era 4 m² ésta fue cosechada para evaluar el rendimiento del cultivo. Los datos fueron analizados bajo procedimientos geostadísticos. Para la lámina de riego recibida durante el ciclo, se obtuvo un semivariograma esférico donde se refleja, por su efecto nugget mínimo, poca variabilidad entre láminas vecinas y el límite de dependencia se extiende hasta 5.70 m. Respecto al rendimiento, resultó un semivariograma exponencial, demostrando variabilidad entre muestras vecinas evidenciadas por la mayor proporción del efecto nugget, el límite de dependencia se extiende hasta una distancia de 7.84 m.To assess variability and space dependence of applied irrigation sheet and yield obtained in black bean (P has e o lous vulgaris L. crop, under sprinkler irrigation, during 2010 an experiment was performed. For this purpose it was selected, in the central portion of irrigated area, a surface of 10 m x 1 m with sprinkler in their corresponding vertexes. Within this surface, in systematic way, sampling points were located in 2m x 2m square matrix and in each center a pluviometer was put to collect water sheets applied by sprinklers. Influence surface of each pluviometer was 4 m² and was harvested to asses crop yield. Data were analyzed under geostatistical procedures. For irrigation sheet received during cycle

  8. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  9. Phytoaccumulation of uranium by Phaseolus Vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the environment surrounding facilities where uranium has been mined and processed has occurred in many countries. If phytomanagement of uranium contaminated areas is envisaged, the impact of the contamination on the vegetation has to be investigated. Uranium is a radiotoxic and chemotoxic heavy metal. Mechanisms of toxicity have been predominantly studied on man and on some animal species. For plants, little information on uranium toxicity at the cellular level is available. In plants facing environmental stress, for example contamination by heavy metals, an increase in the formation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is often observed. ROS are naturally produced in the plant cells and consequently, cells have developed several anti-oxidative defense mechanisms in order to control the redox state of the cell, an essential parameter for normal physiological and biochemical functioning. The defense system comprise antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, catalases, glutathione reductase) and antioxidants (e.g. glutathione, ascorbate,I). The presence of heavy metals, in particular uranium, results in an enhancement of the antioxidative defense mechanism. The objective of the study was to analyze the biological effects (biometry, stress enzyme and antioxidant content, DNA integrity) induced by bioaccumulation of uranium in the bean Phaseolus vulgaris, to evaluate whether the various investigated biomarkers are related and to define possible dose-effect relationships

  10. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  11. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris Innate Immune System against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Borges, Aline; Chowdhury, Bablu; Caldas, Danielle Gregório Gomes; Tsai, Siu Mui; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Melotto, Maeli

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. Methodology and Principal Findings As t...

  12. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

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    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension. PMID:26061663

  13. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  14. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed filling, maturation drying, temperature, rainfa

  15. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    Highlight The impact of cold plasma on the wetting, water absorption, and germination of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) is reported. Plasma treatment accelerated the water absorption and germination of seeds.

  16. Embryogenèse précoce comparative lors des croisements entre Phaseolus coccineus L. et Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Jean-Pierre Baudoin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative early embryogenesis in crossings between Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Theinterspecifi c hybridization between Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. is useful for the genetic improvementof the common bean. The use of the P. vulgaris cytoplasm for such hybridizations leads usually to a rather fast return tothe maternal form in the subsequent generations. When P. vulgaris is the pollinator, crosses result in early embryo abortion(globular or heart-shaped embryos. A competition between the endosperm and the embryo, on the one hand, and between thesuspensor and the embryo, on the other hand, could generate diffi culties of feeding young embryos. Histological sections usingthe 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate (HEMA resin method on the embryos of P. coccineus (NI16 and P. vulgaris (NI637 andX707 genotypes, as well as on their genotypic combination (NI16 × NI637 and NI16 × X707 and reciprocal crosses enableus to explain partially these abortion cases. Observations concern embryos from 3 to 6 days after pollination (DAP. Embryodevelopment (suspensor and embryo proper of the hybrids is slower than that of the parents whatever the crossing. Ingrowthsof suspensor basal cells observed when P. coccineus is the maternal parent are characteristic of the presence of the cytoplasmof these species. Endothelium deterioration (or proliferation in hybrid embryos would rather be related to the degree reachedby the process of abortion in the embryo concerned.

  17. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

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    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  18. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  19. Fontibacillus phaseoli sp. nov. isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

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    Flores-Félix, José David; Mulas, Rebeca; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, María José; Rivas, Raúl; Brañas, Javier; Mulas, Daniel; González-Andrés, Fernando; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated BAPVE7BT, was isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate into the genus Fontibacillus with Fontibacillus panacisegetis KCTC 13564T its closest relative with 97.1 % identity. The isolate was observed to be a Gram-positive, motile and sporulating rod. The catalase test was negative and oxidase was weak. The strain was found to reduce nitrate to nitrite and to produce β-galactosidase but the production of gelatinase, caseinase, urease, arginine dehydrolase, ornithine or lysine decarboxylase was negative. Acetoin production and aesculin hydrolysis were found to be positive. Growth was observed to be supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon source. MK-7 was identified as the predominant menaquinone and the major fatty acid (43.7 %) as anteiso-C15:0, as occurs in the other species of the genus Fontibacillus. Strain BAPVE7BT displayed a complex lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, four glycolipids, four phospholipids, two lipids, two aminolipids and an aminophospholipid. Mesodiaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The G+C content was determined to be 45.6 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain BAPVE7BT should be considered a new species of genus Fontibacillus, for which the name Fontibacillus phaseoli sp. nov. is proposed (type strain, LMG 27589T, CECT 8333T). PMID:24122118

  20. Diversity of Rhizobium-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis: Overview and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has become a cosmopolitan crop, but was originally domesticated in the Americas and has been grown in Latin America for several thousand years. Consequently an enormous diversity of bean nodulating bacteria have developed and in the centers of origin the predominant species in bean nodules is R. etli. In some areas of Latin America, inoculation, which normally promotes nodulation and nitrogen fixation is hampered by the prevalence of native strains. Many other species in addition to R. etli have been found in bean nodules in regions where bean has been introduced. Some of these species such as R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. gallicum bv. phaseoli and R. giardinii bv. phaseoli might have arisen by acquiring the phaseoli plasmid from R. etli. Others, like R. trap id, are well adapted to acid soils and high temperatures and are good inoculants for bean under these conditions. The large number of rhizobia species capable of nodulating bean supports that bean is a promiscuous host and a diversity of bean-rhizobia interactions exists. Large ranges of dinitrogen fixing capabilities have been documented among bean cultivars and commercial beans have the lowest values among legume crops. Knowledge on bean symbiosis is still incipient but could help to improve bean biological nitrogen fixation. (author)

  1. Radiation induced mutations in Phaseolus vulgaris L. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rubeai, M.A.F. (Garyounis Univ., Benghazi (Libya). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-09-01

    A selection of various macro- and micro-mutations was undertaken in the M2 generation of Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars after seed exposure to acute gamma radiation doses of 2.5, 5, 7, 10 and 15 Kr. The chlorophyll mutation was positively correlated with dose. Nevertheless, the highest frequency was at 7 Kr. Several interesting morphological mutants were observed. There were dwarf, stiff stem, shiny small leaf, narrow leaf and green giant mutants. Two selected micromutants were superior in seed yield capacity to their parents. The high yields were related to the high number of pods per plant. In 'The Prince' (seed color: red with beige marbling) several mutants with seeds of black color marbled with beige were selected. These seeds gave M3 segregants exhibiting a range of seed colors including white. Many of these M3 plants were short, early flowering and highly sterile. The work demonstrated that the pigmentation character can readily be changed, and confirmed that the variability induced by radiation can be exploited to obtain desirable mutations.

  2. Effect of salt stress on seed germination and seedlings growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Eilyn Mena; Michel Leiva-Mora; Edirisinghage Kasuni Dilhara Jayawardana; Lourdes García; Novisel Veitía; Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso; Raúl Collado; Rolando Cárdenas Ortíz

    2015-01-01

    El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es una leguminosa alimenticia importante a nivel mundial. La salinidad induce pérdidas en el rendimiento del frijol común, especialmente en las zonas áridas, semiáridas y en las zonas de secano. El objetivo de este estudio se centró en la determinación de los efectos de estrés salino sobre la germinación de semillas y el crecimiento de plantas de Phaseolus vulgaris. El frijol común (color negro) cv. ICA Pijao se utilizó como material vegetal. El estrés ...

  3. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  4. Dissecting Phaseolus vulgaris innate immune system against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum infection.

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    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important plant pathogens, causing anthracnose on a wide range of crops including common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Crop yield can be dramatically decreased depending on the plant cultivar used and the environmental conditions. This study aimed to identify potential genetic components of the bean immune system to provide environmentally friendly control measures against this fungus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As the common bean is not amenable to reverse genetics to explore functionality and its genome is not fully curated, we used putative Arabidopsis orthologs of bean expressed sequence tag (EST to perform bioinformatic analysis and experimental validation of gene expression to identify common bean genes regulated during the incompatible interaction with C. lindemuthianum. Similar to model pathosystems, Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that hormone biosynthesis and signaling in common beans seem to be modulated by fungus infection. For instance, cytokinin and ethylene responses were up-regulated and jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and abscisic acid responses were down-regulated, indicating that these hormones may play a central role in this pathosystem. Importantly, we have identified putative bean gene orthologs of Arabidopsis genes involved in the plant immune system. Based on experimental validation of gene expression, we propose that hypersensitive reaction as part of effector-triggered immunity may operate, at least in part, by down-regulating genes, such as FLS2-like and MKK5-like, putative orthologs of the Arabidopsis genes involved in pathogen perception and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified specific bean genes and uncovered metabolic processes and pathways that may be involved in the immune response against pathogens. Our transcriptome database is a rich resource for mining novel defense-related genes, which enabled us to

  5. Geometry applied to breeding common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J G; Ramalho, M A P

    2016-01-01

    The primary components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) grain yield (W) are the number of pods (X), the number of grains per pod (Y), and the weight of the grains (Z). In 1964, Grafius suggested using geometry in plant breeding; W corresponds to the volume of a parallelepiped with three axes, X, Y, and Z. Because the cube is the largest parallelepiped by volume, maximum yield is obtained when the relative contributions of X, Y, and Z are the same. We evaluated individual plants of a 'Talismã' x 'L.59583' cross in two sowing periods. The sum of squares of deviations from the ideal plant (GI), i.e., the plant in which the X, Y, and Z contributions were the same, was estimated. Mean and variance genetic components, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between the characteristics were also estimated. Good concordance was observed in the magnitude and direction of the genetic and phenotypic correlation estimates of the paired characteristics. However, a low GI heritability (h(2)r = 6.7%) indicated that success due to selection should be small. Ninety-four progenies of 'Pérola' x 'ESAL 686' crosses were also evaluated, where X, Y, Z, and W were obtained and GI was estimated. The h(2) estimate was higher, but still low (h(2) = 39.0%). Therefore, the selection of individuals to obtain plants in which the X, Y, and Z products tend to the cube is unfeasible, because the sums of X, Y, and Z vary between individuals. In addition, the GI h2 value was low. PMID:27173247

  6. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

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    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  8. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively whic

  9. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer. PMID:24934069

  10. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the most important food legume in the world, but its production is severely limited by several biotic and abiotic stressors. In search of a sustainable solution to this problem, we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11...

  11. THE ACTION OF UV RADIATION ON MITOTIC INDEX AND MITOTIC DIVISION PHASES AT PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Iuliana Bara

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, damaging effects of UV radiations on bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. plantule root tips were investigated. Our study proves that by bean plants, the decrease of cell division frequency appears to be part of protection mechanism against especially the short waved UV radiation, with variations depending on cultivar.

  12. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  13. Virulence of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, is an important disease in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the dry and warmer areas of Puerto Rico and in much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. The virulence of three isolates from Isabela (Mph-ISA-TARS), Juana Diaz (Mph-JD) a...

  14. Visualization of resistance responses in Phaseolus vulgaris using reporter tagged clones of Bean common mosaic virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV and...

  15. Mutagenesis applied to the improvement of Phaseolus vulgaris as a grain legume crop in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaseolus vulgaris is a common vegetable species in Malaysia, however its cultivation is costly and laborious, since well adapted types are climbing and require staking. A mutation induction experiment was started in order to check whether a non-winding mutant could be induced that is equally well suitable for humid tropic conditions. (author)

  16. Snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) quality profile by sensory descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar; Rodiño Míguez, Ana Paula; González Fernández, Ana María; Canosa Rodríguez, Pilar; Rodríguez Vega, Iria; Riveiro, Manuel; Santalla Ferradás, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Sensory quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) influence consumer preferences. The application of sensory descriptive analysis (SDA) for snap bean quality is shown in this work. SDA has allowed generatin gdescriptors for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture, which could be used to characterize snap bean varieties.

  17. Quantification of N2 fixation in genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. by the isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports measurements of biological nitrogen fixation by ten cultivars and breeding lines of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Measurements were performed by the 15N dilution technique, and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a non-nodulating isoline of soybean were used as non-fixing reference crops. 2 refs, 1 tab

  18. Nitrogen enrichment of soil and plant by Rhizobium phaseoli - Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of 25 and 30 day old nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris for periods of 24h and 72h under 15-dinitrogen atmosphere indicated nitrogen enrichment of soil compared with soil free of plants and with other plants under the same experimental conditions. This indication of realease from the root-nodule system is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation. (Author)

  20. Nitrogen assimilation by nodulate plants of Phaseolus vulgaris l. and Vigna unguiculata (l. ) walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.C.P.; Fernandes, M.S.; Sa, M.F.M. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos)

    1982-05-01

    Under field conditions, the processes of nitrogen assimilation via nitrogenase and nitrate-reductase, the transport and the accumulation of nitrogen in nodulated plants of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Rio Tibagi and Vigna unguiculata cv. Vita 34 were compared and contrasted. V. unguiculata showed better nodulation than P. vulgaris and consequently had higher rates of nitrogenase activity. The small nodulation of P. vulgaris resulted in greater dependence on soil mineral nitrogen as indicated by the higher rates of nitrate-reductase acitivty compared with V. unguiculata, especially during reproductive stage of growth. The superiority of V. unguiculata in terms of assimilation and remobilization of stored nitrogen resulted in a seed yield 28% greater than that of P. vulgaris. P. vulgaris showed a negative correlation between the nitrate-reductase activity and the ureide content of the sap indicating that the metabolic pathways leading to ureide production operates alternatively to nitrate assimilation.

  1. Genotypic variability in phosphorus use efficiency for symbiotic N$_2$ fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Vadez, Vincent; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Variabilité génotypique de l'efficacité d'utilisation du phosphore pour la fixation symbiotique d'azote chez le haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris). Trois génotypes de haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (APN18, BAT271, G12168) ont été inoculés avec un mélange de 3 rhizobia (R. etli CIAT632 and CIAT7115 and R. tropici CIAT899), et cultivés en hydroaéroponie soit avec 10 mmol NO$_3^-$$\\cdot$semaine$^{-1}$ ou avec la fixation de N$_2$, sous divers apports hebdomadaires de P. La croissance était maximale p...

  2. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  3. Isolation of an immunosuppressive lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Cacahuate using stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Albores, F; Hernández, J; Córdoba, F; Zenteno, E

    1993-11-01

    An immunosuppressive lectin was isolated from seed of Phaseolus vulgaris cv Cacahuate using physically entrapped stroma. The lectin was found to be a 94 kDa tetrameric protein. When 50 micrograms, of this lectin were administered intraperitoneally 2 days before the immunization with sheep red blood cells, humoral response against the immunogen was completely inhibited. Other properties of the protein are discussed. PMID:8248029

  4. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively which negatively effect the protein digestibility by nonruminants e.g. pigs. Also the storage protein is not easily digested by nonruminants. The main aim of the present study was to find a reasonable ...

  5. Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Cooked Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Joe S.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1989-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) requires cooking for extended periods of time prior to consumption. In this investigation both quantitative and microstructural changes in common bean dietary fiber as a result of cooking were examined. Cooking resulted in a slight decrease in soluble dietary fiber and a marked increase in insoluble dietary fiber. The increase in insoluble dietary fiber was responsible for a 15 -30 percent increase in total dietary fiber. Scanning electron microscopy wa...

  6. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of the I Locus of Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejos, C. Eduardo; Astua-Monge, Gustavo; Jones, Valerie; Plyler, Tammy R.; Sakiyama, Ney S.; Mackenzie, Sally A.

    2006-01-01

    The I locus of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, controls the development of four different phenotypes in response to inoculation with Bean common mosaic virus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus, several other related potyviruses, and one comovirus. We have generated a high-resolution linkage map around this locus and have aligned it with a physical map constructed with BAC clones. These clones were obtained from a library of the cultivar “Sprite,” which carries the dominant allele at the ...

  7. Iron and zinc retention in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) after home cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia M. J. Carvalho; Corrêa, Mariana M.; Elenilda J. Pereira; Nutti, Marília R.; Carvalho, José L. V.; Ribeiro, Ediane M. G.; Freitas, Sidinéa C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron, iodine, and Vitamin A deficiencies are the most common forms of malnutrition, leading to severe public health consequences. The importance of iron and zinc in human nutrition and the number of children found to be deficient in these nutrients make further studies on retention in cooked grains and cooked bean broth important. Objectives: This work aimed to evaluate iron and zinc retention in six common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris...

  8. Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Spores to Phaseolus vulgaris Hypocotyls and to Polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Young, David H.; Kauss, Heinrich

    1984-01-01

    Adhesion of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum spores to Phaseolus vulgaris hypocotyls and to polystyrene was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors sodium azide and antimycin A, indicating a requirement for metabolic activity in adhesion. Various commercial proteins and Tween 80 also reduced adhesion to both surfaces. Binding was enhanced by the presence of salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chlorides were equally effective. The removal of surface wax from hypocotyls by chloroform ...

  9. A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Celleno, Maria Vittoria Tolaini, Alessandra D'Amore, Nicholas V. Perricone, Harry G. Preuss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Aims: The present research study examines a dietary supplement containing 445 mg of Phaseolus vulgaris extract derived from the white kidney bean, previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase, on body composition of overweight human subjects. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 pre-selected, slightly overweight volunteers, whose weight had been essentially stable for at least six months. The volunteers were divided into two groups, homogeneous for age, gender, and body weight. The test product containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the placebo were taken one tablet per day for 30 consecutive days before a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Each subject's body weight, fat and non-fat mass, skin fold thickness, and waist/hip/thigh circumferences were measured. Results: After 30 days, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract with a carbohydrate-rich, 2000- to 2200-calorie diet had significantly (p Conclusion: The results indicate that Phaseolus vulgaris extract produces significant decrements in body weight and suggest decrements in fat mass in the face of maintained lean body mass.

  10. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Phaseolus vulgaris by high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peláez Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously encoded small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs play essential roles in almost all plant biological processes. Currently, few miRNAs have been identified in the model food legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of conserved and novel miRNAs in many plant species. Here, we used Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (SBS technology to identify and characterize the miRNA population of Phaseolus vulgaris. Results Small RNA libraries were generated from roots, flowers, leaves, and seedlings of P. vulgaris. Based on similarity to previously reported plant miRNAs,114 miRNAs belonging to 33 conserved miRNA families were identified. Stem-loop precursors and target gene sequences for several conserved common bean miRNAs were determined from publicly available databases. Less conserved miRNA families and species-specific common bean miRNA isoforms were also characterized. Moreover, novel miRNAs based on the small RNAs were found and their potential precursors were predicted. In addition, new target candidates for novel and conserved miRNAs were proposed. Finally, we studied organ-specific miRNA family expression levels through miRNA read frequencies. Conclusions This work represents the first massive-scale RNA sequencing study performed in Phaseolus vulgaris to identify and characterize its miRNA population. It significantly increases the number of miRNAs, precursors, and targets identified in this agronomically important species. The miRNA expression analysis provides a foundation for understanding common bean miRNA organ-specific expression patterns. The present study offers an expanded picture of P. vulgaris miRNAs in relation to those of other legumes.

  11. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93) calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim Amelia; Jasvin Singh; Farida Habib Shah; Subhash J Bhore

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day an...

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume. PMID:26832644

  13. INDUCED CYTOMICTIC VARIATIONS AND SYNCYTE FORMATION DURING MICROSPOROGENESIS IN PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Chaudhary, N

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular translocation of chromatin material along with other cytoplasmic contents among the proximate meiocytes lying in close contact with each other commonly referred as cytomixis was reported during microsporogenesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L., a member of the family Fabaceae. The phenomenon of cytomixis was observed at three administered doses of gamma rays viz. 100, 200, 300 Gy respectively in the diploid plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The gamma rays irradiated plants showed the characteristic feature of inter-meiocyte chromatin/chromosomes transmigration through various means.such as channel formation, beak formation or by direct adhesion between the PMC's (Pollen mother cells). The present study also reports the first instance of syncyte formation induced via cytomictic transmigration in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Though the frequency of syncyteformation was rather low yet these could play a significant role in plant evolution. It is speculated that syncyte enhances the ploidy level of plants by forming 2n gametes and may lead to the production ofpolyploid plants. The phenomenon of cytomixis shows a gradual inclination along with the increasing treatment doses of gamma rays. The preponderance of cytomixis was more frequent during meiosis I as compared to meiosis II. An interesting feature noticed during the present study was the channel formation among the microspores and fusion among the tetrads due to cell wall dissolution. The impact of this phenomenon is also visible on the development of post-meiotic products. The formation of heterosized pollen grains; a deviation from the normal pollen grains has also been reported. The production of gametes with unbalanced chromosomes is of utmost importance and should be given more attention in future studies as they possess the capability of inducing variations at the genomic level and can be further utilized in the improvement of germplasm. PMID:27281925

  14. Determination of amylase activity in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. carioca

    OpenAIRE

    Glaucia Almeida de Morais; Massanori Takaki

    1998-01-01

    Determination of α- and β-amylase activity in the extracts of cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. cariocawas done using selective inactivation of α-amylase by lowering the pH of the incubation medium or by the use of EDTA as inhibitor or selective inactivation of β-amylase by the use of HgCl2 or by heating to 70ºC in the presence of CaCl2; and still by using the reagent starch azure for specific determination of α-amylase. Results indicated that the methods used w...

  15. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (plectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  16. DETERMINACIÓN DE INDICADORES DE CALIDAD EN 11 GENOTIPOS DE LA ESPECIE Phaseolus vulgaris, L

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliem Mederos; Inés M. Reynaldo

    2007-01-01

    El estudio de la calidad en el grano de frijol permite brindar una mayor información tanto a productores como a consumidores. La calidad en el grano de frijol está basada en la determinación de sus características químicas, físicas y culinarias. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la caracterización de un grupo de 11 genotipos de frijol de la especie Phaseolus vulgaris L, teniendo en cuenta sus características físicas, referidas al peso y volumen de 100 granos, los porcentajes de hum...

  17. INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR SEED GERMINATION AND OTHER YIELD PARAMETERS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Ali; Bhanita Talukdar; Bhojaraja Naik

    2014-01-01

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most ancient cultivated crops among the legumes. It is commonly used for human nutrition, animal feed and soil fertility. Seeds of two local dwarf varieties of kidney bean, B1-Local and B2-Local were subjected to different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3 %, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) of sodium azide (SA). Effects of chemical mutagen were evaluated for seed germination, plant survival, plant height, number of branch per plant; number of leaves...

  18. Effective Symbiosis between Rhizobium etli and Phaseolus vulgaris Requires the Alarmone ppGpp

    OpenAIRE

    Moris, Martine; Braeken, Kristien; Schoeters, Eric; Verreth, Christel; Beullens, Serge; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium etli and Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean plant, ultimately results in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Many aspects of the intermediate and late stages of this interaction are still poorly understood. The R. etli relA gene was identified through a genome-wide screening for R. etli symbiotic mutants. RelA has a pivotal role in cellular physiology, as it catalyzes the synthesis of (p)ppGpp, which mediates the stringent response in bacteri...

  19. Low Temperature Enhances Photosynthetic Down‐regulation in French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tsonev, Tsonko; VELIKOVA Violeta; Georgieva, Katya; HYDE, PAUL F.; Jones, Hamlyn G.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms of photosynthetic adaptation to different combinations of temperature and irradiance during growth, and especially the consequences of exposure to high light (2000 µmol m–2 s–1 PPFD) for 5 min, simulating natural sunflecks, was studied in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A protocol using only short (3 min) dark pre‐treatment was introduced to maximize the amount of replication possible in studies of chlorophyll fluorescence. High light at low temperature (10 °C) significant...

  20. Sucrose metabolizing enzymes in cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris Enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em cultura celular de Bauhinia forficata, Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ometto de Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the activity of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in extracts of cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Invertase pathway was identified in the three studied species. Sucrose synthase pathway was also responsible for sucrose metabolism in Curcuma zedoaria and Phaseolus vulgaris cells. Activity values higher than 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein were found for acid and neutral invertases, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase in the cell extract of the three plant species. Sucrose synthase showed low activity in Bauhinia forficata cells. As sucrose concentration in the culture medium decreased, sucrose synthase activity increased in C. zedoaria and P. vulgaris cells. The glycolytic enzymes activity gradually reduced at the end of the culture period, when carbohydrate was limited.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as enzimas do metabolismo da sacarose em culturas de célula em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. A via da invertase foi identificada nas três espécies estudadas. A via da sacarose sintase também foi responsável pelo metabolismo da sacarose em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Foram encontradas atividades maiores que 300 nmol min-1 mg-1 de proteína das enzimas invertase ácida e alcalina, UDPglicose pirofosforilase e fosfoglicomutase no extrato celular das três espécies de plantas. A sacarose sintase mostrou atividade baixa nas células de Bauhinia forficata. À medida que a concentração de sacarose no meio de cultura diminuiu, a atividade da sacarose sintase aumentou em células de Curcuma zedoaria e Phaseolus vulgaris. Ao final do período de cultura, quando os carboidratos se tornaram limitantes, as atividades das enzimas glicolíticas reduziram-se gradualmente.

  1. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavoured beverage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2013-06-01

    Treatment with a rational combination of standardized extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus reduced food intake and glycemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of this extract combination and of each single extract in an experimental model of food craving, made up of rats displaying exaggerated seeking and taking behaviors for a chocolate-flavoured beverage. After training to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavoured beverage, rats were treated with vehicle, Phaseolus vulgaris extract alone (200 mg/kg), Cynara scolymus extract alone (400 mg/kg), or combination of Phaseolus vulgaris (200 mg/kg) and Cynara scolymus (400 mg/kg) extracts. The Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the extract combination exerted similar and substantial decrements in the number of lever-responses and amount of self-administered chocolate-flavoured beverage; conversely, the Cynara scolymus extract was totally ineffective. These results suggest that (i) the capacity of the extract combination to reduce the self-administration of the chocolate-flavoured beverage entirely relied on the Phaseolus vulgaris extract, (ii) Phaseolus vulgaris extract may interfere with the mechanisms regulating food-related addictive-like behaviors, and (iii) combinations of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts may possess a broad spectrum of activities, from treatment of metabolic syndrome to overweight, obesity, and possibly food-related addictive disorders. PMID:22899449

  2. Phytotoxic Effect of Landfill and Leachate Pollution Indexes on Germination and Seedling of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Benavides Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate solid waste management includes leachate management, an effluent that results from the degradation of solid waste, moisture content and pluvial additions to the disposal site. Due to poor management of the landfill, sometimes leachate is likely to reach nearby areas, affecting soil water and vegetal area. A powerful tool to assess the pollution potential of a given leachate is the leachate pollution index (LPI developed by Kummar & Alappat (2005 that evaluates 18 parameters in order to calculate a value between 5-100 being 100 the highest in pollution potential. The LPI allows the comparison between leachates from different sites and ages, and also assists in the decision making process on leachate treatment. However, it is currently unknown if this value can also be related to the fitotóxico effect of a leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L. The aim of this work was to calculate the LPI of two leachates and compare the effect on P. vulgaris L (common bean. A greenhouse scale experiment was set up, the studied variables were seed germination per cent (% and phenotype of P. vulgaris at seedling step after treated with several leachate concentrations from Guanajuato (GTO and Toluca (TOL, México. Results showed that a greater LPI (34.8 from GTO did not correspond to a largest fitotoxic effect on P. vulgaris. This bioassay could be a completely tool with LPI to evaluate pollution potential of leachate approaching to normal environmental conditions.

  3. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  4. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with fructose, glucose and sucrose concentration in snap bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Differences between dry and snap bean cultivars and among snap bean cultivars in the patterns of accumulation of sugars have been observed. In ‘Eagle...

  5. Selected excipients and surfactants in oral solid dosage form with extract of Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczyński Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an annual plant grown in many countries all over the world including its different varieties in Poland. Herbal raw material are elongated pods – pericarp. Phaseoli pericarpium decreases the glucose blood level. Phaseoli pericarpium extracts manifest duretic properties, can be used in the treatment of edema, kidney diseases with decreased urinary excretion, nephrolithiasis.

  6. Selected excipients and surfactants in oral solid dosage form with extract of Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marczyński Zbigniew; Kowalczykiewicz Katarzyna; Bodek Kazimiera Henryka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an annual plant grown in many countries all over the world including its different varieties in Poland. Herbal raw material are elongated pods – pericarp. Phaseoli pericarpium decreases the glucose blood level. Phaseoli pericarpium extracts manifest duretic properties, can be used in the treatment of edema, kidney diseases with decreased urinary excretion, nephrolithiasis.

  7. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  8. The interaction between endopolygalacturonase from Fusarium moniliforme and PGIP from Phaseolus Vulgaris studied by surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, B; Cervone, F; Roepstorff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris. PG hydrolyses the homogalacturonan of the plant cell wall and is considered an important pathogenicity factor of many fungi. PGIP is a specific inhibitor of fungal PGs and is thought to be involved in plant defence against phytopathogenic fungi. SPR was used either to study the effect of...

  9. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  10. Genome Sequence of Rhizobium grahamii CCGE502, a Broad-Host-Range Symbiont with Low Nodulation Competitiveness in Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Althabegoiti, M. Julia; Lozano, Luis; Torres-Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco A.; González, Víctor; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the genome sequence of Rhizobium grahamii CCGE502. R. grahamii groups with other newly described broad-host-range species, which are not very efficient Phaseolus vulgaris symbionts, with a wide geographic distribution and which constitutes a novel Rhizobium clade.

  11. Efecto del consumo de dietas con avena y caraotas negras sobre el perfil lipídico en un modelo experimental en rata Effect of consumption of diets with oats and black beans on the lipid profile of an experimental model in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirla Ch Morón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos ricos en fibra dietética (FD soluble e insoluble, afecta favorablemente el perfil de lípidos séricos al reducir las concentraciones de colesterol total, colesterol- LDL y triglicéridos (TG. El objetivo de este trabajo, fue comparar el efecto del consumo de dietas con avena (Avena sa tiva y con caraotas negras (Phaseolus vulgaris sobre el perfil lipídico de ratas. Quince ratas machos, cepa Sprague Dawley, fueron alimentadas ad libitum por 18 días, con tres tipos de dietas: un con trol, una conteniendo caraotas negras (15% p/p y otra con avena (15% p/p. La concentración del colesterol total sérico disminuyo 50,56% en el grupo alimentado con avena y 40,52% en el alimentado con caraotas. Así mismo, se observó una disminución de colesterol-LDL de 49,21% en el grupo alimentado con avena y un 42,93% en el grupo alimentado con caraotas. Hubo una reducción de 52,47% del colesterol-HDL en el grupo alimentado con avena y 31,29% para el grupo alimentado con caraotas; esta reducción no es beneficiosa. La concentración de TG séricos fue significativamente menor, un 50,20% para el grupo alimentado con avena y de 51,8% para el grupo alimentado con caraota. La disminución de los lípidos séricos debido a la dieta, con avena o con caraotas, mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control, pero, no entre ellas. La consideración de estos resultados en el caso de la salud humana es bien importante, particularmente en la disminución de la prevalencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares. El efecto de FD sobre los niveles de colesterol-HDL, son hasta los momentos, contradictoriosThe consumption of foods rich in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (DF favorably affects the serum lipid profile by lowering total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of consumption of diets with oats (Avena sativa and black beans (Pha seo lus vulgaris on the lipid profile of

  12. Contenido de aflatoxinas y proteína en 13 variedades de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Aflatoxin and protein content in 13 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Denise Peña-Betancourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En México el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una semilla leguminosa de elevado consumo (11 kg per cápita anualmente, por lo que su cultivo es amplio en diferentes regiones. En este estudió se determinó la presencia de aflatoxinas en ocho variedades de frijol común y cinco variedades de frijol mejorado; además del contenido de proteína y humedad. En todas las variedades evaluadas el contenido de humedad mostró grandes variaciones (6 a 16%, encontrándose 16% de las variedades estudiadas fuera de la normatividad (In Mexico, the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a highly consumed legume seed (11 kg per capita annually, so that its cultivation it' s quite extensive in different regions. In this study we investigated the presence of aflatoxins in eight common bean varieties and five improved bean varieties, in addition to protein and moisture. In all the varieties tested, the moisture content showed large variations (from 6 to 16%, being 16%of the varieties studied outside the normal (< 12%. The highest content of protein was detected in the improved bean varieties (26.1% and, the lowest in commercial (19.8% ± 3.09 and wild varieties (20.78% ± 1.93. All of them showed aflatoxins on average of 7.46 ng g-¹ and a range from 5 to 13 ng g-¹. The highest level of contamination was observed in the improved bean varieties (9.2 ±2.9 ngg-¹, followed by the commercial ones ±0.95 7.25 ngg-¹ and wild varieties 6 ± 1 ng g-¹. Tannins were detected in wild bean varieties at a level of 0.44%± 0.13. The results obtained confirm the presence of toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the different varieties of common and wild beans at levels permitted by national law, but may pose a risk to the consumer's health due to its high consumption.

  13. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  14. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  15. Effects of Mercury and Chromium on Peroxidase and IAA Oxidase Enzymes in the Seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    PARMAR, Nayna G.; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2005-01-01

    Phaseolus seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in light conditions were treated with 2 different concentrations of 2 heavy metals, mercury (0.05 mM and 0.4 mM) and chromium (0.5 and 1.0 mM). Mercury was given in the form of HgCl2 and chromium was given in the form of K2Cr2O7. Peroxidase activity was measured with 4 different hydrogen donors (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, pyrocatechol and pyrogallol). Both mercury and chromium inhibited root and hypocotyl length. The inhibition was about 50%-80%, d...

  16. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources. PMID:8577647

  17. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO2, and O2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14CO2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO2. After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO2 in combination with low O2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  18. Distribution of 14C-TNT and derivatives in different biochemical compartments of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, C; Scheidemann, P; Klunk, A; Werner, D

    1998-01-01

    (14)C-TNT was used to quantify the uptake rate and metabolic turnover of TNT in Phaseolus vulgaris. Seventeen plants were analysed by a special cell fractionation method with polar and nonpolar solvents and enzymes. We obtained three cytoplasmic fractions and five cell wall derived fractions. The recovery rate was 72% as measured by liquid scintillation counting. (14)C partitioned almost in equal amounts with approximately 50% in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall. The majority of the TNT-metabolites are present in the cytoplasm as was shown by GC/ECD and thin layer chromatography. The(14)C in the cell wall is bound probably resulting in long-term immobilisation of these metabolites. We conclude that plants may also be a model for nitroaromatic turnover and immobilisation in soil components. PMID:19002633

  19. Fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; García-Lemos, Adriana M; Castillo, Katherine; Ortiz, Viviana; López-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Braun, Jerome; Vega, Fernando E

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 Colombian cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. Also common were Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., and Cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13.4 %, 11.7 %, and 7.6 % of seedlings, respectively. Endophytic colonization differed significantly among common bean cultivars and seedling parts, with the highest colonization occurring in the first true leaves of the seedlings. PMID:27109374

  20. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  1. Vitamin D3 affects growth and Ca2+ uptake by Phaseolus vulgaris roots cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin D3 at low concentration (10−9 M) inhibited the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Contrancha) roots in vitro as measured by elongation (14 h) and [3H]-leucine incorporation into protein (2 h), and increased their labelling with 45Ca2+ (2 h). Cycloheximide and puromycin (50 u.M) blocked vitamin D3 stimulation of root 45Ca2+ labelling, indicating that it is mediated by de novo protein synthesis. The calcium ionophore X-537A (10−5JW) induced similar changes both in root elongation and 45Ca2+ uptake (14 h). This may indicate that the inhibitory effects of the sterol on root growth are mediated by changes in Ca2+ fluxes. However, this interpretation should be further strengthened by additional studies as the ionophore may have acted on root growth, affecting physiological processes other than Ca2+ transport. (author)

  2. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  3. Radiation-induced abscopal stimulation of primary leaves in Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight-day old seedlings of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) var. Vaghya were irradiated with X-rays at a dose rate of 100 R/min. Specific part-irradiation on the intact seedling was carried out subsequently giving 5 KR 60Co at 100 R/min dose rate. Results show that: (1) doses over 250 R stimulate dry weight accumulation in primary leaves, (2) the highest effect is seen in 2000 R and 5000 R which also significantly improve chlorophyll level expressed on per disc alone. The effect is comparable to detopping, (3) irradiation of apex is more stimulatory than that of whole plant, (4) irradiation of only primary leaves is slightly inhibitive in the early period but more inhibition is shown by 20th day. (M.G.B.)

  4. Physical, chemical and biological aspects of Phaseolus vulgaris beans irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaseolus vulgaris c.v. black diamond bean, infested with immatures stages of Zabrotes subfusciatus were irradiated with doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy of gamma irradiation and stored for seven months at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Results showed that all doses applied were efficient to control the insect pest, as loss of weight of grains ranged from 1-1.3 per cent as compared to 14.4 per cent in control. The per cent humidity did not show any difference in the irradiated (10.90 to 11.60) as compared to the unirradiated control (13.09). Absorption of water at 6 h of stabilization, also did not show any difference in the quantity (10 to 13 ml). The quantity of tannins was however, reduced with the time of storage as well as with the increase of irradiation dosages. (author)

  5. Distribution of 14C-TNT and derivatives in different biochemical compartments of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-TNT was used to quantify the uptake rate and metabolic turnover of TNT in Phaseolus vulgaris. Seventeen plants were analysed by a special cell fractionation method with polar and nonpolar solvents and enzymes. We obtained three cytoplasmic fractions and five cell wall derived fractions. The recovery rate was 72% as measured by liquid scintillation counting. 14C partitioned almost in equal amounts with approximately 50% in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall. The majority of the TNT-metabolites are present in the cytoplasm as was shown by GC/ECD and thin layer chromatography. The 14C in the cell wall is bound probably resulting in long-term immobilisation of these metabolites. We conclude that plants may also be a model for nitroaromatic turnover and immobilisation in soil components. (orig.)

  6. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a “reinstatement” procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40–45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  7. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A M; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a "reinstatement" procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding - being unreinforced - diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40-45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  8. Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongying; Zhao, Dongyan; Abernathy, Brian; Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Jiang, Ning; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant, as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT-rich 3 bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements that indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome. PMID:27185400

  9. Effect of salt stress on seed germination and seedlings growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilyn Mena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. es una leguminosa alimenticia importante a nivel mundial. La salinidad induce pérdidas en el rendimiento del frijol común, especialmente en las zonas áridas, semiáridas y en las zonas de secano. El objetivo de este estudio se centró en la determinación de los efectos de estrés salino sobre la germinación de semillas y el crecimiento de plantas de Phaseolus vulgaris. El frijol común (color negro cv. ICA Pijao se utilizó como material vegetal. El estrés salino se indujo poniendo las semillas de este cultivo en diferentes soluciones de NaCl: 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 y 300 mM y se utilizó agua desionizada estéril como control. Los resultados mostraron que el estrés por salinidad redujo tanto la germinación de semillas como el crecimiento de las plántulas a concentraciones salinas por encima de 150 mM. En consecuencia, los resultados refuerzan el papel de NaCl como un factor inductor de estrés y también la susceptibilidad de frijol común a la salinidad. Los parámetros evaluados en este trabajo pueden proporcionar nuevos criterios para apoyar a la selección in vitro en los programas de mejoramiento de frijol común para encontrar genotipos tolerantes a estrés salino.

  10. EFFECT ASSESSMENT OF KELPAK SL ON THE BEAN YIELD (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna KOCIRA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulators applied in the cultivation of plants stimulate the processes of life and increase their hardiness to stress conditions, contributing to greater and better quality of yield. One of them is Kelpak SL obtained from brown seaweed species Ecklonia maxima. The aim of experiment carried out was to assess a potential effect of Kelpak SL on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Aura yield. The trial was carried out during 2010-2011 years on the experimental field of Institute of Agricultural Sciences The State School of Higher Education in Chem. Treatments with Kelpak were carried out in 2 different concentrations 0.2 percent and 0.4 percent and in two application frequencies (one application in the 2 3 leaves stage or two applications first in the 2 3 leaves stage and second at the beginning of the beans blooming. Received results were compared with the control where Kelpak was not applied. The number and the weight of seeds, the number of pods and the weight of thousand seeds per 1 m2 were recorded. The beneficial effect of seaweed extract of Ecklonia maxima on the yield of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. was demonstrated. The highest number and weight of seeds and number of pods were obtainment in the combination of once application with 0.2 % solution of Kelpak SL in 2010 and once application with 0.4 % solution of Kelpak SL in 2011. Application of Kelpak SL significantly increased number and weight of seeds and number of pods compared with the control where Kelpak SL was not applied.

  11. Activation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) [alpha]-amylase inhibitor requires proteolytic processing of the proprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueyo, J.J.; Hunt, D.C.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain a plant defense protein that inhibits the [alpha]-amylases of mammals and insects. This [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]Al) is synthesized as a proprotein on the endoplasmic reticulum and is proteolytically processed after arrival in the protein storage vacuoles to polypeptides of relative molecular weight (M[sub r]) 15,000 to 18,000. The authors report two types of evidence that proteolytic processing is linked to activation of the inhibitory activity. First, by surveying seed extracts of wild accessions of P. vulgaris and other species in the genus Phaseolus, they found that antibodies to [alpha]Al recognize large (M[sub r] 30,000-35,000) polypeptides as well as typical [alpha]Al processing products (M[sub r] 15,000-18,000). [alpha]Al activity was found in all extracts that had the typical [alpha]Al processed polypeptides, but was absent from seed extracts that lacked such polypeptides. Second, they made a mutant [alpha]Al in which asparagine-77 is changed to aspartic acid-77. This mutation slows down the proteolytic processing of pro-[alpha]Al when the gene is expressed in tobacco. When pro-[alpha]Al was separated from mature [alpha]Al by gel filtration, pro-[alpha]Al was found not to have [alpha]-amylase inhibitory activity. The authors interpret these results to mean that formation of the active inhibitor is causally related to proteolytic processing of the proprotein. They suggest that the polypeptide cleavage removes a conformation constraint on the precursor to produce the biochemically active molecule. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Secondary metabolite perturbations in Phaseolus vulgaris leaves due to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramabulana, T; Mavunda, R D; Steenkamp, P A; Piater, L A; Dubery, I A; Madala, N E

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition in which the balance between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is disturbed. However, plants have developed a very sophisticated mechanism to mitigate the effect of ROS by constantly adjusting the concentration thereof to acceptable levels. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the factors which results in oxidative stress. In the current study, ionizing gamma radiation generated from a Cobalt-60 source was used to induce oxidative stress in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. Plants were irradiated with several radiation doses, with 2 kGy found to be the optimal, non-lethal dose. Metabolite distribution patterns from irradiated and non-irradiated plants were analyzed using UHPLC-qTOF-MS and multivariate data models such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). Metabolites such as hydroxycinnamic phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenes, and a novel chalcone were found to be perturbed in P. vulgaris seedlings treated with the aforementioned conditions. The results suggest that there is a compensatory link between constitutive protectants and inducible responses to injury as well as defense against oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation. The current study is also the first to illustrate the power of a metabolomics approach to decipher the effect of gamma radiation on crop plants. PMID:26512968

  13. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  14. Effect of Bacterial Distribution and Activity on Conjugal Gene Transfer on the Phylloplane of the Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke B.; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had the gfp gene inserted downstream of a lac promoter. A chromosomal insertion of lacIq prevented expression of the gfp gene. The recipient (P. putida KT2440) had a chromosomal tetracycline resistance...

  15. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Pankaj; Dubey Ramesh Chandra; Maheshwari Dinesh Kumar; Park Yong-Ha; Bajpai Vivek K.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA) positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc alon...

  16. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al–drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviatio...

  17. Co-ordinated synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes in biologically-stressed cells of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Carole L; Bell, John N.; Ryder, Thomas B.; Bailey, John A.; Schuch, Wolfgang; Bolwell, G. Paul; Robbins, Mark P.; Dixon, Richard A.; Lamb, Chris J.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the rates of synthesis of three enzymes of phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (dwarf French bean) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled enzyme subunits with mono-specific antisera. Elicitor causes marked, rapid but transient co-ordinated increases in the rate of synthesis of phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of accu...

  18. Elicitor rapidly induces chalcone synthase mRNA in Phaseolus vulgaris cells at the onset of the phytoalexin defense response

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Thomas B.; Cramer, Carole L; Bell, John N.; Robbins, Mark P.; Dixon, Richard A.; Lamb, Chris J.

    1984-01-01

    DNAs complementary to poly(A)+ RNA present in elicitor-treated cells of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were inserted into pBR325 and used to transform Escherichia coli strain JA221. A clone was identified that contained sequences complementary to mRNA encoding chalcone synthase, a regulatory enzyme of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, which catalyzes the first reaction of a branch pathway specific to flavonoid and isoflavonoid biosynthesis. Rapid, marked but transient increases in chalcone synthase mRNA i...

  19. Effect of Some Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Yield, Yield Components of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Aras 98)

    OpenAIRE

    Tozlu, Elif; Karagöz, Kenan; Babagil, G. Emel; Dizikısa, Tülay; Kotan, Recep

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) belongs to the family Leguminosae, and is a diverse food resource of high nutritional value. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are a group of bacteria that actively colonize plants, increase plant growth and yield, and suppres plant disease. In this study, the effectiveness of ten PGPBs (Alcaligenes piechaudii strain RK-136, Bacillus megaterium strain M-3, Bacillus pumilus  strain M-13, Bacillus subtilis  strain BA-142, Erwinia rhapontic...

  20. Comparison of growth, nitrogen metabolism and organ weights in piglets and rats fed on diets containing Phaseolus vulgaris beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, J; van der Poel, A F; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W

    1990-11-01

    The effects of lectins in the diet have been mainly studied in rats. An important question is whether results obtained in rats can be extrapolated to larger animals like the pig. Phaseolus vulgaris beans are rich in toxic lectins. Therefore a study was carried out to compare the effects of diets containing 200 g Phaseolus vulgaris beans (raw or toasted)/kg in rats and piglets. Live-weight gain, nitrogen digestibility and N balance were much lower in piglets than in rats fed on diets containing raw beans. Live-weight gain and N balance were slightly negative in the piglets. When toasted beans were given, live-weight gain and N balance values were reduced in piglets but hardly at all in rats. Giving raw beans caused hypertrophy of the pancreas in the rats but in piglets the weight of the pancreas was reduced. Spleen weight was depressed in the piglets but not in the rats. Weight of liver was not affected in either animal species. When toasted beans were given no effects on the weights of pancreas, spleen or liver were found in piglets or rats. It was concluded that the piglet is much more sensitive to antinutritional factors in the Phaseolus vulgaris bean than the rat. PMID:2265182

  1. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Maria de França; José Vargas de Oliveira; Alberto Belo Esteves Filho; Cynara Moura de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco), lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush), pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.), rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus) oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus...

  2. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  3. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  4. Interferência das plantas daninhas no feijoeiro carioca Weed interference in carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    T.P. Salgado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris plantado em janeiro. A semeadura do cv. Carioca foi feita no sistema convencional e os tratamentos constaram de dois grupos: no primeiro, a cultura do feijão permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas desde a emergência até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias (todo o ciclo da cultura; no segundo, a cultura permaneceu sob interferência desde a semeadura até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente, totalizando assim 14 tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A comunidade infestante foi composta por 13 espécies, com Alternanthera tenella, Blaenvillea rhomboidea e Cenchrus echinatus se destacandodas demais, representando 63,4% do total de indivíduos. O período anterior à interferência (PAI ocorreu até os 17 dias após emergência da cultura, e o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI ocorreu até 25 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo de vida do feijoeiro reduziu-lhe a produtividade em 67%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in 'Carioca' bean (Phaseolus vulgaris during the dry season. The assay was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo-UNESP - Jaboticabal. The bean plants were sown under the conventional system. The experimental treatments consisted of two groups: in the first, the bean crop remained free of weed interference from emergence up to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 days (the entire crop cycle. In the second, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of sowing up to the same periods previously described, totalizing fourteen experimental treatments. The experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The weed community

  5. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants to low-let ionizing radiation: Growth and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Pugliese, M.; Virzo De Santo, A.; De Maio, A.

    2013-10-01

    The scenarios for the long-term habitation of space platforms and planetary stations involve plants as fundamental part of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) to support the crew needs. Several constraints may limit plant growth in space: among them ionizing radiation is recognized to severely affect plant cell at morphological, physiological and biochemical level. In this work, plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were subjected to four different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on this species and to analyze possible mechanisms carried out to overcome the radiation injuries. The effects of X-rays on plant growth were assessed by measuring stem elongation, number of internodes and leaf dry weight. The integrity of photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by photosynthetic pigment composition and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, whereas changes in total antioxidant pool and glutathione S transferase activity (GST) were utilized as markers of oxidative stress. The distribution of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues as natural shielding against radiation was also determined. Irradiation of plants at 0.3 and 10 Gy did not determine differences in all considered parameters as compared to control. On the contrary, at 50 and 100 Gy a reduction of plant growth and a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds and a decrease in total antioxidant content and GST activity were found. Only a slight reduction of Rubisco activity in leaves irradiated at 50 and 100 Gy was found. The overall results indicate P. vulgaris as a species with a good potential to face ionizing radiation and suggest its suitability for utilization in BLSSs.

  6. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m-2 day-1 biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 μm paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40μm) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m-2 day-1 UV-BBE with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation

  7. PvTFDB: a Phaseolus vulgaris transcription factors database for expediting functional genomics in legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Bonthala, V.S.; Gajula, MNV Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)] is one of the essential proteinaceous vegetables grown in developing countries. However, its production is challenged by low yields caused by numerous biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Regulatory transcription factors (TFs) symbolize a key component of the genome and are the most significant targets for producing stress tolerant crop and hence functional genomic studies of these TFs are important. Therefore, here we have constructed a web-accessible TFs database for P. vulgaris, called PvTFDB, which contains 2370 putative TF gene models in 49 TF families. This database provides a comprehensive information for each of the identified TF that includes sequence data, functional annotation, SSRs with their primer sets, protein physical properties, chromosomal location, phylogeny, tissue-specific gene expression data, orthologues, cis-regulatory elements and gene ontology (GO) assignment. Altogether, this information would be used in expediting the functional genomic studies of a specific TF(s) of interest. The objectives of this database are to understand functional genomics study of common bean TFs and recognize the regulatory mechanisms underlying various stress responses to ease breeding strategy for variety production through a couple of search interfaces including gene ID, functional annotation and browsing interfaces including by family and by chromosome. This database will also serve as a promising central repository for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. In addition, this database provide the user unrestricted public access and the user can download entire data present in the database freely. Database URL: http://www.multiomics.in/PvTFDB/ PMID:27465131

  8. Constraints to hydraulic acclimation under reduced light in two contrasting Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, Steven L; Rettedal, David D; Harmon, Derek A; Beukelman, MacKenzie R

    2014-08-01

    Two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were grown under three light levels to determine if hydraulic acclimation to light occurs in herbaceous annuals and whether intraspecific trade-offs constrain hydraulic traits. Acclimation occurred in response to reduced light and included decreased stomatal density (SD) and increased specific leaf area (SLA). Reduced light resulted in lower wood density (WD); decreased cavitation resistance, measured as the xylem pressure causing a 50 % reduction in stem conductivity (P50); and increased hydraulic capacity, measured as average leaf mass specific transpiration (E(LM)). Significant or marginally significant trade-offs between P50 and WD, WD and E(LM), and E(LM) and P50 reflected variation due to both genotype and environmental effects. A trade-off between WD and P50 within one cultivar indicated that morphological adjustment was constrained. Coordinated changes in WD, P50, and E(LM) within each cultivar in response to light were consistent with trade-offs constraining plasticity. A water-use efficiency (WUE, measured as δ(13)C) versus hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) trade-off was observed within each cultivar, further indicating that hydraulic trade-offs can constrain acclimation. Larger plants had lower hydraulic capacity (E(LM)) but greater cavitation resistance, WD, and WUE. Distinct hydraulic strategies were observed with the cultivar adapted to irrigated conditions having higher stomatal conductance and stem flow rates. The cultivar adapted to rain-fed conditions had higher leaf area and greater cavitation resistance. Hydraulic trade-offs were observed within the herbaceous P. vulgaris resulting from both genotype and environmental effects. Trade-offs within a cultivar reflected constraints to hydraulic acclimation in response to changing light. PMID:24863433

  9. PvTFDB: a Phaseolus vulgaris transcription factors database for expediting functional genomics in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Bonthala, V S; Gajula, Mnv Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)] is one of the essential proteinaceous vegetables grown in developing countries. However, its production is challenged by low yields caused by numerous biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Regulatory transcription factors (TFs) symbolize a key component of the genome and are the most significant targets for producing stress tolerant crop and hence functional genomic studies of these TFs are important. Therefore, here we have constructed a web-accessible TFs database for P. vulgaris, called PvTFDB, which contains 2370 putative TF gene models in 49 TF families. This database provides a comprehensive information for each of the identified TF that includes sequence data, functional annotation, SSRs with their primer sets, protein physical properties, chromosomal location, phylogeny, tissue-specific gene expression data, orthologues, cis-regulatory elements and gene ontology (GO) assignment. Altogether, this information would be used in expediting the functional genomic studies of a specific TF(s) of interest. The objectives of this database are to understand functional genomics study of common bean TFs and recognize the regulatory mechanisms underlying various stress responses to ease breeding strategy for variety production through a couple of search interfaces including gene ID, functional annotation and browsing interfaces including by family and by chromosome. This database will also serve as a promising central repository for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. In addition, this database provide the user unrestricted public access and the user can download entire data present in the database freely.Database URL: http://www.multiomics.in/PvTFDB/. PMID:27465131

  10. Comparative analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family in Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

    2016-04-01

    The Mlo gene was discovered in barley because the mutant 'mlo' allele conferred broad-spectrum, non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. The Mlo genes also play important roles in growth and development of plants, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The Mlo gene family has been characterized in several crop species, but only a single legume species, soybean (Glycine max L.), has been investigated so far. The present report describes in silico identification of 18 CcMlo and 20 PvMlo genes in the important legume crops Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. and Phaseolus vulgaris L., respectively. In silico analysis of gene organization, protein properties and conserved domains revealed that the C. cajan and P. vulgaris Mlo gene paralogs are more divergent from each other than from their orthologous pairs. The comparative phylogenetic analysis classified CcMlo and PvMlo genes into three major clades. A comparative analysis of CcMlo and PvMlo proteins with the G. max Mlo proteins indicated close association of one CcMlo, one PvMlo with two GmMlo genes, indicating that there was no further expansion of the Mlo gene family after the separation of these species. Thus, most of the diploid species of eudicots might be expected to contain 15-20 Mlo genes. The genes CcMlo12 and 14, and PvMlo11 and 12 are predicted to participate in powdery mildew resistance. If this prediction were verified, these genes could be targeted by TILLING or CRISPR to isolate powdery mildew resistant mutants. PMID:26961357

  11. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving. PMID:23262270

  12. Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni

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    Rezende Viviane Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic control of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni was studied using segregating populations from the bean variety crosses Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686. F2 plants, together with the parents, were inoculated and evaluated using a scale of values from one (plant without symptoms to nine (completely infected plant. F2 plants were harvested individually, and F2:3 families were obtained. These families were evaluated in an 11 x 11 and 12 x 12 simple lattice statistical design for the Jalo x ESAL 686 and ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 crosses, respectively, using the same value scale as the F2 generation. The segregation observed in F2 plants and F2:3 families indicated that two genes are involved in genetic control, due to a double recessive epistasis. The high linear regression coefficient (b between F2 plants and their F2:3 family, 0.66 for ESAL 550 x ESAL 686 cross, and 0.71 for Jalo x ESAL 686 cross, showed that the trait is highly heritable.

  13. Inducing of multiple shoots from cotyledonary node of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment were carried out in order to compare three methods of multiple shoot formation and plantlet production in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) All experiments utilized excised cotyledonary nodes from two week old seedling which were germinated on the medium containing BA. The highest number of shoots were produced on excised cotyledonary nodes which were cultured on the medium containing 5 mg/1 BA and 0.005 mg/l NNA. Elongated shoots from each treatments were rooted on the rooting medium to produce the complete plantlets. The highest number of complete plantlets were obtained from cotyledonary nodes which were cultured on the medium containing 0.05 mg/l BA and 0.005 mg/l NAA and 15 % coconut milk. In treating bean seeds with the gamma-rays at 50 Gy before germinating them on the medium containing BA, the number of shoots on the excised cotyledonary nodes was slightly decreased while the number of complete plantlet was slightly increased as compared with the controls

  14. Mutation induction in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for improvement of protein content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two Phaseolus vulgaris varieties, Cuarenteno and Suchitan, were treated with different gamma ray doses. The mutagenic effects on M1 are briefly reported. Seeds of each selected M1 plant were grown individually as a single M2 family. Seed protein content for the M2 families was estimated using the micro-Kjeldahl method. Twenty-one families descending from Cuarenteno and 36 families descending from Suchitan with more than 25% protein content were grown and selection was carried out between and within them. The selected plants were grown as M4 families and again selection was carried out between them. During the M5 generation, 77 mutants, along with 3 Suchitan and 20 Cuarenteno selected lines, were evaluated for yield and protein content. The results from the investigation showed that in the M2 generation, radiation treatments increased the variability of the seed protein content. In the M5 generation, no significant progress, as compared with the control, was achieved in seed protein content for mutants descended from Cuarenteno. On the other hand, increases in protein content and yield were achieved for the mutants descended from Suchitan. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Toxicity of Some Cinnamic Acid Derivatives to Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Alexandra JITĂREANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives are an important class of biologically active compounds, playing an important role in the plants’ development, but may also present a wide range of actions: antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, antitumoral. The present study investigated the toxicity of ten cinnamic acid derivatives on Phaseolus vulgaris, this being the first step in evaluating their pharmacotoxicological potential (usually, plant toxicity tests are used for ecotoxicity assessment, but they can also provide some useful general information about the toxic potential of a pharmaceutical substance to living organisms. The bean seeds were exposed to three different concentrations of each substance (28.6 μg/cm2, 57.3 μg/cm2, 114.6 μg/cm2. All the tests were conducted in Petri dishes, using an artificial substrate (Whatman filter paper impregnated with the investigated compounds. The analyzed elements were seedling length, root length, percentage of seeds that developed into seedlings, fresh seedling weight and the total polyphenols content. The tested compounds showed phytotoxic effects, inhibiting the growth of the plants and the biosynthesis of polyphenols as compared to the control. The substances with high logP values showed greater phytotoxic potential, but to establish an exact correlation between hydrophobicity and toxicity of the molecules a QSAR analysis must be further done.

  16. UV-B increases the harvest index of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of small changes in natural UV-B on the photosynthesis, pigmentation, flowering and yield of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Label) were studied. To obtain a relatively natural growth environment, the plants were grown in small, half-open greenhouses of UV-transmitting Plexiglas of different thickness (3 and 5 mm), resulting in an 8% difference in the weighted UV-B reaching the plants. Although the UV-B doses used did not significantly influence photosynthesis on a leaf area basis during vegetative growth, important changes in biomass allocation were noted. A UV-B-O induced reduction in leaf area during the period of vegetative growth resulted in decreased dry weight after 57 d. During the flowering and pod-filling stages (57–79.d after planting), however, plants grown at high UV-B retained their photosynthetic capacity longer: maximal photosynthesis, chlorophyll and N content of the leaves were higher under the higher UV-B dose at a plant age of 79 d. Combined with an increased allocation under the higher UV-B dose of both N and biomass to the pods, this resulted in a small increase in yield and an important increase in harvest index with increased UV-B

  17. Genetic and molecular characterization of the I locus of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, C Eduardo; Astua-Monge, Gustavo; Jones, Valerie; Plyler, Tammy R; Sakiyama, Ney S; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2006-02-01

    The I locus of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, controls the development of four different phenotypes in response to inoculation with Bean common mosaic virus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus, several other related potyviruses, and one comovirus. We have generated a high-resolution linkage map around this locus and have aligned it with a physical map constructed with BAC clones. These clones were obtained from a library of the cultivar "Sprite," which carries the dominant allele at the I locus. We have identified a large cluster of TIR-NBS-LRR sequences associated within this locus, which extends over a distance >425 kb. Bean cultivars from the Andean or Mesoamerican gene pool that contain the dominant allele share the same haplotypes as revealed by gel blot hybridizations with a TIR probe. In contrast, beans with a recessive allele display simpler and variable haplotypes. A survey of wild accessions from Argentina to Mexico showed that this multigene family has expanded significantly during evolution and domestication. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the TIR family of genes plays a role in the response to inoculations with BCMV or BCMNV. PMID:16322513

  18. Production of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes with Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. Gray and Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. L. Kass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adding mulch biomass prior to crop seeding may improve production of tropical soil. We evaluated the response of four bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes to the addition of mulch biomass from Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. Gray and Cajanus cajan L. Millsp. The addition of mulch did not result in significant differences (p < 0.05 in soil characteristics when compared to a control (no mulch addition except for soil potassium (K, which was significantly greater (p < 0.05 in the T. diversifolia mulch biomass treatment. Bean yield and shoot biomass were significantly greater (p < 0.05 in the mulch biomass treatments compared to the control (no biomass added. In these treatments, Phosphorus (P-efficient bean genotypes had a significantly greater (p < 0.05 yield and shoot biomass. Bean shoot nutrient concentrations were significantly different (p < 0.05 between mulch biomass treatments and between bean genotypes (P, K and magnesium (Mg only. Phosphorus utilization and uptake efficiencies were significantly different (p < 0.05 between mulch biomass treatments and between bean genotypes. Bean root biomass was not significantly different (p < 0.05 between mulch biomass treatments, but was significantly different (p < 0.05 between bean genotypes. The number of root nodules was significantly greater (p < 0.05 in the T. diversifolia mulch biomass treatment and was significantly different between bean genotypes.

  19. DETERMINACIÓN DE INDICADORES DE CALIDAD EN 11 GENOTIPOS DE LA ESPECIE Phaseolus vulgaris, L

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    Yuliem Mederos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la calidad en el grano de frijol permite brindar una mayor información tanto a productores como a consumidores. La calidad en el grano de frijol está basada en la determinación de sus características químicas, físicas y culinarias. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo la caracterización de un grupo de 11 genotipos de frijol de la especie Phaseolus vulgaris L, teniendo en cuenta sus características físicas, referidas al peso y volumen de 100 granos, los porcentajes de humedad y testa. Asimismo, se evaluaron las características culinarias, representadas por la capacidad de absorción de agua y el tiempo de cocción. Para el desarrollo de los análisis y procesamiento de datos, se emplearon las normas adecuadas en cada caso y se utilizó el paquete estadístico Statgraphics. Los resultados mostraron que las mejores variedades de grano rojo, atendiendo a una reducción del tiempo de cocción, fueron Lágrimas rojas, Hatuey 24 y Wacute; atendiendo al mismo criterio, las correspondientes a los granos de color negro fueron Tazumal, P 2170 y P 456.

  20. INDICADORES DE LA CALIDAD EN EL GRANO DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliem Mederos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La calidad es el conjunto de características químicas y físicas, relacionadas con el valor nutritivo-sanitario, industrial y comercial del producto agrícola, que puede ser dedicado para la alimentación humana o animal. El presente trabajo trata los temas relacionados con la calidad física y nutricional de los granos de frijol, en particular de la especie Phaseolus vulgaris L. destacando sus características, así como la importancia que estas revisten en la salud humana. Este trabajo permitió identificar como los principales indicadores y parámetros de calidad en el grano de frijol a los contenidos de proteínas totales, fibra, almidones, micronutrientes, la capacidad de absorción de agua, los factores antinutricionales, eltiempo de cocción y las condiciones y el tiempo de almacenamiento, teniendo una particular importancia dentro de todos ellos el contenido de factores antinutricionales, así como el tiempo de cocción sujeto a las condiciones y el tiempo de almacenamiento.

  1. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from 60Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M1 generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M2 generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  2. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 200C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  3. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  4. Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpana Nanjareddy; Lourdes Blanco; Manoj-Kumar Arthikala; Xochitl Alvarado Affantrange; Federico Snchez; Miguel Lara

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50 mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and en-hanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean.

  5. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  6. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  7. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-07-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  8. Effect of silicon on manganese tolerance of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of silicon on manganese tolerance of beam plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. 'Red Kidney') grown in water culture was studied at different levels of magnenese supply. Without silicon, growth depression and toxicity symptoms occurred already at 5 X 10-4 mM Mn in the nutrient solution. After addition of Aerosil (0.75 ppm Si), the plants tolerated 5 X 10-3 mM Mn and, at a higher silicon supply of 40 ppm, as much as 10-2 mM Mn in the nutrient solution without any growth depression. This increase in manganese tolerance was not caused by a depressing effect of silicon on uptake or translocation of manganese but rather by an increase in the manganese tolerance of the leaf tissue. In absence of silicon, 100 ppm Mn was already toxic for the leaf tissue, whereas with a supply of 40 ppm Si, this 'critical level' in the leaves was increased to more than 1000 ppm Mn. At lower manganese levels in the leaf tissue, a molar ratio Si/Mn of 6 within the tissue was sufficient to prevent manganese toxicity. Above 1000 ppm Mn, however, even a much wider Si/Mn ratio (> 20) could not prevent growth depression by manganese toxicity. (Auth.)

  9. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean–rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618

  10. Regulation of Small RNAs and Corresponding Targets in Nod Factor-Induced Phaseolus vulgaris Root Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formey, Damien; Martín-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Leija, Alfonso; Santana, Olivia; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis; Hernández, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    A genome-wide analysis identified the set of small RNAs (sRNAs) from the agronomical important legume Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), including novel P. vulgaris-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially important for the regulation of the rhizobia-symbiotic process. Generally, novel miRNAs are difficult to identify and study because they are very lowly expressed in a tissue- or cell-specific manner. In this work, we aimed to analyze sRNAs from common bean root hairs (RH), a single-cell model, induced with pure Rhizobium etli nodulation factors (NF), a unique type of signal molecule. The sequence analysis of samples from NF-induced and control libraries led to the identity of 132 mature miRNAs, including 63 novel miRNAs and 1984 phasiRNAs. From these, six miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during NF induction, including one novel miRNA: miR-RH82. A parallel degradome analysis of the same samples revealed 29 targets potentially cleaved by novel miRNAs specifically in NF-induced RH samples; however, these novel miRNAs were not differentially accumulated in this tissue. This study reveals Phaseolus vulgaris-specific novel miRNA candidates and their corresponding targets that meet all criteria to be involved in the regulation of the early nodulation events, thus setting the basis for exploring miRNA-mediated improvement of the common bean-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27271618

  11. Algunos indicadores morfológicos y bioquímicos de cinco variedades de Phaseolus vulgaris L. bajo condiciones de sequía. Some morphologic and biochemical markers of five varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly Marlene Mita Poma; Silvia Alemán García; Yunel Pérez Hernández; Rodolfo Darias Rodríguez; Leticia Fuentes Alfonso; Maryla Sosa del Castillo; Amalia Domínguez Suárez

    2012-01-01

    El frijol común constituye una de las principales fuentes de alimentación. La sequía es uno de los factores que incide negativamente sobre este cultivo. El objetivo de este  trabajo es estudiar la respuesta a  estrés hídrico de 5 variedades de  Phaseolus vulgaris L.  comercializadas en Cuba, las  cuales fueron sometidas a diferentes riegos: 70%, 40%  y 20% capacidad de campo (CC). A los 15 días, de aplicar los riegos menc...

  12. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  13. Evidence for the endophytic colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris(common bean roots by the diazotroph Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Schmidt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium, which associates with important agricultural plants. In the present study, we have investigated the attachment to and internal colonization of Phaseolus vulgaris roots by the H. seropedicae wild-type strain SMR1 and by a strain of H. seropedicae expressing a red fluorescent protein (DsRed to track the bacterium in the plant tissues. Two-day-old P. vulgaris roots were incubated at 30°C for 15 min with 6 x 10(8 CFU/mL H. seropedicae SMR1 or RAM4. Three days after inoculation, 4 x 10(4 cells of endophytic H. seropedicae SMR1 were recovered per gram of fresh root, and 9 days after inoculation the number of endophytes increased to 4 x 10(6 CFU/g. The identity of the recovered bacteria was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene. Furthermore, confocal microscopy of P. vulgaris roots inoculated with H. seropedicae RAM4 showed that the bacterial cells were attached to the root surface 15 min after inoculation; fluorescent bacteria were visible in the internal tissues after 24 h and were found in the central cylinder after 72 h, showing that H. seropedicae RAM4 is capable of colonizing the roots of the dicotyledon P. vulgaris. Determination of dry weight of common bean inoculated with H. seropedicae SMR1 suggested that this bacterium has a negative effect on the growth of P. vulgaris.

  14. Analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor) in a combined method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozen, J P; de Groot, J

    1991-01-01

    Buffered saline extraction, affinity chromatography, and Folin-BSA protein assay were used consecutively to provide a combined method for analysis of trypsin inhibitors and lectins in white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Processor). The method was tested by following the decrease of both antinutritional factors by germination of the beans for 7 days at 20 degrees C. Repeatability coefficients of variation were 2-7.4% for the trypsin inhibitors and 2.2-10% for the lectins. After 7 days of germination, trypsin inhibitors and lectins were reduced by 72 and 92%, respectively. PMID:1757418

  15. Commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (starch stopper) increases ileal endogenous amino acid and crude protein losses in the growing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, A; Moughan, P J; Bos, C; Tome, D

    2006-07-12

    The effect of a commercial Phaseolus vulgaris extract (PVE, starch stopper) on ileal and fecal endogenous protein losses was studied. Growing rats were fed for 14 days a protein-free diet containing PVE at a nutritional concentration of 0% (PF1), 0.4% (PF2), or 1.1% PVE (PF3) or 1.1% autoclaved PVE (PF4). An indigestible marker (TiO(2)) was included in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses were significantly higher (P antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor, lectin) present in the PVE. PMID:16819935

  16. Gamma radiation effects on some nutritional and physico-chemical characteristics of stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation effects on physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of three Brazilian varieties of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) - Catu, Rajado and Carioca -were studied. The analytical parameters were obtained by the determination of soaking and cooking times, biological value in rats, protein electrophoretic profile, reductors sugars, oligosaccharides, fiber and fatty acids content. Also, amyloglucosidase, phytohemagglutinins, α-amylase and tryptic inhibitors activities were analysed. It was observed the gamma radiation until determined doses promotes changes on those parameters subsequently reducing substantially the cooking time without modification of the biological value of the proteins. This alteration was particularly noticed in the hard-to-cook beans. (author)

  17. Utilization of fertilizer phosphorus by French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), as influenced by depth of placement and time of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of fertilizer phosphorus by French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as influenced by depth of placement and time of application was studied in a field experiment using 32P labelled single superphosphate. Band placement of fertilizer phosphorus at 5 cm depth below the seed resulted in maximum utilization, which was significantly higher than band placement on the surface. Application in two splits resulted in much lower uptake and utilization of applied phosphorus. Top dressing 20 days after sowing resulted in lower uptake and utilization than basal application. (author). 2 tabs., 3 refs

  18. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...... the gfp gene inserted downstream of a lac promoter. A chromosomal insertion of lacI(q) prevented expression of the gfp gene. The recipient (P. putida KT2440) had a chromosomal tetracycline resistance marker. Thus, transconjugants could be enumerated by plating and visualized in situ as green fluorescent...

  19. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces in Brazil, a secondary center of diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Burle, Marília Lobo; Fonseca, Jaime Roberto; Kami, James A.; Gepts, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is the most important source of human dietary protein in that country. This study assessed the genetic diversity and the structure of a sample of 279 geo-referenced common bean landraces from Brazil, using molecular markers. Sixty-seven microsatellite markers spread over the 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome, as well as Phaseolin, PvTFL1y, APA and four SCAR markers were used. As expected, the s...

  20. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16 kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an I C 5 0 value of about 0.6  M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibito...

  1. Comparisons of phaseolin type andα-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yao; Yibo Hu; Yingying; Zhu Yue Gao; Guixing Ren

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phaseolin type andα-amylase (αAI) level in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) accessions deposited in the Chinese National Genebank. The 40 accessions sampled were common varieties originating in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, and Africa. No Inca (I-) phaseolin was observed in the accessions. Only four accessions contained Tendergreen (T-) phaseolin and the remaining 36 contained Sanilac (S-) phaseolin. αAI proteins extracted from nine accessions showed higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the control (Phase 2, IC50=0.65μg). These common bean accessions have potential use as nutraceutical ingredients.

  2. Oviposition, Development and Survivorship of the sweetpotato Whitefly Bemisia tabaci on Soybean, Glycine max, and the Garden Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mansaray, Augustine; Sundufu, Abu James

    2009-01-01

    Oviposition, development and survivorship of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were evaluated on soybean and garden bean under laboratory conditions of 26.0 ± 0.5 °C, 70 – 80% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). B. tabaci deposited more eggs and survivorship of nymphs was significantly greater in a choice-test on soybean, Glycine max L. (Merr.) (Fabeles: Fabaceae), compared to the garden bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Overall developmental time from egg to adult eclosion was l...

  3. Electron microscopical studies of defence mechanisms of Phaseolus vulgaris against Uromyces phaseoli and Pseudomonas phaseolicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucanes isolated from the germ-tube cell walls of Uromyces phaseoli were effective as elicitors and induced phytoalexin accumulation and protection against bean rust fungus in susceptible primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean). Both effects were first visible two days after infiltration of the glucane elicitor into the bean tissue. Five days after elicitor treatment, rust development was completely inhibited. Elicitor treatment had no effect on spore germination and appressoria formation of leaf surfaces. Two days after inoculation in treated leaves, many substomatal vesicles were destroyed or heavily damaged. The absence of haustoria was apparently related to the deposition of electron dense material between the plasmalemma and cell wall of plant cells at the sites of contact between host and fungal cells. These deposits were found in the treated tissue two days after inoculation in response to contact with disorganized substomatal vesicles and cells of intercellular hyphae. In elicitor treated, non-inoculated tissue, as well as in water treated, inoculated control tissue, no comparable deposition of electron dense material was observed. Investigations of the bean/bacterial host-parasite interaction indicated that cells of Pseudomonas phaseolicola were entrapped against plant cell walls in both susceptible (Red Kidney) and resistant (Red Mexican) cultivars of French bean. After staining of samples with ruthenium red for electron microscopy, pectic polysaccharides within plant cell walls became particularly well contrasted, as did fibrillar material connecting bacteria to the plant cell walls. Ruthenium red also stains acidic bacterial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and some of the fibrillar material in intercellular spaces is probably from this source. 22 refs, 7 figs

  4. Microsatellite characterization of Andean races of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, M W; Díaz, J M; Hidalgo, R; Díaz, L M; Duque, M C

    2007-12-01

    The Andean gene pool of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has high levels of morphological diversity in terms of seed color and size, growth habit and agro-ecological adaptation, but previously was characterized by low levels of molecular marker diversity. Three races have been described within the Andean gene pool: Chile, Nueva Granada and Peru. The objective of this study was to characterize a collection of 123 genotypes representing Andean bean diversity with 33 microsatellite markers that have been useful for characterizing race structure in common beans. The genotypes were from both the primary center of origin as well as secondary centers of diversity to which Andean beans spread and represented all three races of the gene pool. In addition we evaluated a collection of landraces from Colombia to determine if the Nueva Granada and Peru races could be distinguished in genotypes from the northern range of the primary center. Multiple correspondence analyses of the Andean race representatives identified two predominant groups corresponding to the Nueva Granada and Peru races. Some of the Chile race representatives formed a separate group but several that had been defined previously as from this race grouped with the other races. Gene flow was more notable between Nueva Granada and Peru races than between these races and the Chile race. Among the Colombian genotypes, the Nueva Granada and Peru races were identified and introgression between these two races was especially notable. The genetic diversity within the Colombian genotypes was high, reaffirming the importance of this region as an important source of germplasm. Results of this study suggest that the morphological classification of all climbing beans as Peru race genotypes and all bush beans as Nueva Granada race genotypes is erroneous and that growth habit traits have been mixed in both races, requiring a re-adjustment in the concept of morphological races in Andean beans. PMID:17924092

  5. EFFECTIVENESS INACTIVATION OF TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM BRAZILIAN CULTIVARS OF BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli Cristina PAIVA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The trypsin inhibitor, an antinutritional factor, which is abundant in dycotiledoneous and monocotyledoneous, is usually inactivated by heating treatment. The infl uence of pressure-cooking (121°C and 141kPa for 30 min on, trypsin inhibitors concentration and inhibitors reactivation from ten Brazilian beans varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. namely: IAPAR-14, IAC-Carioca, Rudá, Corrente, IAC-Aruã, IAPAR-16, IAPAR-57, IACCarioca Pyatã, Carioca, Aporé, were investigated. The inhibitors reactivation was evaluated in comparison with the activity of raw and pressure-cooking. For raw the in vitro protein digestibility mean values ranged from 40% (in Carioca cultivar to 60% (in IAC-Aruã cultivar, showing an increase from 11% to 37% using the autoclaving at 121°C and 141kPa. Among ten cultivars studied the trypsin inhibitor activity varied from 36.18UTI.mg-1 for IAC-Aruã to 63.33UTI.mg-1 for IAPAR-16. Trypsin inhibitor activity was totally inactivated by pressure-cooking. The study of the trypsin inhibitors reactivation using double-digestive pepsin-pancreatin enzymes in vitro showed a recovering activity from 34% up to 100%. Native inhibitor is resistant to double- digestive pepsin-pancreatin proteolysis, whereas autoclaving to 121o C.30 min-1 results in a non-native conformation that is susceptible to proteolysis, improving the digestibility and inactivate differentially the activity of trypsin inhibitors. The results of the thermal treatment of the beans show inactivation of the inhibitors, which may be due to formation of high molecular weight aggregates with other substances of the grain. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion of the inactivated inhibitor restores the activity, probably due to its retention by the digested fragments.

  6. Fortifi cation of white fl at bread with sprouted red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protein quantity in diet including the digestibility and bioavailability of protein is of importance to eradicate undernutrition in developing countries. Bread protein is an incomplete source as it lacks an essential amino acid lysine. When they are combined with other plant foods like pulses and legumes, they become a complete source of protein. Since bread is most common staple food the objective of this study is to fortify bread with legumes in order to increase the total protein content of bread to 13-15% which is required to meet at least 1/3rd of protein requirement of an adult recommended daily allowance. Material and methods. Fortifi cation of fl at bread was done by adding sprouted red kidney bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris at 5, 15 and 25% to white fl our. The composite bread was analysed for crude protein and in vitro protein digestibility using the Kjeldahl and pepsin-pancreatin method. Results. The protein content of raw beans showed trivial increase on soaking for 17h and sprouting for 3 days. On the other hand, a remarkable increase was observed in protein digestibility i.e., 8% and 11% respectively. The protein content of control and composite breads increased gradually at 1% and protein digestibility decreased by 12% from control. This is due to the presence of dietary fi bers which bind with protein and inhibit its digestibility. Conclusion. The study infers that sprouting the beans for 72 h did not show any remarkable increase in protein content but a signifi cant increase in invitro protein digestibility was observed. Overall, breads made using 15% legume fl our was comparatively equal in protein content, with overall acceptable quality.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  8. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H; Padder, Bilal A; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  10. Characterization of Two Putative Protein Phosphatase Genes and Their Involvement in Phosphorus Efficiency in Phaseolus vulgari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Yue Liang; Zhi-Jian Chen; Zhu-Fang Yao; Jiang Tian; Hong Liao

    2012-01-01

    Protein dephosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatases plays a major role in signal transduction of plant responses to environmental stresses.In this study,two putative protein phosphatases,PvPS2:1 and PvPS2:2 were identified and characterized in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).The two PvPS2 members were found to be localized to the plasma membrane and the nucleus by transient expression of PvPS2:GFP in onion epidermal cells.Transcripts of the two PvPS2 genes were significantly increased by phosphate (Pi) starvation in the two bean genotypes,G19833 (a P-efficient genotype) and DOR364 (a P-inefficient genotype).However,G19833 exhibited higher PvPS2:1 expression levels than DOR364 in both leaves and roots during P1 starvation.Increased transcription of PvPS2:1 in response to Pi starvation was further verified through histochemical analysis of PvPS2:1 promoter fusion β-glucuronidase (GUS) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.Analysis of PvPS2∶1 overexpression lines in bean hairy roots and Arabidopsis showed that PvS2:1 was involved in root growth and P accumulation.Furthermore,expression levels of two P(1) starvation responsive genes were upregulated and the APase activities were enhanced in the overexpressing PvPS2∶1 Arabidopsis lines.Taken together,our results strongly suggested that PvPS2∶1positively regulated plant responses to P1 starvation,and could be further targeted as a candidate gene to improve crop P efficiency.

  11. Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings Exposed to Prometryn Herbicide Contaminated Soil Trigger an Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulahia, Kerima; Carol, Pierre; Planchais, Séverine; Abrous-Belbachir, Ouzna

    2016-04-27

    Herbicides from the family of S-triazines, such as prometryn, have been widely used in crop production and can constitute an environmental pollution in both water and soil. As a valuable crop, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown all over the world and could be exposed to such herbicides. We wanted to investigate the possible stress sustained by the common bean growing in prometryn-polluted soil. Two situations were observed: when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn, some, but not all, measured growth parameters were affected in a dose-dependent manner. Growth was reduced, and photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products were less accumulated when soil was treated with ≥100 μM prometryn. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced had a deleterious effect, as seen by the accumulation of oxidized lipid in the form of malondialdehyde (MDA). Higher prometryn (500 μM) concentrations had a disastrous effect, reducing antioxidant activities. At a low (10 μM) concentration, prometryn increased antioxidant enzymatic activities without affecting plant growth or MDA production. Gene expression of proline metabolism genes and proline accumulation confirm that bean plants respond to a stress according to the prometryn concentration. Physiological responses such as antioxidative enzymes APX, CAT, and the enzyme implicated in the metabolization of xenobiotics, GST, were increased at 10 and 100 μM, which indicated a prevention of deleterious effects of prometryn, suggesting that bean is a suitable material both for herbicide pollution sensing and as a crop on a low level of herbicide pollution. PMID:27019272

  12. Effect of Salt Stress on Three Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ASSIMAKOPOULOU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is increasingly forced to utilize marginal waters to meet its increasing demands, which in turn increases the risks of soil salinization and yield reduction in the arid and semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean basin. Given that the bean is an extremely salt sensitive species, the purpose of the present work was to study the effect of 0 and 75 mM sodium chloride (NaCl on leaf characteristics, growth, pod yield and ion accumulation of three green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars (‘Corallo Nano’, ‘Romano Bush Plaja’ and ‘Starazagorski’, widely used in Greece. Plants were grown in a greenhouse of Technological Educational Institute of Peloponnese in Messinia, Southern Greece, from April to June 2014, in hydroponics. The experimental design was the factorial completely randomized one with five replications; each replication consisted of the three plants grown on the same rockwool slab. The results of the majority of growth and yield parameters determined showed the superiority of ‘Corallo’ over ‘Romano’ whereas ‘Starazagorski’ tolerance was found to be intermediate. ‘Corallo’ tolerated NaCl salinity better due to its capacity for Na retention in the roots and maintaining appropriate K/Na and Ca/Na ratios, limiting the accumulation of toxic ions into actively growing shoots. The salt sensitivity of ‘Romano’ was related to its higher concentration of Na in the leaves and lower in the roots, to the greater decrease of the leaf number and leaf water content, as well as to the specific leaf area increase compared to the other two cultivars under saline conditions.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveen, Grady H.; Padder, Bilal A.; Kamfwa, Kelvin; Song, Qijian; Kelly, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS). Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481) included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219) tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans. PMID:27270627

  14. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  15. Functional specialization of one copy of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase in ureide production from symbiotically fixed nitrogen in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, Inmaculada; Trenas, Almudena T; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Pineda, Manuel; Alamillo, Josefa M

    2016-08-01

    Purines are essential molecules formed in a highly regulated pathway in all organisms. In tropical legumes, the nitrogen fixed in the nodules is used to generate ureides through the oxidation of de novo synthesized purines. Glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRAT) catalyses the first committed step of de novo purine synthesis. In Phaseolus vulgaris there are three genes coding for PRAT. The three full-length sequences, which are intron-less genes, were cloned, and their expression levels were determined under conditions that affect the synthesis of purines. One of the three genes, PvPRAT3, is highly expressed in nodules and protein amount and enzymatic activity in these tissues correlate with nitrogen fixation activity. Inhibition of PvPRAT3 gene expression by RNAi-silencing and subsequent metabolomic analysis of the transformed roots shows that PvPRAT3 is essential for the synthesis of ureides in P. vulgaris nodules. PMID:27004600

  16. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of Landfill leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L and survival of microorganisms of public health importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ortiz, Vanessa Ruby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In landfill, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generated leachate (LE, a chemical inorganic and organic mix an environmental pollutant to determine by Leachate Pollution Index (LPI. A bioassay could give certainty to its negative effect. To include pathogenic human microorganisms (PHM and mesophilic total aerobic bacteria (MTAB different than fecal and total coliforms would have health value. The objectives of this research were i analyzed the phytotoxicity of leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris and ii to detect in LE the existence of HPM and MATB. A bioassay "in vitro" was made in Petri dishes and Leonard jars using seeds P. vulgaris treated by diluted leachate. The response variables of bioassay were: germination percentage, phenotype: plant height and root length, biomass total: fresh and dry weight of root and plant. Including HPM and MATB detection. Experimental data was analyzed by Tukey p<0.05. The results indicated that LE caused inhibition and/or stimulation on P. vulgaris; Leachate´s phytoxicity was depending on its chemical composition and level dilution, this suggests that toxic effect is due its heavy metals and extreme alkalinity, killing HPM in leachate but not MATB. A bioassay P. vulgaris is useful to define degree of benefical and/or toxicity of LE, and validate LPI. While is important to know the role of HPM in LE and potential environmental biological contamination.

  17. Effect of rare earth elements from monazite on growth-vigor and chemical composition of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharoubeem, H.H.; Milad, N.E.

    1966-01-01

    This investigation deals with the effect of different concentrations of rare earth elements (as monazite extract containing Th, Ce, La, Pr, and Nd in the form of nitrates) on the growth and nutritional status of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in sand cultures to which rare earths were added to supply 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 ppm. Growth of both tops and roots showed a marked response to rare earths application, especially in the development of tops. The addition of rare earths to the culture solution resulted in better development of plant tops and roots up to 5 ppm; above 5 ppm there was less growth but always more than tops and roots of plants grown in culture medium without rare earths. The application of rare earth elements increased the water content of roots, but not of tops, to a maximum at the level of 5 ppm. In response to rare earth elements the dry matter of tops increases more in proportion than does the dry matter of their roots; top/root ratios are, consequently, higher in the presence or rare earths. The application of rare earths increased the nitrogen, potassium, and sodium contents of the experimental plant tops up to a maximum at the level of 5 ppm rare earths. With further increase of rare earths these contents were decreased. The reverse was true with regard to calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus contents.

  18. Assesing potential effects of inulin and probiotic bacteria on Fe bioavailability from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a prebiotic, may enhance intestinal Fe absorption. Our objective was to assess the effects of supplemental inulin and two probiotic bacteria (B. infantis and L.acidophillus) on Fe availability to Caco-2 cells from common white and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Cooked beans were mixed o...

  19. Connections of the lateral reticular nucleus to the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat. An anterograde tracing study with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. Ruigrok (Tom); M. Cella (Massimo); J. Voogd

    1995-01-01

    textabstractEfferent projections from the lateral reticular nucleus in the rat were investigated with anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Besides the well known mossy fibre connections to the cerebellar cortex and collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei, a substantial bilateral

  20. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.)

  1. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buendía Héctor F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated

  2. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-01-01

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed. PMID:27173357

  3. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E; Chapman, B Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L; Pauls, Karl P; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  4. Rhizobium acidisoli sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Jing Zhang, Yu; Soledad Vásquez-Murrieta, María; Hua Sui, Xin; Feng Chen, Wen; Carlos Alberto Padilla, Juan; Wu Guo, Xian; Lian Gao, Jun; Yan, Jun; Hong Wei, Ge; Tao Wang, En

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, FH13T and FH23, representing a novel group of Rhizobium isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Mexico, were studied by a polyphasic analysis. Phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed them to be members of the genus Rhizobium related most closely to 'Rhizobium anhuiense' CCBAU 23252 (99.7 % similarity), Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370T (98.6 %), and Rhizobium sophorae CCBAU 03386T and others ( ≤ 98.3 %). In sequence analyses of the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, both strains formed a subclade distinct from all defined species of the genus Rhizobium at sequence similarities of 82.3-94.0 %, demonstrating that they represented a novel genomic species in the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the reference strain FH13T and the type strains of related species varied between 13.0 ± 2.0 and 52.1 ± 1.2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain FH13T was 63.5 mol% (Tm). The major cellular fatty acids were 16 : 0, 17 : 0 anteiso, 18 : 0, summed feature 2 (12 : 0 aldehyde/unknown 10.928) and summed feature 8 (18 : 1ω7c). The fatty acid 17 : 1ω5c was unique for this strain. Some phenotypic features, such as failure to utilize adonitol, l-arabinose, d-fructose and d-fucose, and ability to utilize d-galacturonic acid and itaconic acid as carbon source, could also be used to distinguish strain FH13T from the type strains of related species. Based upon these results, a novel species, Rhizobium acidisoli sp. nov., is proposed, with FH13T ( = CCBAU 101094T = HAMBI 3626T = LMG 28672T) as the type strain. PMID:26530784

  5. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations. PMID:14711042

  6. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  7. Effect of bacterial distribution and activity on conjugal transfer on the phylloplane of the bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normander, Bo; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Conjugal plasmid transfer was examined on the phylloplane of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and related to the spatial distribution pattern and metabolic activity of the bacteria. The donor (Pseudomonas putida KT2442) harbored a derivative of the TOL plasmid, which conferred kanamycin resistance and had...... inocula increased by up to eight times (100% RH), followed by a decrease to the initial level after 96 h. The metabolic activity of the bacteria was not rate limiting for conjugation, and no correlation between the two parameters was observed. Apparently, leaf exudates insured that the activity of the...... fluorescent cells. Sterile bean seedlings were inoculated with donors and recipients at densities of approximately 10(5) cells per cm(2). To manipulate the density and metabolic activity (measured by incorporation of [H-3]leucine) of the inoculated bacteria, plants were grown at various relative humidities...

  8. Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using a genotype plus genotype x environment interaction biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Gonçalves, M C; Santos, A; Torres, F E

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the genotype plus genotype x environment interaction (GGE) biplot methodology has been used to investigate genotype x environment interactions in several crop species, but has not been applied to the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crop in Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify common bean genotypes that exhibit high grain yield and stability in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We conducted 12 trials from 2000 to 2006 in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Dourados, and evaluated 13 genotypes in a randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield data were subjected to individual and joint analyses of variance. After analyzing the GE interaction, the adaptability and phenotypic stability of the common bean genotypes were analyzed using GGE biplot methodology. The genotypes EMGOPA-201, Xamego, and Aporé are recommended for growing in Mato Grosso do Sul, because they exhibited high grain yield and phenotypic stability. PMID:27525915

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH (APPLE AND PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (GREEN BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Doss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity as well as total phenol (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC in two fruits, apple (Malus domestica and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The antioxidant activities were examined by two different methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power scavenging activity. The results showed that considerable amount of TPC and TFC was present in these fruit extracts as well as these vegetables contain a vast array of different phytochemicals in their dry form. Apple showed higher antioxidant activity than green beans. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates & glycosides in all the extracts. Overall, the present results provided basic data for choosing these fruits with high antioxidant capacity for consumption or for the development of antioxidant based medicines as value-added products.

  10. Effects of water stress applied at different phenological phases on yield components of dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouhouche, B.; Ruget, F; Delécolle, R.

    1998-01-01

    Nos essais ont pour but d’étudier l’effet d’un stress hydrique de même intensité appliqué à différentes phases phénologiques de la période de reproduction, sur les composantes du rendement exprimées en nombre, du haricot nain (Phaseolus vulgaris L, variété Coco de Prague). Afin d’éviter le phénomène de chevauchement des différents organes fructifères, la période de reproduction est divisée en sept phases phénologiques, de la phase bouton floral à la phase de fin remplissage des gousses. Chaqu...

  11. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  12. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. (IRNA, Salamanca (Spain) Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada (Spain))

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  13. Cloning of theOAT gene and the correlation between its expression and drought tolerance inPhaseolus vulgaris L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-bao; CAO Yuan-nan; ZHANG Zhao-yuan; WANG Shu-min; WU Jing; WANG Lan-fen

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is a major abiotic stress of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Increasing the proline accumulation contributes to enhance crop drought tolerance. A cDNA for δ-ornithine aminotransferase (δ-OAT), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline, was isolated fromPhaseolus vulgaris (PvOAT).PvOAT exhibits 87.4 and 39.8% similarity of the deduced amino acid sequences withδ-OAT fromGlycine maxandVigna aconitifolia, respectively. The transcriptional analysis revealed thatPvOAT was strongly induced by drought stress. And the expression ofPvOAT was higher in leaves than that in the root and stem of common bean by drought stress. Similar increase of the proline accumulation was observed in leaves and roots of common bean by drought stress. Furthermore, the proline content, the PvOAT expression and the PvOAT enzyme activity in cultivar F5575 was signiifcantly (P<0.01) higher than that in cultivar F4851 under drought-stress conditions. Interestingly, it had been observed that, in the later stage of drought stress, the proline steadily maintained at the maximum level maybe result from the PvOAT enzyme activity increasing steadily. These results indicated that the expression ofPvOAT and the accumulation of proline induced by drought stress treatment were related to the degree of common bean drought tolerance. So our results support the view that δ-OAT is associated with proline synthesis under drought stress conditions.

  14. Los frijoles (Phaseolus Vulgaris: su aporte a la dieta del costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodríguez-Castillo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los frijoles constituyen un alimento básico en la dicta del costarricense. Sin embargo, la cantidad y frecuencia con que se consumen ha venido disminuyendo, sobretodo en la zona urbana. Esta tendencia resulta preocupante, ya que el frijol es fuente de proteínas, hierro vegetal, fibra, ácido fólico, tiamina, potasio, magnesio, y zinc (USDA, 2000. Su aporte a la dieta del costarricense, a pesar de la disminución en su consumo, es importante por su contenido de nutrientes y de fitoquímicos los cuales son de utilidad en la prevención y tratamiento de varias de las patologías que afectan a la población costarricense. La presente revisión, documenta los efectos positivos que algunos nutrientes y otros elementos que aporta el frijol tienen en la prevención y el control de algunas de las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen problemas de salud pública en el país. Se abordan de manera particular la fibra, el ácido fólico y el magnesio. Asimismo, se hace referencia a otras sustancias fitoquímicas, presentes en los frijoles, que constituyen elementos protectores de la salud y que hacen de los frijoles un "alimento funcional". Finalmente, se ofrecen recomendaciones prácticas orientadas a mejorar la digestibilidad de este alimento, de manera que se contribuya a mantener e incrementar su consumo a nivel de los hogares costarricenses.Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are an important part of the Costa Rican diet. Nevertheless, the amount and the frequency of its consumption has been decreasing over time, especially in the urban areas. This tendency is a concern to those involved in health and nutrition since beans are a source of protein, non-heme iron, fiber, folic acid, thiamin, potassium , magnesium and zinc. The nutritional contribution of beans lo the Costa Rican diet is important in spite of the reduction in consumption. Beans are important because of their nutrient content and the presence of phytochemicals that have been recognized as part of

  15. Standardization of a rearing procedure of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time; Padronizacao da criacao de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris): idade da planta e tempo de colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Cure, Jose R; Rodriguez, Daniel [Universidade Militar Nueva Granada, Bogota (Colombia). Facutad de Ciencias. Programa de Biologia Aplicada], e-mail: fernando.cantor@unimilitar.edu.co

    2009-09-15

    A rearing technique was standardized to produce Tetranychus urticae Koch on Phaseolus vulgaris (ICA Cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, and the best time to harvest the mites and re infest the plants. In the first experiment, four, five, six, and seven-week-old plants of P. vulgaris were infested with six T. urticae per foliole. The lower plant stratum exhibited the largest number of mites regardless of plant age. However, four-week old plants had the larger average number of individuals. In the second experiment four-week-old plants were infested with 0.5 female mite/cm{sup 2} of leaf. The number of individuals per instar of T. urticae was recorded weekly. The highest mite production occurred between four and five weeks after infestation, indicating this to be the most suitable for mite harvesting and for plant reinfestation. (author)

  16. Effects of water deficit and rehydration on the polar lipid and membranes resistance leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pérola

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Rômulo Martins Júnior; Micheline Soares Costa Oliveira; Maria Ary Baccache; Fernando Monteiro de Paula

    2008-01-01

    Bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Pérola were used to evaluate the water deficit effects in polar lipids composition and in the electric conductivity. The results showed that the water deficiency a effected in the electrolytes loss which increased gradually in response to water deficit. This suggested a compartimentalization loss, due to the structural cellular membranes elements degradation. Total lipids contents decreased by reason of the water stress action. The polyunsaturated fatty...

  17. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Two Cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Application of Organic Fertilizers and Nile Compost in Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Salwa Mohamed; Latif, Hanan Helmy; Magdy, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The present work aims to stimulate some physiological changes in the plants using organic fertilizer and compost by enhancing some compounds such as total amino acids and phytohormones in two cultivars of bean. Study Design: The pots of the (Phaseolus vulgaris) L. cv. bronco were divided into 7 subgroups they will be prepared as in the seven treatments via1- control , Nile compost ,compost and rice straw , compost and maize stalks , rice straw and maize stalks , rice straw , maize stalk...

  18. Connections of the lateral reticular nucleus to the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat. An anterograde tracing study with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Ruigrok, Tom; Cella, Massimo; Voogd, J.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractEfferent projections from the lateral reticular nucleus in the rat were investigated with anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Besides the well known mossy fibre connections to the cerebellar cortex and collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei, a substantial bilateral projection to the lateral vestibular nucleus was found. Terminal arborizations found within this nucleus appeared to detach from the reticulocerebellar fibres in the cerebellar white matter and en...

  19. Desinfección de semilla de judía (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) tipo granja asturiana con antifúngicos y antibacterianos

    OpenAIRE

    González, A.J. (Ana)

    2010-01-01

    Several disinfectant products for bean seeds (visually with and without desease symptoms)of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in order to obtain healthy bean seeds to be used for sowing. the products tested as fungicides were general disinfectants (bleach, oxygenated water) and specific fungicides (captan, thiram,...) and as antibacterials (kasugamycin-copper, estreptomycin and copac E). the efficacy assays were carried out in the laboratory and then contrasted with field work. The disinfe...

  20. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça H.A. de; Santos J.B. dos; Ramalho M.A.P.; Ferreira D.F.

    1998-01-01

    An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susce...

  1. Determinación de las relaciones genéticas en 24 accesiones de frijol común (phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez C., Martha Leticia; Ligarreto M., Gustavo; Martínez W., Orlando; Reyes C., Luz Marina

    2011-01-01

    Se caracterizaron 24 accesiones de Phaseolus vulgaris L., de las cuales 21 son de origen andino y tres mesoamericanas. Dentro de los materiales andinos, se incluyeron variedades mejoradas y cultivariedades regionales, procedentes de diversas zonas agroecológicas de Colombia. Para la  caracterización, se utilizaron 22 sistemas isoenzimáticos, ocho de los cuales mostraron buena resolución y fueron seleccionados como marcadores bioquímicos del estudio. Seis enzimas revelaron polimorfismos: Ester...

  2. Gene-based SNP discovery in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common bean (P. vulgaris) for diversity analysis and comparative mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Sharpe, Andrew G; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Daniel G. Debouck; Tar’an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important grain legume and there has been a recent resurgence in interest in its relative, tepary bean (P. acutifolius), owing to this species’ ability to better withstand abiotic stresses. Genomic resources are scarce for this minor crop species and a better knowledge of the genome-level relationship between these two species would facilitate improvement in both. High-throughput genotyping has facilitated large-scale single nucleotide polymor...

  3. Bacterial indole-3-acetic acid production: a key mediator of plant-microbe interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the foliar epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 299R

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Tracy Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The phyllosphere epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an important plant hormone. IAA production was previously shown to confer a small but significant fitness advantage to Pa299R cells inoculated onto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, but the mechanism by which bacterial IAA exerts this effect is unknown. In this work, we investigated several hypotheses regarding how bacterial IAA enhances the growth and survival of leaf epiphytic microbes such as Pa299R....

  4. Long-Term Fungal Inhibitory Activity of Water-Soluble Extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria during Bread Storage▿

    OpenAIRE

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P...

  5. Syntenic relationships among legumes revealed using a gene-based genetic linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Melody; Mamidi, Sujan; Lee, Rian; Chikara, Shireen; Rossi, Monica; Papa, Roberto; McClean, Phillip

    2010-10-01

    Molecular linkage maps are an important tool for gene discovery and cloning, crop improvement, further genetic studies, studies on diversity and evolutionary history, and cross-species comparisons. Linkage maps differ in both the type of marker and type of population used. In this study, gene-based markers were used for mapping in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of Phaseolus vulgaris L. P. vulgaris, common dry bean, is an important food source, economic product, and model organism for the legumes. Gene-based markers were developed that corresponded to genes controlling mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes undergoing selection during domestication in maize, and genes that function in a biochemical pathway in A. thaliana. Sequence information, including introns and 3' UTR, was generated for over 550 genes in the two genotypes of P. vulgaris. Over 1,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were found, 300 of which were screened in the RI population. The resulting LOD 2.0 map is 1,545 cM in length and consists of 275 gene-based and previously mapped core markers. An additional 153 markers that mapped at LOD <1.0 were placed in genetic bins. By screening the parents of other mapping populations, it was determined that the markers were useful for other common Mesoamerican × Andean mapping populations. The location of the mapped genes relative to their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana (At), Medicago truncatula (Mt), and Lotus japonicus (Lj) were determine by using a tblastx analysis with the current psedouchromosome builds for each of the species. While only short blocks of synteny were observed with At, large-scale macrosyntenic blocks were observed with Mt and Lj. By using Mt and Lj as bridging species, the syntenic relationship between the common bean and peanut was inferred. PMID:20607211

  6. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

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    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  7. Algunos indicadores morfológicos y bioquímicos de cinco variedades de Phaseolus vulgaris L. bajo condiciones de sequía. Some morphologic and biochemical markers of five varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under drought stress

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    Nelly Marlene Mita Poma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El frijol común constituye una de las principales fuentes de alimentación. La sequía es uno de los factores que incide negativamente sobre este cultivo. El objetivo de este  trabajo es estudiar la respuesta a  estrés hídrico de 5 variedades de  Phaseolus vulgaris L.  comercializadas en Cuba, las  cuales fueron sometidas a diferentes riegos: 70%, 40%  y 20% capacidad de campo (CC. A los 15 días, de aplicar los riegos mencionados, se pudo constatar algunos cambios morfológicos y bioquímicos. En las variedades tolerantes no se observaron cambios en la estructura del mesófilo, no así en la variedad clasificada como susceptible (CC 25-9 negro, en la cual se evidenció la separación de las células del parénquima clorofílico en empalizada, aumentando los espacios intercelulares en las condiciones de estrés. La epidermis tuvo un comportamiento similar en  las tolerantes,  no así en la CC 25-9 negro donde se observó un cambio en la anatomía de las células estomáticas. Los valores de CRA en la variedad susceptible a estrés hídrico mostró una disminución en condiciones  de sequía (20 % CC. De manera general se pudo observar que dicha variedad manifestó un decrecimiento significativo en el contenido de clorofila a, b, total y fenoles, con el aumento de las condiciones del estrés hídrico, a diferencia de las variedades tolerantes. En las hojas estresadas de todas las variedades se elevó la  prolina libre y la actividad catalasas disminuyó, a diferencia de la actividad peroxidasas que se incrementó, excepto en la variedad CC 25-9 colorado clasificada como  tolerante. Palabras claves: Phaseolus vulgaris L., estrés hídrico, leguminosa, clorofila, Prolina, fenoles, actividad enzimática.

  8. The Protective Effect of Phaseolus Vulgaris on Cataract in Type 2 Diabetes: A Profitable Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Muaka, MoiseMvitu

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of major ocular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Bantu is not well understood. Several studies have been conducted to determine the basic reasons of visual deficiencies (VD) (blindness, visual impairment, and ocular eye diseases) in T2DM among Bantu from Central Africa. The quality of dietary intake was assessed in patients along with other ophthalmological assessments for diabetic retinopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and macular edema. Beans (Phaseolus v...

  9. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at ...

  10. ISOENZYMATIC POLYMORPHISM AND ACTIVITY OF PEROXIDASES OF COMMON BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. UNDER SALINE STRESS

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    F. BROETTO

    1997-09-01

    crude extract of the different bean cultivars analysed showed different reations to salt concentration in the cultivation procedures as well as a high increasing of peroxidase activity in cv. IAC and JALO.Uma das utilizações da técnica de cultura de tecidos para o melhoramento vegetal é a identificação de linhas de células que apresentem tolerância ao estresse salino. Para se estudar os mecanismos bioquímicos envolvidos na expressão genética da tolerância a salinidade, calos oriundos de eixos embrionários de quatro cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; cultivares IAC - carioca, IAPAR 14, JALO-EEP 558, BAT - 93, foram cultivados em meio sólido Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com NaCl nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mM. Após 14 dias de incubação, os calos foram coletados e analisados quanto aos padrões isoenzimáticos e de atividade das peroxidases. Os cultivares BAT e IAPAR apresentaram duas zonas de atividade em comum na região anódica e apenas uma zona enzimática específica a cada um deles (migração mais rápida.Possivelmente as duas zonas anódicas intermediárias sejam produtos do mesmo loco enzimático, porém com alelos diferentes, consequentemente diferentes mobilidades eletroforéticas. O cv. JALO apresentou duas zonas anódicas de atividade em comum com os cultivares IAC e IAPAR com uma zona anódica exclusiva de migração mais lenta, a qual apresentou atividade mais intensa de todos os cultivares analisados. Este cultivar revelou ainda uma zona catódica provavelmente dimérica e heterozigota nos indivíduos de todos os tratamentos aplicados. Provavelmente, esta é a mesma zona que ocorre em homozigose com fixação do alelo lento para os indivíduos de todos os tratamentos efetuados nos cultivares BAT e IAPAR. O cv. IAC apresentou duas bandas anódicas em comum com os cv. IAPAR e JALO. Apresentou também a banda anódica mais rápida em comum com o cv. IAPAR e uma banda anódica exclusiva de migração mais

  11. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93 calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

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    Kassim Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze and annotate P. vulgaris CaM (PvCaM gene cDNA and its deduced protein (amino acids sequence. Materials and Methods: Both strands of PvCaM cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primer to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. The cDNA sequence and deduced protein sequence were analyzed and annotated using bioinformatics tools available online. The secondary structures and three-dimensional (3D structure of PvCaM protein were predicted using the Phyre automatic fold recognition server. Results: Results showed that PvCaM cDNA is 818 bp in length. The cDNA analysis results showed that it contains an open reading frame that encodes for 149 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence analysis results showed the presence of conserved domains required for CaM function. The predicted secondary structures and 3D structure are analogous to the Solanum tuberosum CaM. Conclusions: This study analyzed and annotated PvCaM cDNA and protein. However, in order to obtain a complete understanding of PvCaM protein, further study on its expression, structure and regulation is

  12. Analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., genotype BAT93) calmodulin cDNA using computational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Singh, Jasvin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze and annotate P. vulgaris CaM (PvCaM) gene cDNA and its deduced protein (amino acids) sequence. Materials and Methods: Both strands of PvCaM cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and reverse primer to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. The cDNA sequence and deduced protein sequence were analyzed and annotated using bioinformatics tools available online. The secondary structures and three-dimensional (3D) structure of PvCaM protein were predicted using the Phyre automatic fold recognition server. Results: Results showed that PvCaM cDNA is 818 bp in length. The cDNA analysis results showed that it contains an open reading frame that encodes for 149 amino acid residues. The deduced protein sequence analysis results showed the presence of conserved domains required for CaM function. The predicted secondary structures and 3D structure are analogous to the Solanum tuberosum CaM. Conclusions: This study analyzed and annotated PvCaM cDNA and protein. However, in order to obtain a complete understanding of PvCaM protein, further study on its expression, structure and regulation is essential. PMID

  13. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  14. The bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on growth of phaseolus-vulgaris plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Mehdipour, L.A.; Behnejad, B.B. [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Objective: Plants absorb radioactive elements from phosphate fertilizers, and also from naturally occurring radiation in the soil, air and water. It has long been known that low doses of ionizing radiation evoke stimulatory effects in a wide variety of living organisms. However, as far as we know, there is no published report on the bio-positive effects of diagnostic doses of X-rays on plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-effects of low doses of diagnostic X-rays on growth rate of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) plants. Materials and Methods: Before cultivation, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto) seeds were soaked in tap water for 2 days followed by another 2 days of covering under a wet cloth. Four hundred newly cultivated seeds were randomly divided into two groups of 200 plants each. In this experiment, two seeds were cultivated in each dish (100 dishes for irradiation group and 100 for sham-irradiation group). Fifteen days after starting cultivation, newly grown plants were irradiated with X-rays. Plants were exposed to a single dose of X-ray (80 kVp, 80 mAs) for 6 days. On day 29, plants were pulled out from the ' soil. Length of plant stem, length of root, number of leaves and plant weight were measured. Results: The stem length in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants was 296.5{+-}13.57 and 223.96{+-}15.02 mm respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Although the number of leaves in irradiated plants was higher than that of sham-irradiated plants (7.05{+-}0.18 and 6.74{+-}0.19 respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. The stem diameter in irradiated and sham-irradiated plants were 3.52{+-}0.12 and 3.35{+-}0.09 mm respectively, but the difference again was not statistically significant (P<0.00 1). Plant weight in irradiated samples was less than that of non-irradiated plants but it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The overall results indicate that diagnostic doses of X-rays can

  15. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  16. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  17. The characterization of a new set of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers as a resource for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris

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    Borba Tereza CO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over recent years, a growing effort has been made to develop microsatellite markers for the genomic analysis of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris to broaden the knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of this species. The availability of large sets of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in public databases has given rise to an expedient approach for the identification of SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats, specifically EST-derived SSRs. In the present work, a battery of new microsatellite markers was obtained from a search of the Phaseolus vulgaris EST database. The diversity, degree of transferability and polymorphism of these markers were tested. Results From 9,583 valid ESTs, 4,764 had microsatellite motifs, from which 377 were used to design primers, and 302 (80.11% showed good amplification quality. To analyze transferability, a group of 167 SSRs were tested, and the results showed that they were 82% transferable across at least one species. The highest amplification rates were observed between the species from the Phaseolus (63.7%, Vigna (25.9%, Glycine (19.8%, Medicago (10.2%, Dipterix (6% and Arachis (1.8% genera. The average PIC (Polymorphism Information Content varied from 0.53 for genomic SSRs to 0.47 for EST-SSRs, and the average number of alleles per locus was 4 and 3, respectively. Among the 315 newly tested SSRs in the BJ (BAT93 X Jalo EEP558 population, 24% (76 were polymorphic. The integration of these segregant loci into a framework map composed of 123 previously obtained SSR markers yielded a total of 199 segregant loci, of which 182 (91.5% were mapped to 14 linkage groups, resulting in a map length of 1,157 cM. Conclusions A total of 302 newly developed EST-SSR markers, showing good amplification quality, are available for the genetic analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris. These markers showed satisfactory rates of transferability, especially between species that have great economic and genomic values. Their diversity

  18. Agro-morphological evaluation of some exotic common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) genotypes under rainfed conditions of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen exotic and local genotypes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated for various agronomic and morphological characters under rainfed conditions of Islamabad, Pakistan during February-May, 2010. Significant differences were found among genotypes for grain yield plant-1, 100-seeds weight, seeds pod-1 and pods plant-1. Local Kashmir excelled all genotypes in grain yield (24.5 g plant-1) while minimum yield (1 g plant-1) was also produced by indigenous cultivar Local Balakot. Exotic cultivars differ significantly for grain yield with maximum 11.4 g plant-1 for Ducato and minimum 1.2 g plant-1 in case of Varigated and 2a-(GB 44004.1-1999). Non significant differences among genotypes were observed for days to maturity. The correlation coefficients illustrate the positive and significant association of grain yield with flowering duration, number of pods-1, and number of seeds plant-1, therefore, these traits should be considered for genetic improvement through selection. Cluster analysis based on different agromorphic parameters revealed important classification regarding genetic diversity for studied traits among genotype. Local Kashmir and Ducato were proved best among indigenous and exotic genotypes, respectively. The genotypes with high grain yield, biological yield and 100-seed weight were grouped into same clusters and these genotypes could prove useful resources for common bean genetic improvement program through hybridization and as direct introduction after further evaluation in different agro-ecological zones of the country especially in the mountainous areas. (author)

  19. UV-induced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonialyase activity and phaseollin accumulation in leaves of Phaseolus Vulgaris in relation to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attached or detached leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were irradiated with short-wave UV light (254 nm) which resulted in increased ethylene production, increased activity of soluble and ionically bound peroxidase, increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and an accumulation of phaseollin, accompanied by bronzing of these leaves. In order to evaluate the role of ethylene in this process, plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, or with 0.45 mM 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarboxylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiodiazole (DU), a presumed inhibitor of ethylene action. Both compounds showed an inhibitory effect on UV-induced ethylene production. DU stimulated UV-induced peroxidase activity, whereas AVG seemed to decrease UV-induced peroxidase activity. DU and AVG had only a weak inhibitory effect on UV-induced PAL activity. Both compounds retarded slightly the accumulation of phaseollin and the appearance of necrotic symptoms in UV-irradiated bean leaves. Ethephon treatment (500 or 1000 ppm) failed to induce the accumulation of phaseollin in attached or detached leaves of bean. The role of ethylene in UV-induced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and accumulation of phaseollin in bean leaves is discussed. (author)

  20. Interaction between cadmium and iron. Accumulation and distribution of metals and changes in growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Siedlecka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals, and iron, an essential plant nutritional element, was investigated in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Słowianka seedlings. The interaction was externally induced by changing the content of both metals in the nutrient medium. Under iron deficiency conditions (0 and 0.5 of normal dose of this element, the toxic effects of cadmium on plant growth parameters, like fresh and dry weight accumulation, primary leaves area, etc., were generally much more pronounced than under normal iron supply. At normal and excess iron supply (1, 2 and 4 doses cadmium diminished iron accumulation in roots and primary leaves, but on the other hand excess iron decreased cadmium level, preventing plants from extreme toxicity of very high cadmium concentrations in the growth environment. It is to be noted that iron is classified also as a heavy metal, and its excess may become toxic, e.g. decreasing root dry weight or diminishing leaf area, especially at the highest dose. The detoxication role of iron against cadmium, and possibly other toxic metals is, however, limited to concentrations of this element in the nutrient solution which themselves are not toxic for the organism.

  1. Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2010-04-01

    The biochemical and functional properties of 2 hard-to-cook common bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) were investigated after the extrusion process. Beans of BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars were milled and extruded at 150 degrees C, with a compression ratio screw of 3 : 1, 5-mm die, and screw speed of 150 rpm. Extrudate flours were evaluated for water solubility (WS), water absorption index (WAI), oil absorption capacity (OAC), foaming capacity (FC), emulsifying activity (EA), antinutritional factors, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Results indicated that the extrusion significantly decreased antinutrients such as phytic acid, lectin, alpha-amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, reduced the emulsifying capacity and eliminated the FC in both BRS pontal and BRS grafite cultivars. In addition, the WS, WAI, and in vitro protein and starch digestibility were improved by the extrusion process. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good functional and biochemical properties from these common bean cultivars. PMID:20492281

  2. The Response of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties for Salt Stress during Germination and Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris varieties were tested during germination and seedling growth at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels. Data analysis was carried out using jmp5 statistical software (version 5.0. Final Germination Percentage (FGP, Seedling Shoot Length (SSL, Seedling Root Length (SRL and seedling shoot-to-root ratio (SRR were measured. The data analysis showed insignificant variation among most parameters recorded for varieties (p>0.05. The ANOVA displayed statistical significance for treatments for all parameters at p0.05. Seedling root length was more salt affected than seedling shoot length. Variety Awash Melka was found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth. Variety Mexican 142 was salt sensitive during germination but later became salt tolerant during seedling growth. On the other hand, variety Dimtu was salt sensitive during germination and seedling growth. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt tolerance. Irrespective of salinity being a growing problem in Ethiopia in general and the Awash Valley in particular, only little has been done on crops salt tolerance. Therefore, to alleviate the salinity problem, there should be similar and profound studies on haricot beans and other crops.

  3. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

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    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  4. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16 kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6 M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8 M and 21.5 M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100 M.

  5. Histological anomalies in stems of common and runner beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Ph. coccineus L. treated with pendimenthalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' and runner beans (Ph. coccineus L. 'Blanka' and 'Eureka' were seeded on loess-like soil containing 1.6% of organic matter, and sprayed with pendimethalin at the dose of 1650 g•ha-1 ' immediately after seeding in the middle of May. The herbicide inhibited shoot growth and caused enlargement of the stem at the soil level. Observations made in light and scanning electron microscope showed that in the swollen parts of the stem, the diameter of cortical parenchyma cells was bigger, the thickness of phloem layer was irregular, phloem fibers were less lignified, and the xylem cylinder was asymmetrical. In stems of 'Augustynka', 'Złota Saxa' and 'Eureka' cultivars, the thickness of secondary xylem and the diameter of vessels were reduced. Some vessels and tracheids were positioned transversely and obliquely to the stem axis and had an arched shape. Cell walls were less lignified and had a smaller number of pits. The largest number of histological anomalies was found in stems of the 'Augustynka' and 'Złota Saxa' cultivars.

  6. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  7. Genetic dissection of ICP-detected nutrient accumulation in the whole seed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K and magnesium (Mg are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu, iron (Fe, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for 9 additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B and calcium (Ca had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed.

  8. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  9. Seed-borne fungi and ochratoxin A contamination of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Republic of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, A-M; Peraica, M; Zlender, V; Cvjetković, B; Jurjević, Z; Topolovec-Pintarić, S; Ivić, D

    2005-03-01

    The study was designed to identify seed-borne fungi on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops grown in 13 counties of the Republic of Croatia and their association with ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Bean samples (N=45) were collected in Croatia in 2001 shortly after the harvest and were stored at -20 degrees C for mycological and mycotoxin analyses. The most common fungi isolated were Cladosporium spp. (98%) Alternaria spp. (75%), Aspergillus spp. (73%), Rhizopus spp. (73%), Penicillium spp. (69%), Fusarium spp. (38%), Botrytis spp. (27%), Trichothecium spp. (24%), and Chaetomium spp. (18%). OTA was found only in samples contaminated with Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. Using HPLC (detection limit 0.25 microg/kg), OTA was found in 17 out of 45 samples (38%), and the mean concentration in positive samples was 0.41+/-0.21 microg OTA/kg. Beans from south Croatia (Adriatic coast) were OTA-free and the least mould-infected, while the mean OTA concentration and mould infection of samples from other regions were similar. The OTA contamination of beans in our country is low. Although beans are not severely contaminated with OTA, their consumption may contribute to the exposure to OTA from other commodities. PMID:15680678

  10. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interaction between aluminium toxicity and drought stress in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Eticha, Dejene; Albacete, Alfonso; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Roitsch, Thomas; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production in the tropics. Short-term effects of Al toxicity and drought stress on root growth in acid, Al-toxic soil were studied, with special emphasis on Al-drought interaction in the root apex. Root elongation was inhibited by both Al and drought. Combined stresses resulted in a more severe inhibition of root elongation than either stress alone. This result was different from the alleviation of Al toxicity by osmotic stress (-0.60 MPa polyethylene glycol) in hydroponics. However, drought reduced the impact of Al on the root tip, as indicated by the reduction of Al-induced callose formation and MATE expression. Combined Al and drought stress enhanced up-regulation of ACCO expression and synthesis of zeatin riboside, reduced drought-enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, and expression of NCED involved in ABA biosynthesis and the transcription factors bZIP and MYB, thus affecting the regulation of ABA-dependent genes (SUS, PvLEA18, KS-DHN, and LTP) in root tips. The results provide circumstantial evidence that in soil, drought alleviates Al injury, but Al renders the root apex more drought-sensitive, particularly by impacting the gene regulatory network involved in ABA signal transduction and cross-talk with other phytohormones necessary for maintaining root growth under drought. PMID:22371077

  11. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Henry J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic diversity among wild accessions and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. has been characterized using plant morphology, seed protein allozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA sequence analysis, chloroplast DNA, and microsatellite markers. Yet, little is known about whether these traits, which distinguish among genetically distinct types of common bean, can be evaluated using omics technologies. Results Three 'omics' approaches: transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics were used to qualitatively evaluate the diversity of common bean from two Centers of Domestication (COD. All three approaches were able to classify common bean according to their COD using unsupervised analyses; these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that differences exist in gene transcription, protein expression, and synthesis and metabolism of small molecules among common bean cultivars representative of different COD. Metabolomic analyses of multiple cultivars within two common bean gene pools revealed cultivar differences in small molecules that were of sufficient magnitude to allow identification of unique cultivar fingerprints. Conclusions Given the high-throughput and low cost of each of these 'omics' platforms, significant opportunities exist for their use in the rapid identification of traits of agronomic and nutritional importance as well as to characterize genetic diversity.

  12. Genetic Dissection of ICP-Detected Nutrient Accumulation in the Whole Seed of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Wu, Xingbo; Bhandari, Devendra; Astudillo, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient transport to grain legume seeds is not well studied and can benefit from modern methods of elemental analysis including spectroscopic techniques. Some cations such as potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) are needed for plant physiological purposes. Meanwhile, some minerals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are important micronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is rich in legumes, while sulfur (S) concentration is related to essential amino acids. In this research, the goal was to analyze a genetic mapping population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotometry to determine concentrations of and to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 15 elements in ground flour of whole seeds. The population was grown in randomized complete block design experiments that had been used before to analyze Fe and Zn. A total of 21 QTL were identified for nine additional elements, of which four QTL were found for Cu followed by three each for Mg, Mn, and P. Fewer QTL were found for K, Na and S. Boron (B) and calcium (Ca) had only one QTL each. The utility of the QTL for breeding adaptation to element deficient soils and association with previously discovered nutritional loci are discussed. PMID:27014282

  13. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. II. Quantity and quality of light required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.; Watanabe, M.

    1990-01-01

    The quantity and quality of light required for light-stimulated cell expansion in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. have been determined. Seedlings were grown in dim red light (RL; 4 micromoles photons m-2 s-1) until cell division in the primary leaves was completed, then excised discs were incubated in 10 mM sucrose plus 10 mM KCl in a variety of light treatments. The growth response of discs exposed to continuous white light (WL) for 16 h was saturated at 100 micromoles m-2 s-1, and did not show reciprocity. Extensive, but not continuous, illumination was needed for maximal growth. The wavelength dependence of disc expansion was determined from fluence-response curves obtained from 380 to 730 nm provided by the Okazaki Large Spectrograph. Blue (BL; 460 nm) and red light (RL; 660 nm) were most effective in promoting leaf cell growth, both in photosynthetically active and inhibited leaf discs. Far-red light (FR; 730 nm) reduced the effectiveness of RL, but not BL, indicating that phytochrome and a separate blue-light receptor mediate expansion of leaf cells.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter the response of growth and nutrient uptake of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Wang; Zhaozhong Feng; Xiaoke Wang; Wenliang Gong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae on the responses to elevated O3 in growth and nutrition of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Guangzhouyuan) were investigated. Exposure was conducted in growth chambers by using three O3 concentrations (20 (CF), 80 (CFO1) and 120 nL/L (CFO2); 8 hr/day for 75 days). Results showed that elevated O3 slightly impacted overall mycorrhizal colonization, but significantly decreased the proportional frequency of hypha and increased the proportional frequency of spores and vesicles, suggesting that O3 had significant effects on mycorrhizal structure. Elevated O3 significantly decreased yield, dry mass and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in both non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants. However, significant interactive effects were found in most variables due to that the reduction by O3 in the mycorrhizal plants was less than that in the non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, AMF increased the concentrations of N, P, Ca, and Mg in shoot and root. It can be concluded that AMF alleviated detrimental effects of increasing O3 on host plant through improving plant nutrition and growth.

  15. Biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of {sup 57}Fe-enriched Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppler, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Zurich (Switzerland); Meile, Leo [ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, Zurich (Switzerland); Walczyk, Thomas [National University of Singapore, Department of Chemistry and Department of Biochemistry, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-01-15

    Ferritin is the major iron storage protein in the biosphere. Iron stores of an organism are commonly assessed by measuring the concentration of the protein shell of the molecule in fluids and tissues. The amount of ferritin-bound iron, the more desirable information, still remains inaccessible owing to the lack of suitable techniques. Iron saturation of ferritin is highly variable, with a maximum capacity of 4,500 iron atoms per molecule. This study describes the direct isotopic labeling of a complex metalloprotein in vivo by biosynthesis, in order to measure ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin was produced by cloning and overexpressing the Phaseolus vulgaris ferritin gene pfe in Escherichia coli in the presence of {sup 57}FeCl{sub 2}. Recombinant ferritin was purified in a fully assembled form and contained approximately 1,000 iron atoms per molecule at an isotopic enrichment of more than 95% {sup 57}Fe. We did not find any evidence of species conversion of the isotopic label for at least 5 months of storage at -20 C. Transfer efficiency of enriched iron into [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin of 20% was sufficient to be economically feasible. Negligible amounts of non-ferritin-bound iron in the purified [{sup 57}Fe]ferritin solution allows for use of this spike for quantification of ferritin-bound iron by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  16. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  17. Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean by using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence COntaining Repeats (FIASCO protocol. These markers revealed two to seven alleles, with an average of 3.64 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC values ranged from 0.055 to 0.721 over 13 loci, with a mean value of 0.492, and 7 loci having PIC greater than 0.5. The expected heterozygosity (HE and observed heterozygosity (HO levels ranged from 0.057 to 0.814 and from 0.026 to 0.531, respectively. Cross-species amplification of the 13 prime pairs was performed in its related specie of Vigna unguiculata L. Seven out of all these markers showed cross-species transferability. These markers will be useful for future genetic diversity and population genetics studies for this agricultural specie and its related species.

  18. Simulation of fallout for translocation studies of 137Cs and 90Sr in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of an accident at a nuclear power plant with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge on the behaviour of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable for safety reasons. The radioactive contamination of crops, due to fallout, should be carefully assessed since the consumption of contaminated food is the main route of population exposure. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. In order to quantify the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for Cs and Sr in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomised block design. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. Cs activity was determined by gamma ray spectrometry, while chemical separation followed by beta counting of Y was used for Sr determination. The model used for translocation indicated functional dependence between the moment of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. (author)

  19. RESPUESTA DEL CULTIVO DE LA HABICHUELA (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Verlili. A LA APLICACIÓN DE DIFERENTES BIOPRODUCTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elein Terry Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el área experimental del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA, con el objetivo de evaluar la respuesta del cultivo de la habichuela ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Verlili, a la aplicación sola o combinada de productos bioestimulantes y biofertilizantes. Para dar cumplimiento a los objetivos propuestos, se estudiaron diferentes tratamientos que consistieron en las aplicaciones combinadas de EcoMic ® con Fitomas-E ® , Liplant ® y Dimargón ® , así como las aplicaciones simples de cada uno, todos comparados con un tratamiento control sin aplicación. Se realizaron diferentes evaluaciones referidas a algunas variables del crecimiento y desarrollo del cultivo e igualmente se calculó el rendimiento agrícola al final del ciclo vegetativo. Los resultados mostraron la efectividad de los productos en el crecimiento, desarrollo y rendimiento, destacándose el tratamiento donde las plantas recibieron la combinación EcoMic ® +Fitomas-E ® , con diferencias significativas respecto al resto de los tratamientos, lo que además conllevó a la obtención de rendimientos superiores, demostrándose de esta manera el aporte que realizan a la producción agrícola de este cultivo.

  20. Steady-state room temperature fluorescence and CO/sub 2/ assimilation rates in intact leaves. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Steady-state room temperature variable fluorescence from leaves was measured as a function of CO/sub 2/ pressure in Xanthium strumarium L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. Measurements were made in a range of light intensities, at normal and low O/sub 2/ partial pressure and over a range of temperatures. At low CO/sub 2/ pressure fluorescence increased with increasing CO/sub 2/. At higher CO/sub 2/ pressure fluorescence usually decreased with increasing CO/sub 2/ but occasionally increased slightly. The transition CO/sub 2/ pressure between the responses could be changed by changing light, O/sub 2/ pressure, or temperature. This breakpoint in the fluorescence-CO/sub 2/ curve was a reliable indicator of the transition between ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) saturated assimilation and RuBP regeneration limited assimilation. The fluorescence signal was not a reliable indicator of O/sub 2/-insensitive assimilation in these C/sub 3/ species. 21 references, 8 figures.

  1. myo-Inositol synthesis from [1-3H]glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled D-[1-3H]glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the 3H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained 3H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from [1-3H]glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The 3H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, 3H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway

  2. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc along with various other types of inorganic (tricalcium, dicalcium and zinc phosphate and organic (calcium phytate phosphates, as well as producing siderophore and ACC deaminase. PPR8 also produced cyanogens, extracellular chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and oxalate oxidase. Based on the PGP traits of all isolates, PPR8 was found to be the most potent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Further, PPR8 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. PPR8, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Moreover, the PGP activities of PPR8 confirmed it to be a potent biocontrol agent, inhibiting the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi. This study reveals the potential of Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 to be used as a good bioinoculant for growth promotion of common bean and for the protection of important legume crops from various deleterious phytopathogens.

  3. The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbano C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

  4. The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences

    OpenAIRE

    Burbano C.; Muzquiz M.; Ayet G.; Pedrosa M.M.; Cuadrado C.

    1999-01-01

    This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins) h...

  5. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  6. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L) CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

    OpenAIRE

    Rosângela Vera; Marcus Fidélis S. de Castro; Luiz Sérgio Rodrigues Vale; Francisco Pereira Moura Neto; Wilson Ferreira de Oliveira; Valmir Eduardo D. Alcântara

    2007-01-01

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg se...

  7. Efeito da irrigação com água salina em um solo cultivado com o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Effect of irrigation water salinity in a soilcultivated with french beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal, da água de irrigação, na salinização de um Latossolo Roxo distrófico, onde cultivou-se o feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, em Lavras, MG, com o propósito de evitar a interferência das precipitações pluviométricas. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis de salinidade da água (condutividade elétrica de 0,1; 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 com seis repetições. A condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado do solo foi medida no início do experimento, no final da fase vegetativa e após a colheita. Constatou-se uma diminuição da salinidade do solo para o tratamento 0,1 dS m-1, nas diferentes datas de análise do extrato. Para os demais tratamentos, houve um aumento significativo na salinidade: 116,98%, 195,10%, 565,84% e 955,17% para os níveis 1,0; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1, respectivamente. Houve uma queda acentuada de produção com níveis crescentes de salinidade do solo. O aumento da salinidade da água promoveu um acréscimo linear na condutividade elétrica do solo e no potencial osmótico.The objective this study was to evaluate the different irrigation water salt concentrations effects in the salinization of a "Dystrophic Dusky Red Latossol", cultivated with (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CV ESAL 686. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the Engineering Department at Federal University of Lavras, of Lavras - MG to avoid the interference of the precipitations. The treatments consisted of five level of water salt concentration (electric conductivity of 0.10; 1.0; 2.5; 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1 with six replications. The electric conductivity of the soil saturation extract was measured at the beginning of the experiment, at the end of the vegetative phase and after the crop harvest. A decrease of soil

  8. Estudio electroforético de germoplasma de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en centros secundarios de diversidad genética: el caso de África sur-Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Triana E. Mónica; Roca William M.

    1989-01-01

    Se analizaron 238 muestras de Phaseolus vulgaris L. de Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia y Zimbabwe por sus tipos de faseolina, utilizando la electroforesis SDS-PAGE. Al ubicar las variedades dentro de los centros de origen en las Américas, se encontró que el 69% eran del tipo ''T'', indicando un origen en el sur de los Andes. En el estudio se discuten aspectos evolutivos de diversidad genética en un centro secundario.238 samples of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania...

  9. 昭君眉豆特征特性及绿色产品生产技术%Characteristics of Zhaojun Phaseolus Vulgaris L. and Production Technologies of Green Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏程; 董朝辉; 余炎红; 吴海鹰

    2013-01-01

    Zhaojun Phaseolus Vulgaris L. is a variety of traditional beans for Xingshan county. It grows at an altitude of 1000-1500 meters. This paper not only describes the characteristics and growth habits of Zhaojun Phaseolus Vulgaris L., but also introduces the production method of green product.%昭君眉豆是兴山县的一个传统豆类资源品种,生长在海拔1000~1500 m范围内。文章对昭君眉豆的形态特征、生长习性及绿色产品生产方法进行阐述。

  10. Cartografía de QTL asociados a la tolerancia a estrés hídrico en frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Villordo Pineda, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. (frijol común o judía) es una leguminosa de gran demanda para la nutrición humana y un producto agrícola muy importante. Sin embargo, la producción de frijol se ve limitada por presiones ambientales como la sequía. En México, el 85% de la cosecha de frijol se produce en la temporada de primavera-verano, principalmente en las regiones del altiplano semiárido con una precipitación anual entre 250 y 400 mm. A pesar del implemento de tecnología en el campo, los factores natu...

  11. Biodiversidad de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Honduras. Caracterización agromorfológica, molecular y ecogeográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Linarez, Narcizo

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio de la biodiversidad del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Honduras, que es el segundo de los cultivos de granos básicos en importancia. Dicho estudio se ha realizado mediante una caracterización agromorfológica, molecular y ecogeográfica en una selección de 300 accesiones conservadas en el banco de germoplasma ubicado en la Escuela Agrícola Panamericana (EAP) El Zamorano, y que se colectaron en 13 departamentos del país durante el p...

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) EN LA PALMA, PINAR DEL RÍO

    OpenAIRE

    N. G. Lamin; Sandra Miranda; H. Ríos

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó en el municipio La Palma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, para evaluar el impacto del fitomejoramiento participativo sobre el sistema local de semillas de los pequeños agricultores del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). El trabajo de investigación consideró realizar el primer ejercicio de selección participativa de variedades de frijol en una feria de diversidad efectuada en una comunidad rural en Cuba, la cual fue organizada por un agricultor en la localidad ...

  13. Functional interplay between glutathione and hydrogen sulfide in regulation of thiol cascade during arsenate tolerance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2015-01-01

    Changes in expressions of up- and downstream thiol cascade were studied in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. VL-63 and its mutant, pvsod1 (deficient in superoxide dismutase activity) under 50 μM sodium arsenate (As), As + l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) and As + BSO + Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)-treatments for 10 days. Main objective was to investigate the functional relationship between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and glutathione (GSH) in regulation of sulfate transporters and cysteine metabolism...

  14. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Lecythidaceae in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão F.J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, an important component in the diet of people in developing countries, has low levels of the essential amino acid, methionine. We have attempted to correct this deficiency by introducing a transgene coding for a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut via biolistic methods. The transgene's coding sequence was driven by a doubled 35S CaMV promoter and AMV enhancer sequences. The transgene was stable and correctly expressed in homozygous R2 to R5 seeds. In two of the five transgenic lines the methionine content was significantly increased (14 and 23% over the values found in untransformed plants.

  15. Clonación, caracterización y análisis de expresión de genes que codifican asparragina sintetasa en Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Osuna Jiménez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    En el proyecto desarrollado en esta Tesis Doctoral se ha llevado a cabo la clonación de dos genes que codifican sendas asparragina sintetasas (AS) de una leguminosa ureida, como es Phaseolus vulgaris. Teniendo en cuenta la hipótesis de que existen factores moleculares responsables de la integración y corregulación de la biosíntesis de ureidos y amidas en raíces de leguminosas, y con el objetivo último de determinar los mecnismos de control de estos procesos, se ha iniciado u...

  16. Differential Response of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Roots and Leaves to Salinity in Soil and Hydroponic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu BAYRAM; Burcu SECKIN DINLER; Eda TASCI

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Volare) roots and leaves to salinity in different growth mediums (soil and hydroponic culture) through physiologic and biochemical analyses. The relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (CHL) content decreased with 300 mM NaCl treatment in both cultures but did not change with 150 mM treatment in soil culture. Similarly, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not change with 150 mM treatment in ...

  17. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (phaseolus vulgaris) y arveja (pisum sativum). efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao Reboredo Tania; Hampe Amador Sandra; Smith Ruth Addae; Puerta García Felicidad; Ledesma Rivero Luis

    2011-01-01

    Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) y la...

  18. EFECTO DEL PECTIMORF® EN EL ÍNDICE ESTOMÁTICO DE PLANTAS DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idioleidys Álvarez Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectimorf® es un producto bioactivo que potencia el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas en condiciones de sequía. No obstante, se desconoce su mecanismo de acción en la planta, por lo que la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar su efecto en la densidad de los estomas en la superficie foliar de plantas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Para ello se empleó el cultivar cubano Cuba C 25-9, el cual se asperjó con 10 mg L-1 de Pectimorf®. Para el estudio anatómico la epidermis foliar fue observada al microscopio óptico de luz (Motic y fotografiadas con una cámara acoplada. Las variables estomáticas fueron medidas mediante el programa morfométrico ImageJ y procesadas con el paquete estadístico Stargrafic 5.0. Se demostró que Pectimorf® provoca un incremento en el índice estomático (IE del cultivar estudiado. La estructura de las células epidérmicas permaneció inalterable en ambas superficies foliares; sin embargo el tamaño de las células estomáticas se modificó con la presencia del producto. En la superficie abaxial las células oclusivas se mostraron más estrechas y cortas, lo que evidenció que las hojas de mayor índice estomático presentaron estomas más pequeños. Los resultados permiten aseverar que Pectimorf® provoca modificaciones en los patrones de distribución y morfogénesis estomática, lo que pudiera favorece el crecimiento adecuado de las plantas de frijol en ambientes desfavorables.

  19. Phytohemagglutinin derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a cause for intestinal malabsorption associated with bacterial overgrowth in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, J G; Boldt, D H; Meyers, J; Weber, F L

    1983-03-01

    Plant lectins or carbohydrate binding proteins interact with membrane receptors on cellular surfaces but their antinutritional effects are poorly defined. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of phytohemagglutinin, a lectin derived from raw red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), on small intestinal absorptive function and morphology, and on the intestinal microflora. Phytohemagglutinin was isolated in purified form by thyroglobulin-sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. Red kidney bean and phytohemagglutinin (6% and 0.5%, respectively, of dietary protein) were fed in a purified casein diet to weanling rats for up to 21 days. Weight loss, associated with malabsorption of lipid, nitrogen, and vitamin B12, developed in comparison with animals pair-fed isonitrogenous casein diets. Antinutritional effects of red kidney bean were reversible on reinstitution of a purified casein diet. An increase in bacterial colonization of the jejunum and ileum occurred in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutin-fed animals. When antibiotics were included in the diet, malabsorption of [3H]triolein and 57Co-vitamin B12 in red kidney bean-fed animals was partially reversed and, in germ-free animals, purified phytohemagglutinin had no demonstrable antinutritional effect. Mucosal disaccharidase activity was reduced in red kidney bean- and phytohemagglutinin-fed animals, but intestinal mucosal morphology was unchanged. Dietary administration of phytohemagglutinin, alone or as a component of red kidney bean, caused intestinal dysfunction, which was associated with, and dependent upon, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Adherence of enteric bacteria to the mucosal surface was enhanced by phytohemagglutinin which may have facilitated small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. PMID:6822324

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  1. Spatial aluminium sensitivity of root apices of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with contrasting aluminium resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés F; Rao, Idupulapati M; Horst, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminium (Al) is an inhibition of root elongation. In the present study, short and medium-term effects of Al treatment (20 muM) on root growth and Al accumulation of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) and Quimbaya (Al-resistant), were studied. Root elongation of both genotypes was severely inhibited during the first 3-4 h of Al treatment. Thereafter, both genotypes showed gradual recovery. However, this recovery continued in genotype Quimbaya until the root elongation rate reached the level of the control (without Al) while the genotype VAX-1 was increasingly damaged by Al after 12 h of Al treatment. Short-term Al treatment (90 microM Al) to different zones of the root apex using agarose blocks corroborated the importance of the transition zone (TZ, 1-2 mm) as a main target of Al. However, Al applied to the elongation zone (EZ) also contributed to the overall inhibition of root elongation. Enhanced inhibition of root elongation during the initial 4 h of Al treatment was related to high Al accumulation in root apices in both genotypes (Quimbaya>VAX-1). Recovery from Al stress was reflected by decreasing Al contents especially in the TZ, but also in the EZ. After 24 h of Al treatment the high Al resistance of Quimbaya was reflected by much lower Al contents in the entire root apex. The results confirmed that genotypic differences in Al resistance in common bean are built up during medium-term exposure of the roots to Al. For this acquisition of Al resistance, the activation and maintenance of an Al exclusion mechanism, especially in the TZ but also in the EZ, appears to be decisive. PMID:17975208

  2. Moderate water stress causes different stomatal and non-stomatal changes in the photosynthetic functioning of Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, J C; Zlatev, Z S; Leitão, A E; Pais, I P; Fortunato, A S; Lidon, F C

    2014-01-01

    The impact of moderate water deficit on the photosynthetic apparatus of three Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars, Plovdiv 10 (P10), Dobrudjanski Ran (DR) and Prelom (Prel), was investigated. Water shortage had less impact on leaf hydration, RWC (predawn and midday) and predawn water potential in Prel. RWC and Ψ(p) were more reduced in P10, while there was no osmotic adjustment in any cultivar. Although drought drastically reduced stomatal opening in P10 and DR, reduced A(max) indicated non-stomatal limitations that contributed to the negligible P(n). These limitations were on potential thylakoid electron transport rates of PSI and II, pointing to photosystem functioning as a major limiting step in photosynthesis. This agrees with decreases in actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)'/F(m)'), quantum yield of photosynthetic non-cyclic electron transport (ϕ(e)) and energy-driven photochemical events (q(P)), although the impact on these parameters would also include down-regulation processes. When compared to DR, Prel retained a higher functional state of the photosynthetic machinery, justifying reduced need for photoprotective mechanisms (non-photochemical quenching, zeaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene) and maintenance of the balance between energy capture and dissipative pigments. The highest increases in fructose, glucose, arabinose and sorbitol in Prel might be related to tolerance to a lower oxidative state. All cultivars had reduced A(max) due to daytime stomatal closure in well-watered conditions. Under moderate drought, Prel had highest tolerance, higher leaf hydration and maintenance of important photochemical use of energy. However, water shortage caused appreciable non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis linked to regulation/imbalance at the metabolic level (and growth) in all cultivars. This included damage, as reflected in decreased potential photosystem functioning, pointing to higher sensitivity of photosynthesis to drought than is commonly assumed

  3. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  4. Metabolic origin of the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2} in roots of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathellier, C.; Tcherkez, G.; Cornic, G.; Ghashghaie, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution - ESE, CNRS-UMR 8079 - IFR 87, Batiment 362, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Tcherkez, G. [Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome, IFR87 La Plante et son Environnement, Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay Cedex (France); Bligny, R.; Gout, E. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale CEA-Grenoble 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    - Root respiration is a major contributor to soil CO{sub 2} efflux, and thus an important component of ecosystem respiration. But its metabolic origin, in relation to the carbon isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C), remains poorly understood. - Here, {sup 13}C analysis was conducted on CO{sub 2} and metabolites under typical conditions or under continuous darkness in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots. {sup 13}C contents were measured either under natural abundance or following pulse-chase labeling with {sup 13}C-enriched glucose or pyruvate, using isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. - In contrast to leaves, no relationship was found between the respiratory quotient and the {delta}{sup 13}C of respired CO{sub 2}, which stayed constant at a low value (c. -27.5 per thousand) under continuous darkness. With labeling experiments, it is shown that such a pattern is explained by the {sup 13}C-depleting effect of the pentose phosphate pathway; and the involvement of the Krebs cycle fueled by either the glycolytic input or the lipid/protein recycling. The anaplerotic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity sustained glutamic acid (Glu) synthesis, with no net effect on respired CO{sub 2}. - These results indicate that the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal does not depend on the availability of root respiratory substrates and it is thus plausible that, unless the {sup 13}C photosynthetic fractionation varies at the leaf level, the root {delta}{sup 13}C signal hardly changes under a range of natural environmental conditions. (authors)

  5. 蔓生型菜豆品种比较试验%Comparison of Climbing Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰梅; 张丽琴; 钟利

    2014-01-01

    对10个露地栽培的蔓生菜豆品种的抗性、产量及商品特性等进行考察比较,旨在筛选出适于昆明地区栽培的菜豆品种,为该地区菜豆的种植和推广提供依据。试验结果表明,泰国架豆王(黑皮、桂林天宇)、特级泰国架豆王和泰国架豆王(重庆华渝)3个品种的综合性状表现较好,产量较高,每667 m2分别达到了4148.7,3957.9,3891.3 kg,比较适宜昆明地区种植推广。%In this paper, we investigated and compared the resistance, yield and commercial characteristics of ten climbing kidney bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) planted in open field in Kunming, in order to screen out suitable kidney bean cultivars for Kunming and provide basis for kidney bean cultivation and extension in Kunming. The results showed that, the three cultivars, Thailand King Pole Bean (with black seed coat, from Guilin Tianyu Seed Co., Ltd.), Super Thailand King Pole Bean and Thailand King Pole Bean (from Chongqing Huayu Seed Co., Ltd.), had better comprehensive characters, and their yields were 4 148.7, 3 957.9 and 3 891.3 kg/667 m2 respectively, thus they were suitable to be planted in Kunming area.

  6. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallak Angela Maria Gattás

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL, was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extraction from sorghum roots seven days after sowing on Petri dishes, and refrigerated until use. Solutions of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mM were prepared using Johanson solution as the SGL solvent. Seven-day-old bean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse were transplanted to the solution. Seven days after transplantation, the beans did not show any sign of phytotoxicity; however, cytogenetic observations showed that SGL reduced the number of cells in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase stages. Colchicine effects were observed among cells in metaphase on the third and fifth days after treatments and varied with SGL concentrations. By the seventh day, the colchicine effects were inversely proportional to concentration, which varied from 34.3% for 0.01 mM to 6.6% for 0.15 mM. SGL acts as a mitotic inhibitor. It probably depolymerizes the microtubular proteins and induces the formation of colchicine metaphases causing polyploid nuclei. A largest period of SGL treatment also induced chromosome breaks and bridge formation in anaphase and telophase. Although SGL cannot be used as a herbicide for bean cultures, its allelochemical effects on other cultures are the factors that will define the use of sorghum as a natural herbicide.

  7. Description des embryons de Phaseolus vulgaris en cours d'avortement issus de plantes mutagénisées au méthanesulfonate d'éthyle (EMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Silué, Souleymane; Diarrasouba, Nafan; Fofana, Inza Jesus; Muhovski, Yordan; TOUSSAINT, André; Mergeai, Guy; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM) and cotylédons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to tho...

  8. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 is associated with the homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard;

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) play a central role in potyviral infection. Accordingly, mutations in the gene encoding eIF4E have been identified as a source of recessive resistance in several plant species. In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, b...

  9. Phenotypic evaluation and genome wide association studies of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) diversity panels in multiple locations highlight evaluation techniques, traits and lines useful for trait based selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity is constrained by abiotic soil conductions including drought and low fertility as well as by high temperature. High temperature primarily impacts pollen viability and growth. Soil water content and nutrients occur heterogeneously and often in a stratif...

  10. Potyviral resistance derived from cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris carrying bc-3 co-segregates with homozygotic presence of a mutated eIF4E allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderpour, M; Lund, O Søgaard; Larsen, R;

    2008-01-01

    In common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, four recessive genes, bc-1, bc-2, bc-3 and bc-u control resistance to potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). To identify candidates for the bc-genes, we cloned and sequenced homologues of genes encoding cap...

  11. Marker-based linkage map of Andean common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and mapping of QTLs underlying popping ability traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste-Lisbona Fernando J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuña bean is a type of ancient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. native to the Andean region of South America, whose seeds possess the unusual property of popping. The nutritional features of popped seeds make them a healthy low fat and high protein snack. However, flowering of nuña bean only takes place under short-day photoperiod conditions, which means a difficulty to extend production to areas where such conditions do not prevail. Therefore, breeding programs of adaptation traits will facilitate the diversification of the bean crops and the development of new varieties with enhanced healthy properties. Although the popping trait has been profusely studied in maize (popcorn, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of the popping ability in common bean. To obtain insights into the genetics of popping ability related traits of nuña bean, a comprehensive quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis was performed to detect single-locus and epistatic QTLs responsible for the phenotypic variance observed in these traits. Results A mapping population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between two Andean common bean genotypes was evaluated for three popping related traits, popping dimension index (PDI, expansion coefficient (EC, and percentage of unpopped seeds (PUS, in five different environmental conditions. The genetic map constructed included 193 loci across 12 linkage groups (LGs, covering a genetic distance of 822.1 cM, with an average of 4.3 cM per marker. Individual and multi-environment QTL analyses detected a total of nineteen single-locus QTLs, highlighting among them the co-localized QTLs for the three popping ability traits placed on LGs 3, 5, 6, and 7, which together explained 24.9, 14.5, and 25.3% of the phenotypic variance for PDI, EC, and PUS, respectively. Interestingly, epistatic interactions among QTLs have been detected, which could have a key role in the genetic control of

  12. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for 60Co, 90Sr and 137Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for 60Co and 137Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of 90Y was used for 90Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for 60Co and 137Cs. For the 90Sr, the translocation was below 2,5 mBq kg-1/Bq kg-1, 0

  13. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathalia S.R.; Silva, Yasmini P.A.; Tiraboschi, Paula C.A.; Takeuchi, Katiucha P.; Souza, Adriana R.M., E-mail: adriana.souza@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Universidade Federal de Goias - UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arthur, Valter, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  14. Evaluation of the texture of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the variety carioca treated by gamma irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bean is a staple food of the population, being one of the main products in the diet of the economically less privileged social strata. All these factors mean that beans occupy a prominent space in both the social and economic environment in Brazil [1]. In this social and economic importance of beans, adds to the growing demand, both consumers and producers, of food products that have a quality nutritional and technological properties desirable in order to obtain good quality products, which would have greater capacity competitive in the market. The quality of the beans processed depends on the growth conditions, maturity stage at harvest, processing and storage. During processing, there may be biochemical and chemical changes that affect the texture of the product [2]. Given this need, the irradiation of foods has been increasing in recent years as a preservation method that can guarantee the level of product safety, without causing major changes in nutritional and sensory characteristics of products [3].In this context, this work had the objective to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the texture of commercial beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Carioca. The raw material (raw beans) was acquired in trade from the city of Goiania (GO) in plastic containers containing 1 kg of product. It has purchased three packs of different brands, widely accepted by local people, making a total of 3 kg of beans from each brand. It was noted the date of filling the grain, so that all the samples had approximately the same age. Thus eliminated is the age factor as a possible responsible for differences that could be observed between the samples after the time of analysis. The beans were then taken to the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry where they were removed from original containers, homogenized and packaged in polypropylene properly identified and sealed, containing 100g of product, then separated into lots. The different batches of raw beans were sent for irradiation

  15. Oviposition behavior of wild Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae females deprived of the host Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae Comportamento de ovoposição de fêmeas selvagens de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae privadas do hospedeiro Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. A Sperandio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The insects oviposition behavior is fundamental to study population dynamics, life history evolution, insect-plant and parasitoid-host interactions. Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 females oviposition behavior in the presence and absence of a host is unknown. The main objective of this study was to describe in detail the oviposition behavior of host deprived or non-deprived females, and observe how the several situations of deprivation (days without host influence oviposition. Six groups were assembled, three deprived of the host (for 2, 5 and 8 days and three control groups (with host, each containing one newly-emerged couple (0-24h of wild Z. subfasciatus, The non-deprived (control groups received the hosts every day (5 bean seeds Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae and the others were deprived for 2, 5 and 8 days, respectively. For each group 12 repetitions were made. Consequently, 12 couples were host deprived during two days, 12 couples were host deprived during five days and 12 couples were host deprived during eight days. When the seeds of the deprived groups were added the experiments started. There was a control group for each deprived group. The experiments and the insects were maintained at constant temperature 29 ± 2ºC and 70-80% relative humidity. At 15 minutes interval, the number of times the females manifested the different categories of behavior was observed (frequency. The behavior categories were: rest inside the box, locomotion, resource exploration (seeds, copulation and oviposition. The deprived females stayed most of the time in contact with the host to carry out oviposition, while the non-deprived (control females spent most of the time at rest. This was observed in all the deprivation times. The results show that host deprivation influences the oviposition behavior of the studied species and also shows the flexibility in the oviposition strategies that these females present when the environment changes (absence and

  16. Utilisation des mutations induites pour l'étude de l'embryogenèse chez le haricot Phaseolus vulgaris L. et deux plantes modèles Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. et Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of induced mutations in embryogenesis study in bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. and Zea mays L.. Breeding of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., through interspecific hybridizations with the species Phaseolus coccineus L. and Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. as female parents leads to the abortion of immature embryos. Identification of genes required for embryo development could partly explain the abortion of hybrid embryos; induced mutations could thus be an alternative to identify key genes involved in Phaseolus embryogenesis. This paper is a review which shows a few examples of the use of induced mutations in the identification of essential genes for embryogenesis in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn. for dicots and Zea mays L. for monocots. In these two species, embryo development mutants have been isolated using insertional mutagenesis and chemical mutagenesis with Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS. Arabidopsis embryo mutants are affected in apical-basal axis polarity, radial pattern and in post-embryonic stages. Some Arabidopsis embryo mutants are defected in auxin signalisation. In maize, defective kernel (dek mutants are affected in the embryo and the endosperm, while in embryo specific (emb mutants, only the embryo is affected. In common bean, plants deficient in seed development were isolated using EMS mutagenesis. Embryos inside the seeds fail to growth at different stages of development and show abnormalities mainly in the suspensor and the cotyledons.

  17. Bioefticacité de la substance des feuilles de deux variétés de haricot Phaseolus vulgaris sur les différents états et stades de développement de la bruche du haricot Acanthoscelides obtectus, (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHIKHI, TANI Zoheir

    2014-01-01

    The beetle of the bean Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoiptera: Bruchidae), is the principal problem affecting the bean (phaseolus vulgaris) has the time at the fields and stock. The present study has as an aim the study of the relation insect and its plant host, with an evaluation of the biological activity on the beetle of the bean A.obtecrus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), of the substance of the sheets oftwo varieties of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris (rognon white and black), with two...

  18. Organic Matter Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Growth Cultivated in Soils with Two Sources of Water under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gardezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of organic matter on the association with Glomus intrarradices and soil contamination on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intrarradices. Vermicompost was used as a source of organic matter. There were highly significant increases (p≤0.05 in all the variables recorded due to the application of organic matter, and to the inoculation with Glomus intarradices. The irrigation source of the soils used for this experiment only had a significant effect (p≤0.05 on pod number and nitrogen fixation. The best growth and grain yield occurred with inoculated plants and supplementary organic matter.

  19. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  20. Comparación de la fertilización sintética con orgánica en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) en condiciones de fertirriego

    OpenAIRE

    Roblero Ramírez, Hugo Rubili

    2014-01-01

    En México, el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa más importante por su superficie cultivada y su papel en la alimentación. En Sinaloa, la superficie cultivada es superada solamente por el cultivo de maíz; en el ciclo agrícola 2009-2010 se sembraron 139,751hectáreas, principalmente bajo régimen de riego, con una producción de 216,254 toneladas, la cual fue superada únicamente por el Estado de Zacatecas. El frijol es una leguminosa poco eficiente en la fijación biológica de nitróge...

  1. Efectos de la aplicación simultanea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación simultánea de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 en el cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con dos tratamientos y ocho réplicas. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación combinada de Fitomas E (2,0 l.ha-1 y Biobras 16 (0,12 l.ha-1 y una variante control. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de las plantas a los 25 y 40 días post siembra, vaina por planta, granos por vainas, granos por plantas, masa de 100 granos y rendimiento agrícola. Se observó en la altura de las plantas diferencias estadísticas significativas entre ambos tratamientos, superando la combinación de Fitomas E y Biobras 16 al tratamiento control, en un 19,43 % y un 17,73 % respectivamente. La variable vainas por planta también mostró diferencias significativas favorables al tratamiento con los bioestimulantes, no así el número de granos por vainas y la masa de 100 granos. El mayor rendimiento agrícola se obtuvo con la variante donde se aplicó Fitomas E y Biobras 16, el cual difirió significativamente del control. Se concluye que el comportamiento agroproductivo del cultivo del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. se favoreció con el tratamiento evaluado.

  2. EFFECT OF ORGASOL ON SNAP BEAN CROP (Phaseolus vulgaris L. WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS EFEITO DO ORGASOL NA CULTURA DE FEIJÃO-DE-VAGEM (Phaseolus vulgaris L. NA PRESENÇA E NA AUSÊNCIA DE ADUBAÇÃO QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop.

    O Orgasol, um composto orgânico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake, em duas épocas de plantio, na presença e na ausência de adubação química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto não influenciou a germinação nem a produção de vagens na cultura estudada.

  3. Effect of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin on the ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminou, Heba AbdelKader; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Hashem, Hanan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T. vaginalis trophozoites in comparison to metronidazole, as detected by transmission electron microscope. Both N. sativa oil and P. vulgaris lectin showed high toxic effect as evidenced by severe cell damage with cytoplasmic and nuclear destruction, while the effect of N. sativa alcoholic extract was moderate. Therefore, these two extracts could offer an effective, cheaper and more safe alternative for metronidazole in treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:27605771

  4. Estudio electroforético de germoplasma de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en centros secundarios de diversidad genética: el caso de África sur-Oriental

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    Triana E. Mónica

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 238 muestras de Phaseolus vulgaris L. de Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia y Zimbabwe por sus tipos de faseolina, utilizando la electroforesis SDS-PAGE. Al ubicar las variedades dentro de los centros de origen en las Américas, se encontró que el 69% eran del tipo ''T'', indicando un origen en el sur de los Andes. En el estudio se discuten aspectos evolutivos de diversidad genética en un centro secundario.238 samples of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe of the south-eastern of Africa were analyzed for their phaseolin types using the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Tracing them bad to their centers of origin in the Americas, a majority of materials (69% were found to be of "T" type, indicating an origin in the Southern Andes. Evolution aspects of genetic diversity in a secondary center are discussed.

  5. Toxicity and repellency of essential oils to Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae in Phaseolus vulgaris L Toxicidade e repelência de óleos essenciais a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae em grãos de Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria de França

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tangerine (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, lemon (Citrus medica limonum Lush, pear orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, red copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., rosemary (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière and E. citriodora Hook, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and citronella (Cimbopogon nardus Linnaeus oils at several concentrations on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman were studied. In toxicity tests, grains of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rajadinho were impregnated with oils and infested with adults of Z. subfasciatus up to 24 hours old. All tested oils were effective in reducing the viable egg-laying and adult emergence of this pest, in function of the concentrations used, highlighting E. citriodora and E. globulus oils which caused 100% effectiveness from 0.5 mL Kg-1 concentration. In repellency tests, two arenas consisting of plastic containers, connected symmetrically to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. In one of the boxes, untreated beans were placed and on the other ones beans treated with each oil concentration were used. In the central box, five couples of Z. subfasciatus were released. Grains of P. vulgaris treated with oils of E. citriodora, C. citratus and C. oleifera reduced the attraction percentage of Z. subfasciatus adults, while the E. globulus increased this percentage. The percentages of reduced viable eggs ranged from 17.9% (C. medica limonum to 93.3% (C. nardus, while the reduction on the number of emerged insects was 23.9% and 95.9%, respectively for these same oils.Estudaram-se os efeitos dos óleos de tangerina 'Cravo' (Phaseolus vulgaris Blanco, limão-siciliano (Citrus medica limonum Lush, laranja 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeek, copaíba-vermelha (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole, eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardière e Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, capim-santo (Cymbopogon citratus

  6. Estudio electroforético de germoplasma de fríjol (phaseolus vulgaris l.) en centros secundarios de diversidad genética: el caso de áfrica sur-oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Triana E., Mónica; Roca, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Se analizaron 238 muestras de Phaseolus vulgaris L. de Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia y Zimbabwe por sus tipos de faseolina, utilizando la electroforesis SDS-PAGE. Al ubicar las variedades dentro de los centros de origen en las Américas, se encontró que el 69% eran del tipo ''T'', indicando un origen en el sur de los Andes. En el estudio se discuten aspectos evolutivos de diversidad genética en un centro secundario.

  7. Comparison of effect of zinc-enriched pod of Phaseolus vulgaris and inner rice husk composts with zinc sulphate and zinc 14% chelate on zinc availability in maize plant in a calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, Mrs. Shabnam; Azizi, Prof. Pirouz; Forghani, Dr. Akbar; Asghar Zade, Dr. Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Mixtures of Zn salts and organic matter have been used successfully in controlling zinc deficiency in various crops. The aim of the present study was to optimize the effectiveness, on zinc availability in maize, of natural organic substances by enriching them with zinc sulfate. For this purpose pod of Phaseolus vulgaris and inner rice husk, as abundant organic wastes in the north of Iran, were incubated with increasing quantities of zinc sulphate. The effect of these zinc-enriched composts, z...

  8. Research on Sowing Date of Phaseolus Vulgaris L in Heilongjiang Province Longmen Farm%黑龙江省龙门农场奶花芸豆播期试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩锋利; 张玉先

    2014-01-01

    The optimum sowing date of Phaseolus vulgaris L has great significance to improve the yield. Therefore,this experiment through field investigation and laboratory test,respectively,on May 10th,20 days, 30 days in three sowing dates of Phaseolus vulgaris L growth period,plant height,nodes on main stem, branches,pods per plant,seeds per plant,lodging and 100 grain weight is studied,the Heilongjiang Long-men farm Phaseolus vulgaris L optimum sowing date to around May 20th.%确定奶花芸豆的最适播期对提高其产量具有重要意义。为此,开展此项试验,通过田间调查和室内考种,分别对5月10日、20日、30日3个播期的奶花芸豆的生育时期、株高、主茎节数、分枝、单株荚数、单株粒数、倒伏程度和百粒重进行了研究对比,结果确定了黑龙江省龙门农场奶花芸豆的最适宜播期为5月20日左右。

  9. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, S.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Oosterhuis, D.M. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  10. EFFECT OF THE TREATMENT OF SEEDS WITH FUNGICIDES IN CONTROLLING DAMPING OFF OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES COM FUNGICIDAS NO CONTROLE DO TOMBAMENTO EM FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. CAUSADO POR Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

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    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Some fungicides were tested in control of Rhizoctonia solani in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris planted in soil inoculated with this fungus. The evaluations were made at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing, observing germination and damping-off. The results showed that the fungicides thiram (280g. a.i./ 100kg seeds have no increased plant stand in Phaseolus vulgaris, in relation to the non treated control. Seed treatments with PCNB (450g a.i./ 100kg seeds, iprodione + thiram (200g a.i/l00kg seeds and iprodione + thirarn (240g a.i./100kg seeds, increased plant stand in percentages varying from 65 to 73%, respectively in relation to non treated control, but the best treatment was with iprodione + thiram (320g a.i./l00kg seeds, presenting an increase around 83%.

    Foram testados alguns fungicidas no controle de Rhizoctonia solani em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., semeado em vasos com solo previamente inoculado por este fungo. As avaliações foram feitas aos 10, 20 e 30 dias após o plantio, levando-se em consideração ausência de germinação e plântulas tombadas. Os resultados mostraram que o fungicida thiram (280g i.a./100kg de sementes, não aumentou o stand de plantas em relação à testemunha. Sementes tratadas com PCNB (450g i.a./l00kg de sementes, com iprodione + thiram (200g i.a./l00kg de sementes e com iprodione + thiram (240g i.a./l00kg de sementes aumentaram o stand em percentagens que variaram de 65 a 73%, em relação à testemunha, mas o melhor resultado foi obtido com iprodione + thiram na concentração de 320g i.a./ 100kg de sementes, que promoveu aumento do stand em cerca de 83%.

  11. Effects of water deficit and rehydration on the polar lipid and membranes resistance leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pérola

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    Raimundo Rômulo Martins Júnior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pérola were used to evaluate the water deficit effects in polar lipids composition and in the electric conductivity. The results showed that the water deficiency a effected in the electrolytes loss which increased gradually in response to water deficit. This suggested a compartimentalization loss, due to the structural cellular membranes elements degradation. Total lipids contents decreased by reason of the water stress action. The polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (linoleic and linolenic acids suffered a decrease while saturated fatty acid (palmitic and stearic acids increased. The imbalance in the fatty saturated/unsaturated acid relation led to a reduction in the unsaturation index. The electrolytes loss increase related whith the to polyunsaturated fatty acid contents reduction suggested a larger dehydrated plants vulnerability, leading to a consequent loss in the productivity.No presente estudo, foram utilizadas plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Pérola, com a finalidade de avaliar os efeitos do déficit hídrico na condutividade elétrica, nos teores de lipídios totais e de ácidos graxos. Os resultados evidenciaram importantes efeitos da deficiência hídrica como um aumento gradativo na perda de eletrólitos. O teor de ácidos graxos saturados (ácidos palmítico e esteárico aumentou pela ação do estresse hídrico enquanto, o teor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (ácidos linoléico e linolênico e o de lipídios sofreram decréscimo. O desequilíbrio na relação ácidos graxos saturados/insaturados conduziu a uma diminuição no índice de insaturação. O aumento na perda de eletrólitos associado à redução nos teores de lipídios polares e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados sugere maior vulnerabilidade das plantas estressadas com conseqüente perda de produtividade.

  12. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  13. Response of two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French beans) plants exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation under mountain ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Rashmi; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance resulting from depletion in the ozone layer has the potential to cause detrimental effects on plants. Higher altitudes tend to receive higher doses of ambient UV-B radiation. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of enhanced UV-B (ambient + 10.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) radiation on two cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (cv. Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati) at growth, physiological, and biochemical levels grown under mountain ecosystem. The magnitudes of negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were found more in Pusa Parvati as compared to Pusa Himlata. Non-enzymatic (total phenolics and flavonoids content) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were increased in both cultivars at both the ages of growth but increase was found more in Pusa Himlata as compared to Pusa Parvati. The study further showed that the economic yield of Pusa Himlata and Pusa Parvati was decreased by 14 and 44%, respectively, due to enhanced UV-B radiation. The higher decrease in the economic yield of Pusa Parvati depicted that increased amounts of total flavonoids content and stimulation of their antioxidant defense mechanism via increasing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants were not able to completely detoxify the produced reactive oxygen species under enhanced UV-B radiation and made it more sensitive to applied stress. From the present study, it can be concluded that enhanced UV-B radiation in the mountain areas of the Indian Himalayan Regions could be one of the environmental causes for lower yields of agricultural crops. Cultivation of P. vulgaris L. cv. Pusa Himlata should be promoted at higher altitudes of the Indian Himalayan Regions. PMID:26342300

  14. EVALUACIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA SELECCIÓN PARTICIPATIVA DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EN LA PALMA, PINAR DEL RÍO

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    N. G. Lamin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en el municipio La Palma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, para evaluar el impacto del fitomejoramiento participativo sobre el sistema local de semillas de los pequeños agricultores del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. El trabajo de investigación consideró realizar el primer ejercicio de selección participativa de variedades de frijol en una feria de diversidad efectuada en una comunidad rural en Cuba, la cual fue organizada por un agricultor en la localidad La Jocuma, municipio La Palma. En dicho ejercicio participaron 58 agricultores del municipio y se expusieron 50 variedades de frijol de orígenes comercial, precomercial y criollo, provenientes de los sectores formal e informal de semillas. En este evento, los agricultores tuvieron la oportunidad de seleccionar hasta cinco variedades de su preferencia, de acuerdo con sus propios criterios de selección. En general, se puede afirmar que la selección participativa de variedades facilitó el acceso a los agricultores a una amplia diversidad de variedades, lo que contribuyó al incremento de la diversidad varietal de frijol común en las comunidades participantes. Además, dicha selección comprobó su eficacia como estrategia para fomentar la adopción y diseminación de nuevas variedades por los pequeños agricultores, tanto dentro de sus comunidades como en las vecinas.

  15. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the 60Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B1, B2 and B6 protein content, biological evaluation in rats [Food intake and Weight gain (in grams), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  16. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean. PMID:25078400

  17. Purification of a novel α-amylase inhibitor from local Himalayan bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with activity towards bruchid pests and human salivary amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mridu; Sharma, Pratima; Nath, Amarjit K

    2014-07-01

    Six bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of Himalayan region were analysed for α- amylase inhibitor activity. The α-amylase inhibitor from seeds of screened bean cultivar KR-9, showing maximum inhibitory activity was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-100) and ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex). The inhibitor was purified to homogeneity as judged by native-PAGE with 14.22 fold purification and 71.66% recovery. Purified inhibitor consisted of three subunits of molecular weight 15,488, 18,620 and 26,302 daltons, respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE. It was found to be heat stable up to 30 °C-40 °C and had two pH optima of 5.0 and 6.9. Nature of inhibition was found to be of non-competitive type. The purified inhibitor was found to be effective against α-amylases extracted from larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis, Tribolium castaneum and gut enzyme of Spodoptera littoralis. Larvae of Tribolium castaneum fed on flour mixed with purified inhibitor for 5 days showed 100% larval mortality. Purified α-amylase inhibitor was also found to inhibit human salivary α-amylase, suggesting its potential in prevention and therapy of obesity and use as drug design targets for treatment of diabetes. The gene encoding the inhibitor may be used to develop transgenic plants resistant against insect pests. PMID:24966421

  18. Transcriptional Analysis of Drought-Induced Genes in the Roots of a Tolerant Genotype of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Mui Tsai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. productivity is severely affected by drought stress due to low technology cultivation systems. Our purpose was to identify differentially expressed genes in roots of a genotype tolerant to water deficit (BAT 477 when submitted to an interruption of irrigation during its development. A SSH library was constructed taking as “driver” the genotype Carioca 80SH (susceptible to drought. After clustering and data mining, 1572 valid reads were obtained, resulting in 1120 ESTs (expressed sequence tags. We found sequences for transcription factors, carbohydrates metabolism, proline-rich proteins, aquaporins, chaperones and ubiquitins, all of them organized according to their biological processes. Our suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library was validated through RT-qPCR experiment by assessing the expression patterns of 10 selected genes in both genotypes under stressed and control conditions. Finally, the expression patterns of 31 ESTs, putatively related to drought responses, were analyzed in a time-course experiment. Our results confirmed that such genes are more expressed in the tolerant genotype during stress; however, they are not exclusive, since different levels of these transcripts were also detected in the susceptible genotype. In addition, we observed a fluctuation in gene regulation over time for both the genotypes, which seem to adopt and adapt different strategies in order to develop tolerance against this stress.

  19. Construction of a BAC library and a physical map of a major QTL for CBB resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S Y; Yu, K; Huffner, M; Park, S J; Banik, M; Pauls, K P; Crosby, W

    2010-07-01

    A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean lines and the tepary bean (P. acutifolius L.) line PI319443. This source of CBB resistance is widely used in bean breeding. Several other CBB resistance QTL have been identified but none of them have been physically mapped. Four molecular markers tightly linked to this QTL have been identified suitable for marker assisted selection and physical mapping of the resistance gene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high molecular weight DNA of HR45 and is composed of 33,024 clones. The size of individual BAC clone inserts ranges from 30 kb to 280 kb with an average size of 107 kb. The library is estimated to represent approximately sixfold genome coverage. The BAC library was screened as BAC pools using four PCR-based molecular markers. Two to seven BAC clones were identified by each marker. Two clones were found to have both markers PV-tttc001 and STS183. One preliminary contig was assembled based on DNA finger printing of those positive BAC clones. The minimum tiling path of the contig contains 6 BAC clones spanning an estimated size of 750 kb covering the QTL region. PMID:20419470

  20. Genetic control of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Scrib. reaction and corona color in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça H.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An important trait for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars with Carioca type grain is resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, which causes anthracnose and a pale corona. The present study was conducted to understand the genetic control of common bean reaction to the fungus and of the corona color, to provide guides to future breeding studies. Genotypes P-45, with brown corona, and EMGOPA 201-Ouro, with yellow corona, are resistant to C. lindemuthianum. Cultivar Carioca is susceptible to anthracnose, but it has desirable grain and corona color. Anthracnose resistance and corona color were studied in the F1 and F2 generations of three populations resulting from crosses of P-45, EMGOPA 201-Ouro, and Carioca. The Carioca x P-45 cross indicated that the Mex.2 allele, which conditions resistance to the pathogen, is linked with a recombination frequency of 0.0604 ± 0.0232 to one of the alleles which determines the dark brown corona color. The EMGOPA 201-Ouro x Carioca cross revealed that the resistance allele of EMGOPA 201-Ouro was independent from the alleles which determine the yellow corona. These resistance alleles were also determined to be independent according to EMGOPA 201-Ouro x P-45 cross results.

  1. Long-term acclimatization of hydraulic properties, xylem conduit size, wall strength and cavitation resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris in response to different environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Jerke, Megan J; Matzner, Steven L

    2006-05-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris grown under various environmental conditions was used to assess long-term acclimatization of xylem structural characteristics and hydraulic properties. Conduit diameter tended to be reduced and 'wood' density (of 'woody' stems) increased under low moisture ('dry'), increased soil porosity ('porous soil') and low phosphorus ('low P') treatments. Dry and low P had the largest percentage of small vessels. Dry, low light ('shade') and porous soil treatments decreased P50 (50% loss in conductivity) by 0.15-0.25 MPa (greater cavitation resistance) compared with 'controls'. By contrast, low P increased P50 by 0.30 MPa (less cavitation resistance) compared with porous soil (the control for low P). Changes in cavitation resistance were independent of conduit diameter. By contrast, changes in cavitation resistance were correlated with wood density for the control, dry and porous soil treatments, but did not appear to be a function of wood density for the shade and low P treatments. In a separate experiment comparing control and porous soil plants, stem hydraulic conductivity (kh), specific conductivity (ks), leaf specific conductivity (LSC), total pot water loss, plant biomass and leaf area were all greater for control plants compared to porous soil plants. Porous soil plants, however, demonstrated higher midday stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), apparently because they experienced proportionally less midday xylem cavitation. PMID:17087467

  2. Efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y la producción de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un promotor del crecimiento activado molecularmente sobre la germinación y producción del cultivo de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Se hicieron dos experimentos, uno in vitro con un diseño completamente aleatorizado y otro en campo con dos variantes y 8 réplicas (diseño de bloques al azar. El tratamiento en ambos ensayos fue inmersión de las semillas en una solución del promotor al 0,02% por 3 horas y otro grupo testigo con inmersión por igual tiempo en agua natural. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación y la altura de las plantas fueron mejores con la inmersión en el producto en ambos experimentos. En el ensayo de campo los vainas por planta no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. En los granos por vaina y granos por planta el grupo tratado fue superior al control en 16,70 y 15,22% respectivamente. La masa de 100 granos no mostró diferencia entre ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento agrícola fue superior en los tratados(1,22t.ha-1 vs. 1,02. Con ambos experimentos se determinó que el promotor del crecimiento influyó positivamente en la germinación, desarrollo y producción del cultivo del frijol.

  3. Are uranium-contaminated soil and irrigation water a risk for human vegetables consumers? A study case with Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, O; Abreu, M M

    2009-11-01

    The knowledge of uranium concentration, in the products entering the human diet is of extreme importance because of their chemical hazard to health. Controlled field experiments with potatoes, beans and lettuce (Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L.) were carried out in a contaminated soil used by local farmers located near a closed Portuguese uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde). The soil with high average uranium levels (64-252 mg/kg) was divided in two plots, and irrigated with non-contaminated and uranium-contaminated water (900 microg/L). Uranium maximum average concentration in the edible vegetables parts (mg/kg fresh weight) ranged in the following order: lettuce (234 microg/kg) > green bean (30 microg/kg) > potatoes without peel (4 microg/kg). Although uranium in soil, irrigation water and vegetables was high, the assessment of the health risk based on hazard quotient indicates that consumption of these vegetables does not represent potential adverse (no carcinogenic) effects for a local inhabitant during lifetime. PMID:19590953

  4. Analysis of rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris from Hispaniola Island, a geographic bridge between Meso and South America and the first historical link with Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Alcántara, César-Antonio; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Mulas, Daniel; García-Fraile, Paula; Gómez-Moriano, Alicia; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Hispaniola Island was the first stopover in the travels of Columbus between America and Spain, and played a crucial role in the exchange of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and their endosymbionts. The analysis of recA and atpD genes from strains nodulating this legume in coastal and inner regions of Hispaniola Island showed that they were almost identical to those of the American strains CIAT 652, Ch24-10 and CNPAF512, which were initially named as Rhizobium etli and have been recently reclassified into Rhizobium phaseoli after the analysis of their genomes. Therefore, the species R. phaseoli is more abundant in America than previously thought, and since the proposal of the American origin of R. etli was based on the analysis of several strains that are currently known to be R. phaseoli, it can be concluded that both species have an American origin coevolving with their host in its distribution centres. The analysis of the symbiovar phaseoli nodC gene alleles carried by different species isolated in American and European countries suggested a Mesoamerican origin of the α allele and an Andean origin of the γ allele, which is supported by the dominance of this latter allele in Europe where mostly Andean cultivars of common beans have been traditionally cultivated. PMID:24239274

  5. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. PMID:27318297

  6. Analyses of Methylomes Derived from Meso-American Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using MeDIP-Seq and Whole Genome Sodium Bisulfite-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Mollee; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Hossain, Khwaja; Kalavacharla, Venu

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ∼587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within common bean is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq) and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq). Our analyses revealed that this Meso-American common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ∼50%, CHG ∼30%, and CHH ∼2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar ("Sierra") using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation. PMID:27199997

  7. Early changes in apoplast composition associated with defence and disease in interactions between Phaseolus vulgaris and the halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas syringae Pv. phaseolicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan M; Neale, Helen C; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Jackson, Robert W; Arnold, Dawn L; Preston, Gail M

    2016-10-01

    The apoplast is the arena in which endophytic pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae grow and interact with plant cells. Using metabolomic and ion analysis techniques, this study shows how the composition of Phaseolus vulgaris leaf apoplastic fluid changes during the first six hours of compatible and incompatible interactions with two strains of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (Pph) that differ in the presence of the genomic island PPHGI-1. Leaf inoculation with the avirulent island-carrying strain Pph 1302A elicited effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and resulted in specific changes in apoplast composition, including increases in conductivity, pH, citrate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and K(+) , that are linked to the onset of plant defence responses. Other apoplastic changes, including increases in Ca(2+) , Fe(2/3+) Mg(2+) , sucrose, β-cyanoalanine and several amino acids, occurred to a relatively similar extent in interactions with both Pph 1302A and the virulent, island-less strain Pph RJ3. Metabolic footprinting experiments established that Pph preferentially metabolizes malate, glucose and glutamate, but excludes certain other abundant apoplastic metabolites, including citrate and GABA, until preferred metabolites are depleted. These results demonstrate that Pph is well-adapted to the leaf apoplast metabolic environment and that loss of PPHGI-1 enables Pph to avoid changes in apoplast composition linked to plant defences. PMID:27239727

  8. Paraburkholderia nodosa is the main N2-fixing species trapped by promiscuous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Brazilian 'Cerradão'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca F; Plotegher, Fábio; Souza, Renata C; Mendes, Iêda C; Dos Reis Junior, Fábio B; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The bacterial genus Burkholderia comprises species occupying several habitats, including a group of symbionts of leguminous plants-also called beta-rhizobia-that has been recently ascribed to the new genus Paraburkholderia We used common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to trap rhizobia from an undisturbed soil of the Brazilian Cerrado under the vegetation type 'Cerradão'. Genetic characterization started with the analyses of 181 isolates by BOX-PCR, where the majority revealed unique profiles, indicating high inter- and intra-species diversity. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the 16S rRNA of representative strains of the BOX-PCR groups indicated two main clusters, and gene-sequencing analysis identified the minority (27%) as Rhizobium and the majority (73%) as Paraburkholderia Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and housekeeping (recA and gyrB) genes positioned all strains of the second cluster in the species P. nodosa, and the phylogeny of a symbiotic gene-nodC-was in agreement with the conserved genes. All isolates were stable vis-à-vis nodulating common bean, but, in general, with a low capacity for fixing N2, although some effective strains were identified. The predominance of P. nodosa might be associated with the edaphic properties of the Cerrado biome, and might represent an important role in terms of maintenance of the ecosystem, which is characterized by acid soils with high saturation of aluminum and low N2 content. PMID:27199345

  9. Geoperception in primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae). III. A model to explain the differential georesponsiveness of primary and lateral roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J. S.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Half-tipped primary and lateral roots of Phaseolus vulgaris bend toward the side of the root on which the intact half tip remains. Therefore, tips of lateral and primary roots produce growth effectors capable of inducing gravicurvature. The asymmetrical placement of a tip of a lateral root onto a detipped primary root results in the root bending toward the side of the root onto which the tip was placed. That is, the lesser graviresponsiveness of lateral roots as compared with primary roots is not due to the inability of their caps to produce growth inhibitors. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of primary roots is positively correlated with the presence of columella tissues that are 3.8 times longer, 1.7 times wider, and 10.5 times more voluminous than the columellas of lateral roots. We propose that the lack of graviresponsiveness exhibited by lateral roots is due to the fact that they (i) produce smaller amounts of the inhibitor than primary (i.e., strongly graviresponsive) roots and (ii) are unable to redistribute the inhibitor so as to be able to create a concentration gradient sufficient to induce a pronounced gravitropic response.

  10. Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasina, M.; Nderitu, J.; Nyamasyo, G.; Waturu, C.; Olubayo, F.; Obudho, E.; Yobera, D.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Soil to plant 137Cs transfer factors in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem from a radioactive waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 137Cs in soil, maize plants, (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste from Mexico. Under field conditions the site was divided in four zones with different soil contamination characteristics. The plants were grown 'in situ' reproducing the local agricultural practices without fertilizers, pesticides or artificial irrigation.The 137Cs determinations were performed using a low background gamma spectrometry system with an HPGe detector. The results indicate that one of the zones had a striking 137Cs contamination in the soil and the uptake by the grown plants showed the highest specific activities at the root. For the edible parts of the plants the amount of 137Cs in the maize grains was one order of magnitude lower than for the beans. The transfer factors ranges for the different parts of the maize plants was from 0.001 in the grain to 0.6 in the root. (author)

  12. Carbon Isotope Composition of Carbohydrates and Polyols in Leaf and Phloem Sap of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Influences Predictions of Plant Water Use Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Millicent; Wild, Birgit; Richter, Andreas; Simonin, Kevin; Merchant, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The use of carbon isotope abundance (δ(13)C) to assess plant carbon acquisition and water use has significant potential for use in crop management and plant improvement programs. Utilizing Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a model system, this study demonstrates the occurrence and sensitivity of carbon isotope fractionation during the onset of abiotic stresses between leaf and phloem carbon pools. In addition to gas exchange data, compound-specific measures of carbon isotope abundance and concentrations of soluble components of phloem sap were compared with major carbohydrate and sugar alcohol pools in leaf tissue. Differences in both δ(13)C and concentration of metabolites were found in leaf and phloem tissues, the magnitude of which responded to changing environmental conditions. These changes have inplications for the modeling of leaf-level gas exchange based upon δ(13)C natural abundance. Estimates of δ(13)C of low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols increased the precision of predictions of water use efficiency compared with those based on bulk soluble carbon. The use of this technique requires consideration of the dynamics of the δ(13)C pool under investigation. Understanding the dynamics of changes in δ(13)C during movement and incorporation into heterotrophic tissues is vital for the continued development of tools that provide information on plant physiological performance relating to water use. PMID:27335348

  13. Effect of Plant Density on Flowering Date, Yield and Quality Attribute of Bush Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. under Center Pivot Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samih Abubaker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates six different planting densities (10*30, 20*30, 30*30, 40*30, 50*30, 60*30 of bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., Bronco variety and their impacts on yield, earliness and quality attributes using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD under central pivot irrigation system in the southern part of Jordan during 2007 growing season. Although, the highest planting density (10*30 cm gave the highest percent of early yield (93% in comparison to the total yield it was among the lowest yielding ability and tended to give pods with lower N,P,K and protein contents. The highest yields were obtained by 20*30 and 30*30 cm planting densities with 73 and 71% respectively of early yield related to the total yield. Stem diameter, pod dry weight as well as protein and mineral contents tended to be higher under the lower planting densities. The issue of this research seems to give clear perspectives to obtain high early yield with good enough quality under 20*30 cm bush bean under central pivot irrigation system in the desert of southern part of Jordan.

  14. Sensibilité du haricot Phaseolus vulgaris à la concentration en aluminium des sols de la région des grands lacs

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    Wouters, JFR.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensibility to soil aluminium concentration of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris in the African "Great Lakes" region. The climate of the African region around the "Great Lakes" induces a strong process of soil weathering which eventually leads to a strong aluminium saturation of the absorption complex, as expressed by the "m" index of Kamprath. The response to aluminium toxicity of the common bean cv. Diacol Calima, a widely grown variety in Burundi, has been studied in pot trials in two ways : (1 Using superficial soil samples of "humiferous high elevation kaolisols" whose "m" index varied between 4 and 92 ; (2 On culture condition consisting of an inert substrate complemented with a nutritional solution to which a serie of soluble aluminium concentrations were added. Under soil condition, biomass produced after a period of 25 days of growth, decreased as from "m" = 33. The number of Rhizobium nodules decreased drastically with aluminium toxicity becoming negligible at "m" - 33. On culture media, rising concentration of aluminium affected growth adversely as well, although root growth inhibition was less pronounced than under soil condition.

  15. The Effects of SO2 on N2-Fixation, Carbon Partitioning, and Yield Components in Snapbean, Phaseolus Vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen M. Griffith

    1983-01-01

    The primary air pollutant sulfur dioxide has been shown to affect plant biochemistry and physiology, although very little is known about its effects on N2-fixation in legumes. This study was designed to determine if N2-fixation, carbon partitioning , and productivity are affected under short term low level, so2 exposures. Greenhouse grown snapbeans (P has eo lus vulgaris L. cv. Ear l iwax), 29 days from planting, were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, and 0.8 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 4 hour...

  16. Caracterización fisiológica y molecular de la interacción Phaseolus (vulgaris: Rhizobium etli)

    OpenAIRE

    Beker, María Pía

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo de tesis se utilizó el sistema P. vulgaris-R. etli como modelo para investigar la afinidad entre porotos pertenecientes a los centros de diversificación de Mesoamérica y de la región Andina sureña y los rizobios de esas regiones. Teniendo en cuenta los eventos que se desarrollan desde el inicio del diálogo molecular hasta la formación del nódulo fijador de nitrógeno, el presente trabajo de tesis pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la interacción entre genotipos de poroto...

  17. Efecto de aislados bacterianos de la familia de las rhizobacterias provenientes de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) en la mejora del crecimiento de plantas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) y nodulación en jitomate (Solanum lycopersicon)

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Lilián Guerrero Barrera; Cristina Garcidueñas Piña; Ilse Patricia Rivas Valdéz; Ezequiel Alejandro Madrigal Carrillo; José Francisco Morales Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto de aislados de rhizobacterias provenientes de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), en el crecimiento y expresión de proteínas en plantas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) y jitomate (Solanum lycopersicon). Se obtuvieron dos diferentes aislados; A y Ab, los cuales se inocularon en semillas de frijol Bayo, Pinto y Negro y de jitomate Bola y Río Grande. Los mejores resultados en crecimiento se observaron en el frijol Pinto y el Bayo con los aislados A y Ab, respectivamente. En el jito...

  18. Avaliação de recursos genéticos agrícolas: análise nutricional e anti-nutricional de variedades regionais de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Carla Susana Silva

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objectivo proceder à avaliação da qualidade nutricional de 20 variedades regionais de Phaseolus vulgaris L. e à análise comparativa dos parâmetros bioquímicos (nutricionais e anti-nutricionais) obtidos recorrendo às técnicas analíticas convencionais por química molhada e de NIRS (Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy). Uma tipificação das variedades regionais de feijão foi realizada recorrendo a sete parâmetros ou caracteres (traits) nutricionais compreendidos em ...

  19. Desempenho fisiológico de sementes de feijão colhidas em diferentes períodos do desenvolvimento Physiological performance of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds harvested in different developmental periods

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico José Evangelista Botelho; Renato Mendes Guimarães; João Almir Oliveira; José Renato Emiliorelli Evangelista; Tiago de Aguiar Eloi; Danille Pereira Baliza

    2010-01-01

    Na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a época adequada de colheita para produção de sementes de alta qualidade é de suma importância. No presente trabalho objetivou-se determinar a época ideal de colheita para a obtenção de sementes com maior qualidade e produtividade. Para a instalação do campo experimental foram utilizadas sementes de feijão de duas cultivares (BRS Majestoso e BRS Horizonte). A colheita foi realizada manualmente, aos 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias após a emergência (DAE). Ap...

  20. Agronomic Evaluation of Field Bean(Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) to Unacidulated Phosphorus Source in an Andosol in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rocks(PR) which have high reactivity may be effective as a direct application of fertilizer especially in highly weathered acid soils. The agronomic effectiveness of such PR, Minjingu rock phosphate (MRP)was compared with that of highly soluble phosphate,triple superphosphate (TSP), in pot studies with seed bean (P. vulgaris L.) in a green house at the field station of faculty of Agriculture,University of Nairobi, Kenya. MRP final y ground with 30 Grade % P and TSP with 99.0 Grade % P fertiliser at rates 0, 30, 45 and 60 mg P per pot were applied on 2kg soil per pot. The soil used in the study was an acid humic andosol from fields with moribund tea bushes,tea bushes planted in 1958 and 1979 and newly cleared forest in Kagaa, Kenya. Shoot and root dry matter yields,dry seed yield responses and their responses estimates were determined and showed positive significance in most cases when TSP fertiliser was applied on the soils except that from moribund tea field. The relative agronomic effectiveness (efficiency) of MRP on biomass and also seed yield of beans was found to be significantly inferior to TSP in most of the soils except that from moribund tea field where both sources were found to be effective. This study confirms that in spite of its high reactivity, MRP is still agronomically ineffective as nutrient source of P for growing P. vulgaris in acid Soils

  1. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. Objective: The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. Materials and Methods: positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. Results: The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. Conclusions: The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of

  2. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European bush bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different cultivars of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originating from Central and Southern Europe were grown from July to August/September 1993 up to 7 and 8 weeks, respectively, in two greenhouses covered by different UV-B-absorbing (280-320nm) plastic foils. By using the ambient UV-B radiation of the southern location (Portugal, 38.7°N, 9.1°W) in one of the greenhouses as intense UV-B radiation compared to the reduced radiation in the second greenhouse at the same place, a difference in UV-B of about 8–10% was simulated. All cultivars examined showed significant reductions in height of up to 31,8% in most growth phases under intense UV-B. Also fresh and dry weight as well as leaf area were reduced under intense UV-B in the cultivars Purple Teepee, Cropper Teepee and Goldstrahl, and in early growth phases also in Coco bianco, but with ongoing development this cultivar caught up. Cultivars Hilds Maja, Primel, Manata and Cannellino exhibited no UV-B effects on weight and leaf area. A flowering delay of up to 1 day was observed under intense UV-B in several cultivars. Probably due to this delay the yield (fresh weight of fruits) decreased in all cultivars up to 55% under intense UV-B at harvest time, while the potential yield (sum of buds, opened flowers and fruits) was reduced only in the cultivars Cropper Teepee, Purple Teepee, Cannellino and Goldstrahl. The UV-sensitivity index (UVSI) calculated according to the UV induced changes in growth, dry weight and yield at the second harvest date has shown that all cultivars are UV-sensitive, however the index was numerically higher for Southern European cultivars (average = 2.5) than for Central European ones (average = 2.3) which means that the first group was slightly less UV-sensitive than the second. (author)

  3. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

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    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  4. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Sharkey, T.D. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Seemann, J.R. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  5. Studies on the effects of mutagens on cultured cells of higher plants, (2). Radiosensitivity in callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Kentucky Wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S.; Nakanishi, H.; Shiojiri, S.; Murakami, M. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan))

    1980-12-01

    A comparative study on the effects of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation was carried out on callus tissue, seedlings and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Kentucky Wonder. Callus was obtained from the hypocotyl pieces grown on an agar-solidified, modified Linsmaier and Skoog's medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (5 mg/l), kinetin (5 mg/l) and yeast extract (1,000 mg/l). Subculture was conducted on the same medium in the dark at 28 +- 1/sup 0/C. Callus was exposed to various doses (2.5 - 15 KR) of gamma radiation at 20 KR/hr. Fresh and dry weight, potency of growth in subculture of irradiated callus, color and friability were measured. As compared with control, irradiated callus growth showed a significant decrease with increasing doses. Callus growth was classified into three types, i.e. callus began to grow from the early stage of culture at 5 KR and below, from 6.25 - 8.75 KR there was a delayed growth, at 10 KR and over there was little visual sign of growth. The potency of growth in subculture for 28 days of irradiated- and 24-day-cultured callus was recognized at 10 KR and below. With increasing doses, color of callus darkened, and the degree of friability increased. While 10-day-old seedlings were irradiated, striking inhibition of growth occurred at 2 KR, followed by degradation of the apical meristem and growth ceased completely at 5 KR. Severe inhibition of growth of irradiated seeds occurred at 20 KR and over. A remarkable difference in radiosensitivity was observed among callus tissue, seedlings and seeds, i.e. seedlings were most sensitive, followed by callus tissue, and seeds were most resistant.

  6. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  7. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  8. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  9. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA, DIGESTIBILIDADE PROTÉICA E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE DE FEIJÃO COMUM (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Gomes da SILVA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Polifenóis são substâncias encontradas nas leguminosas e que se ligam às proteínas, diminuindo a sua digestibilidade e seu aproveitamento pelo organismo. Essa interação, portanto, pode prejudicar a capacidade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos. Tendo como base esta problemática, a pesquisa teve por objetivo a caracterização físico-química, a digestibilidade protéica e a capacidade antioxidante de três cultivares de feijão comum. Foram utilizados grãos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. de 3 diferentes cores: preto, marrom e branco, todos doados pela EMBRAPA – Centro de Pesquisa Arroz e Feijão. Os grãos foram analisados tanto na forma crua quanto cozida em autoclave e para sua caracterização foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, de peso e de densidade. Nos grãos crus e cozidos foram realizadas as análises de digestibilidade protéica, teor de taninos, fenólicos totais, cor e atividade antioxidante. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a cocção dos grãos promoveu redução nos teores de taninos, fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante e aumento na digestibilidade protéica. A cocção infl uenciou a cor do tegumento dos grãos, intensifi cando suas cores vermelhas e amarelas. Quanto à digestibilidade protéica, observamos que não houve diferença signifi cativa entre os cultivares.

  10. Developing market class specific InDel markers from next generation sequence data in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira eMafi Moghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequence data provides valuable information and tools for genetic and genomic research and offers new insights useful for marker development. This data is useful for the design of accurate and user-friendly molecular tools. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a diverse crop in which separate domestication events happened in each gene pool followed by race and market class diversification that has resulted in different morphological characteristics in each commercial market class. This has led to essentially independent breeding programs within each market class which in turn has resulted in limited within market class sequence variation. Sequence data from selected genotypes of five bean market classes (pinto, black, navy, and light and dark red kidney were used to develop InDel-based markers specific to each market class. Design of the InDel markers was conducted through a combination of assembly, alignment and primer design software using 1.6x to 5.1x coverage of Illumina GAII sequence data for each of the selected genotypes. The procedure we developed for primer design is fast, accurate, less error prone, and higher throughput than when they are designed manually. All InDel markers are easy to run and score with no need for PCR optimization. A total of 2,687 InDel markers distributed across the genome were developed. To highlight their usefulness, they were employed to construct a phylogenetic tree and a genetic map, showing that InDel markers are reliable, simple, and accurate.

  11. Mejoramiento de la producción del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris, L con el uso de alternativas de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ramírez Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argumenta la evaluación de algunas alternativas de nutrición en el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., variedad Velasco Largo, que se desarrolló en áreas de la subestación de Granos de la Unidad de Extensión, Investigación y Capacitación Agropecuaria de Holguín (UEICA-H, ubicada en Velasco, municipio de Gibara, provincia de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido entre diciembre de 2007 y marzo de 2008. Se aplicaron seis (6 variantes de fertilización, que comprendió el uso de fertilizantes químicos a dosis menores que las recomendadas, la utilización de abonos orgánicos: humus de lombriz tanto sólido como líquido y el biofertilizante Ecomic. Se tomaron mediciones de altura de las plantas, nodulación y rendimiento y sus componentes, así como, se realizó un análisis económico en base a los rendimientos obtenidos. Los resultados mostraron que la utilización de diferentes alternativas de fertilización provocó un efecto directo sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de frijol, sobre la nodulación natural y el rendimiento y sus componentes, los mismos sugieren la utilización de combinaciones de fertilizantes químicos, orgánicos y biofertilizantes para la obtención de altos rendimientos de forma sostenible en el cultivo del frijol.

  12. Differentially Expressed Genes in Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfeng Xue

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f.sp. phaseoli (Fop, is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. Few natural sources of resistance to Fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. Despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of Fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. Therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during an incompatible interaction between common bean and the Fop pathogen using the cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. We generated a total of 8,730 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs with 768 primer pairs based on the comparison of a moderately resistant and a susceptible genotype. In total, 423 TDFs (4.9% displayed altered expression patterns after inoculation with Fop inoculum. We obtained full amplicon sequences for 122 selected TDFs, of which 98 were identified as annotated known genes in different functional categories based on their putative functions, 10 were predicted but non-annotated genes and 14 were not homologous to any known genes. The 98 TDFs encoding genes of known putative function were classified as related to metabolism (22, signal transduction (21, protein synthesis and processing (20, development and cytoskeletal organization (12, transport of proteins (7, gene expression and RNA metabolism (4, redox reactions (4, defense and stress responses (3, energy metabolism (3, and hormone responses (2. Based on the analyses of homology, 19 TDFs from different functional categories were chosen for expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR. The genes found to be important here were implicated at various steps of pathogen infection and will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms of defense and resistance to Fop and similar pathogens. The differential response genes discovered here could also be used as

  13. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

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    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  14. Cytokinin oxidase from Phaseolus vulgaris callus tissues. Enhanced in vitro activity of the enzyme in the presence of copper-imidazole complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of metal ions on cytokinin oxidase activity extracted from callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern have been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)-adenine-2,8-3H (i6 Ade) to adenine (Ade). The addition of cupric ions to reaction mixtures containing imidazole buffer markedly enhanced cytokinin oxidase activity. In the presence of optimal concentrations of copper and imidazole, cytokinin oxidase activity was stimulated more than 20-fold. The effect was enzyme dependent, specific for copper, and observed only in the presence of imidazole. The substrate specificity of the copper-imidazole enhanced reaction, as judged by substrate competition tests, was the same as that observed in the absence of copper and imidazole. Similarly, in tests involving DEAE-cellulose chromatography, elution profiles of cytokinin oxidase activity determined using a copper-imidazole enhanced assay were identical to those obtained using an assay without copper and imidazole. On the basis of these results, the addition of copper and imidazole to reaction mixtures used to assay for cytokinin oxidase activity is judged to provide a reliable and specific assay of greatly enhanced sensitivity for the enzyme. The mechanism by which copper and imidazole enhance cytokinin oxidase activity is not certain, but the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme was not inhibited by anaerobic conditions when these reagents were present. This observation suggests that copper-imidazole complexes are substituting for oxygen in the reaction mechanism by which cytokinin oxidase effects cleavage of the N6-side chain of i6 Ade

  15. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O3-sensitive)/'R123' (O3-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O3-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O3-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O3 on stomatal conductance (g s), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O3. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O3 sensitivity and g s: while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O3-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O3-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O3-sensitive cultivars. - O3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  16. O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis in C/sub 3/ plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Xanthium strumarium L. ; Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw. ) Munz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Leaves of C/sub 3/ plants which exhibit a normal O/sub 2/ inhibition of CO/sub 2/ fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw.) Munz. O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis has been reported in nine other C/sub 3/ species and usually occurred when the intercellular CO/sub 2/ pressure was about double the normal pressure. A lack of O/sub 2/ inhibition of photosynthesis was always accompanied by a failure of increased CO/sub 2/ pressure to stimulate photosynthesis to the expected degree. O/sub 2/-insensitive photosynthesis also occurred after plants had been water stressed. Under such conditions, however, photosynthesis became O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive at physiological CO/sub 2/ pressures. Postillumination CO/sub 2/ exchange kinetics showed that O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity was not the result of elimination of photorespiration. It is proposed that O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurs when the concentration of phosphate in the chloroplast stroma cannot be both high enough to allow photophosphorylation and low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the rates required by the rest of the photosynthetic component processes. Under these conditions, the energy diverted to photorespiration does not adversely affect the potential for CO/sub 2/ assimilation.

  17. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (Phaseolus vulgaris y arveja (Pisum sativum. Efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

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    Bilbao Reboredo Tania

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y la arveja (Pisum sativum y tampoco se han estudiado los cambios que pueden sufrir durante su almacenamiento, así como la efectividad de los tratamientos caseros. Muestras de estos granos fueron analizadas durante un año de almacenamiento comercial a una temperatura promedio de 27 °C y 79 % de humedad relativa. Se evaluó la presencia de taninos, ácido cianhídrico, ácido fítico, inhibidores de proteasas y lectinas, en los granos crudos y después de dos tratamientos: remojo y cocción y cocción directamente, en olla de presión. Todos los antinutientes disminuyeron con el tiempo de almacenamiento (p<0,05. Los tratamientos aplicados eliminaron el ácido cianhídrico, los inhibidores de tripsina y las lectinas en los dos tipos de granos, comprobándose la efectividad de la combinación remojo-cocción sobre la aplicación únicamente del tratamiento térmico, sobre el resto de los antinutrientes.

  18. 菜豆品种真实性及种子纯度鉴定研究进展%Research Progress on Authenticity and Seed Purity Identification of Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 韩玉珠

    2013-01-01

      对鉴定不同菜豆品种真实性和种子纯度的田间小区种植法、种子形态法、电泳谱带法和分子标记等鉴定方法进行了综述,并提出可行性建议,旨在为准确、快速地鉴定菜豆品种真实性及种子纯度提供参考。%In this paper, we summarized methods for identifying the authenticity and seed purity of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, including plot planting identification, seed morphological identification, electrophoretic band identification and molecular marker identification, and we put forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for accurate and quick identification of authenticity and seed purity of P. vulgaris L..

  19. Growth of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell suspension cultures with carbon sources Crescimento de cultura de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. em fontes de carbono

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    Marcia Ometto Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were used to test plant ability to utilize an alternative to sucrose as carbon source and energy for growth. Glycerol, sorbitol and galactose were the alternative carbon sources tested. Cell suspension cultures established on liquid medium containing sucrose were transferred to culture medium supplemented with sucrose or glycerol, or sorbitol, or galactose as the sole carbon source. Fresh and dry weight increasing and protein content showed marked differences among the different carbon sources used. Sucrose was the best carbon source for all the three plant species tested. Galactose and glycerol promoted slow or no growth of the three studied species. Sucrose in liquid medium promoted initiation of meristemoid formation. Sorbitol, which was ineffective on promoting significant growth, was the only alternative carbon source tested that also promoted this effect.Culturas de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram usadas para avaliar a eficiência de fontes alternativas de carbono e energia. Glicerol, sorbitol e galactose foram as fontes alternativas estudadas. As culturas de células estabelecidas em meio líquido contendo sacarose foram transferidas para meios de cultura suplementados com sacarose ou glicerol ou sorbitol ou galactose. A fonte de carbono afetou distintamente os ganhos de matéria fresca, matéria seca e o acúmulo de proteína. A sacarose foi a melhor fonte de carbono para as três espécies estudadas. Galactose e glicerol promoveram pequeno crescimento das três espécies estudadas. A sacarose utilizada como fonte de carbono no meio líquido, promoveu o início de organização celular conhecido como a formação de meristemóides. Sorbitol, que não promoveu crescimento significativo, foi a única fonte alternativa de carbono testada que também promoveu este

  20. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  1. Genetic analyses of Rhizoctonia solani isolates from Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the Atlantic Rainforest Region of São Paulo, Brazil Análise genética de isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de Phaseolus vulgaris da região da Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil

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    LYNDEL W. MEINHARDT

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani isolates obtained from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the mountainous Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica region of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed to determine their genetic diversity using internal transcribed spacer (ITS, microsatellite and telomere sequence-based PCR primers. Restriction digestion of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal regions yielded unique banding patterns specific for AG4 and its subgroups. The ITS restriction digestion (ITS/RFLP, telomere and microsatellite primers identified five to 11 genotypes within the isolates of R. solani. While all isolates were pathogenic on beans, there was no correlation found between genotypic differences and pathogenicity. The different PCR primers revealed a number of isolates that were genetically similar. Some of these genetic groups were supported by more than one of the primers utilized in this study, thus confirming their relationship.A diversidade genética de 18 isolados de Rhizoctonia solani de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivado na Mata Atlântica de São Paulo, Brasil foi avaliada através da análise do espaçadores transcritos internos (ITS, microssatélites e iniciadores ("primers" específicos para sequências teloméricas. A análise de restrição da região ribossomal ITS1/5,8S/ITS2 produziu um padrão de bandas específico para o grupo de anastomose 4 (GA 4 e seus subgrupos. O padrão obtido com ITS/RFLP, microsatélites e os iniciadores teloméricos permitiram identificar cinco a 11 genótipos entre os isolados de R. solani. Enquanto todos os isolados foram patogênicos em feijoeiro, não houve correlação entre patogenicidade e diferenças genotípicas. Os diferentes iniciadores para PCR revelaram que muitos isolados são geneticamente similares, análise esta que pode ser confirmada por mais de um conjunto de iniciadores, fortalecendo a relação deste agrupamento.

  2. Qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cozido com ou sem água de maceração Nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cooked with or without the use of soaking water

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    Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade nutricional e microbiológica de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., processado com o aproveitamento ou não da água de maceração. Grãos de duas cultivares de feijão comum - Iraí (grãos bege com estrias vermelhas e BRS Expedito (grãos pretos -foram submetidos à embebição em água destilada por oito horas, à temperatura ambiente. O cozimento foi realizado com e sem o aproveitamento da água de maceração. Os minerais foram determinados nos grãos e no caldo, separadamente, e os microrganismos, na mistura de grãos e caldo. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que a composição de minerais nos grãos e no caldo de feijão não foi alterada pelo descarte da água de maceração para o cozimento. O caldo de feijão apresentou altos teores de fósforo, potássio, magnésio e enxofre. A eliminação da água de maceração não melhorou a qualidade microbiológica do feijão processado. O cozimento das cultivares de feijão Iraí e BRS Expedito pode ser realizado com o aproveitamento ou com o descarte da água de maceração, pois há manutenção do teor de minerais e da qualidade microbiológica do feijão.The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. processed with or without soaking water. Two common bean cultivars grains (Iraí and BRS Expedito were subjected to soaking in distilled water for eight hours, at environmental temperature. The cooking was made with the use or discard of soaking water. The minerals were determinated in grains and broth separatedely and microorganisms associated. The results did not show changes for the minerals content in grains and broth with discard of the soaking water. The bean broth showed high phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulfur content. The discard of the soaking water did not improve microbiological quality of the processed common beans. Iraí and BRS Expedito cultivars may

  3. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that “prime” their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  4. Use of BABA and INA As Activators of a Primed State in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aguilar, Keren; Ramírez-Carrasco, Gabriela; Hernández-Chávez, José Luis; Barraza, Aarón; Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that "prime" their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms. PMID:27242854

  5. Studies on the Interspecies Competition between Tetraychus urticae Koch and T.cinnabarinus Boisduval fed with Phaseolus vulgaris%二斑叶螨与朱砂叶螨在四季豆上种间竞争力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 程立生

    2009-01-01

    It was sdudied on the interspecies competition between Tetraychus urticae Koch and T.cinnabarinus Boisduval fed with Phaseolus vulgaris. The results showed that single of T.unicae's active mites and mamral mites was higher than that of T.cinnabarinus for single species or mixed species.It suggested that the interspecies competition of T.urticae was higher than T.cinnabarinus on the host of Phaseolus vulgaris L..%对二斑叶螨与朱砂叶螨在以四季豆为寄主时的种间竞争进行了研究.结果表明:无论单种种群还是混合种群,二斑叶螨的活动虫态和成虫的内禀增长力均高于朱砂叶螨,这表明在以四季豆为寄主植物时,二斑叶螨比朱砂叶螨具有更强的种间竞争力.

  6. ATIVIDADE DE PEROXIDASES (EC 1.11.1.7 E TEOR DE PROLINA NO EMBRIÃO E COTILÉDONES DE FEIJOEIRO Phaseolus vulgaris L. EM CONDIÇÕES DE SALINIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P.P. LIMA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da salinidade sobre a atividade de peroxidases foram acompanhadas no embrião e em cotilédones de feijoeiro Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca, observando-se em ambos, aumento na atividade das enzimas. Com relação ao teor de prolina, ocorreu decréscimo constante no embrião de feijoeiro cultivado em condições salinas, entretanto, nos cotilédones, verificou-se aumento progressivo em condições de presença ou ausência de salinidade.Changes in proline level and peroxidase activity in bean embryo and cotiledon were studied in response to salinity conditions. Activity of peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7 in bean embryo and cotiledon (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca was higher than in seedlings growing in the absence of NaCl. Proline level decresead constantly in bean embryo growing in saline conditions. However, in cotiledon the proline content increased progressively in the absence and presence of NaCl in growth solution.

  7. Sensitivity to far-red radiation in stomata of Phaseolus vulgaris L.: Rhythmic effects on conductance and photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of far-red (FR; 700-800 nm) radiation on steady-state stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis in P. vulgaris has been studied. Whereas FR radiation alone was relatively ineffective, addition of FR to a background of white light (WL; predominantly 400-700 nm) resulted in increased stomatal conductance. Stomata exhibited a marked diurnal sensitivity to FR. The action maximum for enhancing stomatal conductance was near 714 nm. A combination of FR and infra-red (IR; >800 nm) enhanced net photosynthesis when added to a background of WL. When IR alone was added to WL, there was a net decrease in photosynthesis, indicating that it is the FR waveband which is responsible for the observed photosynthetic effects. Naturally occurring levels of FR radiation (235 μmol·m-2·s-1) in vegetation-canopy shade enhanced net photosynthetic CO2 gain by 28% when added to a background of 55 μmol·m-2·s-1 WL. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects of the {sup 60}Co on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp beans; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante de {sup 60}Co em propriedades fisicas, quimicas e nutricionais dos feijoes Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    1998-07-01

    The effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0; 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 5.0 and 10 kGy on beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., of the carioca variety and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, of the macacar variety stored for 6 months were studied. The cooking time was established, and then the following analyses were carried out: Sensory, vitamins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and B{sub 6} protein content, biological evaluation in rats (Food intake and Weight gain (in grams)), apparent Digestibility (Dapp), apparent Net Protein Utilization (NPUapp) and apparent Biological Value (BVapp), as well as the applicability of detection methods of irradiated foodstuffs through germination tests, the analysis of DNA migration, thermoluminescence and analysis of the carbohydrates formed by radiation. Changes in the cooking time were observed for all doses. In doses up to 1 kGy, the nutritional quality of the irradiated beans were not altered. The application of the proposed detection methods of the irradiated foodstuffs allowed the detection of irradiated beans with doses as low as 0.5 kGy. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in the conservation of seeds and on the productivity of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the field bean variety 'Goiano Precoce' (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various radiation doses (60Co) ( Co) were used in a series of experiments with the objective of studying the different aspects of seed behavior thus treated. The radiation doses, comprising six treatments, varied from 0,0 to 6,4 krad of gamma radiation. Effect on seed germination and seedling dry weight was studied by means of a factorial experiment conducted under laboratory controlled conditions. The factors used were the radiation doses and nine increasing lengths of time from date of seed irradiation. Seed vigor was determined by the rate of seedling emergence when planted in small field plots. A factorial design was used. The variables were the radiation dosages and six lengths of time elapsed since date of seed irradiation. The effect of seed irradiation on yield was evaluated by means of two randomized block design field experiments. After the seed vigor experiment was conducted infestation by the bean weevil, Acanthoscelidcs obtectus Say , was observed in irradiated seeds stored under normal conditions, indicating a relationship between radiation dosage and insect damage. An analysis was made of this effect at fourteen increasing time intervals. The analysis was made according to a factorial scheme considering as factors radiation dosage and time interval. The following conclusions could be drawn from the analysis and discussion of the results obtained: a) Seed germination was adversely affected by all radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. This effect however decreased significantly with storing time. b) Seed vigor was higher for those treated with 0,4 , 0,8 and 1,6 krad when compared with those that were not irradiated. c) Pod and seed weight were lowered by the 1,6 and 6,4 krad radiation doses in relation to the check treatment. d) Infestation by the bean weevil was significantly checked by all radiation treatments in relation to the check treatment. e) The

  10. Optimization of enzymatic production of anti-diabetic peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) proteins, their characterization and biological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Luis; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to optimize the production of bioactive peptides from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate and to determine their biological potential using biochemical and in silico approaches. Protein fractions were generated using eight commercially available proteases after 2, 3 and 4 h and 1:20, 1:30 and 1:50 enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios. The best combination of conditions to generate anti-diabetic peptides was with alcalase for 2 h and E/S of 1:20; with inhibition values for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, 96.7%), α-amylase (53.4%) and α-glucosidase (66.1%). Generated peptides were characterized using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecular docking analysis was performed to predict individual peptide biological potential using DockingServer®. Peptides EGLELLLLLLAG, AKSPLF and FEELN inhibited DPP-IV more efficiently in silico through free energy interactions of -9.8, -9.6 and -9.5 kcal mol(-1), respectively, than the control sitagliptin (-8.67 kcal mol(-1)). The peptide TTGGKGGK (-8.97 kcal mol(-1)) had higher inhibitory potential on α-glucosidase compared to the control acarbose (-8.79 kcal mol(-1)). Peptides AKSPLF (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)) and WEVM (-10.1 kcal mol(-1)) generated a lower free energy interaction with the catalytic site of α-amylase in comparison with acarbose (-9.71 kcal mol(-1)). Bean peptides inhibited the tested enzymes through hydrogen bonds, polar and hydrophobic interactions. The main bindings on the catalytic site were with ASP192, GLU192 and ARG 253 on DPP-IV; TYR151, HIS201 and ILE235 on α-amylase; and ASP34, THR83 and ASN32 on α-glucosidase. For the first time, a systematic evaluation and characterization of the anti-diabetic peptides from black bean protein isolate is presented with the potential for inhibiting important molecular markers related to diabetes. PMID:26824775

  11. Reação de genótipos de Phaseolus vulgaris à podridão do colo e ao oídio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum Luiz E. B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A podridão do colo (Sclerotium rolfsii e o oídio (Erysiphe polygoni são de constante ocorrência na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris no estado de Santa Catarina. O uso de genótipos com resistência genética é uma das alternativas de manejo destas doenças. Avaliou-se a reação a podridão e ao oídio em 80 e 75 genótipos de feijão respectivamente. Os testes foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Para os testes com a podridão do colo, cada semente dos genótipos foi inoculada com dois esclerócios de S. rolfsii. A infecção por oídio ocorreu naturalmente. Usou-se a cv. Rio Tibagi como padrão de média resistência à podridão ou de média susceptibilidade ao oídio. Os genótipos menos afetados pela podridão do colo e que diferiram da 'Rio Tibagi' foram: grupo preto - LA 95105428, FT 646 e Acesso 57; grupo colorido - BAF 50. A maioria dos genótipos não diferiu da 'Rio Tibagi', porém o mais afetado pela podridão do colo foi o BAF 10. Os genótipos mais susceptíveis ao oídio foram o Acesso 57 (Preto e o FGP CF 101 (Preto. Os genótipos menos afetados pelo oídio foram: grupo preto - Acessos 60 e 36, FGP CF 058, TB 95-03, LM95103904 e LP 96-58; grupo colorido - Akitã, LP 94-1 e LP 96-162.

  12. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  13. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Andrea C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 μM Fe(III-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 μM Fe on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 μM Fe on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity

  14. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en habichuela Phaseolus vulgaris L., mediante descriptores morfológicos y bioquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó la variabilidad genética de una muestra de 116 accesiones de habichuela P. vulgaris, cultivadas en centros primarios y secundarios de domesticación. Se evaluaron 18 descriptores morfo-agronómicos asociados con características de la planta, vaina y semilla. Mediante el análisis de las faseolinas utilizando SDS-PAGE se encontraron patrones de bandas de origen andino (T, C y H1 y mesoamericano [S, Sb, CH y H(S+I]. También se evaluaron ocho sistemas isoenzimáticos polimórficos. En el germoplasma de habichuela hay importante contribución del acervo mesoamericano y las accesiones en algunos centros secundarios de domesticación tuvieron origen y procesos de dispersión diferentes de los del fríjol común en tales zonas. La mayor variabilidad morfológica y el mayor número de accesiones con características deseables para el mercado fresco se encontró en el grupo mesoamericano. Se detectó mayor número de genotipos híbridos entre acervos cuando se utilizaron simultáneamente los tres descriptores, lo cual indica una estructura genética compleja que podría deberse al efecto de los factores ambientales propios de la zona templada sobre sus patrones reproductivos. La diversidad total medida con los tres descriptores fue similar a la registrada en fríjol común. Sin embargo, la estructura poblacional encontrada por otros autores en el fríjol común es diferente de la observada en este estudio. Palabras claves: Variabilidad, descriptores morfológicos, isoenzimas, proteínas de semilla, acervos genéticos. ABSTRACT Genetic variability of 116 accesions of Phaseolus vulgaris showing snap beans characteristics coming from primary and secondary centers of domestication, were studied using eighteen morphological descriptors to characterize pods and seeds, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed phaseolins and eight isozyme systems. Higher morphological diversity and best pod marketing characteristics were found at Andean accessions

  15. Construcción de una genoteca de cDNA de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. para mapeo genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca William M.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A small cDNA library from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of about 1500 clones was constructed, to further saturate the bean RFLP linkage map. The primarily synthesized cDNAs were amplified by PCR using the adaptors as primers for amplification (Jepson et al., 1991. Inserts in the range of 500 bp were obtained. 93 clones were singled for further analysis. They showed a degree of repeatibility of around 61 %. Around 80% of the unique clones were single copy, and 20% were low copy sequences as expected from a cDNA library. Three pairs of parental bean lines were chosen for their agronomical traits, and evaluated for polymorphism, which was highest as revealed by digestion with EcoRV (77%, followed by DraI (73%, EcoRI (63% and HindIIl (60%. The highest polymorphism was observed between the pair DOR60 and APNI8, 71% for EcoRV and 57% for EcoRI, respectively. Two clones of the two groups with the most repeated clones were analyzed by slot blot hybridization against the other clones and ribosomal DNA, to understand the origin of the repetitions. Only one clone seemed to be of ribosomal origin, as confirmed by the patterns obtained by hybridization to bean genomic DNA digested with HaelIl, implying that the whole group to which it belonged was of ribosomal origin.  It can be explained by the combined utilization of the PCR amplification methodology and the multipleprimers for the synthesis of the first cDNA strand.

    Se construyó una pequeña librería de cDNA de fríjol (phaseolus vulgaris L. de alrededor de 1500 clones, con el fin de incrementar la saturación del mapa de ligamiento de fríjol con marcadores de RFLPs. Para la generación de la librería se utilizó la técnica de amplificación por PCR (Jepson et al., 1991. En ella se utilizan como iniciadores para la reacción los mismos adaptadores empleados para generar los terminales cohesivos del cDNA. Se obtuvieron insertos con un promedio de 500 pares de bases. Se aislaron 93 clones, los

  16. Reflexos da interação genótipo X ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos de seleção em genótipos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Reflexes of the interaction genotype X environment and their implications in the gains of selection in genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A importância das leguminosas de grãos na alimentação humana, principalmente do feijão preto (Phaseolus vulgaris, tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos e com adaptabilidade às diferentes condições de cultivo do sul do Brasil. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os reflexos da interação genótipo x ambiente e suas implicações nos ganhos genéticos com diferentes critérios de seleção. Os resultados revelaram que o componente da interação genótipo x ambiente superestima a predição dos parâmetros genéticos, como por exemplo a variância genética e a herdabilidade. As diferenças observadas entre estas estimativas parecem ocorrer devido à alta percentagem da parte complexa da interação. Além disto, os ganhos genéticos obtidos com a seleção direta foram sempre superiores à resposta indireta. Comparativamente, o par de ambientes 1x3 revelou uma resposta correlacionada inferior e de sinal contrário às demais estimativas para os outros pares de ambientes estudados neste trabalho. O primeiro ambiente foi o que mais acumulou a interação genótipo x ambiente. Portanto, pode ser concluído que o componente da interação tem grande relevância nas estimativas dos ganhos genéticos, evidenciando que essa influência deva ser considerada na seleção e na recomendação de genótipos específicos nos programas de melhoramento genético da cultura do feijoeiro.The importance of grains of legume plants for human feeding, specially black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., has stimulated the breeders to select genotypes with high grains yield potential and wide adaptability to different conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil. The present work aimed at evaluating the reflexes of the genotype x environment interaction and its implications in the genetic gains of different selection approaches. The results revealed that the component of the

  17. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueo us extract from white kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect...... mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus...

  18. Evaluación por rendimiento de 12 genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble (phaseolus vulgaris l.) tipo bola roja y reventón para las zonas frías de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    López, Jesús Edgardo; Ligarreto, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    El fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es un alimento básico en la región Andina por ser una fuente rica en proteína y de bajo costo. La investigación para incrementar rendimientos en esta leguminosa es una opción para mejorar la competitividad en el mercado mundial. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar por rendimiento los genotipos promisorios de fríjol voluble, tipos Bola roja y Reventón, para las zonas frías de Colombia mediante el análisis de sendero. Se realizó un diseño de...

  19. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

  20. Purification of polyamine oxidase from Phaseolus vulgaris L. and its some kinetic parameters%菜豆多胺氧化酶的分离提纯及催化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明祖; 何生根; 杨暹

    2007-01-01

    依次经粗提、丙酮沉淀和Sepharose Cl-4B柱层析等步骤对菜豆(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)多胺氧化酶进行了分离提纯.结果表明,纯化倍数为115.9,产率达43.90%.进一步分析该酶的部分催化性质表明,其最适底物为腐胺(Put),其次是尸胺(Cad);另外该酶对亚精胺(Spd)和精胺(Spm)也有一定的催化作用;该酶以Put和Cad为底物时的最适pH值均为7.0,以Spd和Spm为底物时的最适pH值为6.7.

  1. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. PMID:26865698

  2. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  3. Effect of temperature on the occurrence of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitive photosynthesis in field grown plants. [Phaseolus vulgaris; Capsicum annum; Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum; Cardaria draba, Populus fremontii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.F.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthesis to O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ was measured in leaves from field grown plants of six species (Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Scrophularia desertorum, Cardaria draba, and Populus fremontii) from 5/sup 0/C to 35/sup 0/C using gas-exchange techniques. In all species but Phaseolus, photosynthesis was insensitive to O/sub 2/ in normal air below a species dependent temperature. CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under the same conditions that resulted in O/sub 2/ insensitivity. A complete loss of O/sub 2/ sensitivity occurred up to 22/sup 0/C in Lycopersicon but only up to 6/sup 0/C in Scrophularia. In Lycopersicon and Populus, O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred under conditions regularly encountered during the cooler portions of the day. Because O/sub 2/ insensitivity is an indicator of feedback limited photosynthesis, these results indicate that feedback limitations can play a role in determining the diurnal carbon gain in the field. At higher partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ the temperature at which O/sub 2/ insensitivity occurred was higher, indicating that feedback limitations in the field will become more important as the CO/sub 2/ concentration in the atmosphere increases.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from InQpharm Europe Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. The applicant identified a total of four human intervention studies which investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight as being pertinent to the claim. No conclusions could be drawn from two of these four studies. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study showed an effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean in reducing body weight when consumed for 12 weeks, that the reduction in body weight was mostly through a reduction in body fat and that the effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight.

  5. Diversidade genética em acessos de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genetic diversity in common bean accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os recursos genéticos devem ser devidamente caracterizados para permitir ganhos genéticos mais promissores no melhoramento e para o uso destes recursos pelo próprio agricultor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de acessos de feijão comum do germoplasma existente na Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, através de inter-relações entre os descritores agronômicos. O experimento foi conduzido a partir de outubro de 2005, constituído por 20 acessos de feijão comum, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com 3 repetições. Foi utilizada a técnica de análise multivariada para medir a divergência genética representada pela distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Com base na matriz de dissimilaridade genética gerada, foi construído o dendrograma pelo método de agrupamento da distância média. Das 12 variáveis envolvidas no estudo, o peso de 100 sementes teve a maior contribuição na separação dos genótipos, seguido pela espessura do legume, pelo comprimento do legume e pelo rendimento de grãos. Os acessos BAF 42, BAF 46, BAF 47 e BAF 57 se destacaram quanto ao nível de produtividade (3.500 a 5.000kg ha-1 e devem ser mais bem caracterizados para serem incorporados nos programas de melhoramento da cultura e/ou indicado para os agricultores.The correct characterization of genetic resources allows to identify sources of variability, a genetic profit during the plant breeding and use of these resources in the crop science. This research was aimed at evaluating genetic divergence in bean accessions of a germplasm of Santa Catarina, through interrelation among the agronomic character descriptor. Twenty bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. accessions were evaluated carried out in October 2005, using the randomized block design with three replications. The genotypes were studied using multivariable techniques to measure genetic divergence represented by the generalized distance of

  6. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  7. Effet des poudres d'Eucalyptus citriodora, de Cupressus lucitanica et de Tagetas minitiflora dans la conservation du maïs (Zea mays) et du haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris) dans les conditions de Rethy, République Démocratique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kaloma, A.; Kitambala, K.; Ndjango, NL.; Sinzahera, U.; Paluku, T.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora Powders in the Conservation of Maize (Zea mays) and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Conditions of Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo). A study on the effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora powders, was made at Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in order to determine efficacy in the conservation of maize and bean. After 10 months, T. minitiflora was more efficacious with...

  8. Coefficients of leaf-fruit translocation for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris); Coeficientes de translocacao folha-fruto de {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr e {sup 137}Cs em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2000-01-15

    Due to the increasing use of nuclear fission for the generation of electrical energy, the safety aspects of power plants must be minutely appraised. In case of an accident, with liberation of radioactive material into the atmosphere, knowledge about the behavior of plant species when in contact with radionuclides is indispensable. An important route through which agricultural products are contaminated by radionuclides is leaf-fruit translocation. This phenomenon can be evaluated by simulating a fallout contamination in a controlled atmosphere using as a tracer man-made radionuclides. In order to quantity the leaf-fruit translocation coefficients for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), variety black diamond, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and four blocks. A mixture of these three radionuclides was prepared and used to determine their translocation coefficients. The bean plants were contaminated inside a device especially designed to avoid environmental contamination. In each treatment four vases were sprinkled and one was used to estimate the initial activity of the other three vases. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs activity determinations and chemical separation followed by beta counting of {sup 90}Y was used for {sup 90}Sr determinations. The number of treatments was reduced from six to four sprayings corresponding to 30, 45, 60 and 75 days after planting. This reduction was due to the attack of common and gold mosaic viroses. Symptoms were observed on the diseased bean plants 50 days after planting. It was possible, however, to verify a functional dependence between instant of tracer application and the level of physiological development of the bean plant. It was verified that the temporal relationship values for leaf-fruit translocation were similar for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. For the {sup 90

  9. Respiration and Energy Turnover During the Seedling Development of Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Helianthus annuus L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R; Zahrl, J

    1984-08-01

    Seedling length, CO(2) output, dry weight and energy content of the seeds and seedling organs of Triticum, Zea, Helianthus and Phaseolus were determined in order to study the efficiency of storage substance utilization and energy turnover during seedling development up to 108 h. The respiration rate is lower in the large seeds of Zea and Phaseolus (2.2 and 2.0 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)) than in the small seeds of Triticum and Helianthus (3.1 and 4.2 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)). CO(2) output during the synthesis of seedling organs reaches a maximum value in Triticum, Zea and Helianthus after 36 h (1.0, 1.7 and 1.3 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1), resp.) and in Phaseolus after 60 h (3.0 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1)). This high CO(2) evolution is caused by the lag phase of growth at the beginning of germination, as indicated in the RGR course. The loss of mobilized storage substances caused by CO(2) evolution amounts to 46% in Phaseolus and is less (av. 30%) in the other seeds. The energy loss in relation to the energy of the ungerminated seed is relatively high in the small and energy-rich seeds of Triticum (19%) and Helianthus (21 %) compared with the large seeds of Zea (8 %) and Phaseolus (13 %). The efficiency of energy utilization corresponding to the energy stored in the newly formed seedling organs is low in Helianthus (40%) and Phaseolus (43%) and relatively high in Triticum (55%) and Zea (6 %). The calorific equivalent of the CO(2) amount evolved differs widely (11 to 24 kJ·gCO(2)(-1)). With the exception of Zea these values are much higher than the calorific equivalent of the dry weight loss. The latter may be explained by energy losses without CO(2) evolution, as well as by CO(2) refixation by PEPC and by energy dissipation in the maintenance metabolism. PMID:23194792

  10. EVALUATION OF SWINE ORGANIC MATTER ON COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L YIELD AVALIAÇÃO DO EFEITO DE RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS DE SUÍNOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE FEIJÃO COMUM (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Rodrigues da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An experiment was carried out to test the effect of organic manure (swine slurry on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grain yield, CV. Carioca, on a red latossol, with low fertility, high acidity (pH = 4.8, medium aluminum toxicity (0.5 me/100 ml, medium contents of P (6.1 ppm and K+ (53 ppm and low contents of calcium plus magnesium (1.1 me/100ml at the Federal University of Goiás, School of Agronomy, Goiânia, Goiás. A randomized block design with four repetitions was used and the treatments: KPK dressing (T1; liming (T2; swine slurry (T3; NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry (T4 and NPK dressing + liming. The following average grain yield (kg/ha were obtained: T2 (liming = 400.7; T1 (NPK dressing = 537.8; T3 (swine slurry = 576.4; T5 (NPK dressing + liming = 577.1 and T4 (NPK dressing + liming + swine slurry = 616.4. The “complete” treatment (T4 showed the highest grain production, whilst the others showed no significant differences among them. However, the treatment with swine slurry gained a productivity of common beans equivalent to that obtained by conventional NPK dressings used in Brazil. Due to its easy obtention, swine slurry can be used as an alternative economic choice for little growers to fertilize their common beans crops.

    Conduziu-se um experimento para testar o efeito da adubação orgânica (Chorume de suíno na produção de grãos de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L., CV. Carioca, em um solo LE de baixa fertilidade, elevada acidez (pH = 4,8, toxidez média de A1+ + + (0,5 meq./100ml, com teores médios de P (6,1 ppm e de K+ (53 ppm nas dependências da Escola de Agronomia da UFG, Goiânia, Goiás. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, e os tratamentos: adubação NPK (T1, calagem (T2, chorume de suínos (T3, adubação NPK + chorume de su

  11. In vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically pre-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. flour using commercial protease and Bacillus sp. protease Digestibilidade protéica in vitro de farinhas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. pré-tratadas com protease comercial e protease de Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disney Ribeiro Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a staple food in the Brazilian diet and represents the major source of dietary protein and other micronutrients and minerals. Despite the considerable protein concentration in beans, the food is considered of low biological value when compared to animal proteins and other plant protein sources. To improve the availability of protein in beans, enzymatic treatments were performed in four cultivars (ON, OPNS, TAL and VC3. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. We used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments: treatment 1-addition of commercial protease (Trypsin 250, Difco, treatment 2-addition of protease from Bacillus sp., and treatment 3:-control without enzyme addition. The enzyme: substrate ratio was 5% w/w (amount of enzyme per total protein in bean flour. The approach was a completely randomized design with four replicates. A 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (four cultivars and three treatments, the same as those mentioned above was used. The concentration of total protein (g.100 g-1 of dry matter in the samples ranged from 16.94 to 18.06%, while the concentration of total phenolics was between 0.78 and 1.12% (g Eq. tannic acid.100 g-1 dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility of enzymatically untreated bean flour (control ranged from 47.30 to 56.17% based on the digestibility of casein. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Zn observed in the four cultivars tested were within the average values available in the literature. Treatment 2 with protease from Bacillus sp. induced decreases in the levels of Cu and Mn. The average Fe content increased in all bean flour samples when treated with proteases, reaching a maximum increase of 102% in the TAL flour treated with protease from Bacillus sp. The digestibility of all beans tested was significantly increased (p O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é um alimento básico na refeição do brasileiro

  12. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr annotation, gene ontology (GO classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  13. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  14. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O3 exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H2O2 accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O3 m-2. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, ΔF/Fm'). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  15. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  16. Evaluation on the adaptability of Phaseolus vulgaris L.var.humilis Alef in hilly red soil%印尼大绿豆山地红壤区种植适应性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钟佃; 黄秀声; 冯德庆; 黄勤楼; 唐龙飞

    2008-01-01

    在福州北峰山地红壤区种植印尼大绿豆Phaseolus vulgaris L.var.humilis Alef,通过田间观测和相关测定,其生育期为200d左右,2年平均产量为58 718.90kg/hm2.其营养成分含量高,开花初期粗蛋白含量16.48%、粗纤维含量34.40%、灰分含量6.43%、钙含量0.731%、全磷含量0.222%.印尼大绿豆的根系发达,根瘤直径1.0~2.2mm,但量少,呈灰黑色扁球形状.在试验区9月中旬前完成2~3茬刈割,可以结荚形成种子产量,但种子的千粒重、荚长、平均每荚粒数都变小,而刈割4茬则无法结荚产籽.

  17. Effects of Different Ridge Culture Ways on Stem Diameter,Plant Height,the Number of Leaves and Yield of Phaseolus vulgaris L.under Dry Farming Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Hong-mei; XING Guo-ming; ZHENG Shao-wen; WEN Bian-ying

    2010-01-01

    The vadety "Aifeng" was used as experimental matedal,and the stem diameter,plant height,the number of leaves and yield of P.vulgaris under three ways of ridge culture (bedding,high ridge and M ridge) were observed and detected to study the effects of different ridge cultures on the growth and yield.The results showed that the stem diameter,plant height,the number of leaves and yield under M ridge culture were higher than that of bedding and high ridge.

  18. Effet des poudres d'Eucalyptus citriodora, de Cupressus lucitanica et de Tagetas minitiflora dans la conservation du maïs (Zea mays et du haricot (Phaseolus vulgaris dans les conditions de Rethy, République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloma, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora Powders in the Conservation of Maize (Zea mays and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in Conditions of Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo. A study on the effect of Eucalyptus citriodora, Cupressus lucitanica and Tagetas minitiflora powders, was made at Rethy (Democratic Republic of the Congo in order to determine efficacy in the conservation of maize and bean. After 10 months, T. minitiflora was more efficacious with 0.19% of infestation for bean, and 2.59% for maize in comparison to the control sample which gave 0.9% for bean and 4.45% for maize.

  19. Relative importance of phytohemagglutinin (lectin) and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) protein absorption and utilization by the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M R; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to perform a comparative study of the antinutritional and/or toxic properties of phytohemagglutinin and trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor extracted from the seed of a commercial cultivar of edible bean used in Brazil. Bean proteins were extracted in acidic salt solution and fractionated by dialysis and centrifugation, then freeze-dried. The total freeze-dried bean extract and the globulin or albumin protein fraction were resuspended in distilled water and heated (100 degrees C, 30 min) for inactivation of hemagglutinin. Diets were prepared with unheated bean protein fractions and heated ones (100% trypsin inhibitor activity, but 0% phytohemagglutinin activity). As a result, the inhibition of growth and poor dietary protein utilization were observed in rats fed diets containing unheated bean protein fractions, but not in rats fed diets containing heated fractions. It was thus assumed that phytohemagglutinin is the main antinutritional and toxic factor that in dry bean (Phaseolus) protein and that trypsin inhibitor (Bowman-Birk type) did not interfere with rat growth. PMID:9919488

  20. Efeito da densidade e da distância de caruru-de-mancha e amendoim-bravo na cultura do feijoeiro Effect of the density and distance of slender amaranth and milkweed on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.M. Barroso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência causada pelo caruru-demancha (Amaranthus viridis e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, em função das densidades e distâncias, no feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar Pérola. Como recipientes, foram utilizadas caixas de cimento-amianto, com capacidade para 50 litros, preenchidas com LatossoloVermelho-Escuro. As mudas foram formadas em bandejas de 128 células preenchidas com substrato hortícola; quando as plântulas atingiram o estádio V2, foram transplantadas para as caixas, sendo as de feijoeiro numa linha central, reproduzindo a semeadura em campo, e as das plantas daninhas nas densidades de 8, 16 e 32 plantas m-2, distanciadas de 0, 12 e 24 cm das plantas de feijão e igualmente entre si. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3+2T, com quatro repetições, constituindo as parcelas experimentais. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produtividade da cultura e das plantas daninhas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Observou-se que as plantas daninhas obtiveram maior desenvolvimento quando em maior distância da cultura. O caruru-de-mancha causou reduções no número de vagens e na produtividade estimada do feijoeiro. Para o caruru-de-mancha, o aumento da densidade só causou redução na produtividade da cultura quando as plantas estavam distanciadas em pelo menos 12 cm. A 0 cm, o feijoeiro tornou-se mais competitivo e não sofreu interferência das plantas daninhas, independentemente da densidade destas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference caused by Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis and Milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla at different densities and distances in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pérola. The experiment was carried out using asbestos cement boxes

  1. Desempenho fisiológico de sementes de feijão colhidas em diferentes períodos do desenvolvimento Physiological performance of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds harvested in different developmental periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Evangelista Botelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a época adequada de colheita para produção de sementes de alta qualidade é de suma importância. No presente trabalho objetivou-se determinar a época ideal de colheita para a obtenção de sementes com maior qualidade e produtividade. Para a instalação do campo experimental foram utilizadas sementes de feijão de duas cultivares (BRS Majestoso e BRS Horizonte. A colheita foi realizada manualmente, aos 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias após a emergência (DAE. Após a colheita foi feita a determinação do teor de água das sementes, e então as plantas foram secas ao sol, debulhadas manualmente e as sementes pesadas para verificação da produtividade. Em seguida, as sementes foram separadas ou não em quatro 4 classes de tamanho, sendo 3 em peneiras (14/64, 17/64 e 18/64. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, em faixa, com quatro repetições. A avaliação da qualidade das sementes foi realizada por meio dos testes de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE e condutividade elétrica. Concluiu-se que a colheita aos 90 DAE propicia maior produtividade e qualidade de sementes de feijão das cultivares avaliadas.In beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L., the ideal time of harvest for high quality seeds yield is very important. The objective of the present work was to determine the ideal time of harvest to abtain seeds with higher quality and productivity. For field experiment, seeds of two cultivars of the Carioca group (BRS Majestoso and BRS Horizonte were used. The sowing was done manually and each parcel had four 12-meter-long lines, with a space of 0.40 m between them. The harvest was done manually, at 70, 80, 90 and 100 days after the emergency (DAE. After the harvest, seed water content was determined and then, the plants were drought in the sun, threshed and weighed for productivity verification. After that, seeds were separated in 4 classes

  2. Conseqüências do manejo do solo na distribuição de metais pesados em um agrossistema com feijão- de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Santos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a concentração de metais pesados no solo e nas plantas de feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, foi realizado um experimento em Paty do Alferes (RJ, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo com 30 % de declividade. Foram instaladas parcelas do tipo Wischmeier com dimensões de 22,0 x 4,0 m; cada parcela era constituída de um sistema de preparo do solo distinto: plantio convencional, aração com trator no sentido morro abaixo e queima dos restos vegetais (PC; plantio em nível com aração tração animal e cordões de vegetação a cada 7,0 m (PN; cultivo mínimo com apenas abertura de covas para plantio e conservação dos restos vegetais (CM. Foram coletadas amostras de solo, de plantas e de agroquímicos, bem como analisados os teores totais de metais pesados. Verificou-se que as maiores adições de Cu no sistema deveram-se ao uso do fungicida Peprosan. Os sistemas de preparo PN e CM favoreceram acúmulo de Zn, Mn, Cd e Pb no solo, quando comparados ao PC, provavelmente, em virtude das menores perdas por erosão. A concentração de Pb na vagem in natura, nos sistemas de preparo PN e CM, esteve acima dos limites permitidos para alimentos in natura, em níveis impróprios para o consumo humano.

  3. Retention and translocation of foliar applied {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am, as compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr, into bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, P. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: pascale.henner@irsn.fr; Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morello, M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, Environment and Emergency Operations Division, Department for the Study of Radionuclides Behaviour in Ecosystems, Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN/DPRE/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache Centre, Building 186, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Foliar transfer of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr was evaluated after contamination of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) at the flowering development stage, by soaking their first two trifoliate leaves into contaminated solutions. Initial retentions of {sup 241}Am (27%) and {sup 239,240}Pu (37%) were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr (10-15%). Mean fraction of retained activity redistributed among bean organs was higher for {sup 137}Cs (20.3%) than for {sup 239,240}Pu (2.2%), {sup 241}Am (1%) or {sup 85}Sr (0.1%). Mean leaf-to-pod translocation factors (Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight pod/Bq kg{sup -1}dry weight contaminated leaves) were 5.0 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 241}Am, 2.7 x 10{sup -6} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 5.4 x 10{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 3.6 x 10{sup -4} for {sup 85}Sr. Caesium was mainly recovered in pods (12.8%). Americium and strontium were uniformly redistributed among leaves, stems and pods. Plutonium showed preferential redistribution in oldest bean organs, leaves and stems, and very little redistribution in forming pods. Results for americium and plutonium were compared to those of strontium and caesium to evaluate the consistency of the attribution of behaviour of strontium to transuranium elements towards foliar transfer, based on translocation factors, as stated in two radioecological models, ECOSYS-87 and ASTRAL.

  4. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

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    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  5. Biochemical characterization of α-amylases from gut and hemolymph of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivieri (Col.: Curculionidae and their inhibition by extracts from the legumes Vigna radiata L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    M Ghadamyari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase inhibitors represent an important tool in engineering crop plants against insect pests. For achieving this goal, it is necessary to find the nature of α-amylases and their properties for possible use in a pest management procedure. Because Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivieri is a devastating pest of palm trees in the southeast of Iran, we attempted to characterize α-amylases from larval gut and hemolymph, and to study their interaction with inhibitors extracted from the common bean and the green mung bean. The optimal pHs for gut and hemolymph α-amylases were 4 - 5 and 5 - 6, respectively. Also, high gut amylolytic activity was found at temperatures of 40 – 50 °C. The highest and lowest specific α-amylase activities were detected in the guts of last instar and adult males, and in the hemolymph of last instar, respectively. As calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots, the Km values for gut and hemolymph α-amylases of the last instar were 0.54 and 2.15 %, respectively, when glycogen was used as the substrate. Also, when starch was used as the substrate, the Km values for gut and hemolymph α-amylases were 1.37 and 0.15 %, respectively. Zymogram pattern in the native gel revealed that R. ferrugineus gut and hemolymph α-amylases had two isoforms. α-amylase inhibitors partially purified from Vigna radiata L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. by ionic exchange DEAE cellulose column, inhibited the R. ferrugineus gut α-amylase activity by 19 ± 0.64 % and 11.56 ± 0.69 %, respectively.

  6. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.)

  7. Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and N derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determined using the {sup 15}N isotope; Marcha de absorcao do nitrogenio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixacao simbiotica em feijao-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) e feijao-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) determinada com uso de {sup 15}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marciano de Medeiros Pereira; Muraoka, Takashi; Silva, Edson Cabral da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba SP (Brazil)], e-mail: marcianobrito@hotmail.com, e-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ecsilva@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate, through the {sup 15}N-dilution technique and using rice and non-nodulating soybean as control plants, the relative contributions of nitrogen sources (symbiotically fixed N, soil native N and fertilizer N) on the growth of common bean and cowpea and to compare the isotopic technique (ID) with the difference methods (DM) for the evaluation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. The study was carried out in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - CENA/USP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using 5 kg pots with a Typic Haplustox (Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and three replications, in an 8 x 2 factorial design. The treatments were eight sampling times: 7, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 and 78 days after sowing (DAS) and two crops: common bean and cowpea. An N rate of 10 mg kg{sup -1} soil was used, as urea, enriched with an excess of 10 % of {sup 15}N atoms. Symbiotic N fixation supplied the bean and cowpea plants with the greatest amount of accumulated N, followed, in decreasing order, by soil and fertilizer. The highest rate of N symbiotic fixation was observed at the pre-flowering growth stage of the bean and cowpea plants. After the initial growth stage, 24 DAS, rice and non nodulating soybean were appropriate control plants to evaluate symbiotic N fixation. There was a good agreement between ID and DM, except in the initial growth stage of the crops. (author)

  8. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Foliar Application of Some Micro nutrients on Growth and Yield Quality of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out on common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) cv Bronco under sandy-loam soil conditions in the farm of the Research Station of the Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Kalubia Governorate on October 15 th in the two successive growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiated seeds at the doses of 0, 40 and 80 Gy and foliar spray with Zn, Mn and Fe micro nutrients at the concentrations of 0, 25 and 50 ppm on vegetative growth, yield and chemical responses of common bean plants at age of 21 days. Three levels of application namely 0.0 (control), 25 and 50 ppm were sprayed twice during the growing seasons after two and four weeks of planting. Data analysis showed that all sprayed concentrations improved plant growth i.e plant height, number of branches and helped in earliness of flowering. Pod yield as well as pod quality parameters were also improved with the increase of concentration of sprayed materials. The improvement in plant growth and production were positively correlated with the doses and concentrations. The highest response recorded with the concentration 50 ppm with irradiated dose of 40 Gy after which the response started to decline but still significantly higher than control treatment. Pod yield was positively correlated with the applied concentration of the two substances with the highest effect recorded with 50 ppm of micro nutrients. The treatments resulted in higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control. Also treatments significantly improved chemical compositions of pod quality particularly total nitrogen and total sugar contents which responded more positively to all applied treatments. Mineral contents of Zn, Mn and Fe in un cracked seeds also showed similar trend to the applied concentrations. While the best results were in treated plants at 40 Gy and 50 ppm micro nutrient.

  9. Evaluation and Selection of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Genotypes for Root Traits Associated with Phosphorus (P) Acquisition Efficiency and the Use of 32P Isotope in Studies on P Uptake by Root Hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low phosphorus (P) availability is one of the main edaphic constraints limiting crop production and productivity in most of the tropical agro-ecosystems. Several root traits are known to be associated with P acquisition efficiency in low P soils. These root traits include root hairs. Computer modeling, laboratory and field studies show the depletion of 32P-phosphate around roots and that the depletion zone is influenced by the length and density of root hairs. We conducted a study involving a series of experiments with the objective of evaluating the variability of root traits associated with P uptake efficiency among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes, and to understand the mechanisms of long root hairs leading to the increase in P uptake in common bean. The study included (a) the screening of common bean genotypes in the laboratory and in the field for root traits, and (b) the use of radioactive phosphorus (32P) in the experiments conducted in the greenhouse. For laboratory screening, seedlings were germinated in paper rolls in a growth media for 3 days before evaluation for basal root whorl number (BRWN), basal root number (BRN), basal root growth angle (BRGA) and root hair length (RHL). Common bean genotypes were planted in the field with low P for 45 days after planting (DAP) before evaluation. For the 32P study four contrasting genotypes for root hairs were grown for 28 DAP in the greenhouse using 15-20 liter pots filled with a mixture of sand and vermiculate as the growth media. The radioactive P was incorporated in the growth medium in the form of alumina-P fertilizer. Normal phosphorus (non-radioactive 31P) was included in the nutrient solution in the form of calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, and supplied through irrigation. Screened genotypes exhibited different root traits associated with P uptake efficiency, and that a given genotype can have one or more root traits responsible for it P uptake efficiency. Data analysis of radioactivity present in

  10. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

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    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  11. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

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    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  12. Características morfo-fisiológicas de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L. relacionadas con la adaptación a sequía

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    José A Polanía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de variedades adaptadas es una de las estrategias que contribuye a garantizar la seguridad alimentaria en zonas productoras de frijol con estrés por sequía. En los invernaderos de cristal del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, se evaluaron las características morfológicas y fisiológicas de raíces de 21 líneas de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en condiciones de estrés por sequía e irrigación, utilizando un sistema de tubos plásticos desarrollado por el CIAT. Las características evaluadas fueron profundización visual, longitud total de raíces y distribución de raíces a través del perfil del suelo. En campo, utilizando los mismos genotipos de frijol, se evaluaron características relacionadas con la eficiencia de uso de agua mediante la técnica de discriminación de isótopo de carbono y producción de grano. Los resultados en invernadero mostraron que la profundización visual y longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm tienen una correlación significativa (r = 0.56 y 0.50 respectivamente, P < 0.001 con la biomasa aérea de la planta en condiciones de estrés por sequía. En campo, la discriminación del isótopo de carbono en grano se correlacionó (r = 0.32, P < 0.01 con la producción de grano en condiciones igualmente de estrés por sequía. Las líneas de frijol NCB 226, SER 16, SEN 56 y SEA 15 presentaron una mayor longitud de raíces bajo estrés por sequía (28, 24, 29 y 27 m/planta respectivamente en comparación con las demás líneas evaluadas, lo que les permite mayor transpiración y movilización de fotoasimilados, que favorecen una alta producción de granos. Se estima que la profundización visual, la longitud de raíces entre 60 y 75 cm y la discriminación de isótopo de carbono en grano, son características valiosas como criterios de selección en mejoramiento por tolerancia a estrés por sequía en frijol común.

  13. Deposição e distribuição de calda de pulverização em plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Deposition and distribution of spraying solution on Phaseolus vulgaris and Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2001-04-01

    marker solution on the P. vulgaris and B. decumbens plants, using a sprayer simulator under a controlled environment. The treatments were: nozzle fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v; nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4 + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v; nozzle fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS and nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4. A solution of NaCl (0.5% + Orange Poliglow colour (0.5% + mancozeb (0.5% was applied in all treatments. The experimental units consisted of pots with two B. decumbens target plants underneath one P. vulgaris target plant. Droplet distribution over B. decumbens leaves was evaluated with black light, and deposition by electric conductivity of the sprayer solution collected by washing the targets in deionized water. The spraying nozzles, XR Teejet and Conejet, did not show deposition difference on P. vulgaris leaves, under equal spray solution conditions. However, the nozzle with fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS and the nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4 provided, respectively, 67.1% and 61.5% increase on the leaf area deposition and 106,4% and 66.9% increase dry weight increase, when compared to the nozzle with fan jet XR Teejet (XR110.02VS + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v and the nozzle Conejet (TXVK-4 + surfactant (Aterbane BR - 0.5% v/v. Nozzle Conejet provided higher uniform distribution, when compared to nozzle XR Teejet.

  14. Avaliação da produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro resistentes ao fungo da antracnose Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade produtiva de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum pertencentes aos grupos Preto, Chumbinho e Diversas, foi estimada em experimentos em blocos ao acaso, instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977, 1978 e 1979. Utilizaram-se os cultivares Moruna, Aroana e Carioca como controles para as linhagens dos grupos Preto, Chumbinho e Diversos respectivamente. Pela análise estatística dos dados obtidos pelas linhagens do grupo Preto, comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, 1978 e 1979, observou-se que as de prefixos 5-9-4-3-1-4, 5-9-4-3-1-5, 18-1-6 e 5-9-4-3-1-6, com médias de 2.100, 2.079, 2.055 e 2.028kg/ha, foram superiores ao 'Moruna', que produziu 1.580kg/ha. No grupo Chumbinho, cujas linhagens foram avaliadas em 1978 e 1979, a de prefixo 5-1-1-5-1-9, com 2.336kg/ha, destacou-se das demais, embora esta produtividade média estivesse ao mesmo nível, estatisticamente, da verificada para o 'Aroana', 2.136kg/ha. Para as linhagens do grupo Diversos, estudadas em 1978 e 1979, apenas 10-3-1 e 10-6-2, com produções médias de 3.133 e 2.823kg/ha, foram superiores, respectivamente, a 2.375 e 2.355kg/ha, observadas para o 'Carioca'. Outras linhagens deste grupo tiveram médias acima do controle, como 10-9-2, 10-9-1 e 10-5-1, com 2.698, 2.686 e 2.649kg/ha (Carioca - 2.355kg/ha na ausência do patógeno. Nas análises conjuntas foram notados efeitos significativos para ano em onze dos doze grupos de experimentos e em apenas dois para a interação tratamento x ano. As melhores linhagens serão colocadas nos ensaios regionais e algumas terão suas sementes aumentadas e colocadas à disposição dos agricultores da região de Campinas.With the objective of knowing the yielding ability of dry bean lines of Preto, Diversos and Chumbinho groups resistant to the anthracnose agent, trials in randomized complete-block design were carried out in the Main Experimental Station of

  15. Marcha de absorção do nitrogênio do solo, do fertilizante e da fixação simbiótica em feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. e feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determinada com uso de 15N Uptake rate of nitrogen from soil and fertilizer, and n derived from symbiotic fixation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. walp. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. determined using the 15N isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciano de Medeiros Pereira Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-comum e o feijão-caupi estão entre as principais fontes de proteína vegetal para grande parte da população mundial, sobretudo aquela de baixa renda, e o N é o principal constituinte de proteínas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de avaliar, por meio da técnica isotópica e tendo como plantas-controle arroz e soja não nodulante, as contribuições relativas das fontes de N (N2-fixação simbiótica, N-solo e N-fertilizante no desenvolvimento do feijão-comum e caupi ao longo do ciclo e comparar o método isotópico (MI com o método da diferença (MD para avaliação da fixação simbiótica de N2. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, utilizando-se vasos com 5 kg de terra de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 16 tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos (fatorial 8 x 2 compreenderam oito épocas de coleta: 17, 24, 31, 38, 47, 58, 68 e 78 dias após a semeadura (DAS e duas culturas: feijão-comum e feijão-caupi. Utilizou-se uma dose de 10 mg kg-1 de N no solo, na forma de ureia, enriquecida com 10 % de átomos de 15N em excesso. A fixação simbiótica forneceu a maior parte do N acumulado nas plantas de feijão e caupi, seguida, em ordem decrescente, pelo solo e fertilizante. A maior taxa de fixação simbiótica de N ocorreu a partir da fase de prefloração do feijão e do caupi. Após a fase inicial (24 DAS, o arroz e a soja não nodulante tornaram-se adequadas plantas-controle da fixação simbiótica de N2. Houve boa concordância entre o MI e o MD, exceto nos estádios iniciais das culturas.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. are among the main sources of plant protein for a large part of the world population, mainly that of low income, and nitrogen is the main constituent of these proteins. The objectives of this study were to evaluate

  16. The importance of the ratio UV-B/photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) during leaf development as determining factor of plant sensitivity to increased UV-B irradiance: effects on growth, gas exchange and pigmentation of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Label)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of different naturally occurring irradiation conditions on the sensitivity of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Label) to increased UV-B levels, plants were grown under six different light treatments. In the control series (at ambient levels of UV-B), UV-B and visible light were decreased in parallel, resulting in three different total irradiation treatments with the same UV-B/PAR ratio. A second series with a 15% increase in UV-B irradiation at each PAR level was used to investigate the effect of UV-B under the varying total irradiance levels. The different total irradiance levels resulted in large differences in total dry weight, specific leaf weight, photosynthesis-light response and pigment concentrations. Nevertheless, the 15% increase in UV-B resulted in equal reductions in total dry weight (from 24.5 to 34.3%) and effective photosynthesis for all light levels. The accumulation of protective pigments in the primary bean leaves was strongly correlated to the total irradiance level (200% increase from the lowest to the highest light level), but was not influenced by increasing UV-B levels. As the UV-B/PAR ratio outside increases with decreasing total irradiance (when induced by cloud cover) this implies that low radiation levels are potentially dangerous to some plants, even though the UV-B levels may seem negligible. (author)

  17. Utilisation de la PCR-RFLP sur de l'ADN chloro-plastique pour l'étude des relations phylogénétiques au sein du genre Phaseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin JP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships among 74 accessions belonging to six species of Phaseolus are investigated using variation in chloroplast DNA assessed according to a PCR-RFLP protocol. Three fragments of chloroplast DNA are amplified using universal primers, and then digested with 10 restriction enzymes. Thirty-six haplotypes are identified on the basis of the polymorphism in fragment number and size. Three main phylogenetic groups, strongly supported through bootstrap analysis, are identified: (1 accessions from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus xolocotzii; (2 accessions from Phaseolus glabellus; (3 accessions from Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus polyanthus and Phaseolus coccineus. Within the third group, accessions of Phaseolus coccineus are scattered along the phylogenetic tree, which provides some evidence that coccineus accessions are paraphyletic with respect to Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus polyanthus. An analysis of molecular variance applied on four species show that they are significantly differentiated with 79% of molecular variance among species and 21% within species. The results agree with previous investigations on chloroplast DNA variation in the genus Phaseolus, and suggest that PCRRFLP methods, which are technically less labour-intensive than previous methods, are of great value for phylogenetic investigations at the generic level.

  18. Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian;

    2010-01-01

    will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells...

  19. Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers’ conditions in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Ngwira, Amos;

    2014-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a dominant grain legume in eastern and southern Africa, where it constitutes a major source of protein and microminerals in peoples’ diet. The current studies aimed at determining how initially promising genotypes of bean responded in terms of yield and grai...

  20. Protoplast fusion technology for somatic hybridisation in Phaseolus

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    Ochatt S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of interspecific breeding between Phaseolus vulgaris L. (PV and the two donor species Phaseolus coccineus L. (PC or Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. (PP requires the utilization of the donor species as female parents. Although incompatibility barriers are post-zygotic, success in such F1 crosses is very limited due to early hybrid embryo abortion. Rescue techniques for globular or early heart-shaped embryos have been improved but hybrid plant regeneration remains very difficult. In this study we describe the use of protoplast fusion techniques within the genus Phaseolus, as an alternative to succeed crosses between PP or PC and PV. Large numbers of heterokaryons have been produced using different genotypes and procedures for fusion, based either on electro-fusion (750 or 1500 V.cm-1, or on the use of a chemical micro-method with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 as the fusing agent. Both divisions of heterokaryons and the formation of heterokaryon-derived microcalli were observed.

  1. NON PREFERENTIAL OVIPOSITION OF Zabrotes subfasciatus IN COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L. APPLIED WITH SOME VEGETAL PRODUCTS NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVOPOSIÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 EM FEIJÃO TRATADO COM DIFERENTES PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM VEGETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corival Cândido da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    It was studied the non-preferential oviposition of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833 in common beans (P. vulgaris L. cv. carioca applied with some vegetal products. The applied products were andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis, neem oil (Azadirachta indica, neem solution and the commercial product Azatin with rates 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg grain. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 4 x 4 with 5 replications. Data were transformed in (x + 1^1/2 and variance analysis while averages were evaluated by Tukey test 5%. All products differed in control. Neem solution and Azatin at 4 ml/kg grain, neem oil at 6 ml/kg grain and andiroba oil (2, 4 and 6 ml/kg grain showed better results than other treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Zabrotes; Phaseolus; Carapa; Azadirachta; resistance.

    Foi estudada a não-preferência para a oviposição de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman,1833 em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivar carioca, tratado com

  2. Effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under different nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M E; Casati, P; Hsu, T P; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1999-02-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme have been examined in different cultivars of Phaseolous vulgaris L. grown under 1 and 12 mM nitrogen. Low nitrogen nutrition reduces chlorophyll and soluble protein contents in the leaves and thus the photosynthesis rate and dry-matter accumulation. Chlorophyll, soluble protein and Rubisco contents and photosynthesis rate are not significantly altered by ambient levels of UV-B radiation (17 microW m-2, 290-320 nm, 4 h/day for one week). Comparative studies show that under high nitrogen, UV-B radiation slightly enhances leaf expansion and dry-matter accumulation in cultivar Pinto, but inhibits these parameters in Vilmorin. These results suggest that the UV-B effect on growth is mediated through leaf expansion, which is particularly sensitive to UV-B, and that Pinto is more tolerant than Vilmorin. The effect of UV-B radiation on UV-B-absorbing compounds and on NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity is also examined. Both UV-B radiation and low-nitrogen nutrition enhance the content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and among the three cultivars used, Pinto exhibits the highest increases and Arroz the lowest. The same trend is observed for the specific activity and content of NADP-ME. On a leaf-area basis, the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds is highly correlated with the enzyme activity (r2 = 0.83), suggesting that NADP-ME plays a key role in biosynthesis of these compounds. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity of Vilmorin than Pinto to UV-B radiation appears to be related to the activity of NADP-ME and the capacity of the plants to accumulate UV-B-absorbing compounds. PMID:10343405

  3. Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mediterranean ancestry, Ashkenazi Jews, and some subtypes in people from Brazil and Colombia. Pemphigus vulgaris is categorized as an ultra-orphan disease (meaning it is very rare), affecting approximately 10,000–30,000 people in the United States. Signs and Symptoms Eighty ...

  4. Acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Sarah; deBerker, David

    2008-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne, and can cause scarring and psychological distress.

  5. Acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Sarah; de Berker, David

    2011-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects over 80% of teenagers, and persists beyond the age of 25 years in 3% of men and 12% of women. Typical lesions of acne include comedones, inflammatory papules, and pustules. Nodules and cysts occur in more severe acne, and can cause scarring and psychological distress.

  6. Acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Ertuğrul H.

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit and it is observed equally in both sexes and nearly all races. It generally begins at puberty, but the healing period is variable. There is no known etiological factor, except genetic tendency. Androgens play a very limited role in some female patients. The effects of cosmetics, foods and drinks are also discussible and too limited.

  7. [Antinutritional effect of phytohemagglutinins of Phaseolus vulgaris L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, M O; Mancini Filho, J; Lajolo, F M

    1984-09-01

    The antinutritional effect caused by the ingestion of lectins from two Brazilian varieties of beans: Rico 23 and Jalo, was studied in rats. The two varieties were selected in a previous screening of toxicity in rats: one of them (Jalo) was lethal, and the other (Rico 23) was not, when injected intra-peritoneally. Different amounts of each one of the lectins were added to casein experimental diets and fed to rats. The amount of protein (casein) also varied from 5% to 20%. The addition to the diet of 1% lectins from the Jalo variety caused a growth depression, as well as a decrease in food efficiency ratio and serum glucose; also, it reduced the maltase and invertase activity of the intestinal mucosa. All these effects appeared when the protein contents in the rations were 5% or 10%. At the 20% level only a depression of the maltase activity was observed. Similar effects were shown by the lectins of the Rico 23 variety, but only when added in a higher (5%) percentage to the diet. The phosphatase and protease activity were not changed by any of the lectins. The inhibitor activity that occurred in vivo was not detected in vitro. PMID:6399838

  8. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  9. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and

  10. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  11. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO; Jose de J. BERRIOS; Vânia Zanella PINTO; Mariana Dias ANTUNES; Nathan Levien VANIER; Elessandra da Rosa ZAVAREZE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared,...

  12. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  13. Water dynamics in a bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of water was studied at 'La Tola', Experimental Teaching Center of the Central University of Ecuador, in a Sandy-Ioan, typic Haplustoll soil, in wich beans were growing. All the components of the crop water balance were determined. Real evapotranspiration was in direct relation to the growth of the crop, reaching its maximum value of 4.9 mm day-1, at pod setting, then decreasing slowly until maturation of the kernels. Up to 1 meter depth, water loss by drainage depended on rainfall, reaching up to 24% of the total water loss: the soil layer supplying most of the water for the use of the crop was between 0-40 cm, where the root activity was greatest

  14. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; HARNLY, JAMES M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin...

  15. Native bradyrhizobia from Los Tuxtlas in Mexico are symbionts of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Aline; Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Rogel, Marco A; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez, Julio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-02-01

    Los Tuxtlas is the northernmost rain forest in North America and is rich in Bradyrhizobium with an unprecedented number of novel lineages. ITS sequence analysis of legumes in polycultures from Los Tuxtlas led to the identification of Phaseolus lunatus and Vigna unguiculata in addition to Phaseolus vulgaris as legumes associated with maize in crops. Bacterial diversity of isolates from nitrogen-fixing nodules of P. lunatus and V. unguiculata was revealed using ERIC-PCR and PCR-RFLP of rpoB genes, and sequencing of recA, nodZ and nifH genes. P. lunatus and V. unguiculata nodule bacteria corresponded to bradyrhizobia closely related to certain native bradyrhizobia from the Los Tuxtlas forest and novel groups were found. This is the first report of nodule bacteria from P. lunatus in its Mesoamerican site of origin and domestication. PMID:23280323

  16. Acne (Acne Vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne (Acne Vulgaris) Information for adults A A A Whiteheads (closed comedones) are the earliest lesions of acne. Overview Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is ...

  17. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne. PMID:27189872

  18. NON PREFERENTIAL OVIPOSITION OF Zabrotes subfasciatus IN COMMON BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) APPLIED WITH SOME VEGETAL PRODUCTS NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVOPOSIÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) EM FEIJÃO TRATADO COM DIFERENTES PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM VEGETAL

    OpenAIRE

    Corival Cândido da Silva; Elisane Galbe de Carvalho Costa; Heloína Teresinha Faleiro Ramos; Roberto de Toledo Guimarães; Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-01-01

    It was studied the non-preferential oviposition of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) in common beans (P. vulgaris L.) cv. carioca applied with some vege...

  19. Lupus vulgaris of external nose

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B. Usha

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  20. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  1. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Dhanlaklshmi, M

    2008-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Cutaneous Tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra-pulmonary manifestations of Tuberculosis. Lupus Vulgaris (LV) is one of the clinical variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis. A case of a large plaque type psoriasiform lesion of lupus vulgaris on the thigh, of 15 years' duration, in an 18-year-old girl is reported. This case highlights the ignorance level among the patients and consequent failure to avail proper anti-tuberculous treatment despite campaign in print and audio visual media. PMID:18516827

  2. Lupus vulgaris on keloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man presented with multicentric lupus vulgaris on keloids over chest, axilla, neck and back for last 6 months. He had pulmonary tuberculosis. All the laboratory investigations were in favour of clinical diagnosis. The patient responded to antituberculosis therapy.

  3. Controle de plantas daninhas com herbicidas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Weed control in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa em 1970, para se conhecer os efeitos de três herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado (EPTC a 3,60 kg/ha, nitralin e trifluralin a 0,76 kg/ha e de um em pré-emergência (fluorodifen a 3,00 kg/ha na cultura de feijão comparados com uma testemunha sem herbicida. As duas gramíneas presentes no ensaio, Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. e Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. foram eficientemente controladas por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 87,00%, em contagem de plantas daninhas realizada 29 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas. Dentre as dicotiledóneas presentes, Amaranthus viridis L. também foi eficientemente controlado por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 92,00%. Ageratum conyzoides L. foi eficientemente controlado por fluorodifen (91,60% e regularmente por EPTC (78,99% e por nitralin (79,83%. Trifluralin não foi eficiente contra A. conyzoides L. Nenhum dos herbicidas testados controlou Ipomoea sp e Chenopodium ambrosioides L., também presentes no experimento. EPTC e nitralin apresentaram as menores porcentagens de infestação geral de plantas daninhas, tendo, aos 51 dias da aplicação dos produtos, quando suas parcelas foram capinadas mecanicamente, 8,00 e 17,00% de infestação, respectivamente. Trifluralin e fluorodifen precisaram de limpeza aos 42 dias da aplicação, e a testemunha já aos 29 dias, pois apresentavam parcelas com 25,00%, ou mais, de infestação, naquelas épocas. Os herbicidas experimentados não foram prejudiciais à germinação e ao desenvolvimento vegetativo dos feijoeiros, assim como à sua produção de grãos.The weed control with herbicides in beans crop was studied during 1970 year, in Campinas-SP, on a sandy-loam soil. The treatments employed were EPTC at 3.60 kg/ha, nitralin and trifluralin at 0.76 kg/ha, all applied in preplant i •porated; fluorodifen in preemergence at 3.00 kg/ha and a hoed check. Among the weeds presents in the experiment, Amaranthus viridis. L., Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. and Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. were very well controled by the herbicides in general. Good control was obtained by fluorodifen against Ageratum conyzoides L.. None efficiency was observed to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Ipomoea sp. by the chemicals. The herbic ides did not cause inju ry to the beans.

  4. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sensory profile and acceptability of cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil a recomendação de novos cultivares de feijão tem sido feita em função de suas características agronômicas. Porém, nos últimos anos os pesquisadores do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Feijoeiro têm reconhecido a importância das características tecnológicas, principalmente o perfil sensorial, dos grãos de cultivares de feijão na sua aceitação pelos consumidores. Assim, fica evidente a necessidade da caracterização sensorial dos grãos de cultivares de feijão que já são recomendados para o cultivo e daqueles que estão para serem recomendados. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação sensorial dos grãos de sete variedades de feijão recomendadas para o Estado de Minas Gerais (Ouro Negro, Meia Noite, Carioca, Aporé, Rudá, Pérola e Vermelhinho e de três linhagens promissoras para lançamento (MA733327, Vermelho2157 e CB733812. Estas variedades e linhagens foram produzidas pela UFV. Todas as amostras foram cozidas em panela de pressão por 23 minutos e servidas aos provadores. Análise descritiva quantitativa foi aplicada para verificar similaridades e diferenças na aparência, aroma, sabor e textura dos grãos de feijão. As amostras de feijão foram avaliadas por uma equipe composta por oito provadores previamente selecionados e treinados. Foi avaliada também a aceitabilidade das dez amostras, onde cada uma foi degustada por 30 consumidores de feijão, em condições laboratoriais, tomados ao acaso nas proximidades do laboratório de análise sensorial (DTA/UFV. Para o teste afetivo, as amostras foram temperadas. Os dez cultivares de feijão diferiram significativamente (p0,05 na aceitação dos cultivares. Todos tiveram boa aceitação e situaram-se entre os termos hedônicos "gostei moderadamente e gostei muito".In Brazil the recommendation of new cultivars of beans has been done according to the grains agronomic characteristics. However, in the last years researchers of the Genetic Improvement of Beans Program have recognized the importance of technological characteristics, mainly the sensory profile of cultivars of beans and their acceptance by consumers. So, it makes evident the need for sensory characterization of the cultivars of beans that are already suggested to cultivation and those that are ready to be. The present work aimed at carrying out the sensory evaluation of seven kinds of beans grains recommended to the State of Minas Gerais (Ouro Negro, Meia Noite, Carioca, Aporé, Rudá, Pérola, and Vermelhinho and of three promising pure lines for releasing (MA733327, Vermelho2157, and CB733812. These cultivars and pure lines were produced by the UFV. All the samples were cooked in pressure cooker for 23 minutes and served to the tasters. Quantitative descriptive analysis was applied to verify similarities and differences in the appearance, smell, flavor, and texture of the beans. A panel composed by eight tasters, who were previously selected and trained, evaluated the samples of beans. The sensory acceptability of the ten samples was also evaluated by 30 consumers, picked randomly near the sensory analysis laboratory (DTA/UFV. To the affective test, the samples were spiced. The ten cultivars of beans differed significantly (p0,05 in the acceptability of the cultivars. All of them had positive acceptance and were rated within the hedonic terms "liked moderately" and "liked very much."

  5. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de cultivares de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Sensory profile and acceptability of cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Camilo Souza Carneiro; Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim; Manoel Messias de Souza Jr; José Eustáquio de Souza Carneiro; Geraldo Antônio de Andrade Araújo

    2005-01-01

    No Brasil a recomendação de novos cultivares de feijão tem sido feita em função de suas características agronômicas. Porém, nos últimos anos os pesquisadores do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Feijoeiro têm reconhecido a importância das características tecnológicas, principalmente o perfil sensorial, dos grãos de cultivares de feijão na sua aceitação pelos consumidores. Assim, fica evidente a necessidade da caracterização sensorial dos grãos de cultivares de feijão que já são recomendado...

  6. Cinética de congelamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. a baixas temperaturas Freezing kinetics of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti-Mata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi obter as curvas de congelamento do feijão, cultivar 'gordo', nas temperaturas de -25, -50, -170 e -196 ºC e determinar sua difusividade térmica efetiva. Com vista à obtenção das curvas de congelamento das sementes nas temperaturas de -25 e -50 ºC utilizou-se um freezer criogênico horizontal; para a temperatura de -170 ºC, o vapor de nitrogênio e, para a temperatura de -196 ºC, as sementes foram submersas no nitrogênio líquido. Afim de expressar o comportamento cinético do congelamento das sementes de feijão, foi usado o modelo de Fourier levando-se em consideração o primeiro termo da série, além dos Modelos I e II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os três modelos representam satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais da cinética de congelamento; apesar disto, com o Modelo II de Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte se obtém o maior coeficiente de determinação. Constata-se também que, para congelar as sementes de feijão até atingir o equilíbrio térmico na temperatura de -25 ºC, o tempo necessário foi de 1200 min; em temperatura de -50 ºC o equilíbrio foi atingido com 480 min; a -170 ºC o equilíbrio se deu em 180 min e, a -196 ºC, em 30 min.The objective of this study was to obtain the freezing curves of beans, variety 'gordo' at temperatures of -25, -50, -170 and -196 ºC, and determine their effective thermal diffusivity. For the curves of freezing beans seeds at temperatures of -25 and -50 ºC a cryogenic horizontal freezer was used, for temperature of -170 ºC, nitrogen vapor was used and at temperature of -196 ºC seeds were submerged in liquid nitrogen. To express the kinetic behavior of the freezing of bean seeds, the Fourier model was used taking into account the first term of the series and; Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte model I and II. The results indicate that the three models satisfactorily represent the experimental data of the kinetics of freezing, though with Model II of Cavalcanti-Mata & Duarte highest coefficient of determination were obtained. It is concluded that time necessary to freeze the seeds of beans at temperature of -25 ºC was of 1200 min; at temperature of -50 ºC the equilibrium was reached with 480 min; at -170 ºC the time was 180 min and at -196 ºC it was 30 min.

  7. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  8. Strongylus vulgaris and colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup;

    , warmblooded, coldblooded), age, gender, and admitted in the same month and year, but for problems unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies to migrating S. vulgaris larvae using a recently developed ELISA. Three case definitions were used; colic sensu latum (n=274...... result should be interpreted as exposure to the parasite within the preceding five months. Nonetheless, the ELISA may be helpful in evaluating the more severe colic categories involving infarctions in the abdominal cavity....

  9. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  10. Caracterización molecular del metabolismo del alantoato en judía (Phaseolus Vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Leal, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    En plantas, la degradación del alantoato es un paso indispensable para el reciclaje de las bases nitrogenadas. Además, en las leguminosas tropicales, como judía y soja, los ureidos alantoína y alantoato son las formas mayoritarias de transporte del nitrógeno fijado y su acumulación se ha relacionado con la inhibición de la fijación de nitrógeno en condiciones de sequía. En este trabajo se ha identificado y caracterizado una alantoato amidohidrolasa (PvAAH) en judía. Los resulta...

  11. Los frijoles (Phaseolus Vulgaris: su aporte a la dieta del costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rodríguez-Castillo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Los frijoles constituyen un alimento básico en la dicta del costarricense. Sin embargo, la cantidad y frecuencia con que se consumen ha venido disminuyendo, sobretodo en la zona urbana. Esta tendencia resulta preocupante, ya que el frijol es fuente de proteínas, hierro vegetal, fibra, ácido fólico, tiamina, potasio, magnesio, y zinc (USDA, 2000. Su aporte a la dieta del costarricense, a pesar de la disminución en su consumo, es importante por su contenido de nutrientes y de fitoquímicos los cuales son de utilidad en la prevención y tratamiento de varias de las patologías que afectan a la población costarricense. La presente revisión, documenta los efectos positivos que algunos nutrientes y otros elementos que aporta el frijol tienen en la prevención y el control de algunas de las enfermedades crónicas que constituyen problemas de salud pública en el país. Se abordan de manera particular la fibra, el ácido fólico y el magnesio. Asimismo, se hace referencia a otras sustancias fitoquímicas, presentes en los frijoles, que constituyen elementos protectores de la salud y que hacen de los frijoles un "alimento funcional". Finalmente, se ofrecen recomendaciones prácticas orientadas a mejorar la digestibilidad de este alimento, de manera que se contribuya a mantener e incrementar su consumo a nivel de los hogares costarricenses.

  12. Inhibitory specificity and insecticidal selectivity of alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluh, Ivan; Horn, Martin; Hýblová, Jana; Hubert, J.; Dolečková, Lucie; Voburka, Zdeněk; Kudlíková, I.; Kocourek, F.; Mareš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 66, - (2005), 31-39. ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC D16.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : enzyme inhibition * digestive enzyme Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.780, year: 2005

  13. Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastenes, Claudio; Porter, Victor; Baginsky, Cecilia; Horton, Peter; González, Javiera

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants. PMID:15658802

  14. Phenotypic evaluation of some turkish green bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to reveal the morphological characterization of 36 green bean genotypes collected in Turkey to find out the suitable genotypes which can be used in breeding programs. Collected plant materials were grown under Antalya ecological conditions and morphological characteristics of genotypes were evaluated in accordance with UPOV criteria. Principles Component Analysis of the data obtained from morphological characterization were conducted. The results indicated that genetic variation among some bean genotypes was not high and results revealed that first three Eigen values could be used to explain the 50% of the variation among genotypes. The genotypes far from each other with respect to dendrogram can be an important source of variance and can be used in prospective breeding programs. (author)

  15. Polyphenol Content and Antiradical Activity of “Sarconi” Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Ecotype

    OpenAIRE

    A. Romani; P. VIGNOLINI; M.A. Falvino; D. HEIMLER

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and content of polyphenols (anthocyans, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) in hulls and seeds of Sarconi beans having different colours and shapes. Sarconi beans are protected by the indication of geographic provenance (IGP) denomination and include different ecotypes. The seeds sampled in the study area (Basilicata, val d’Agri) exhibited different colours from white (Riso bianco) to dark yellow (Tabacchino), to green (Verdolino) and t...

  16. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14CO2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs

  17. Santé et adaptation du haricot commun Phaseolus vulgaris L

    OpenAIRE

    Dutartre, Martin

    2015-01-01

    L'agriculture intensive et industrielle a progressivement pris le pas sur les pratiques paysannes au cours du 20e siècle. Les pratiques agricoles sont aujourd'hui dictées par les entreprises d'agrofournitures en amont de la filières pour répondre aux exigences des industries agroalimentaires situées en aval. Les conséquences environnementales et sociales d'un tel modèle sont alarmantes. Cette agriculture repose sur l'utilisation de variétés standardisées. Or, ces variétés nécessitent une util...

  18. La plasticidad fenotípica de frijol arbustivo determinado phaseolus vulgaris l.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas A., Guillermo; Corchuelo R., Germán

    2011-01-01

    Un aspecto importante en el rendimiento de las plantas es el relacionado con el producto de la interacción entre el genotipo y el ambiente, el cual se manifiesta a través de procesos fisiológicos. Es decir, que el rendimiento es la expresión fenotípica de interés antropocéntrico (Kohashi-Dhibata,1979). En el caso de frijol, el rendimiento está determinado,entre otros factores por el índice de área foliar (IAF), la duración del área foliar (AF) y la retención de flores, factores que permiten l...

  19. Ozone tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris depends on more than one mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Lucia, E-mail: guidilu@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Via del Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Degl' Innocenti, Elena [Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Via del Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Giordano, Cristiana [Ce.M.E, Centro di Microscopie Elettroniche, CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy); Biricolti, Stefano [Dipartimento di Ortoflorofrutticoltura, Universita di Firenze, Viale delle Idee 30, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy); Tattini, Massimiliano [Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Firenze (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Two bean cultivars with different sensitivity to ozone, i.e. the O{sub 3}-sensitive Cannellino and the O{sub 3}-tolerant Top Crop, were exposed to acute O{sub 3}-stress (165 nL L{sup -1}) with the aim of evaluating physiological and biochemical traits that may confer O{sub 3}-tolerance. Stomatal conductance was smaller and the ability to dissipate excess energy, via regulated and unregulated nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms was greater in Top Crop than in Cannellino. These morphological and physiological-traits allowed the O{sub 3}-tolerant cultivar to compensate for the light-induced declines in {Phi}{sub PSII}, to preserve photosystem II from excitation-energy, and likely to prevent the generation of ROS to a superior degree than the O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the potential capacities to reducing the superoxide anion and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were significantly greater in Top Crop than in Cannellino. These findings are consistent with the early accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the almost complete disruption of cell structure, and irreversible damages to the photosynthetic apparatus observed in the O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivar. - Tolerance to ozone in bean highly integrated morphological, physiological and biochemical traits.

  20. EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON THE GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS RATE OF BEAN PLANTS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nevena STOEVA; Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-01-01

    The effect of salt stress оn some physiological parameters in young bean plants (cv. Lody) was studied under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution. The plants were treated for 7 days with 50 and 100 mM NaCl and Na2SO4 , starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the applied doses of both salt types c...

  1. Selection in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. mutant populations for adaptative characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of variability is primary to success in plant breeding. The commercial bean cultivars have a narrow variability for adaptive traits. However, the use of mutagenic agents can increase the mutation frequency, allowing the development of genetic variability in useful traits. Thus, four bean genotypes were submitted to gamma rays from 60Co, at doses of 0, 100, 200 and 400 Gy in the 2006/07 crop season. In the following crop season (2007/08 the mutant populations, submitted to doses of 0, 100 and 200 Gy, were cultivated in a design of augmented blocks. The assessment of mutant and nonmutant families evidenced phenotypic divergence between families. From the Mahalanobis distance it was possible to distinguish four groups, indicating the possibility of selecting promising segregant families for stem diameter, plant height and height insertion of the first legume, without significantly changing grain-yield-related traits.

  2. Enrichment of ACE inhibitory peptides in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) using lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xin; Wen, Delan; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to explore a novel strategy to enhance angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of navy bean by preparation of navy bean milk (NBM) which was then subjected to fermentation of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, namely, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1, Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6, and Lactobacillus plantarum 70810. With the exception of L. helveticus MB2-1, the other three selected strains had good growth performances in NBM with viable counts increased to log 8.30-8.39 cfu ml(-1) during 6 h of fermentation, and thus were selected for the following investigations. Protein contents of NBM significantly reduced when treated with L. bulgaricus and L. plantarum B1-6, and the electrophoresis patterns showed the preferable proteins for LAB strains to hydrolyze were α- and β-type phaseolins, whereas γ-type phaseolin was resistant to hydrolysis. RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated all fermented NBM had higher intensities of peaks with retention times between 2.5 and 3.5 min indicative of formation of small peptides. All fermented NBM showed higher ACE inhibitory activity compared to the unfermented ones, for which 2 h, 3 h, and 5 h were found to be the optimum fermentation periods for respectively L. plantarum 70810, L. plantarum B1-6 and L. bulgaricus, with IC50 values of 109 ± 5.1, 108 ± 1.1, and 101 ± 2.2 μg protein ml(-1). The subsequent in vitro gastrointestinal simulation afforded all fermented extracts reduced IC50 values and the extracts fermented by L. plantarum B1-6 exerted the lowest IC50 value of 21 ± 2.1 μg protein ml(-1). The research has broadened our knowledge bases on the effect of LAB fermentation on the degradation of navy bean proteins and the capacity to release ACE inhibitory peptides. The approach was promising to obtain probiotic products with potential to serve as functional ingredients targeting hypertension. PMID:25536445

  3. Ozone tolerance in Phaseolus vulgaris depends on more than one mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two bean cultivars with different sensitivity to ozone, i.e. the O3-sensitive Cannellino and the O3-tolerant Top Crop, were exposed to acute O3-stress (165 nL L-1) with the aim of evaluating physiological and biochemical traits that may confer O3-tolerance. Stomatal conductance was smaller and the ability to dissipate excess energy, via regulated and unregulated nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms was greater in Top Crop than in Cannellino. These morphological and physiological-traits allowed the O3-tolerant cultivar to compensate for the light-induced declines in ΦPSII, to preserve photosystem II from excitation-energy, and likely to prevent the generation of ROS to a superior degree than the O3-sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the potential capacities to reducing the superoxide anion and H2O2 were significantly greater in Top Crop than in Cannellino. These findings are consistent with the early accumulation of H2O2, the almost complete disruption of cell structure, and irreversible damages to the photosynthetic apparatus observed in the O3-sensitive cultivar. - Tolerance to ozone in bean highly integrated morphological, physiological and biochemical traits.

  4. Rhizodeposition and biotic interactions in the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Hordeum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical processes at the soil-plant interface are largely regulated by organic and inorganic compounds released by roots and microorganisms. Several abiotic and biotic factors are suspected to stimulate rhizodeposition and, thus, contribute to enriching of the rhizosphere with plant-derived compounds. This thesis focused on the effects of two factors, (i) the elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration accompanied by nutrient limitation in the soil and (ii) low-level root infestation by pl...

  5. Green and Blue Water Footprint Accounting for Dry Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris in Primary Region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Irene Flores Lopez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortages are a key obstacle to the sustainable supply of food to the world population, since agriculture has the largest consumptive water use. The Water Footprint (WF has been developed as a useful tool to assess the contribution of goods and activities to water scarcity. This concept is being used around the world to improve agricultural water management. This paper analyzes climate data in order to estimate green and blue WFs for dry beans in the dry beans primary region of Mexico under both irrigation and dryland conditions. The quantification of green WF is very important in this area, since 95% of the crop is obtained in dryland conditions. Standard methodology was used to assess the crop WF. Five different sowing dates were considered: two for irrigation (15 April and 15 May and three for dryland (1 and 15 July and 1 August. It was found that the optimum sowing date for dryland conditions is 1 August, with a WF of 1839 m3·Mg−1 (1 Mg equal to 1000 kg in the sutheastern part of the region; nevertheless, results show that the largest green water availability occurs around the first days of July. Under irrigated conditions the best sowing date is 15 May, with a decrease in crop evapotranspiration of 10.1% in relation to 15 April; which means a reduction of 36.1% of blue water use in the northwestern region mainly.

  6. Iron and zinc bioavailabilities to pigs from red and white beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are similar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common beans contain relatively high concentrations of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) but are also high in polyphenols and phytates, factors that may inhibit Fe and Zn absorption. In vitro (Caco-2 cells) and in vivo (pigs) models were used to compare Fe and Zn bioavailabilities between red and white beans,...

  7. Moisture dependent physical properties of red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of food materials like grains are important in the design or improvement of harvesting and processing machines. This study was aimed at assessment of some physical properties of red bean grains as a function of moisture content. Based on the results obtained, with increasing moisture content, grain dimensions as well as thousand grain mass increased. In the moisture content range of 10 to 20% w.b., the surface area, true density, and porosity values increased by 10.6-19.7, 4.76-6.24, and 17.91-21%, respectively. This increase in moisture content caused a decrease in bulk density values by 8.35 and 9.70% for the varieties of Goli and Akhtar, respectively. Coefficient of static friction (Goli and Akhtar increased against surfaces of rubber (27.3 and 27%, galvanized iron (50 and 28.5%, and plywood (32 and 21.4% as the moisture content increased. Mechanical properties were determined in terms of average rupture force, deformation at rupture point, and rupture energy. Deformation and rupture energy of red bean grains generally increased in magnitude with an increase in moisture content, while rupture force decreased.

  8. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) collection for agromorphological and seed mineral concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of common bean comprising totally 223 genotypes of which 176 genotypes from the USDA, 37 common bean landraces and 10 commercial cultivars from Turkey, evaluated for several agromorphological plant characters and mineral concentrations in seeds. There were wide range of variations for t...

  9. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. PMID:27507499

  10. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region. PMID:27156082

  11. Genetic parameters and breeding strategies for high levels of iron and zinc in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S M; Melo, P G S; Faria, L C; Souza, T L P O; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S

    2016-01-01

    One of the current focus of common bean breeding programs in Brazil is to increase iron (FeC) and zinc content (ZnC) in grains. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for FeC and ZnC in common bean, verify the need for conducting multi-site evaluation tests, identify elite lines that combine high FeC and ZnC with good adaptability, stability, and agronomic potential, and examine the genetic association between FeC and ZnC. Elite lines (140) were evaluated for important agronomic traits in multiple environments. In one trial, FeC and ZnC were evaluated and genetic parameters were estimated. Based on the high heritability estimates and significant selection gains obtained, the conditions for a successful selection was favorable. Of the 140 evaluated lines, 17 had higher FeC and ZnC, and were included in the validation test (2013, five environments), specifically for the evaluation of FeC and ZnC. The line by environment interaction for FeC and ZnC was detected, but it was predominantly simple. The environmental effect strongly influenced FeC and ZnC . The environment Brasília/rainy season was selected as the best evaluation site for preliminary tests for FeC and ZnC, because it resulted in similar conclusions as the mean of the five environments. The lines CNFP 15701 and CNFC 15865 had higher FeC and ZnC and were highly adaptable and stable, and are recommended for utilization in breeding programs. The lines CNFC 15833, CNFC 15703, and CNFP 15676 showed excellent combined agronomic and nutritional traits, and were selected for the development of biofortified cultivars. Additionally, the genetic association between FeC and ZnC was detected. PMID:27323172

  12. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Paredes, Y.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Alarcon, A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  13. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-01-01

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield. PMID:27323072

  14. Genetic Improvement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Common Bean Genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Golparvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty common bean genotypes were cultivated in two separately field trials at the research station of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch during 2008-2009. The experimental design was randomized complete block. Bean seeds were inoculated by Rhizobium legominosarum biovar Phaseoli isolate L-109 in one of the experiments before sowing. The dose of Rhizobium for seed inoculation was 7 miligrams of bacteria for 1 kilogram of seed. The second experiment was control. The second experiment was analyzed in the same way as the first except for biological nitrogen fixation. The results showed definite positive and significant correlation in percentage of nitrogen fixation with some other been characters. Step-wise regression designated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield accounted for 93.8% of variation expect for nitrogen fixation percent. Path analysis indicated that total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield have direct and positive effect on nitrogen fixation index. Hence, total nitrogen percentage in shoot, number of nodules per plant and biomass yield are promising indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation capability in common bean genotypes.

  15. Biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Shaanxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ying; Wang, En Tao; Qiao, Ya Juan; Jiao, Shuo; Liu, Zhen Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Ge Hong

    2016-05-01

    The biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with bean in Shaanxi Province were investigated. A total of 194 bacterial isolates from bean nodules collected from 13 sampling sites were characterized based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD, and the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH. Fifteen genospecies belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ensifer, Bradyrhizobium and Ochrobactrum were defined among the isolates, with Rhizobium sp. II, Agrobacterium sp. II, E. fredii and R. phaseoli being the dominant groups. Four symbiotic gene lineages corresponding to Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II, R. phaseoli and B. liaoningense were detected in the nodC and nifH sequence analyses, indicating different origins for the symbiotic genes and their co-evolution with the chromosome of the bacteria. Moreover, the Ensifer isolates harbored symbiotic genes closely related to bean-nodulating Pararhizobium giardinii, indicating possible lateral gene transfer from Rhizobium to Ensifer. Correlation of rhizobial community composition with moisture, temperature, intercropping, soil features and nutrients were detected. All the results demonstrated a great diversity of bean rhizobia in Shaanxi that might be due to the adaptable evolution of the bean-nodulating rhizobia subjected to the diverse ecological conditions in the area. PMID:26966063

  16. SALINITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kaymakanova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salt stress оn the physiological reaction in young bean plants was studied. The plants were grown in pots as hydroponic cultures in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution under controlled conditions in a climatic room. The plants were treated for 7 days with NaCl and Na2SO4 (concentration 100 mM, starting at the appearance of the fi rst trifoliate leaf unfolded. The salts were added to the nutrient solution. It was established that the equimolar concentrations of both salt types caused stress in the young bean plants, which found expression in the suppression of growth, photosynthesis activity and caused changes in stomata status (conductivity, number and size. The transpiration and the cell water potential in salt-treated plants were reduced. The MDA level in root and shoot, and the proline content was increased.

  17. Effect of some treatments on water absorption and protein properties of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidney beans were treated by soaking, cooking under pressure or gamma irradiation prior to estimating their water absorption capacity (WAC), total protein content and separating the fractions of protein electrophoretically, were determined. The results could be summarized as follows: Water absorption capacity of the seeds soaked in water was higher than that of seeds soaked in the saline solution. Also, increasing the soaking time caused an increase in WAC. Gamma irradiation increased WAC parallel with the dose up to 10 KGy. Soaking the seeds in water or in a saline solution reduced the total protein the seeds. The saline solution and 8 hr soaking were more effective. Gamma irradiation, up to 10 KGy, had no effect on the total protein content in kidney bean seeds. Soaking the seeds in water or in the saline solution caused some degradation and disappearance of some polypeptide chains. This was true after 4 or 8 hr of soaking. Cooking kidney beans for 1.5 hr at 121 degree caused some denaturation of proteins and rendered them unable to migrate in an electric field. Therefore, they accumulated in one peak. Some protein bands were degraded and the others were upgraded. some new bands were found after irradiation up to 5 KGy and others completely disappeared at the dosage of KGy

  18. Root uptake of uranium by a higher plant model (Phaseolus vulgaris) bioavailability from soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, L.; Henner, P.; Camilleri, V.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    Uranium behaviour in soils is controlled by actions and interactions between physicochemical and biological processes that also determine its bioavailability. In soil solution, uranium(+VI) aqueous speciation undergoes tremendous changes mainly depending on pH, carbonates, phosphates and organic matter. In a first approach to identify bioavailable species of U to plants, cultures were performed using hydroponics, to allow an easy control of the composition of the exposure media. The latter, here an artificial soil solution, was designed to control the uranium species in solution. The geochemical speciation code JCHESS using a database compiled from the OECD/NEA thermochemical database project and verified was used to perform the solution speciation calculations. On this theoretical basis, three domains were defined for short-duration well-defined laboratory experiments in simplified conditions: pH 4.9, 5.8 and 7 where predicted dominant species are uranyl ions, hydroxyl complexes and carbonates respectively. For these domains, biokinetics and characterization of transmembrane transport according to a classical Michaelis Menten approach were investigated. The Free Ion Model (or its derived Biotic Ligand Model) was tested to determine if U uptake is governed by the free uranyl species or if other metal complexes can be assimilated. The effect of different variables on root assimilation efficiency and phyto-toxicity was explored: presence of ligands such as phosphates or carbonates and competitive ions such as Ca{sup 2+} at the 3 pH. According to previous experiments, uranium was principally located in roots whatever the pH and no difference in uranium uptake was evidenced between the main growth stages of the plant. Within the 3 studied chemical domains, results from short-term kinetics evidenced a linear correlation between total uranium concentration in bean roots and that in exposure media, suggesting that total uranium in soil solution could be a good predictor for uranium bioaccumulation level in bean roots. (author)

  19. Genetic diversity, variability and character association in local common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mudasir , P A Sofi1 ,M N Khan , , N R Sofi and Z A Dar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rajmash or common bean is regarded as “Grain of hope” as it is an important component of subsistence agriculture and feeds about 300 million people in tropics and 100 million people in Africa alone. The present investigation was conducted during kharif 2008. The experimental material comprised 75 diverse germplasm accessions collected from diverse ecological regions of Kashmir and temperate areas of Jammu division. The material was evaluated at three diverse locations representing three diverse agro-ecological regimes in a randomized complete block design with three replications at each location. Classification of genotypes led to formation of 3 clusters in the pooled data of 75 common bean genotypes. The clustering pattern gave a different picture with cluster II containing 51 genotypes while cluster I had 23 genotypes the remaining one cluster had only one genotype. Analysis of the traits contributing maximum to the divergence in the pooled analysis revealed the traits viz., days to maturity (22.52%, 100-seed weight (14.63%, protein content (12.605, seed yield plant-1(11.215 and days to 50 per cent flowering (10.46% to contribute maximum to the divergence in the present experimental material. Estimates of heritability (bs were high (>60% for all the traits except number of branches plant-1and number of seeds pod-1. The expected genetic gain (per cent of mean was high (>30% for days to maturity, number of pods plant-1, 100-seed weight and seed yield plant-1 while it was moderate (10.0-30.0% for days to 50 per cent flowering, number of branches plant-1, pod length, number of seeds pod-1and protein content. The genotypic correlation coefficients were, in general higher in magnitude though similar in direction, as compared to corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficients. Seed yield plant-1 was observed to have a highly positive and significant correlations, both at phenotypic and genotypic levels with number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, pod length, number of seed pod-1and 100-seed weight. But negative and significant correlation with days to 50 per cent flowering and days to maturity were estimated from the pooled analysis.

  20. Transfer of 137Cs in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective to analyse the transference of 137 Cs from soil to plants, it is realized a study in maize and bean plants in the Radioactive Waste Storage Center (CADER). This site is located in a semi-arid region with a characteristic vegetation of a sub humid temperature zone. So those plants maize and beans were cultivated in four zones near CADER during a four years period. The obtained results for 1991 to 1994 for 137 Cs in soil samples for those zones showed an evident contamination in zone 1, due to a rupture of an industrial source. In 1994 the effect of decontamination was evident since the values of specific activity found in roots were around magnitude lesser than found in 1992. In spite of exhaustive studies have been reported about the transference factors for 137 Cs in different agricultural foods, relatively few of them have paid attention to the interactions between cereals and leguminous associated in semiarid ecosystems. (Author)

  1. Characterization of Rhizobial Isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris by Staircase Electrophoresis of Low-Molecular-Weight RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez, Encarna; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce Nombre; Trujillo, Martha E.; Daza, Antonio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; van Berkum, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA molecules were analyzed to characterize rhizobial isolates that nodulate the common bean growing in Spain. Since LMW RNA profiles, determined by staircase electrophoresis, varied across the rhizobial species nodulating beans, we demonstrated that bean isolates recovered from Spanish soils presumptively could be characterized as Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and bv. trifolii, and Sinorhizobium fredii.

  2. Antixenosis evaluation in bean germoplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius

    OpenAIRE

    Melchiorre, G.; G. Truol; Di Feo, L. del V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main limitations to bean yields is the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. It is an important worldwide pest that causes direct and indirect damages leading to yield decrease in crops. The objective was to evaluate antixenosis by the analysis of attraction and oviposition preference of Bemisia tabaci, biotype A, in seven bean cultivars, using free choice tests. The following parameters were measured: number of adults on the abaxial leaf surface; number of eggs/ leaf; numb...

  3. Organic and chemical manure of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on bean production ICA CITARA variety, four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, and earthworm manure) in four doses 280,500 y 1.000 kg/ha with the same doses of chemical fertilization, were evaluated the experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia) of medium climate with 1.320 m.s.n.m. This was established using an alluvial soil (Tropofluvent), frenk, with low contents of organic, matter (2,2%), phosphorus (10 ppm), and potassium (0,10 meq/l00 g). the results, after six consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments. The highest yield (1.836 kg/ha) was obtained when to the chemical fertilization (300 kg of 10-30-10) was added with 250 kg/ha of hen manure, followed by the application of 100 kg/ha, of cow manure (1.812 kg/ha). Chemical fertilization without organic matter produced 1.640 kg/ha of bean, which was very similar to the addition of 1.000 kg/ha of cow manure and earthworm manure with yields of 1.688 kg/ha and 1.635 kg/ha respectively

  4. Variation in phytate accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. fruit explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro synthesis of phytate was studied in common bean fruit explants. Different concentrations of sucrose; phosphorus (P; myo-inositol; abscisic acid (ABA; glutamine and methionine, were tested. Fixed concentrations of these compounds were tested at different periods (0, 3, 6 and 9 days. Variation in phytate coincided with different concentrations of sucrose, myo-inositol, P and ABA for the duration tested. These compounds caused an accumulation of phytate and were more effective in the presence of myo-inositol and P. The accumulation of P varied less than phytate for the different treatments tested in vitro. In conclusion, P, sucrose, ABA, and myo-inositol caused an increase in the phytate of bean seed, showing that it could be possible to alter its content by culturing bean fruit explants in vitro.O fósforo é armazenado na forma de fitato nas sementes, o qual forma complexos estáveis e insolúveis com minerais e proteínas, conferindo efeito antinutriente. A síntese de fitato foi estudada em cultivo de explantes de fruto de feijão in vitro sob diferentes concentrações de sacarose, fósforo (P, mio-inositol, ácido abscísico (ABA, glutamina e metionina. Fixada a concentração destes compostos, testou-se os diferentes tempos de cultivo (0, 3, 6 e 9 dias. A variação no acúmulo de fitato ocorreu na presença de sacarose, mio-inositol, P e ABA nas diferentes concentrações e tempos testados. O acúmulo mais efetivo de fitato ocorreu na presença de mio-inositol e P. O acúmulo de P variou menos do que fitato em todos os tratamentos. Em conclusão, P, sacarose, ABA e mio-inositol causaram aumento no fitato acumulado nas sementes, mostrando que foi possível alterar a síntese de fitato em cultivo de explantes de fruto de feijão.

  5. Combining ability of Phaseolus vulgaris L. for resistance to common bacterial blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases limit dry bean and snap bean yields. Common bacterial blight (CBB, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, is one of the most serious bacterial diseases in dry bean and snap bean that cause crop losses. Since there is no satisfactory chemical control, the use of resistant cultivars is an important control measure. Genetic studies of resistance are important for choosing appropriate breeding methods. Combining ability was determined for disease resistance in three snap bean genotypes (Alessa, Hab 52 and Hab 198 and two dry bean genotypes (Bac-6 and A-794. Plants were inoculated with highly pathogenic isolate CNF 15, using a razor blade procedure in leaves and needle punctures in pods. They were evaluated 7 days after inoculation. Leaves were evaluated on a 1 to 5 scale and pods by lesion diameter. Diallel analysis was conducted using Griffing's model. General combining ability (GCA was significant for both leaf and pod infection, whereas specific combining ability (SCA was significant for disease reaction in pods. Bac-6 and A-794 were considered superior genotypes for leaf resistance. Nonadditive effects were predominant in pod reactions, and Alessa x Bac-6, Alessa x A-794 and Hab 52 x Bac-6 were the best combinations.Entre as várias doenças que causam problemas às culturas do feijão-de-vagem e do feijão comum, uma das mais importantes é o crestamento bacteriano comum (CBB, causado pela bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, que pode ocasionar grandes perdas na produção. O controle químico não é eficiente, e entre as medidas de controle recomendadas, destaca-se a resistência genética. Estudos genéticos da resistência são básicos para a definição dos métodos de melhoramento a serem adotados para cada caso. Avaliou-se a capacidade de combinação de três genótipos de feijão-de-vagem (Alessa, Hab 52, Hab 198 e dois de feijão comum (Bac-6 e A-794 quanto à resistência ao CBB, em folhas e vagens. A análise dialélica foi feita utilizando-se o esquema de cruzamentos dialélicos segundo o método II, modelo I, de Griffing. Para inoculação nas folhas empregou-se o método das lâminas paralelas e, nas vagens, o inóculo foi depositado com auxílio de micropipeta. Utilizou-se o isolado bacteriano CNF 15, procedente da Embrapa-CNPAF. A reação ao CBB foi avaliada sete dias após a inoculação por meio de escala de notas de 1 (resistente a 5 (suscetível para folhas. Para as vagens, avaliou-se o tamanho da lesão em mm. A capacidade geral de combinação foi significativa para ambos os caracteres avaliados. Efeitos significativos para a capacidade específica de combinação foram observados para resistência ao CBB em vagens. Constatou-se que os efeitos de aditividade foram superiores aos de dominância para resistência em folhas, identificando-se os genótipos Bac-6, A-794 e Alessa como os mais promissores. Para resistência em vagens, os efeitos de dominância se sobrepuseram aos de aditividade, permitindo-se destacar as combinações Alessa x Bac-6, Alessa x A-794 e Hab 52 x Bac-6.

  6. Induction of ferritin synthesis by water deficit and iron excess in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, Daiane Mariele; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sergio Augusto Morais

    2014-03-01

    Ferritins are molecules for iron storage present in most living beings. In plants, ferritin is an essential iron homeostasis regulator and therefore plays a fundamental role in control of iron induced by oxidative stress or by excess of iron ions. Ferritin gene expression is modulated by various environmental factors, including the intensity of drought, cold, light and pathogenic attack. Common bean, one of the most important species in the Brazilian diet, is also affected by insufficiency or lack of water. Thus, the present study was conducted for the purpose of determining the levels of expression of ferritins transcripts in leaf tissues of three common bean cultivars (BAT 477, Carioca Comum and IAC-Diplomata) under osmotic shock caused by polyethylene glycol 6000 and by iron excess. The expression of three ferritins genes (PvFer1, PvFer2 and PvFer3), determined by quantitative PCR, indicated a difference in the expression kinetics among the cultivars. All the ferritin genes were actively transcribed under iron excess and water deficit conditions. The cultivars most responsive to treatments were BAT 477 and IAC-Diplomata. All the cultivars responded to treatments. Nevertheless, the ferritin genes were differentially regulated according to the cultivars. Analysis of variance indicated differences among cultivars in expression of the genes PvFer1 and PvFer3. Both genes were most responsive to treatments. This result suggests that ferritin genes may be functionally important in acclimatization of common bean under iron excess or water deficit conditions. PMID:24390245

  7. Irradiation Effect on the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of legume - Rhizobium association is determined by biological (plant and bacteria) and environmental factors (soil and climate); for that reason, the best cultivars -Rhizobium strains combinations for each specie of legume must be selected according to the specifics environmental conditions. One of the most important sun light qualities are the irradiance levels to which the plants are exposed, because these levels have a close relation with the photosynthetic process, and also affect the biological nitrogen fixation, which has a high energetic requirements for symbiosis. The propose of this work was to determine the effect of irradiance on the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in common bean seedlings, under two environments conditions 100 and 500 moles m-2 seg-1 (IA and IB respectively), an nutrition control. The experimental results suggest that in the case of common bean, the irradiance requirements change depending on the Rhizobium strain that has be used in the symbiotic association. Both inoculated and non-inoculated plants with Rhizobium showed different behavior according to the levels of irradiance under which the plants were exposed. Under the irradiance of 500 moles m2 seg-1 (IA) the highest values of weight, area of plants, number and weight of nodules, nitrogen and phosphors content in leaves were founded, however under the lowest irradiance 100 μ moles m2 seg-1 (IB), the plants showed the largest root and steam, as a result of increase of bud distance, this behavior is known etiolation. The irradiance levels under which the plants are exposed determine the efficiency of symbiosis. The experimental results showed that the irradiance levels, no only affect the plant growth, but also the strains behavior. These results were easily observed in the treatments where ICA P-12 and ICA P-19 strains were used, for the dry weight of leaves, root and leaves area, number and weight of nodules, and nitrogen content of leaves in the plant. The ICA P-12 strain showed the highest efficiency under irradiance of 500 moles m-2 seg-1 (IA) as compared with IB; however, the ICA P-19 strain showed an opposite behavior, this strain had better adaptation to the lower irradiance 100 moles m2 seg-1 (IB). The ICA P-9 strain showed more stability with similar response under both conditions. The previous results, suggest that energetic requirements for each type of symbiotic association are different. This work is important for their contributions on the identification of limiting factors in the association between common bean and Rhizobium, so the most symbiotic system can be selected in order to produce biofertilizers well adapted to the different irradiance conditions, under specific agricultural environments

  8. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  9. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  10. Iron and ferritin accumulate in separate cellular locations in Phaseolus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Matthew W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an important micronutrient for all living organisms. Almost 25% of the world population is affected by iron deficiency, a leading cause of anemia. In plants, iron deficiency leads to chlorosis and reduced yield. Both animals and plants may suffer from iron deficiency when their diet or environment lacks bioavailable iron. A sustainable way to reduce iron malnutrition in humans is to develop staple crops with increased content of bioavailable iron. Knowledge of where and how iron accumulates in seeds of crop plants will increase the understanding of plant iron metabolism and will assist in the production of staples with increased bioavailable iron. Results Here we reveal the distribution of iron in seeds of three Phaseolus species including thirteen genotypes of P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, and P. lunatus. We showed that high concentrations of iron accumulate in cells surrounding the provascular tissue of P. vulgaris and P. coccineus seeds. Using the Perls' Prussian blue method, we were able to detect iron in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, cells near the epidermis, and cells surrounding the provascular tissue. In contrast, the protein ferritin that has been suggested as the major iron storage protein in legumes was only detected in the amyloplasts of the seed embryo. Using the non-destructive micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission technique we show that the tissue in the proximity of the provascular bundles holds up to 500 μg g-1 of iron, depending on the genotype. In contrast to P. vulgaris and P. coccineus, we did not observe iron accumulation in the cells surrounding the provascular tissues of P. lunatus cotyledons. A novel iron-rich genotype, NUA35, with a high concentration of iron both in the seed coat and cotyledons was bred from a cross between an Andean and a Mesoamerican genotype. Conclusions The presented results emphasize the importance of complementing research in model organisms with analysis in

  11. Association between productivity, root growth and carbon isotope discrimination in Paseolus vulgaris under water deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate relations between root growth, productivity and 13C (Δ) during photosynthesis in C3 plants such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Δ and crop growth parameters, including biomass production, grain yield and root length density, were determined for ten bean genotypes grown under rainfed conditions at two sites in Colombia which differed primarily in soil fertility and effective rooting depth. The 10 genotypes were also grown under irrigation at the more fertile site. Under rainfed conditions, root length density was positively correlated with Δ in the fertile Mollisol at Palmira, and was also positively correlated with Δ in the infertile Oxisol at Quilichao if one possibly aberrant genotype was excluded. At Palmira, reduced crop growth and seed yield were associated with low Δ values. At Quilichao, intermediate Δ values were associated with the greatest growth and yield. Under irrigation at Palmira there was no association between growth or yield and and Δ. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  13. Aspek Imunologis pada Pemphigus Vulgaris

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    Saraventi Saraventi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris is a relatively uncommon autoimmune disease marked with blister appearance of the skin tissue and mucosal membrane, resulting in loss of intercellular adhesion as well as the intact of epithelial cells, or so-called acantholysis. In this autoimmune disease the immune system forms autoantibodies attacking desmoglein, a specific protein at the skin tissue. The predisposing factors are presumed to include genetic and ethnic origin of the patient. Although at first usually without symptoms, after proceeding to the ulcerating stage the disease can result in fatal complications. Considering that almost 60% of the cases are first manifested in the oral mucosa, it is important that the dentists are aware of the basic etiology and immunology of the disease for correct diagnosis and therapy. This work reviews the etiopathogenesis of Pemphigus vulgaris, with emphasis on immunological aspects and immunotherapy.

  14. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenien...

  15. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

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    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  16. Laser Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Jih, Ming H.; Kimyai-Asadi, Arash

    2007-01-01

    Traditional medical treatments for acne vulgaris include a variety of topical and oral medications. The combination of poor compliance, lack of durable remission, and potential side effects are common drawbacks to these treatments. The use of lasers and light devices has increased dramatically in recent years due to the overall ease of treatment, predictable clinical efficacy, and minimal adverse effects. A variety of light and laser devices has been used for the treatment of acne, including ...

  17. Arare cause of dysphagia: Pemfigus Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    SARIKAYA, Murat; Doğan, Zeynal; Ergül, Bilal; FİLİK, Levent; TAŞER, Nesibe

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality by affecting the mucous membranes and skin. Pemphigus vulgaris affecting especially the oral mucosa can also be observed in the esophagus. Herein, we describe a patient with odynophagia and dysphagia who was diagnosed as pemphigus vulgaris.

  18. PATIENT WITH VERUCCA VULGARIS RECCURENT

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    Ni Made Gita Saraswati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The common wart or verruca vulgaris are benign lesions, elevated, firm nodules with characteristic papillomatous surface projections. This lession could appear anywhere in the body, mostly in fingers. The lesion could spread anywhere in the body, leaving a scar and also have a high incidence of reccurency. This report describe a man with verruca vulgaris recurrent. Preventive is important to prevent the reccurency, beside electrodesication as a curative therapy. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

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    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  20. Genetic Diversity of North American Wild kidney bean (Phaseolus polystachios) in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American wild kidney bean or thicket bean (Phaseolus polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb) is a perennial vine found in the eastern United States from Texas to Connecticut. It is the only Phaseolus species native to temperate North America. Its closest cultivated relative is P. lunatus...

  1. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  2. Lupus vulgaris with tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

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    Prasad PVS

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available 26 years old male presented with two large plaques of lupus vulgaris and a lesion of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis on the right thigh and foot, respectively. Both the lesions were confirmed by histopathological examinations.

  3. Lupus vulgaris with tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad PVS; Padmavathy L; Kumar Prasanna; Rao L

    1994-01-01

    26 years old male presented with two large plaques of lupus vulgaris and a lesion of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis on the right thigh and foot, respectively. Both the lesions were confirmed by histopathological examinations.

  4. Afferent projections to the hamster intergeniculate leaflet demonstrated by retrograde and anterograde tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Niels; Mrosovsky, N.; Mikkelsen, Jens D.

    2003-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Cholera toxin B, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, Nonphotic......Circadian rhythms, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Cholera toxin B, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, Nonphotic...

  5. TUC 241: nueva variedad de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no tradicional tipo Cranberry para el noroeste argentino TUC 241: A new non-traditional bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. variety, Cranberry type, for Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la baja rentabilidad en los precios de los porotos blancos y negros, la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial "Obispo Colombres" (EEAOC comenzó a poner énfasis en trabajos de investigación sobre porotos de colores no tradicionales, como los Cranberry, que ofrecen mercados de mayor transparencia, seguros y con precios más estables. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la presentación de una nueva variedad de poroto Cranberry, con alto nivel de tolerancia a las virosis y capaz de reemplazar a las variedades comerciales difundidas en las distintas regiones del noroeste argentino. La primera etapa se llevó a cabo en 1987 con 50 introducciones del banco de germoplasma del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT a la EEAOC. Los materiales introducidos se encontraban en las últimas etapas de selección. Se los evaluó por los parámetros: rendimiento, calidad comercial, hábito de crecimiento y comportamiento a las principales enfermedades. Se empleó como testigo local al poroto rojo mediano PVAD 1111, ante la falta de cultivares tipo Cranberry que no presentaran las condiciones buscadas. Las líneas seleccionadas fueron llevadas en 1989 a Ensayos Comparativos de Rendimiento (ECR, junto al testigo local PVAD 1111 y continuaron su evaluación en ECR hasta 1991. Las localidades de evaluación fueron Viclos, La Cocha y Monte Redondo en Tucumán, y Pichanal en Salta. En los ECR se utilizó el diseño de bloques completos aleatorizados con tres repeticiones por variedad/línea en cada localidad/año. Cada parcela estuvo formada por cuatro líneas de 6 m de largo, distanciadas a 70 cm y con una densidad comercial de 16 semillas/m. El nuevo genotipo TUC 241 produjo los mayores rendimientos (media= 1530 kg/ha generales y particulares por localidad evaluada.As a consequence of the low profitability of black and white edible beans, the Estación Experimental Agroindustrial "Obispo Colombres" (EEAOC started researching on non- traditional dry edible beans, such as Cranberry type, whose trade is characterized by more dependable markets and stable prices. The objective of this work was to present a new cultivar of Cranberry dry edible bean with high tolerance to viruses and capable of replacing the already released commercial varieties in Northwestern Argentina. On the first stage of the project (1987, 50 advanced Cranberry dry edible bean lines were introduced to Tucumán. The materials were obtained from the germplasm collection of the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, and were evaluated according to their yield level, commercial quality, growth behavior and tolerance to main diseases. Due to the lack of commercial Cranberry bean cultivars, the red dry edible bean cultivar PVAD 1111 was used as a local control. From 1989 to 1991, the control and the selected lines were evaluated in Yield Comparative Trials in Viclos, La Cocha and Monte Redondo (Tucumán and Pichanal (Salta. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications per variety/line in each place/year. Each plot consisted of four six-meter- long lines separated by a distance of 70 cm, with a plant density of 16 plants per meter. The new genotype TUC 241 exhibited the highest yield levels, both general and particular at each location, with a mean production rate of 1570 kg/ha.

  6. TUC 510: nueva variedad de poroto negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. con alta tolerancia a las virosis presentes en el noroeste argentino TUC 510: New variety of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with high tolerance to viruses in Northwestern Argentina

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    Oscar N. Vizgarra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las virosis del mosaico dorado (Bean golden mosaic virus, BGMV y mosaico enano (Bean dwarf mosaic virus, BDMV constituyen las principales limitantes sanitarias a la producción de poroto en la región del noroeste argentino (NOA. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar una nueva variedad de poroto negro, con alto nivel de tolerancia a estas virosis y capaz de reemplazar a las variedades comerciales difundidas en el NOA. En 1995 se introdujeron ocho líneas avanzadas de poroto negro desde el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT, que se probaron con los testigos comerciales NAG 12, Camilo, TUC 390 y TUC 500. Entre 1997 y 2000, estas líneas fueron evaluadas en ensayos comparativos de rendimientos (ECR en las localidades de Monte Redondo y La Cocha (Tucumán, y Campichuelo (Salta. El diseño experimental en todos los ensayos de campo fue el de bloques completos al azar. Se hicieron test de análisis de varianza individual y pruebas de homogeneidad de varianzas mediante el test de Levenne. Cada parcela estuvo formada por cuatro líneas de 6 m de largo, distanciadas a 0,70 m y con una densidad comercial de 16 semillas/m. Los parámetros de evaluación fueron: a durante el ciclo: tolerancia a las virosis y adaptación, tanto vegetativa como reproductiva (escala 1 a 9, CIAT y b en cosecha: rendimientos (kg grano limpio/ha y calidad comercial. El genotipo TUC 510 produjo los mayores rendimientos (media=1470 kg/ha generales y particulares por localidad evaluada. Además se destacó por su tolerancia (3,0 a las virosis del mosaico dorado y mosaico enano del poroto y capacidad de adaptación (3,0 a las condiciones ambientales evaluadas. Estas características fundamentaron la inscripción ante el Instituto Nacional de Semillas (INASE de TUC 510, como una nueva variedad de poroto negro.In the warmer areas of Northwestern Argentina, Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV and Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV constitute the main sanitary constraints to production. The objective of this work is to present a new cultivar of black dry edible bean that has high levels of tolerance to these viruses and that could replace commercial varieties already grown in Northwestern Argentina. In 1995, eight advanced lines of black dry edible bean from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT were introduced. These were tested in comparison with commercial controls NAG 12, Camilo, TUC 390 and TUC 500. From 1997 to 2000, the lines were evaluated in yield comparative trials in Monte Redondo and La Cocha (Tucuman and Campichuelo (Salta. In every trial, a randomized complete block design was applied, and tests of individual variance and homogeneity of variance (Levenne's test were conducted. Each plot consisted of four six-meter-long lines, set at 0,70 m away from each other, with a plant density of 16 plants per meter. Assessment parameters were: a during the whole cycle: virus complex tolerance and vegetative and reproductive adaptation, and b during harvest: yield (kg/ ha and commercial quality. Genotype TUC 510 was found to exhibit the highest yield levels, both general and particular in each location, with an average rate of 1470 kg/ha. Moreover, this cultivar was outstanding for its tolerance to BGMV and BDMV (3.0 and its capacity of adaptation (3.0 to the evaluated environmental conditions. These features justify the official registration of TUC 500 as a new variety of black dry edible bean.

  7. Transfer of {sup 137}Cs in Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris in a semi-arid ecosystem; Transferencia de {sup 137}Cs en Zea mays y Phaseolus vulgaris en un ecosistema semiarido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia, N.; Gaso P, M.I.; Palacios, J.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    With the objective to analyse the transference of {sup 137} Cs from soil to plants, it is realized a study in maize and bean plants in the Radioactive Waste Storage Center (CADER). This site is located in a semi-arid region with a characteristic vegetation of a sub humid temperature zone. So those plants maize and beans were cultivated in four zones near CADER during a four years period. The obtained results for 1991 to 1994 for {sup 137} Cs in soil samples for those zones showed an evident contamination in zone 1, due to a rupture of an industrial source. In 1994 the effect of decontamination was evident since the values of specific activity found in roots were around magnitude lesser than found in 1992. In spite of exhaustive studies have been reported about the transference factors for {sup 137} Cs in different agricultural foods, relatively few of them have paid attention to the interactions between cereals and leguminous associated in semiarid ecosystems. (Author)

  8. Produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris dos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris of rosinha and roxinho groups resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

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    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a capacidade produtiva de linhagens resistentes ao agente da antracnose e pertencentes aos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho, dezesseis ensaios em blocos ao acaso foram instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977 e 1978, tendo como controles 'Rosinha G2' e 'Roxo-Minas', nos respectivos grupos. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos para as linhagens comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, mostrou que nenhuma do grupo Rosinha foi superior a Rosinha G2, embora produções médias de 1.876, 1.813 e 1.800kg/ha tenham sido observadas na ausência do patógeno, conseguindo o controle 1.533kg/ha. No grupo Roxinho, oito linhagens, com produções médias de 1.490 a 2.027kg/ha, foram superiores às observadas para o controle 'Roxo-Minas', as quais variaram de 880 a 1.367kg/ha, sem que fosse notada a presença do fungo da antracnose. A interação linhagem x ano não foi significativa, não acontecendo o mesmo com o efeito de ano. As melhores linhagens serão incluídas nos ensaios regionais e algumas terão suas sementes aumentadas em quantidade, para posterior distribuição aos agricultores da região de Campinas.Aiming at the knowledge of yielding capacity of dry bean lines resistant to the anthracnose agent and belonging to the Rosinha and Roxinho groups, sixteen trials in randomized complete-block design were carried out in the Main Experimental Station of Campinas in the rainy season of 1977 and 1978, having 'Rosinha G2' and 'Roxo-Minas' as controls. None of the Rosinha lines outyielded 'Rosinha G2', at the 5% level although high mean yields, around 1,830kg/ha, were observed for some of them in the pathogen absence. On the other hand, 8 lines of 'Roxinho' group were superior to the control 'Roxo-Minas' at the 5% level having mean yields ranging from 1,490 to 2,027 kg/ha, without the presence of the pathogen. The interaction line x year was not significant but the year effect was. The best lines will be included in the regional trials and seeds of some of them increased in large quantities for releasing to the growers of Campinas region.

  9. Produtividade de linhagens de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris) dos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho resistentes ao fungo da antracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) Productivity of dry bean lines (Phaseolus vulgaris) of rosinha and roxinho groups resistant to the anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1980-01-01

    Visando conhecer a capacidade produtiva de linhagens resistentes ao agente da antracnose e pertencentes aos grupos Rosinha e Roxinho, dezesseis ensaios em blocos ao acaso foram instalados em Campinas, no cultivo das águas de 1977 e 1978, tendo como controles 'Rosinha G2' e 'Roxo-Minas', nos respectivos grupos. A análise estatística dos dados obtidos para as linhagens comuns aos ensaios de 1977 e 1978, mostrou que nenhuma do grupo Rosinha foi superior a Rosinha G2, embora produções médias de 1...

  10. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.

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    Carolina Gallego G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia, se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333. Aquellos que mostraron un buen comportamiento en componentes de rendimiento fueron: 3164, 3159, 3176 y Radical. Estos genotipos podrían usarse como posibles candidatos parentales ó sobresalientes en el programa de mejoramiento de fríjol. También se realizó análisis de dos marcadores moleculares tipo SCAR ligados a los genes Co-4 y Co-5 que confieren resistencia a C. lindemuthianum, ninguno de los materiales de evaluación a excepción del testigo resistente G-2333, amplificó los marcadores SCAR, asociados a los genes de resistencia de interés.Under Bogotá plateau (Colombia conditions, 32 cultivars of climbing bean were evaluated by components of yield and by reaction with a mixture of isolations of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum coming from Boyacá and Cundinamarca. The cultivars that presented a good behavior in yield and resistance reaction to the disease were: D. Moreno and 3198. Those that expressed a resistant reaction to the anthracnose were: 3180, 3182, 3177 and G-2333. Finally those that showed a good behavior in yield components were 3164, 3159, 3176 and Radical. These genotypes could be used as excellent candidates in the breeding program of common bean. It was also carried out a test for each cultivar, by means of two markers molecular type SCAR tried to resistance genes to anthracnose Co-4 and Co-5. Any of the evaluation materials amplified for the couple of genes, except for the resistant control G-2333.

  11. RENDIMIENTO Y REACCIÓN A COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM EN CULTIVARES DE FRÍJOL VOLUBLE (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) YIELD AND REACTION TO COLLETOTRICHUM LINDEMUATHIANUM IN CULTIVARS OF CLIMBING BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Gallego G.; Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto Moreno; Luz Nayibe Garzón Gutiérrez; Óscar Arturo Oliveros Garay; Linda Jeimmy Rincón Rivera

    2010-01-01

    Bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá (Colombia), se evaluaron 32 cultivares de fríjol voluble por componentes del rendimiento y por su reacción a una mezcla de aislamientos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum procedentes de Boyacá y Cundinamarca. Los genotipos que presentaron un buen comportamiento en rendimiento y una reacción en campo a la resistencia de la enfermedad fueron: D. Moreno y 3198. Los que expresaron una reacción de resistencia a la antracnosis fueron: 3180, 3182, 3177 y G-2333....

  12. Comportamento da cv. Pérola(Phaseolus vulgaris L. Submetida a diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial Effect of Different levels of defoliation on productivity of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Perola

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    Murilo Fazolin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre desfolha artificial são muito úteis, principalmente para simular danos às plantas, como os causados por insetos ou granizo, por exemplo. Em trabalhos com o feijoeiro, ficou evidente que os resultados são altamente dependentes da cultivar utilizada e das condições climáticas prevalecentes. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a redução na produtividadedevida à redução artificial da área foliar da cv. Pérola nas condições de Rio Branco, AC. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e esquema experimental de parcelas subdivididas, estudando-se nas parcelas cinco das etapas de desenvolvimento da planta (V3= primeira folha trifoliolada, V4= terceira folha trifoliolada, R6= floração, R7= formação de vagens e R8= enchimento de vagens e nas subparcelas, quatro níveis de desfolhamento (0%, 33%, 66% e 100%. Foram avaliadas, em média, 480 plantas nas 4 linhas centrais de cada subparcela, determinando-se o número de vagens por planta, o número de grãos por vagem e a produtividade de grãos. Paralelamente, em uma área adjacente, foram colhidas, ao acaso, 50 plantas de cada etapa de desenvolvimento para a obtenção da área foliar média. Nas etapas de desenvolvimento V3, V4 e R7, níveis de desfolhamento a partir de 33% causaram decréscimo no número de vagens por planta. O número de sementes por vagem não sofreu influência dos níveis de desfolhamento das plantas. O rendimento dos grãos foi significativamente reduzido à medida que as plantas foram submetidas a níveis crescentes de desfolha. A etapa de florescimento (R6 foi a que apresentou maior redução na produtividade como resposta à desfolha.Studies to evaluate artificial defoliation are very useful, mainly to simulate damages to plants, such, as the ones caused by insects or hail. Experiments with bean plant, indicated that the results are higly dependent on the cultivars used, and preponderant climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate yeld reduction due to the reduction on the leaf area at different stages of growth of bean crop of Perola cultivar under environmental conditions of Rio Branco, Acre. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Acre. The experiment was arranged as a split-plot in a randomized block design, with four replications. The main plots consisted of five plant development stages: V3= first trifoliate leaf, V4= third trifoliate leaf, R6= initiation of flowering , R7= pod formation and R8= pod maturation, and the sub-plots were the four defoliation levels (0%, 33%, 66% and 100%. At harvest an average of 480 plants of the four central lines of each sub-plot were evaluated. It was determined the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and yeld (kg/ha. In order to determine the average leaf area, 50 plants were randomily harvested in each development stage. The results demonstrated that defoliation levels starting from 33%, in the stages V3, V4 and R7, reduced the number of pods per plant. The number of seeds per pod was not affected by the level of defoliation of the plants. The seed weight was significantly reduced as the plants were submitted to increasing levels of defoliation. The flowering stage (R6 presented the highest yeld reduction with defoliation of the plants.

  13. Deficit irrigation at different growth stages of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Imbabello Deficiência de água em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Imbabello

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    M. Calvache

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify specific growth stages of the common bean crop at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress, in which irrigation could be omitted without significant decrease hi final yield, two field experiments were conducted at "La Tola" University Experimental Station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil (Typic Haplustoll. The climate is tempered and dry (mean air temperature 16°C and mean relative humidity 74%, during the cropping season 123 and 109 mm of rainfall were recorded during the experimental cropping periods (July to October, of 1992 and 1994, respectively. The treatments consisted of combinations of 7 irrigation regimes including normal watering; full stress; (traditional management practice; single stress at vegetative stage; flowering; seed formation and ripening, and of 2 levels of applied N (20 and 80 kg/ha. These 14 treatment combinations were arranged and analysed in a split-plot design with 4 replications. The plot size was 33.6 m² (8 rows, 7 m long with a plant population of 120,000 pl/ha. Irrigation treatments were started after uniform germination and crop establishment Soil water content was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.50 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration of the crop was estimated by the water-balance technique. Field water efficiency and crop water use efficiency were calculated. Yield data showed that the treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had supplementary irrigation. The flowering stage was the most sensitive to water stress. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the number of pods and gram yield. Crop water use efficiency (kg/m³ was the lowest with stress at the flowering period, and the yield response factor (Ky was higher hi treatments of full stress and stress at flowering. In relation to the traditional management practice adopted by farmers, only treatments of normal watering and stress at maturation had 13 and 10% higher crop water use efficiency, respectively.Com o objetivo de identificar estádios específicos de desenvolvimento do feijoeiro, nos quais a planta é menos sensível à deficiência de água e a irrigação poderia ser suprimida sem decréscimo significativo em produtividade, dois experimentos de campo foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental "La Tola", pertencente à Universidade Central de Equador, em Tumbaco, Pichincha, Equador. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações de sete regimes de irrigação, incluindo a irrigação normal, deficiência completa, prática de manejo tradicional, deficiência no período vegetativo, deficiência na floração, deficiência na formação de vagens e deficiência no enchimento de grãos, e de dois níveis de fertilizante nitrogenado, 20 e 80 kg/ha. Essas quatorze combinações de tratamentos foram organizadas e analisadas segundo um delineamento estatístico de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram de 33,6 m² (8 linhas de 7 m de comprimento, com uma população de 120.000 pl/ha. Os tratamentos de irrigação iniciaram-se após a germinação uniforme e estabelecimento da cultura. O conteúdo de água do solo foi monitorada com sonda de neutrons até a profundidade de 0,5 m, antes e 24 h após cada irrigação. A evapotranspiracão atual da cultura foi estimada pelo balanço hídrico. Calculou-se as eficiências de uso de água no campo e pela cultura. Dados de produtividade mostram que os tratamentos que tiveram deficiências apresentaram menor produtividade em relação a tratamentos com irrigação complementar. O estádio do florescimento foi o mais sensível à deficiência de água. A fertilização com N aumentou significativamente o número de vagens por planta e a produção de sementes. A eficiência de uso de água pela cultura (kg/m³ foi menor com deficiência na floração, e o fator de resposta à produtividade (kg foi maior nos tratamentos de deficiência total e deficiência no florescimento. Considerando as práticas tradicionais de manejo utilizadas pelos agricultores, apenas os tratamentos de irrigação normal e de deficiência na maturação, tiveram uma eficiência de uso de água de 13 e 10% maior, respectivamente.

  14. Influência do EPTC no desenvolvimento e absorção de macronutrientes pela cultura de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca Influence of EPTC on growth and mineral nutrition of Phaseolus vulgaris CV. Carioca

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    R. Deuber

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de EPTC (S-etildipropiltiolcarbamato sobre o desenvolvimento e a absorção de macronutrientes até o florescimento e os seus teores nas sementes e vagens, na colheita, foi estudado em dois experimentos de campo com a cultura do feijão, var. Carioca. O EPTC foi aplicado em pré-plantio com incorporação nas doses de 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 kg/ha em dois experimentos em solos argiloso e barrento. A avaliação da ação do herbicida sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura se fez pela obtenção de pesos de matéria seca de folhas, caules e vagens, durante o ciclo e número de plantas e produção de sementes na colheita. No início do florescimento foram analisados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S em folhas e caules e, na colheita, em vagens e sementes. O EPTC, nas doses de 1, 2 ou 4 kg/ha não afetou o desenvolvimento da cultura, não alterou o teor de nutrientes em folhas ou caules, no início do florescimento, nem o teor nos grãos ou vagens, na colheita. Também não alterou a população de plantas ou a produção de grãos. As doses de 8 e 16 kg/ha de EPTC causaram redução de crescimento, de absorção de nutrientes, número de plantas por área e produção de sementes. O ciclo da cultura foi alongado. Os teores de nutrientes foram mais elevados, em geral, nas folhas, caules e vagens. Com essas doses ocorreu maior acúmulo de K nas vagens na colheita. Nenhuma das doses de EPTC, em qualquer dos experimentos, causou alteração nos teores de macronutrientes nas sementes.The effect of EPTC, on growth and the macronutrient content in leaves and stems, at flowering set, and in seeds and pods, at harvest, in common beans CV. Carioca was studied. The EPTC was applied pre-plant incorporated at the dosages of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 kg/ha in two experiments on clay and loamy soils. The influence of the herbicide on the crop growth was evaluated by means of fresh and dry matter weights of leaves, stems and pods at different periods of the crop cycle and by the stand and seed production. In both experiments the concentration of N, P, K. Ca, Mg and S were analysed in leaves and stems at the flowering set. The content of the same nutrients in seeds and pods were determined at harvest. Rates of 1, 2 or 4 kg/ha of EPTC did not affect the crop growth or the nutrient content in leaves, stems, seeds or pods. Rates of 8 and 16 kg / ha reduced the plant growth, nutrient absorption, stand and yield, but the nutrient concentration was enhanced in leaves, stems and pods. With these rates of EPTC the K content in pods was signifficantly higher. None of the applied rates of EPTC caused changes in the macronutrients concentration in the seeds at harvest.

  15. Cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions affecting nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cultivar, ano de cultivo e condições de armazenagem influenciam a qualidade nutricional do feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Roberto Dorneles Prolla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen common bean cultivars were compared concerning the physicochemical characteristics of their raw seeds in the course of two consecutive harvests, as well as the effect of storage conditions on starch and dietary fiber content of cooked beans. Using cluster analysis it was possible to identify groups of cultivars with different nutritional features. Bean cultivars were categorized into four different groups according either to their macronutrient content (crude protein-PROT, total dietary fiber-TDF, insoluble dietary fiber-IDF, soluble dietary fiber-SDF, digestible starch-DS, and resistant starch-RS or to their micronutrient levels (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, and P. Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi appeared to be the most suitable cultivars to prevent nutritional deficiencies, because they had high PROT, DS, Fe, and Zn content. The high total dietary fiber and RS content of Iraí, Minuano, and TPS Bonito cultivars, and specially the high soluble fiber content of Guateian 6662 and Rio Tibagi cultivars suggests that they could have a beneficial role in controlling blood lipid and glucose levels. Cooked beans had a decrease in DS and an increase in RS content after storage (4 °C or -20 °C, but these changes were more prominent in beans that had low RS content before cooking than in those of high RS content. TDF, IDF, and SDF did not change after storage.Compararam-se as características físico-químicas de dezesseis cultivares de feijão-comum cru ao longo de duas safras consecutivas, assim como se avaliou o efeito das condições de armazenagem nos teores de amido e fibra alimentar em grãos cozidos. A análise de agrupamento possibilitou a identificação de grupos de cultivares com características nutricionais distintas. Estas cultivares foram categorizadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o conteúdo de macronutrientes (proteína bruta-PROT, fibra alimentar total-TDF, fibra alimentar insolúvel-IDF, fibra alimentar solúvel-SDF, amido disponível-DS e amido resistente-RS ou de micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, e P. Guateian 6662 e Rio Tibagi mostraram-se as cultivares mais adequadas para prevenir deficiências nutricionais, devido aos altos teores de PROT, DS, Fe e Zn. Os altos teores de fibra alimentar total e RS das cultivares Iraí, Minuano e TPS Bonito, e especialmente os altos teores de fibra solúvel das cultivares Guateian 6662 e Rio Tibagi sugerem que estas poderiam auxiliar no controle dos lipídios e glicose séricos. Os grãos cozidos apresentaram redução no DS e aumento de RS após armazenagem (4 °C ou -20 °C, mas estas alterações foram mais pronunciadas em feijões que tinham baixos teores de RS antes do cozimento do que naqueles com altos teores. Os teores de TDF, IDF, e SDF não alteraram após a armazenagem.

  16. Low gamma radiation dose effect on germination and initial growing of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds; Efeito de baixas doses de radiacao gama na germinacao de sementes de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Silva, Anderson de O. Melo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we analyze the effect of low gamma irradiation doses and low concentrations of sodium alginate on the germination and growing of black beans seeds. The seeds were obtained from an organic farmer at Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State. The seeds were submitted to radiation doses between 0 and 150 Gy with a Cobalt 60 source in a Gammacell Excel 220 Nordion Irradiator with a dose rate of 70 Gy/min. After germination the seeds were left to grow three weeks on a hydroponics system. The system used was the water culture with nutritive solution that was supplemented with the nutritional needs for plant grows. We also tested the influence of the sodium alginate on the plant grows. A 4% solution of sodium alginate in distilled water was irradiated with 120 kGy gamma ray dose. Concentrations of sodium alginate irradiated and non-irradiated varying from 50 to 500 {mu}g/g were used in the hydroponics' solution. After three weeks the mass and the height of the plant were measured. Statistic analyses of he result with the SAS program show that there was no significant difference between the height and mass of seeds submitted different doses, but irradiated solution of sodium alginate with concentration of 400 and 500 {mu}g/g present a significant difference on plant grow. (author)

  17. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared wi...

  18. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  19. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  20. Effects of mineral nutrition on 35SO2 uptake by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Warteresiewicz; Bronisław Wyżgolik; Jerzy Szdzuj

    2013-01-01

    Experiments with bean have shown, that the concentration of all of the mineral components in the nutrient solution exerts a significant influence on 35SO2 uptake by leaves. The greatest amount of 35SO2 was taken up by bean leaves grown either in a high supply of nutrients or in their deficiency. The bean leaves which were grown in favourable nutritional conditions took up less 35SO2 from the air.

  1. Metabolismo del amonio y de ureidos en n??dulos de phaseolus vulgaris :efecto del estres salino

    OpenAIRE

    Khadri el Moubarek Mariam

    1999-01-01

    El estr??s salino es uno de los mayores factores abi??ticos limitantes de los cultivos en amplias ??reas de la Cuenca Mediterr??nea. Por otra parte, la jud??a es, entre las leguminosas, una de las m??s importantes como fuente de prote??nas vegetales en muchos pa??ses en v??as de desarrollo , tanto en el Mediterr??neo como en Am??rica y Asia. Todo ello justifica la importancia de la investigaci??n sobre los efectos del estr??s salino en la fijaci??n simbi??tica de nitr??geno atmosf??rico, proc...

  2. Physiological Responses of Two Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Foliar Application of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal

    2016-02-01

    The foliar application of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 signifi‐ cantly increased plant height, root length, number of leaves/plant, the leaves’ area, total fresh and dry weights/ plant and yield (i.e., number, fresh and dry weights of pods/ plant and 100-seed weight. It also altered protein patterns in the two varieties and changed the phytohormone balance in the Nebraska variety by increasing the levels of growth-regulating substances, which explains the increase in both growth parameters and yield in GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 treated plants. An Atomic Absorption Spectrosco‐ py (AAS study unveiled the movement and residual accumulation of both forms of silver in different parts of the two bean varieties. The results indicate the successful use of GA-AgNPs and AgNO3 in enhancing the growth and yield of the Bronco and Nebraska varieties under pot experiment conditions, and present a viable alternative to genetically modified (GM crops for ensuring food security.

  3. RESULTADOS PRELIMINARES DEL EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE BIOBRAS-16 EN EL CULTIVO DEL FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissy Rosabal Ayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba anualmente se importan alrededor de 60 000 t de frijoles para poder satisfacer la demanda de la población. El gobierno cubano ha creado p rogramas para la sustitución de importaciones mediante la producción y comercialización de productos naturales que faciliten el incremento de la producción nacional. En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto que el Biobras -16 (BB-16, asperjado a las semillas o foliarmente, ejerce en el crecimiento y rendimiento de plantas de frijol negro variedad Tomeguín 93. Para ello se ejecutaron dos experimentos; en el primero se asperjaron 15 kg de semillas con 150 mL de BB-16 (0,5 mg.L -1 y posterior a las 24-48 horas, las semillas se sembraron con su correspondiente control. En el segundo experimento, se asperjó foliarmente con una dosis total equivalente a 20 mg.ha -1 y se emplearon uno (etapa de floración y dos momentos de aplicación (etapas vegetativa y de floración. Se utilizó un diseño experimental en bloque al azar con tres tratamientos y tres réplicas, con las atenciones habituales del agricultor. Los resultados demuestran la efectividad de la aspersión foliar fraccionada en dos dosis en la estimulación de los indicadores evaluados: longitud del tallo, longitud de las vainas, el número de vainas y de granos, lo que no se obtuvo con la masa promedio de 100 granos. Se obtuvo un incremento en la masa de granos promedio por planta en 37,7 y 61,3 %, para una y dos aspersiones, respectivamente; lo cual es de gran importancia científico-técnica y económica para la posible extensión futura del BB-16 en la práctica productiva.

  4. Suppressive Potential of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Flour Against Five Species of Stored-Product Mites (Acari: Acarididae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubert, J.; Stejskal, V.; Aspaly, G.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2007), s. 586-590. ISSN 0022-0493 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME758 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : PISUM-SATIVUM * FIELD PEA EXTRACTS * STORAGE MITES Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.201, year: 2007

  5. RESEARCH ON PROTEINASE INHIBITORS OF BEANS PHASEOLUS VULGARIS TO MAKE PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS FROM PESTS AND DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskaya, N.; Gagarina, I.; Dzumabaeva, B.; Dzangalina, E.

    2014-01-01

    An animal body and seed plants have a complex of proteolytic ferments which react in reserve protein breakdown to amino acids in food digestion and seed sprouting. At present a few hundreds of peptidohydrolases of different origin have been described. In regulation of proteolysis inhibitors of proteolytic ferments react. In a living organism they are presented by means of specific protein. Inhibitors have an ability to slow down or stop fermentation. They react in immunity apoptosis, protect ...

  6. The capacity of antioxidant protection during modulated ageing of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledons. 1. The antioxidant enzyme activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, _ (2007), s. 87-95. ISSN 0263-6484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cell biochemistry * lipid peroxidation * ageing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.561, year: 2007

  7. Studies on the kinetics of absorption of phosphorus by rice (Orysa sativa L.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with the objectives of evaluating the effect of different concentrations of phosphorus and on the presence of other ions on the kinetic of absorption. Excised roots of rice and bean were placed in aereated solutions containing increasing concentrations of NaH2PO4 (10-7 M to 5x10 -2M) during 90 minutes. The rate of absorption (v = umols P/g dry matter) and the kinetic constants Vmax and Km were determined. Similar procedure was used to to evaluate the interaction of Mg+2, Al+3, K+, N-NH4+, N-NO3- and N-ureia in the uptake of phosphorus during 120 minutes. In another experiment, the effect of the presence of Mg+2 and/for Al+3 in the uptake and redistribution of phosphorus, was evaluated by varying the external concentration (1 ppm, 5 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm) during a period of 17 hours, and utilizing whole rice plants. It was observed a dual mechanism, with two phases following the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and with transition phase 1 - 50 x 10-5 M. The best explanation of the experimental data was obtained, by transforming the data in accordance with HOFSTEE (1952). Bean was more efficient than rice in the first phase of uptake (higher Vmax). Al3 had a clear stimulatory effect on the uptake of phosphorus, promoting, however, the anion fixation in the root at lower concentrations. At the highest concentrations (20 ppm) of phosphorus this effect was not evident. No effect on the uptake was observed with Mg+2, K+ and different forms of nitrogen. Urea could have a depressive effect although, not significant. Possible mechanisms involved are discussed. (author)

  8. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  9. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  10. Screening of iron bioavailability patterns in eight bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes using the Caco-2 cell in vitro model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this research was to use an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model to study iron bioavailability in 8 bean genotypes (three Mesoamerican and five Andean) that represent diversity of grain types in the crop. Complementing this goal, we measured the distribution of both iron and phytate ...

  11. Patogenesia do óleo essencial e homeopatias de Eucalyptus citriodora em plantas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.B. Oliveira; S.M.T.P. Gomes; K.R.F. Schwan-Estrada; R.M. Mesquini; C. M. Bonato; E.D.B. Romano

    2013-01-01

    A homeopatia baseia-se no princípio da cura pelos semelhantes, e na experimentação no indivíduo sadio, doses mínimas e medicamento único. O uso de tratamentos a base de soluções dinamizadas aplicadas em vegetais aumentou nas ultimas décadas, sendo assim necessária a experimentação patogenésica para aplicação de todos os princípios homeopáticos e consolidação da Matéria Vegetal Homeopática. O ensaio patogenésico com plantas de feijão tratadas diariamente via pulverização e irrigação utilizando...

  12. Chemical pools of Cd in sludge-treated soils and their contribution of Rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the influence of application of organically complexed Cd on Rajmash (Phaseo/us vu/garis L,), a pot experiment was conducted on ten sewage sludge-treated old), alluvium, non-calcareoUS, and non-saline soils of Patna wherein a rajmash crop was grown after treatment with O and 5 mg kg-l isotopicaIly tagged and organically-complexed Cd. The results indicated that the application of Cd through cadmium-fulvic acid complex in soils did not influence the dry matter yield of the crop, though it significantly increased the concentration of Cd in the plants and its uptake by the crop, The soil organic carbon content, cation exchange, capacity, clay content and pH of the soils were found to be the dominant determinants of Cd in plants and its uptake by the crop. The path analysis and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the water soluble + exchangeable Cd and organically complexed Cd were the two major chemical pools of Cd in soils responsible for supply of Cd 10 the plants

  13. Physiological Responses of Two Varieties of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Foliar Application of Silver Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Ibrahim El-Batal; Fatma Abd El-Lateef Gharib; Safia Mohammed Ghazi; Amal Zakaria Hegazi; Asmaa Gamal Mohamed Abd El Hafz

    2016-01-01

    This study reported the synthesis of aqueous dispersions of highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using gamma radiation with gum acacia (GA) as the stabilizing and protecting agent. The formation of nanosized silver GA- AgNPs at a gamma irradiation dose of 15 kGy was con‐ firmed by the appearance of the characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at 456 nm and in UV–vis spectra. The particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles that was determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS...

  14. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA and polyphenol(s (PP. We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g. PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID.

  15. AMBIENTES PROTEGIDOS PARA EL ALMACENAMIENTO TEMPORAL Y EL SECADO DEL FRIJOL (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) EN EL CAMPO

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Vinicio Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto; N\\u00E9stor Chaves-Barrantes; Juan Carlos Hern\\u00E1ndez-Fonseca; Rodolfo Araya-Villalobos; Diego Ure\\u00F1a-Sol\\u00EDs

    2009-01-01

    EE l objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar ambientes protegidos bioclimáticos para el almacenamie nto temporal y el secado de frijol en el campo, en Pérez Zeledón y Buenos Aires, Costa Rica, durante la estación lluviosa del año 2007. El diseño propuesto es una modificación de las estructuras rústicas empleadas por los agricultores, y utiliza la ventilación cruzada y materiales reflectivos, mediante la elevación del piso donde se coloca el frijol y la eliminación de paredes laterales. Se evalua...

  16. The Infiltration-centrifugation Technique for Extraction of Apoplastic Fluid from Plant Leaves Using Phaseolus vulgaris as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    O'Leary, Brendan M.; Rico, Arantza; McCraw, Sarah; Fones, Helen N.; Preston, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    The apoplast is a distinct extracellular compartment in plant tissues that lies outside the plasma membrane and includes the cell wall. The apoplastic compartment of plant leaves is the site of several important biological processes, including cell wall formation, cellular nutrient and water uptake and export, plant-endophyte interactions and defence responses to pathogens. The infiltration-centrifugation method is well established as a robust technique for the analysis of the soluble apoplas...

  17. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew W. Blair; González, Laura F.; Kimani, Paul M.; Butare, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes regi...

  18. Genetic diversity, inter-gene pool introgression and nutritional quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; González, Laura F; Kimani, Paul M; Butare, Louis

    2010-07-01

    The Great Lakes region of Central Africa is a major producer of common beans in Africa. The region is known for high population density and small average farm size. The common bean represents the most important legume crop of the region, grown on over a third of the cultivated land area, and the per capita consumption is among the highest in the world for the food crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in a collection of 365 genotypes from the Great Lakes region of Central Africa, including a large group of landraces from Rwanda as well as varieties from primary centers of diversity and from neighboring countries of Central Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, using 30 fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers and automated allele detection. In addition, the landraces were evaluated for their seed iron and zinc concentration to determine if genetic diversity influenced nutritional quality. Principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses allowed the separation of the landraces into 132 Andean and 195 Mesoamerican (or Middle American) genotypes with 32 landraces and 6 varieties intermediate between the gene pools and representing inter-gene pool introgression in terms of seed characteristics and alleles. Genetic diversity and the number of alleles were high for the collection, reflecting the preference for a wide range of seed types in the region and no strong commercial class preference, although red, red mottled and brown seeded beans were common. Observed heterozygosity was also high and may be explained by the common practice of maintaining seed and plant mixtures, a coping strategy practiced by Central African farmers to reduce the effects of abiotic and biotic stresses. Finally, nutritional quality differed between the gene pools with respect to seed iron and zinc concentration, while genotypes from the intermediate group were notably high in both minerals. In conclusion, this study has shown that Central African varieties of common bean are a source of wide genetic diversity with variable nutritional quality that can be used in crop improvement programs for the region. PMID:20224891

  19. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  20. Nematodos formadores de quistes en suelos de cultivo de judía tipo "granja asturiana" (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roa, E.; García, M; A. González

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the importance of cyst nematode levels in "faba granja asturiana" culture, a study was made on 143 soil samples collected in the most important seventeen areas of the Asturias region. After the sampling of different growers' plots, we can state that the infestation levels of the soil are very low, even in those plots where the culture was repeated serveral times and where there was no crop rotation. Neither did we find a relationship between livestock presence in grazing...