WorldWideScience

Sample records for carangidae respond behaviorally

  1. Behavioral Momentum and Relapse of Extinguished Operant Responding

    OpenAIRE

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in the presence of a stimulus similarly modulates the relative relapse of operant behavior produced by reinstatement, resurgence, and renewal...

  2. Empathy-related Responding: Associations with Prosocial Behavior, Aggression, and Intergroup Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Eggum, Natalie D.; Di Giunta, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Empathy-related responding, including empathy, sympathy, and personal distress, has been implicated in conceptual models and theories about prosocial behavior and altruism, aggression and antisocial behavior, and intergroup relationships. Conceptual arguments and empirical findings related to each of these topics are reviewed. In general, there is evidence that empathy and/or sympathy are important correlates of, and likely contributors to, other-oriented prosocial behavior, the inhibition of...

  3. Explaining interviewer effects and respondent behavior: Theoretical models and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reinecke, Jost; Schmidt, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of respondents in interview situations has been dealt on the one hand with respect to many empirical studies and on the other hand in connection with different theoretical approaches (Hyman 1954; Cannell & Kahn 1968). In this paper the most relevant theoretical explanations are discussed and systematized from the point of view of the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein 1980). Whereas this theory program has been used in many substantive fields, it has rarely been applied ...

  4. Interviewer and respondent interaction in survey interviews : Empirical evidence from behavior coding studies and question wording experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke

    2010-01-01

    This book sheds light on verbal interaction problems in survey interviews. It is shown how behavior coding, i.e., coding the utterances of interviewer and respondent while they are answering survey questions, can be used to detect interactional problems. Several empirical studies using behavior codi

  5. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  6. Fetal Cardiac Responding: A Correlate of Birth Weight and Neonatal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Eugene K.; Noonan, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores whether an empirical classification of healthy fetuses as fetal heart rate accelerators or decelerators would predict birth weight and neonatal behavior scored with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. (Author/RH)

  7. Behavior-dependent Routing: Responding to Anomalies with Automated Low-cost Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Best, Daniel M.; Noonan, Christine F.; Thompson, Seth R.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Fink, Glenn A.; Peterson, Elena S.

    2015-10-12

    This is a conference paper submission describing research and software implementation of a cybersecurity concept that uses behavior models to trigger changes in routing of network traffic. As user behavior deviates more and more from baseline models, traffic is routed through more elevated layers of analysis and control.

  8. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  9. Excess of Social Behavior Reduces the Capacity to Respond to Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, David; Kuan, Yoke Kong; Bouffanais, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Social interaction increases significantly the performance of a wide range of cooperative systems. However, evidence that natural swarms limit the number of social connections suggests potentially detrimental consequences of having an excess of social behavior. We study the repercussions that such excess has on the responsiveness of a swarm facing local environmental perturbations. Using a canonical model of collective behavior, we find a decrease in susceptibility when the amount of social i...

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  11. Responder Status Criterion for Stepped Care Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to develop Stepped Care trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a definition of early response/non-response is needed to guide decisions about the need for subsequent treatment. Objective: The purpose of this article is to (1) establish criterion for defining an early indicator of response/non-response to the…

  12. Attention Bias Modification Treatment for Children with Anxiety Disorders who do not Respond to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bechor, Michele; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Abend, Rany; Pine, Daniel S.; Vasey, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is emerging to support the promise of Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), a computer-based attention training program, in reducing anxiety in children. ABMT has not been tested as an adjuvant for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This case series presents findings from an open trial of ABMT among six children (four girls; M age =11.2 years) who completed a CBT protocol and continued to meet diagnostic criteria for an a...

  13. Cue-responding behaviors during pharmacy counseling sessions with patients with asthma about inhaled corticosteroids: Potential relations with medication beliefs and self-reported adherence.

    OpenAIRE

    Driesenaar, J.A.; de Smet, P A G M; Van Hulten, R; Noordman, J.; van Dulmen, A M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cue-responding behavior at the pharmacy while counseling about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in relation to medication adherence and medication beliefs. Patients with asthma aged ≥18 years using ICS were recruited from 12 pharmacies. Counseling sessions were video-recorded. Patients' emotional and informational cues and pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' cue-responding behaviors were coded using an expanded version of the Medical Interview Aural Rating...

  14. Does respondent driven sampling alter the social network composition and health-seeking behaviors of illicit drug users followed prospectively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby E Rudolph

    Full Text Available Respondent driven sampling (RDS was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the norms that sustain these relationships. Compared with traditional outreach interventions, peer-driven interventions produce greater reductions in HIV risk behaviors and adoption of safer behaviors over time, however, control and intervention groups are not similarly recruited. As peer-recruitment may alter risk networks and individual risk behaviors over time, such comparison studies are unable to isolate the effect of a peer-delivered intervention. This analysis examines whether RDS recruitment (without an intervention is associated with changes in health-seeking behaviors and network composition over 6 months. New York City drug users (N = 618 were recruited using targeted street outreach (TSO and RDS (2006-2009. 329 non-injectors (RDS = 237; TSO = 92 completed baseline and 6-month surveys ascertaining demographic, drug use, and network characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests compared RDS- and TSO-recruited participants on changes in HIV testing and drug treatment utilization and in the proportion of drug using, sex, incarcerated and social support networks over the follow-up period. The sample was 66% male, 24% Hispanic, 69% black, 62% homeless, and the median age was 35. At baseline, the median network size was 3, 86% used crack, 70% used cocaine, 40% used heroin, and in the past 6 months 72% were tested for HIV and 46% were enrolled in drug treatment. There were no significant differences by recruitment strategy with respect to changes in health-seeking behaviors or network composition over 6 months. These findings suggest no association between RDS recruitment and changes in

  15. Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants, and Disparities Among US Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L.; Godette, Dionne C.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50–64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. Method This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from US older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age categories, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. Results HIV testing prevalence was low (risk behaviors (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.67–4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. Conclusion Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites, and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26165428

  16. CB1 antagonism produces behaviors more consistent with satiety than reduced reward value in food-maintained responding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Emily E; Jagielo-Miller, Julia E; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; McLaughlin, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists are widely known to reduce motivation for food, but it is not known whether they induce satiety or reduce reward value of food. It may therefore be necessary to compare effects of altered satiety and reward food value in the same appetitive task, and determine whether CB1 antagonism produces a behavior pattern similar to either, both, or neither. A fine-grained analysis of fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) responding for palatable food initially included number and duration of, and between, all lever presses and food tray entries in order to differentiate the pattern of suppression of prefeeding from that caused by reducing the reward value of the pellets with quinine. Discriminant function analysis then determined that these manipulations were best differentiated by effects on tray entries, pellet retrieval latencies, and time of the first response. At 0.5 mg/kg, AM 6527 produced similar effects to reducing reward value, but at 1.0 and 4.0 mg/kg, effects were more similar to those when animals were satiated. We conclude that AM 6527 both reduced reward value and enhanced satiety, but as dose increased, effects on satiety became much more prominent. These findings contribute to knowledge about the behavioral processes affected by CB1 antagonism. PMID:27005309

  17. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  18. An Open Trial of Intensive Family Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Who Are Medication Partial Responders or Nonresponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Lehmkuhl, Heather D.; Ricketts, Emily; Geffken, Gary R.; Marien, Wendi; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an open-trial of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty primarily Caucasian youth with OCD (range = 7-19 years; 15 girls) who were partial responders or nonresponders to two or more medication trials that were delivered either serially or…

  19. "Why Isn't There a Cure?" Emerging Empathy and Prosocial Behaviors among Middle Childhood Children Responding to Real-World Issue Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empathy and prosocial behaviors within real-world issues among Korean middle-childhood children living in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, seven students were engaged in six sessions of group or individual activities including five sessions of responding to video vignettes which demonstrated…

  20. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  1. Sexual behavior, risk perception, and HIV transmission can respond to HIV antiviral drugs and vaccines through multiple pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Tully; Monica Cojocaru; Chris T. Bauch

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for HIV and significant progress in developing prophylactic HIV vaccines. The simplest theories of counterproductive behavioral responses to such interventions tend to focus on single feedback mechanisms: for instance, HAART optimism makes infection less scary and thus promotes risky sexual behavior. Here, we develop an agent based, age-structured model of HIV transmission, risk perception, and partner selection in a...

  2. Responding to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system: Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmar, Jeff M; Butcher, Fredrick; Kanary, Patrick J; Devens, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Discusses how Ohio's responded to the mental health and substance abuse needs of youth in the juvenile justice system by establishing the Ohio's Behavioral Health/Juvenile Justice Initiative. The consequences of a willful neglect of some of our most vulnerable citizens were significant and severe. Many individuals ended up on the streets, and many more found themselves in local jails. Over time, jails became de facto mental health facilities. Unfortunately, jails were, and often continue to be, ill-prepared to effectively screen, assess, and treat individuals with mental health concerns. The majority of juvenile justice involved (JJI) youth has a history of behavioral health (mental health or substance use) problems. Multiple studies estimate that between 65% to 75% of JJI youth have at least one behavioral health disorder, and 20% to 30% report suffering from a serious behavioral disorder. Although the majority of JJI youth has a history of behavioral health issues and trauma, many have not received any treatment when they enter the system. Further, local jurisdictions are often ill-equipped to accurately assess youth for behavioral health problems and provide appropriate treatment. Thus, those issues persist and complicate efforts to reduce future delinquency. Further, substance use issues are considered a direct risk factor for criminal behavior, but mental health issues are typically not. Mental health issues, however, can certainly affect responsivity to programming designed to reduce future delinquency. Americans support juvenile justice reform that focuses on rehabilitation in place of incarceration. The Ohio's Behavioral Health Juvenile Justice (BHJJ) Initiative was established to address the juvenile mental health and substance abuse issues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594920

  3. Cue-Responding Behaviors During Pharmacy Counseling Sessions With Patients With Asthma About Inhaled Corticosteroids: Potential Relations With Medication Beliefs and Self-Reported Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesenaar, Jeanine A; De Smet, Peter A G M; van Hulten, Rolf; Noordman, Janneke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cue-responding behavior at the pharmacy while counseling about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in relation to medication adherence and medication beliefs. Patients with asthma aged ≥18 years using ICS were recruited from 12 pharmacies. Counseling sessions were video-recorded. Patients' emotional and informational cues and pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' cue-responding behaviors were coded using an expanded version of the Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire assessed patients' ICS concern and necessity beliefs. Self-reported ICS adherence was measured by four questions. During the 86 sessions, patients expressed on average 2.3, mostly informational, cues (70.8%). In 26.7% of the sessions, no cues were expressed. Pharmacists' and technicians' responses to emotional cues (59.3%) were mostly inadequate, and to informational cues mostly appropriate (63.6%). Providing inappropriate information (20.3%) was related to higher concerns post session (p < .05), and cue exploration to higher self-reported adherence at 3 months (p < .05). Apparently, providers' responses to patients' cues might have therapeutic value. In addition, patients might need to be encouraged to ask questions and express their concerns. PMID:26940701

  4. Readers Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar S. Bandisode

    2007-01-01

    pass the Visa Qualifying Examination. I told him to get out.3. The basis of education in schools and colleges should be to create good citizens out of students. On the contrary, the teachers are encouraging delinquency. Unless the schools and colleges introduce a curriculum to prevent bribery, plagiarism, unprofessional behavior and selfishness, the domino effect on various professions and businesses will not end.4 Unfortunately, regulating bodies such as Government, municipal corporations and medical councils are the propagating institutions for such practices. They will gladly develop laws and regulatory policies for punitive actions against physicians, with the resultant consequence of handing power to the administrators who in turn resort to corrupt practices. The corrupt administrators can then extract bribes from such physicians.[No abstract available.

  5. Repeated administration of aripiprazole produces a sensitization effect in the suppression of avoidance responding and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases D2 receptor-mediated behavioral function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Rongyin; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how repeated administration of aripiprazole (a novel antipsychotic drug) alters its behavioral effects in two behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity and whether this alteration is correlated with an increase in dopamine D2 receptor function. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested with aripiprazole (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or vehicle in a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test or a phencyclidine (PCP) (3.20 mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion test daily for five consecutive days. After 2–3 days of drug-free retraining or resting, all rats were then challenged with aripiprazole (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc). Repeated administration of aripiprazole progressively increased its inhibition of avoidance responding and PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. More importantly, rats previously treated with aripiprazole showed significantly lower avoidance response and lower PCP-induced hyperlocomotion than those previously treated with vehicle in the challenge tests. An increased sensitivity to quinpirole (a selective D2/3 agonist) in prior aripiprazole-treated rats was also found in the quinpirole-induced hyperlocomotion test, suggesting an enhanced D2/3-mediated function. These findings suggest that aripiprazole, despite its distinct receptor mechanisms of action, induces a sensitization effect similar to those induced by other antipsychotic drugs and this effect may be partially mediated by brain plasticity involving D2/3 receptor systems. PMID:25586399

  6. Rats classified as low or high cocaine locomotor responders: a unique model involving striatal dopamine transporters that predicts cocaine addiction-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Nelson, Anna M; Mandt, Bruce H; Larson, Gaynor A; Rorabaugh, Jacki M; Ng, Christopher M C; Barcomb, Kelsey M; Richards, Toni L; Allen, Richard M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-09-01

    Individual differences are a hallmark of drug addiction. Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). LCRs and HCRs differ in drug-induced, but not novelty-associated, hyperactivity. LCRs have higher basal numbers of striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) than HCRs and exhibit marginal cocaine inhibition of in vivo DAT activity and cocaine-induced increases in extracellular DA. Importantly, lower initial cocaine response predicts greater locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference and greater motivation to self-administer cocaine following low dose acquisition. Further, outbred Long-Evans rats classified as LCRs, versus HCRs, are more sensitive to cocaine's discriminative stimulus effects. Overall, results to date with the LCR/HCR model underscore the contribution of striatal DATs to individual differences in initial cocaine responsiveness and the value of assessing the influence of initial drug response on subsequent expression of addiction-like behaviors. PMID:23850581

  7. Rats classified as low or high cocaine locomotor responders: A unique model involving striatal dopamine transporters that predicts cocaine addiction-like behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Dorothy J.; Nelson, Anna M.; Mandt, Bruce H.; Larson, Gaynor A.; Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Ng, Christopher M.C.; Barcomb, Kelsey M.; Richards, Toni L.; Allen, Richard M.; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences are a hallmark of drug addiction. Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). LCRs and HCRs differ in drug-induced, but not novelty-associated, hyperactivity. LCRs have higher basal...

  8. Using Systems Theory to Understand and Respond to Family Influences on Children's Bullying Behavior: Friendly Schools Friendly Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Barnes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses Systems Theory as it applies to school-age children's bullying behavior. It focuses on the interrelationships, mutual influences, and dynamics of relationships within the family, and how these may affect children's behavior toward their peers. The theory helps to explain the ways family patterns are reflected in…

  9. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  10. Using Professional Organizations to Prepare the Behavioral Health Workforce to Respond to the Needs of Pediatric Populations Impacted by Health-Related Disasters: Guiding Principles and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Silman, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral health professional organizations are in the unique role of aggregating and disseminating information to their membership before, during, and after health-related disasters to promote the integration of behavioral health services into the public health disaster response plan. This article provides a set of 5 principles to direct this undertaking that are based on the current literature and previous evaluation of the online guidance provided by 6 prominent behavioral health professional organizations. These principles use a strengths-based approach to prioritize resilience; underscore the importance of context, collaboration, and coordination; recognize the unique needs of pediatric populations; and guide ongoing training and content development in the area of biopsychosocial responses to health-related disasters. Recognizing important innovations and strides made by the behavioral health organizations noted in a previous study, this article recommends additional areas in which behavioral health professional organizations can contribute to overall pandemic disaster preparedness and response efforts. PMID:26145465

  11. Responding to the codependent employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R

    1992-06-01

    Codependence is an important human disorder that is disturbingly prevalent. When codependence is viewed as a psychological concept, it offers a useful framework for evaluating and responding to problematic behavior. While nursing the addicted and codependent patient and family is an emerging specialty that is helping address the national health care problem of addictions, until now the nursing literature has provided little assistance with the need to recognize codependency from a broad perspective in nursing management. This field offers important and unexplored terrain for the creative and scholarly nurse to assist in developing nursing knowledge. This article has summarized key information about the general problem of codependency and suggests how to apply this information to the setting of the nurse manager. When a nurse manager responds to codependent behavior with understanding and firm control, feelings of security for codependent individuals can be increased and optimum performance will be facilitated. PMID:10171014

  12. Repeated administration of aripiprazole produces a sensitization effect in the suppression of avoidance responding and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion and increases D2 receptor-mediated behavioral function

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Rongyin; LI Ming

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how repeated administration of aripiprazole (a novel antipsychotic drug) alters its behavioral effects in two behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity and whether this alteration is correlated with an increase in dopamine D2 receptor function. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested with aripiprazole (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)) or vehicle in a conditioned avoidance response (CAR) test or a phencyclidine (PCP) (3.20 mg/kg, sc)-...

  13. Comparison of risk behaviors and socio-cultural profile of men who have sex with men survey respondents recruited via venues and the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM are using the internet to seek sex partners, and many HIV-related studies targeting MSM collect data from gay venues in order to inform the design of prevention programs. However, internet-based MSM may have different HIV risk behaviors and associated factors from those attending venues. This study examined differences in risk behaviors and socio-cultural profiles between MSM recruited from venues (e.g., gay bars/saunas and from the internet respectively. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 566 Chinese MSM (340 recruited from gay-venues and 226 recruited from the internet who self-reported having had anal or oral sex with another man in the last 12 months completed a structured questionnaire. Results Internet-based MSM were more likely than venue-based MSM to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (53.3% vs. 33.8% or commercial sex (as clients: 12.8% vs. 5.3%; as sex workers: 6.2% vs. 1.5%, to have sought MSM partners from the internet (51.3% vs. 20.9%, and to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD in the last 12 months (4.4% vs. 0.3%. On the other hand, internet-based MSM were less likely to have multiple sex partners (58.4% vs. 75.6% and to have used psychoactive substances (7.1% vs. 15.6% or drunk alcohol before sex (8.8% vs. 16.2%. Moreover, internet-based MSM reported poor acceptance of their own sexual orientation, felt more discriminated against, and received less social support than venue-recruited MSM. Conclusions Significant differences were observed between the two groups of MSM. Segmentation and targeted interventions are recommended when designing preventive interventions.

  14. Responding to the need for sleep among survivors of interpersonal violence: A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral insomnia intervention followed by PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Heffner, Kathi L; Crean, Hugh; Gallegos, Autumn M; Walsh, Patrick; Seehuus, Martin; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but is not a focus of standard PTSD treatments. Psychological trauma exposure is associated with considerable physical and mental health morbidity, possibly due to the alterations in neuroendocrine function and inflammation observed in trauma exposed individuals. Although PTSD treatments are efficacious, they are associated with high drop-out rates in clinical trials and clinical practice. Finally, individuals with PTSD stemming from exposure to interpersonal violence represent an especially under-treated population with significant sleep disturbance. Community-based participatory research was utilized to design and prepare a clinical trial that randomizes recent survivors of interpersonal violence who have PTSD, depression, and insomnia to receive either: (1) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTi) followed by Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for trauma, or (2) attention control followed by CPT. Outcome measures include subjective and objective measures of sleep, clinician-administered PTSD and depression scales, inflammatory cytokines, and salivary cortisol. Assessments are conducted at baseline, following the sleep or control intervention, and again following CPT. The design allows for: (1) the first test of a sleep intervention in this population; (2) the comparison of sequenced CBTi and CPT to attention control followed by CPT, and (3) assessing the roles of neuroendocrine function, inflammatory processes, and objective sleep markers in mediating treatment outcomes. The study's overarching hypothesis is that treating insomnia will produce reduction in insomnia, PTSD, and depression severity, allowing patients to more fully engage in, and derive optimal benefits from, cognitive processing therapy. PMID:26343743

  15. OCORRÊNCIA DE ECTOPARASITO Cymothoa spinipalpa (ISOPODA, CYMOTHOIDAE) EM Oligoplites palometa (OSTEICHTHYES: CARANGIDAE) NAS ÁGUAS COSTEIRAS DE NATAL, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Soares Araújo; Andréa Soares de Araújo; Eudriano Florêncio dos santos Costa; José Ticiano Arruda Ximenes Lima; Sathyabama Chellappa

    2012-01-01

    No Nordeste do Brasil, os estudos relacionados com os parasitos de peixes marinhos podem ser considerados incipientes diante da grande diversidade ictiológica existente. O presente trabalho registrou a ocorrência de um isópodo parasito na espécie Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832) (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) habitante das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Durante o período de maio de 2006 a julho de 2007 foram capturados 78 exemplares de O. palometa. Foi encontrada uma espécie d...

  16. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  17. Bullying: A School Responds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Coletta

    2004-01-01

    Bullying has gone on in schools for decades. Defined as "browbeating" or being "habitually cruel to others who are weaker," bullying can cause physiological and psychological injuries that last a lifetime. Unchecked, this behavior can lead the bully to drug and gang cultures and eventually prison. It can drive the victim to depression and suicidal…

  18. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  19. Emergency responders' critical infrared (ERCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsin, Larry S.

    2004-08-01

    Emergency Responders (Fire, Police, Medical, and Emergency Management) face a high risk of injury or death. Even before September 11, 2001, public and private organizations have been driven to better protect Emergency Responders through education, training and improved technology. Recent research on Emergency Responder safety, health risks, and personal protective requirements, shows infrared (IR) imaging as a critical need. Today"s Emergency Responders are increasingly challenged to do more, facing demands requiring technological assistance and/or solutions. Since the introduction of Fire Service IR imaging in the mid 1990s, applications have increased. Emergency response IR is no longer just seeing through smoke to find victims or the seat of a fire. Many more mission critical needs now exist across the broad spectrum of emergency response. At the same time, Emergency Responder injuries and deaths are increasing. The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) has also recognized IR imaging as critical in protecting our communities -- and in preventing many of the injuries and deaths of Emergency Responders. Currently, only 25% of all fire departments (or less than 7% of individual firefighters) have IR imaging. Availability to Police, EMS and Emergency Management is even lower. Without ERCI, Emergency Responders and our communities are at risk.

  20. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  1. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    troubling proposition that high scores in impression management scales actually reflect honesty rather than dishonest responding. In line with findings indicating that respondents answer to personality questionnaires rather accurately in typical low demand situations, we herein suggest that high impression...... management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  2. Habituation of salivation and motivated responding for food in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Saad, Frances G; Handley, Elizabeth A; Roemmich, James N; Hawk, Larry W; McSweeney, Frances K

    2003-12-01

    Repeated presentation of food cues results in habituation in adults, as demonstrated by a decrement in salivary responding that is reversed by presenting a new food cue in adults. Food reinforced behavior in animals shows the same pattern of responding, with a decrease in responding to obtain the food, followed by a recovery of responding when a new food is presented. The present study assessed whether children would show the same pattern of a decrement of food reinforced responding followed by recovery of responding when a new food is presented for both salivation and food reinforcement tasks. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups that differed in the trial that the new food stimulus was presented to ensure recovery was specific to the introduction of the new food stimulus. In the salivation task, subjects were provided repeated olfactory presentations of a cheeseburger with apple pie as the new food stimulus, while in the food reinforcement task subjects worked for the opportunity to consume a cheeseburger, followed by the opportunity to work for consumption of apple pie. Subjects in both groups showed a decrement in salivary and food reinforced responding to repeated food cues followed by immediate recovery of responding on the trial when a new food was presented. Subjects increased their energy intake by over 30% in the food reinforcement task when a new food was presented. These results are consistent with the general process theory of motivation that suggests that changes in food reinforced responding may be due in part to habituation. PMID:14637327

  3. Responding to Hate at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Tolerance, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a publication from Teaching Tolerance that is designed to help schools prepare for and respond effectively to bias incidents so that they can become catalysts for positive change. Presents two of the guidelines: (1) create an unwelcome environment for hate speech and symbols; and (2) put the lid on graffiti and other vandalism. (SLD)

  4. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts. PMID:21497672

  5. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  6. A Study of Interviewer-Respondent Interaction in the Urban Employment Survey. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Kent H.; Cannell, Charles F.

    The purpose of this study was to provide basic knowledge about the kinds and amounts of behavior in a personal survey interview and to investigate the effects of certain respondent demographic characteristics on the verbal behavior of the interviewer and respondent during the interview. Four sample groups of employed males (Negroes and Caucasians…

  7. Evaluation of the Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jodi Michelle; Osteen, Philip; Jones, Andrea; Berman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Changes in attitudes, confidence, and practice behaviors were assessed among 452 clinicians who completed the training, Recognizing and Responding to Suicide Risk, and who work with clients at risk for suicide. Data were collected at three time points. Scores on measures of attitudes toward suicide prevention and confidence to work with clients at…

  8. 农户经营行为对农业面源污染的影响因素分析%Analysis of Responded Factors of Farmers' Management Behavior on Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周早弘

    2011-01-01

    以江西省鄱阳湖生态经济试验区为例,以经济计量分析为方法,研究了农户经营行为对农业面源污染的影响.结果表明,农户的农产品自用率、户主年龄、户主文化程度、农户家庭主要收入来源、农户对环境的关注程度、农户施用有机肥的情况以及农户参与技术培训等因素均对农业面源污染产生一定影响.%The influence of farmers' management behavior on agricultural non-point source pollution in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Experimental Zone of Jiangxi Province was studied by using method of econometric analysis.The results showed that the impacting factors all will have a certain impact on agricultural non-point source pollution, which includes personal use ratio of agricultural products of farmers, the age and the literacy of householder, family's main income source of farmers, the concern degree of farmers to the environment, applying situation of organic manure, and farmers participating in technical training or not.

  9. Ohmsett trains oil spill responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The services that the Ohmsett Facility in New Jersey has to offer were discussed. The facility is operated by the United States Minerals Management Services and is used by the public and private sector for the evaluation of oil spill response equipment such as containment booms, skimmer systems, oil/water separators, remote sensing equipment and temporary storage devices on a cost reimbursable basis. The facility is also used for oil behavior and characteristics research as well as for the performance and evaluation of fire resistance of containment booms. The facility consists of a 203 meter concrete tank filled with about 10 million litres of brackish water where ocean conditions can be simulated with a wave generating system and a wave dampening artificial beach. Various types of training are conducted at Ohmsett including training conducted through the United States Coast Guard, the United States Navy, and Texas University Corpus Christi National Spill Control School. 2 tabs., 16 figs

  10. Instructed versus shaped human verbal behavior: Interactions with nonverbal responding

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, A. Charles; Matthews, Byron A.; Shimoff, Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Undergraduate students' presses on left and right buttons occasionally made available points exchangeable for money. Blue lights over the buttons were correlated with multiple random-ratio random-interval components; usually, the random-ratio schedule was assigned to the left button and the random-interval to the right. During interruptions on the multiple schedule, students filled out sentence-completion guess sheets (e.g., The way to earn points with the left button is to...). For different...

  11. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  12. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  13. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  14. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  15. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran K; Nair P

    1992-01-01

    A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  16. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  17. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay;

    2015-01-01

    different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: A total sample of 39,540 Danish...... models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12 year follow-up period. FINDINGS: Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.36-1.78) for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.......88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.27-1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI: 1.57-5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03-1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non...

  18. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  19. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  20. Hostile Attributional Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were expl...

  1. Adventures in Parenting: How Responding, Preventing, Monitoring, Mentoring, and Modeling Can Help You Be a Successful Parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This guide presents RPM3, a no-frills approach to parenting. The acronym RPM3 stands for Responding to your child in an appropriate manner, Preventing risky behavior problems, Monitoring your child's contact with his or her surrounding world, Mentoring your child to support and encourage desired behaviors, and Modeling your own behavior to provide…

  2. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  3. Responding to the Housing and Financial Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scanlon, Kathleen; Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The long period of house price growth in markets across the world ended with the US and global financial crisis of 2007/08. The crisis and the consequent recession had profound effects on mortgage market actors – including households, institutions and governments – in most advanced economies......, whether or not they participated in this rapid house price growth. Many of the trends observed during the boom, especially the innovations in financial instruments, were reversed. This paper presents evidence on how mortgage markets and stakeholders responded in the initial period after the crash. In...... particular it reports on a 2009 survey of housing experts from 16 industrialised countries, which concentrated on how each country's mortgage system responded to the crisis and how governments addressed the problems of borrowers....

  4. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  5. Elective single blastocyst transfer is more suitable for normal responders than for high responders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ke-liang; ZHAO Hai-bin; LIU Hui; ZHONG Wan-xia; YU Guan-ling; CHEN Zi-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Embryo quality and receptivity of the endometrium are two factors that determine the results of in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET).There is no consensus of the optimal transfer strategy for normal responders or high responders.The current study aimed to find the optimal transfer strategy for different subgroups of patients.Methods From April 2010 to December 2010,patients who meet the following criteria were included in this study; primary infertility,female age ≤35 years,FSH level on female cycle day 2-3 ≤12 mlU/ml,at least six good quality embryos available on day three.The clinical outcomes using different transfer strategies between normal responders and high responders were reviewed and compared.Results For the normal responders,the clinical pregnancy rate of day three double-embryo transfer (DET) was comparable to that of day five elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT),64.04% vs.60.33% (P>0.05).For the high responders,the clinical pregnancy rate of day five eSBT was significantly lower than that of day three DET,43.35% vs.57.21% (P<0.05).For the high responders,the rates of clinical pregnancy and implantation in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles were notably higher than in eSBT cycles (64.56% vs.43.35% and 62.11% vs.43.35% respectively) (P<0.05).Conclusions For normal responders,eSBT might be an applicable strategy to reduce multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining acceptable overall pregnancy rates.And in order to reduce multiple pregnancies and increase the chance of pregnancy of high responders,FET may be a preferable strategy.

  6. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying on...

  7. Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health England

    2014-01-01

    In ‘Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge’, PHE is calling on charities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academics, businesses, retailers and consumers to work together to reduce the amount of sugar we eat as a nation. By analysing dietary data and discussing food habits with stakeholders, we have identified a range of areas that need exploring further. PHE already runs successful marketing campaigns designed to promote healthy living. To build on this, we also...

  8. Responding to Identity Crime on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Holm

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique challenges of responding to identity crime. Identity crime involves the use of personal identification information to perpetrate crimes. As such, identity crime involves using personal and private information to for illegal purposes. In this article, the two significant issues that obstruct responses to this crime are considered. These are first, the reporting of crime, and second the issue of jurisdiction. The paper also presents an exploration of some respons...

  9. The Rule Responder eScience Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Adrian; Zhao, Zhili

    2010-01-01

    To a large degree information and services for chemical e-Science have become accessible - anytime, anywhere - but not necessarily useful. The Rule Responder eScience middleware is about providing information consumers with rule-based agents to transform existing information into relevant information of practical consequences, hence providing control to the end-users to express in a declarative rule-based way how to turn existing information into personally relevant information and how to rea...

  10. Agriculture emergencies: a primer for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpen, Johnnie L; Carabin, Hélène; Regens, James L; Burden, Ray W

    2009-06-01

    Over the past several years, the primary focus of emergency preparedness has been on terrorism, and how a CBRNE event would directly affect human health. Limited emphasis has been placed on the direct (eg, zoonotic infections) and indirect (eg, mental health, financial loss) effects that an agricultural emergency event can have on human health outcomes, and how they relate to emergency preparedness. We critically reviewed the resources and information readily accessible to our target audience, emergency responders; the resources included military and civilian books, personal communications, internet sites, GAO reports, and peer-reviewed journals. Among more than 2,000 bioterrorism-related articles, we found 51 that addressed either agroterrorism and/or veterinary public health: 2 cross-sectional studies, 28 review papers, and 21 commentary papers. In order to properly respond to future agriculture emergencies, emergency response professionals need to understand the nature and implications of the event as well as their roles and responsibilities, but the availability of educational and training opportunities is limited. The results of our review are consistent with the hypothesis that more resources, education, and training opportunities should be available to responders as well as to producers, importers and shippers, international travelers, and the general public. Increased education and training will raise awareness among these groups of the relationship between animal and human health. PMID:19635003

  11. Current measurement in applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Bonnie; Brown, Tom; Duncan, Philip K.

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of behavior began with a form of data, rate of responding, which allowed for efficient study and for the description of the basic principles of behavior. Especially important were the facts that rate of responding was a direct reflection of fundamental properties of behavior, and that rate of responding was measured continuously within an experimental session. As behavior analysts moved from purely experimental to applied settings, discontinuous, time-based methods of measurement...

  12. L-059: EPR-First responders: Radiological emergency manual for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is an emergency manual review about the first responders knowledge. The IAEA safety standard manuals, the medical gestion, the security forces and the fast communications are very important in a radiological emergency

  13. Test of a Web and Paper Employee Satisfaction Survey: Comparison of Respondents and Non-Respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if administering an employee satisfaction survey using the Internet affected the rates or quality of employees’ participation. 644 hospital employees were randomly assigned to complete a satisfaction survey using either a Web survey or a traditional paper measure. Response rates were relatively high across both modes. No evidence for a very large difference in response rates was detected. A plurality of respondents showed no preference for survey mode while the remainder tended to express a preference for the mode they had been randomly assigned to complete in this study. Respondents did not differ from non-respondents by sex, race, or education. Other response differences (such as age and employment status are likely to be a function of the survey topic. Overall, Web and mail respondents did not differ in the level of employee satisfaction reported, the primary outcome being measured.

  14. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  15. The Rule Responder eScience Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Paschke, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    To a large degree information and services for chemical e-Science have become accessible - anytime, anywhere - but not necessarily useful. The Rule Responder eScience middleware is about providing information consumers with rule-based agents to transform existing information into relevant information of practical consequences, hence providing control to the end-users to express in a declarative rule-based way how to turn existing information into personally relevant information and how to react or make automated decisions on top of it.

  16. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  17. Bats Respond to Very Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (Preversed tens of times over the past fifty million years. PMID:25922944

  18. Treating psychological trauma in first responders: a multi-modal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2015-06-01

    Responding to critical incidents may result in 5.9-22% of first responders developing psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. These impacts may be physical, mental, and/or behavioral. This population remains at risk, given the daily occurrence of critical incidents. Current treatments, primarily focused on combat and rape victims, have included single and double interventions, which have proven helpful to some but not all victims and one standard of care has remained elusive. However, even though the need is established, research on the treatment interventions of first responders has been limited. Given the multiplicity of impacts from psychological trauma and the inadequacies of responder treatment intervention research thus far, this paper proposes a paradigmatic shift from single/double treatment interventions to a multi-modal approach to first responder victim needs. A conceptual framework based on psychological trauma is presented and possible multi-modal interventions selected from the limited, extant first responder research are utilized to illustrate how the approach would work and to encourage clinical and experimental research into first responder treatment needs. PMID:25403791

  19. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to danger posed by aerial predators by modifying their behavior to mitigate danger. We observed Tufted Puffins making repeated colony fly-ins and departures and characterized (1) the timing of this behav...

  20. Responding to the Needs of Foster Teens in a Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John Nelson

    2012-01-01

    As more children are placed under foster care, schools often have difficulty in responding to newly placed foster teens. Foster teens often exhibit both academic and behavioral adjustment issues, leading to disciplinary problems and high failure, and dropout rates. Attachment theory related to placement disruptions, school performance and…

  1. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to dan

  2. Hailey-hailey disease responding to thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, K Bala; Saldanha, Celia Soni; Jacintha, Martis; Kamath, Ganesh

    2014-03-01

    Familial benign chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of recurrent blisters and erosions in the intertriginous areas. Various topical and systemic treatment options include corticosteroids, topical 5-fluorouracil, topical vitamin D analogs, topical zinc oxide, dapsone, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, systemic retinoids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and photodynamic therapy. In recalcitrant cases, further options including, invasive methods such as grenz ray therapy, carbon dioxide laser abrasion, and erbium: YAG laser ablation, dermabrasion, electron beam therapy, botulinum toxin, and full-thickness excision of affected skin with repair by split-thickness grafting have been reported as useful in treatment of HHD. We describe a case of HHD who was treated with several treatment modalities including antibiotics, corticosteroids, and dapsone earlier and when presented to us had a severe recalcitrant disease. Thalidomide, as a modality of treatment has been successfully used in few cases earlier. Our patient responded well to thalidomide. PMID:24700941

  3. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  4. Hailey-Hailey disease responding to thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bala Nanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial benign chronic pemphigus or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of recurrent blisters and erosions in the intertriginous areas. Various topical and systemic treatment options include corticosteroids, topical 5-fluorouracil, topical vitamin D analogs, topical zinc oxide, dapsone, psoralen plus ultraviolet A, systemic retinoids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and photodynamic therapy. In recalcitrant cases, further options including, invasive methods such as grenz ray therapy, carbon dioxide laser abrasion, and erbium: YAG laser ablation, dermabrasion, electron beam therapy, botulinum toxin, and full-thickness excision of affected skin with repair by split-thickness grafting have been reported as useful in treatment of HHD. We describe a case of HHD who was treated with several treatment modalities including antibiotics, corticosteroids, and dapsone earlier and when presented to us had a severe recalcitrant disease. Thalidomide, as a modality of treatment has been successfully used in few cases earlier. Our patient responded well to thalidomide.

  5. Hazard perception in emergency medical service responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K A; Scialfa, C T

    2016-10-01

    The perception of on-road hazards is critically important to emergency medical services (EMS) professionals, the patients they transport and the general public. This study compared hazard perception in EMS and civilian drivers of similar age and personal driving experience. Twenty-nine EMS professionals and 24 non-professional drivers were given a dynamic hazard perception test (HPT). The EMS group demonstrated an advantage in HPT that was independent of simple reaction time, another indication of the validity of the test. These results are also consistent with the view that professional driving experience results in changes in the ability to identify and respond to on-road hazards. Directions for future research include the development of a profession-specific hazard perception tool for both assessment and training purposes. PMID:27415813

  6. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W.; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z.; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior.

  7. Peripheral Sensory Neurons Expressing Melanopsin Respond to Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matynia, Anna; Nguyen, Eileen; Sun, Xiaoping; Blixt, Frank W; Parikh, Sachin; Kessler, Jason; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Habib, Samer; Kim, Paul; Wang, Zhe Z; Rodriguez, Allen; Charles, Andrew; Nusinowitz, Steven; Edvinsson, Lars; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C; Gorin, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior. PMID:27559310

  8. WS-020: EPR-First Responders: Cards of response measures for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants know how to use the cards of response measures for first responders. In a radiological emergency is useful to have cards which contains a list of the steps to be followed as well as the protection instructions and risk evaluation

  9. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  10. How do Teachers Respond to Tenure?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    In most states, K-12 teachers receive tenure after serving a probationary period of several years. Teachers with tenure, or a continuing contract, are guaranteed due process before they can be dismissed from their job. I use a restricted use version of the 2007 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) to estimate the effect of tenure on teacher behavior and time allocation at school and outside of school. Estimates are obtained by exploiting the cross-state variation in the probationary period l...

  11. Training Parent Implementation of Discrete-Trial Teaching: Effects on Generalization of Parent Teaching and Child Correct Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafasakis, Michael; Sturmey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral skills training was used to teach 3 parents to implement discrete-trial teaching with their children with developmental disabilities. Parents learned to implement discrete-trial training, their skills generalized to novel programs, and the children's correct responding increased, suggesting that behavioral skills training is an…

  12. Training Parent Implementation of Discrete-Trial Teaching: Effects on Generalization of Parent Teaching and Child Correct Responding

    OpenAIRE

    Lafasakis, Michael; Sturmey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral skills training was used to teach 3 parents to implement discrete-trial teaching with their children with developmental disabilities. Parents learned to implement discrete-trial training, their skills generalized to novel programs, and the children's correct responding increased, suggesting that behavioral skills training is an effective and efficient method of teaching discrete-trial teaching to parents.

  13. Some 9/11 First Responders Suffer Severe Sinus Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Some 9/11 First Responders Suffer Severe Sinus Problems: Study Firefighters exposed to dust right after ... 8, 2016 FRIDAY, April 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sinus surgery is more common among firefighters who responded ...

  14. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  15. Infant responding to joint attention, executive processes, and self-regulation in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Van Hecke, Amy; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J; Delgado, Christine E F; Parlade, Meaghan V; Pomares, Yuly B; Hobson, Jessica A

    2012-04-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention (RJA) skill in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person's gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children's use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  16. Nucleus accumbens core and shell are necessary for reinforcer devaluation effects on Pavlovian conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Schoenbaum

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NA has been hypothesized to be part of a circuit in which cue-evoked information about expected outcomes is mobilized to guide behavior. Here we tested this hypothesis using a Pavlovian reinforcer devaluation task, previously applied to assess outcome-guided behavior after damage to regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala that send projections to NA. Rats with sham lesions or neurotoxic lesions of either the core or shell subdivision of NA were trained to associate a 10 sec CS+ with delivery of three food pellets. After training, half of the rats in each lesion group received food paired with illness induced by LiCl injections; the remaining rats received food and illness unpaired. Subsequently, responding to the CS+ was assessed in an extinction probe test. Both sham and lesioned rats conditioned to the CS+ and formed a conditioned taste aversion. However only sham rats reduced their conditioned responding as a result of reinforcer devaluation; devalued rats with lesions of either core or shell showed levels of responding that were similar to lesioned, non-devalued rats. This impairment was not due to the loss of motivational salience conferred to the CS+ in lesioned rats as both groups responded similarly for the cue in conditioned reinforcement testing. These data suggest that NA core and shell are part of a circuit necessary for the use of cue-evoked information about expected outcomes to guide behavior.

  17. 31 CFR 575.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 575.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  18. 31 CFR 595.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 595.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director of the Office of Foreign Assets Control. (b) Form and contents of...

  19. 31 CFR 560.704 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 560.704 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of the written presentation. The written presentation...

  20. 31 CFR 535.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... Penalties § 535.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within which to respond. The... presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation. The written presentation need...

  1. 78 FR 63168 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  2. 78 FR 38014 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  3. 78 FR 15357 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  4. 78 FR 54241 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  5. 78 FR 26323 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) will hold a Special Meeting via telephone...

  6. How cooperative systems respond to external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkeson, Adam

    Cooperative interactions permeate through nature, bringing about emergent behavior and complexity. Using a simple cooperative model, I illustrate the mean field dynamics that occur at the critical point of a second order phase transition in the framework of Langevin equations. Through this formalism I discuss the response, both linear and nonlinear, to external forces. Emphasis is placed on how information is transferred from one individual to another in order to facilitate the collective response of the cooperative network to a localized perturbation. The results are relevant to a wide variety of systems, ranging from nematic liquid crystals, to flocks and swarms, social groups, and neural networks.

  7. Test of a Web and Paper Employee Satisfaction Survey: Comparison of Respondents and Non-Respondents

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina B. Gesell; Maxwell Drain; Clark, Paul A.; Michael P. Sullivan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined if administering an employee satisfaction survey using the Internet affected the rates or quality of employees’ participation. 644 hospital employees were randomly assigned to complete a satisfaction survey using either a Web survey or a traditional paper measure. Response rates were relatively high across both modes. No evidence for a very large difference in response rates was detected. A plurality of respondents showed no preference for survey mode while the remainder t...

  8. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  9. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  10. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  11. Perseverative instrumental and Pavlovian responding to conditioned stimuli in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J P; Homberg, Judith R

    2013-02-01

    Environmental stimuli can influence behavior via the process of Pavlovian conditioning. Recent genetic research suggests that some individuals are more sensitive to environmental stimuli for behavioral guidance than others. One important mediator of this effect is serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genetic variance, which increases sensitivity to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli through changes in the build-up of corticolimbic circuits. As these stimuli can have reinforcing effects on instrumental responding, we here investigated their effects on instrumental behavior in 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type counterparts by means of the signal attenuation paradigm. In this paradigm animals acquired a Pavlovian association between a stimulus and food reward, and subsequently they had to lever press in order to gain access to this food reward-associated stimulus. Thereafter, half of the animals underwent extinction training during which extinction of the primary Pavlovian association was induced via non-reinforced stimulus presentations, whereas the other half did not receive this training. During a final test session all animals were tested for instrumental responding for the non-reinforced Pavlovian conditioned stimulus, as well as instrumental and Pavlovian responding to the stimulus after an initial lever-press. No genotype differences were observed during the training and extinction sessions. However, during the test session 5-HTT knockout rats that had not received prior extinction training displayed excessive instrumental responding. This was specifically observed during presentation of the stimulus (induced by the first lever press) and was accompanied by an increased number of feeder visits after termination of the stimulus presentation. An additionally performed c-Fos immunohistochemistry study revealed that the behaviors in these animals were associated with abnormal c-Fos immunoreactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala, regions important

  12. What if you caught them using? Prospective teachers' beliefs about responding to student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    This survey research examined how prospective teachers' (N=384) beliefs about the nature of adolescence, their substance use, and their preparedness for dealing with substance use situations are linked to perceptions of how they would respond to students' possession or use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana at school. Results suggested that prospective teachers are not prepared for these situations. Feeling prepared, perceiving that few adolescents engage in problem behavior, and low personal substance use were associated with more responses to substance use situations. Women were more likely than men to think they would respond to adolescent substance use yet they felt less prepared. Males who used alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana recently were the least likely to perceive that they would respond to adolescents using substances at school. PMID:22873014

  13. Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

  14. Effect of a single free food presentation on extinction responding in a multiple schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Adam J; Bell, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of a single, response-independent food presentation on responding during extinction. Using a two-component multiple schedule, we examined differences in pigeons' extinction responding resulting from a single response-independent food presentation occurring at the beginning of the experimental session (30-s prior to the beginning of the first component). One component presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 45-s schedule and the second presented reinforcement according to a variable interval 180-s schedule. After establishing stable baseline responding we extinguished responding. We systematically manipulated the presence or absence of a single 3-s free food presentation using the food hopper that occurred 30-s prior to the presentation of the first component. We found the single free food presentation increased persistence of responding in extinction. This finding is inconsistent with behavioral momentum theory inasmuch as it assigns a response disruptive role to food presentations occurring outside of the context of the target operant. PMID:27423967

  15. Hostile attributional bias, negative emotional responding, and aggression in adults: moderating effects of gender and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20-55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. PMID:24833604

  16. Who cares and who is careless? Insufficient effort responding as a reflection of respondent personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A; Huang, Jason L; Bragg, Caleb B; Khazon, Steve; Liu, Mengqiao; Blackmore, Caitlin E

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient effort responding (IER) to surveys, which occurs when respondents fail to carefully read questionnaire instructions or item content, has recently gained attention as a source of inaccuracy in self-report data (Huang, Curran, Keeney, Poposki, & DeShon, 2012; Johnson, 2005; Maniaci & Rogge, 2014; Meade & Craig, 2012). Whereas previous studies have focused on IER as a methodological nuisance, the current studies examined IER as a substantive variable. Specifically, we hypothesized that IER is a reflection of enduring individual differences. In Study 1, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency over the course of 13 months; in Studies 2 and 3, we found that IER displayed rank-order consistency across multiple research situations; in Study 4, we found that acquaintance-reported conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability were each negatively related to IER; and in Study 5, we found that IER was related to college grade point average and class absences. Together, these 5 studies suggest that IER is in part a manifestation of enduring individual differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26927958

  17. Understanding How Adolescents with Autism Respond to Facial Expressions in Virtual Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Esubalew; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Crittendon, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by atypical patterns of behaviors and impairments in social communication. Among the fundamental social impairments in the ASD population are challenges in appropriately recognizing and responding to facial expressions. Traditional intervention approaches often require intensive support and well-trained therapists to address core deficits, with many with ASD having tremendous difficulty accessing such care due to lack of available trained ther...

  18. Responding empathically : a question of heart, not a question of skin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Patrícia Oliveira; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Empathy entails the capacities to resonate with another person’s emotions, understand his/her thoughts and feelings, separate our own thoughts and emotions from those of the observed and responding with the appropriate prosocial and helpful behavior. While there is abundant research on the neurobiological mechanisms of some components of empathy (e.g., emotional contagion), few studies have considered the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the empathic response. The present study explores ...

  19. IAEA responds to cancer crisis in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    doctors and other health workers to operate them - are needed to help low and middle income countries fight cancer. Currently, only about 2,500 radiotherapy machines are operating. Moreover, most developing countries lack effective public health policies and comprehensive diagnostic programmes that are essential to managing the growing cancer epidemic. On World Cancer Day, the IAEA is pleased to announce its decision to install a MDS Nordion Equinox cancer therapy system at the Tanzanian clinic as part of a larger PACT effort to help the country advance its National Cancer Strategy and Action Plan, which will now for the first time include not only curative treatment but also cancer surveillance, prevention, early detection, and palliation.'The need to respond to this cancer crisis is clear and compelling,' MDS Nordion President Steve West said. 'We are proud to be part of PACT and the global response to improve cancer care in Tanzania and ultimately throughout the developing world.' The International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and its member organizations in over 80 countries are dedicating World Cancer Day 2006 to fighting childhood cancers by focusing on early detection and equal access to treatment. More than 80% of children affected by cancer live in low-income countries, where the cure rate is very low and most receive no treatment. The UICC advocates a coordinated strategy by the global cancer control community - one that combines innovative science and sound public health policies. This approach can save a large proportion of the 90,000 children lost every year to cancer. Cancer Treatment in Tanzania: The majority of cancers prevalent in Tanzania today require radiotherapy treatment. PACT will establish its first Centre of Excellence at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ORCI estimates that each year there are over 20,000 new patients with cancer in Tanzania. Currently, ORCI can treat only about 2,500 patients per year - only a

  20. L'ICSI in pazienti poor responders: la metodica migliore?

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Emiliano Omar

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate and, if it possible, to improve the result of FIVET cycles in "poor responders" patients by intracitoplasmatic spermatozoon injection (ICSI). Methodology and materials: from january 2006 to june 2008 we tested 80 poor responders women with normal semen partner (sec.WHO 1999: n° spermatozoon >20 million /ml; mobility > 50%; normal forms > 30%) or with light oligoospermia. The 80 women were random selected into 2 groups: the group 1 with 40 poor responder w...

  1. Temporal Dynamics of Affective Responding to Affect Arousals in Resilient Individuals:A Behavioral Study%高心理弹性者情绪唤起反应变化的时间动态特征:行为学证据*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席居哲; 左志宏; 唐晓艳; 马伟军

    2015-01-01

    基于情绪时间动态视角探索高心理弹性者积极情绪、消极情绪唤起反应变化的特征,可为心理弹性科学提供情绪过程机制方面的证据。利用成人心理弹性量表( RSA)从232名大学生中筛选实验被试,有34名高心理弹性者和33名低心理弹性者参加实验。利用积极情绪消极情绪检查表( PA-NAS)、情绪(积极和消极)唤起视频材料和自编情绪自评表,分别测量和比较不同心理弹性被试情绪基线及积极、消极情绪唤起反应变化进程的时间动态差异。结果发现:与低心理弹性组相比,高心理弹性者的积极情绪基线水平高,消极情绪基线水平低,情绪平衡度基线高;高心理弹性者对积极情绪、消极情绪唤起均相对更为敏感,积极情绪唤起后恢复相对较缓,消极情绪唤起后恢复相对较快。提示更多、更长时的积极情绪唤起获益和更快的消极情绪唤起回复,是更具适应性的个体情绪时间动态特征,这种特征有助于个体保持高水平的情绪平衡度,利于当事者进行有效的压力/逆境应对。%The present study aims to explore the temporal dynamics of affective responding to positive af-fect arousals and negative affect arousals among resilient college students in comparison with non-resilient ones. Sixty-seven college students ( 34 are of high resilience and 33 of low resilience) who participated in the experiments of positive or negative affect arousal were screened out according to the scores of Resilience Scale for Adult ( RSA) . Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule ( PANAS) ,video clips for affect arousals and self-developed self-rating affect schedule were used to measure and compare baselines of affects,the temporal dynamics of affective responding to affect arousals between the resilient and the non-resilient. The results indi-cated that high resilient individuals not only had a higher baseline of positive affect

  2. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  3. 31 CFR 585.703 - Presentation responding to prepenalty notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Presentation responding to prepenalty... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 585.703 Presentation responding to prepenalty notice. (a) Time within... to make a written presentation to the Director. (b) Form and contents of written presentation....

  4. 78 FR 57621 - First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Meeting, members of the public may call toll-free 1 (888) 469- 3306 and use passcode ``FirstNet'' to... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Meeting...: Notice of special meeting of the First Responder Network Authority. SUMMARY: The Board of the...

  5. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  6. Design Effects in Web Surveys : Comparing Trained and Fresh Respondents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.; Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether there are differences in design effects between trained and fresh respondents. In three experiments, we varied the number of items on a screen, the choice of response categories, and the layout of a five point rating scale. We find that trained respondents are mo

  7. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  8. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  9. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM

    2015-01-01

    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  10. Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Warren R.

    1994-01-01

    Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual soci...

  11. Functional Analyses and Treatment of Precursor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Najdowski, Adel C; Wallace, Michele D; Ellsworth, Carrie L; MacAleese, Alicia N; Cleveland, Jackie M

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis has been demonstrated to be an effective method to identify environmental variables that maintain problem behavior. However, there are cases when conducting functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be contraindicated. The current study applied functional analysis procedures to a class of behavior that preceded severe problem behavior (precursor behavior) and evaluated treatments based on the outcomes of the functional analyses of precursor behavior. Responding fo...

  12. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  13. Assessing and Responding to Disturbed and Disturbing Students: Understanding the Role of Administrative Teams in Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Gregory T.; Rockland-Miller, Harry S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral and mental health issues challenge institutions of higher education with difficult decisions around response. Interests of the individual and safety of the community must be constantly considered and balanced. A primary way institutions of higher education are responding to these challenges is through the formation of campus assessment…

  14. Careless and Random Responding on Clinical and Research Measures in the Addictions: A Concerning Problem and Investigation of Their Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joseph F.; Faust, Kyle A.; Faust, David; Baker, Aaron M.; Cook, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Even when relatively infrequent, careless and random responding (C/RR) can have robust effects on individual and group data and thereby distort clinical evaluations and research outcomes. Given such potential adverse impacts and the broad use of self-report measures when appraising addictions and addictive behavior, the detection of C/RR can…

  15. Dissociating indifferent, directional, and extreme responding in personality data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R;

    2015-01-01

    report findings supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. CONCLUSION: In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... personality data of N = 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised) of Dutch and German respondents. RESULTS: First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the......OBJECTIVE: Research suggests that respondents vary in their tendency to use the response scale of typical (Likert-style) questionnaires. We study the nature of the response process by applying a recently introduced item response theory modeling procedure, the three-process model, to data of self...

  16. Aging with HIV: Responding to an Emerging Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Stay Connected You are here Home Aging with HIV: Responding to an emerging challenge September ... immune status in people infected with HIV. Cognitive aging HIV and its treatment can have profound effects ...

  17. Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Life After Traumatic Injury: How the Body Responds By Chelsea ... alive immediately after a traumatic injury to improving life after survival. Learn more: Fact Sheets on Sepsis and ...

  18. Project Responder: technology needs for local emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, Guy; Garwin, Thomas; Pollard, Neal A.; Singley, George T., III; Tuohy, Robert V.; Lupo, Jasper

    2003-09-01

    Since April 2001, the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism has funded an effort by Hicks &Associates, Inc. and the Terrorism Research Center, Inc., aimed ultimately at improving local, state, and federal emergency responders" capabilities for mitigating the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive/ incendiary (CBRNE) terrorism. This effort, titled "Project Responder," began by developing an understanding of how state and local responders view their current capabilities, shortfalls, and needs. This paper discusses some of the results of this first phase of the effort that has resulted in a comprehensive report titled "Emergency Responders" Needs, Goals, and Priorities." This paper addresses two of the capabilities from that report which we believe are of most interest to this conference. There are ten other capabilities discussed in the report, which may also be of interest.

  19. Emergency First Responders' Experience with Colorimetric Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra L. Fox; Keith A. Daum; Carla J. Miller; Marnie M. Cortez

    2007-10-01

    Nationwide, first responders from state and federal support teams respond to hazardous materials incidents, industrial chemical spills, and potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks. Although first responders have sophisticated chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive detectors available for assessment of the incident scene, simple colorimetric detectors have a role in response actions. The large number of colorimetric chemical detection methods available on the market can make the selection of the proper methods difficult. Although each detector has unique aspects to provide qualitative or quantitative data about the unknown chemicals present, not all detectors provide consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Included here, in a consumer-report-style format, we provide “boots on the ground” information directly from first responders about how well colorimetric chemical detection methods meet their needs in the field and how they procure these methods.

  20. Exploring community resilience in workforce communities of first responders serving Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, Karen Fraser; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Wisnieski, Deborah; Younger, Hayden

    2011-01-01

    Community resilience activities were assessed in workplace teams that became first responders for Hurricane Katrina survivors. Community resilience was assessed by a survey, focus groups, and key informant interviews. On the survey, 90 first responders ranked their team's disaster response performance as high on community resilience activities. The same participants, interviewed in 11 focus groups and 3 key informant interviews, discussed how their teams engaged in community resilience activities to strengthen their ability to deliver services. Specifically, their resilient behaviors were characterized by: shared organizational identity, purpose, and values; mutual support and trust; role flexibility; active problem solving; self-reflection; shared leadership; and skill building. The implications for research, policy, practice, and education of professionals are discussed. PMID:21219272

  1. Context effects in social surveys: between instrument and respondent:

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner-Fink, Mitja; Uhan, Samo

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this article is to examine the nature of cognitive representations that respondents create and utilise when making evaluative judgements in surveys. The following two hypothetical statements are the starting point of our analysis: (1) the order of items affects both the cognitive representation of the underlying dimension and the factor structure of the answers; (2) the different levels of cognitive sophistication of respondents affect their recognition of the concepts measur...

  2. Characterizing Hospital Workers' Willingness to Respond to a Radiological Event

    OpenAIRE

    Balicer, Ran D; Catlett, Christina L; Daniel J Barnett; Thompson, Carol B.; Hsu, Edbert B.; Morton, Melinda J.; Semon, Natalie L; Christopher M. Watson; Gwon, Howard S.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Terrorist use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD, or “dirty bomb”), which combines a conventional explosive device with radiological materials, is among the National Planning Scenarios of the United States government. Understanding employee willingness to respond is critical for planning experts. Previous research has demonstrated that perception of threat and efficacy is key in the assessing willingness to respond to a RDD event. Methods An anonymous online survey was used ...

  3. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders

  4. Responding to emergencies: how organization and management make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an observable and definable process that occurs during the course of responding to abnormal and emergency events at a nuclear power plant (NPP). An eight element process model of accident response was developed based upon review and analysis of an extensive volume of documentation and observation of emergency preparedness exercises at NPPs. Each of the elements of this process model involves collective action and consequently is influenced by the character and effectiveness of organizational factors. These preliminary factors include communication, decision making, management attention, organizational culture, standardization, and external relations. Research at additional NPP emergency preparedness exercises is ongoing and involves both active and passive data collection to further refine the communication, decision making, and organizational culture factors. The emphasis of the research is to characterize, based upon these organizational factors, the accident management transition from emergency operating procedures to the Technical Support Center. The results of this research will be used to develop specific guidance for the organizational factors that are to be included in NRC's Generic Letter on Accident Management and for NRC's audits of licensee accident management program effectiveness. In conclusion: The Brookhaven National Laboratory research team is continuing to demonstrate the measurement and evaluation of the preliminary organizational factors discussed above. This is being accomplished through a three-part research design. First, active data collection is being conducted by observing behaviors at two or more additional emergency preparedness exercises involving the transitions from emergency operating procedures to the Technical Support Center and then to the Emergency Operations Facility. These exercises are NRC, full - participation in nature and the scenarios used are more challenging from the cognitive standpoint. This will permit

  5. On operator strategic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Deeper and more detailed knowledge as to how human operators such as pilots respond, singly and in groups, to demands on their performance which arise from technical systems will support the manipulation of such systems' design in order to accommodate the foibles of human behavior. Efforts to understand how self-autonomy impacts strategic behavior and such related issues as error generation/recognition/correction are still in their infancy. The present treatment offers both general and aviation-specific definitions of strategic behavior as precursors of prospective investigations.

  6. Parents' difficulties as co-therapists in CBT among non-responding youths with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Thastum, Mikael; Nielsen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    No increased effect has been associated with parent involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for youths with anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and therapist experiences of CBT among non-responding youths with anxiety disorders, with a primary focus on...... parent involvement in therapy. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was applied to 24 sets of semi-structured interviews with families and therapists of anxiety-disordered youths who had not profited from CBT with parental inclusion. From the superordinate theme parents' difficulties acting as co...

  7. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) deletion in mice does not affect operant responding for food or cocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-22

    In this study we examined the genetic contribution of the D4R in food and cocaine self-administration using D4R mice. Mice were examined for operant responding to food pellets or intravenous cocaine. Compared to wild-type mice (D4R{sup +/+}), both heterozygous (D4R{sup +/-}) and knockout (D4R{sup -/-}) mice showed no difference in responding for food or cocaine. Our findings suggest that the D4R is not directly involved in mediating operant response behaviors for food or cocaine.

  8. Internal and external motivation to respond without sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonis, Suzanne C; Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2005-09-01

    Based on Plant and Devine's (1998) measures of Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice toward Blacks, new scales were developed to assess Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Sexism (IMS-S and EMS-S, respectively). The scales possess good psychometric properties. Providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, the IMS-S was strongly related to measures of sexism yet unrelated to measures of social evaluation. The EMS-S was modestly related to both sexism and social evaluative concerns. Providing evidence of predictive validity, participants who were either internally or externally motivated to respond without sexism rated sexist jokes more negatively in a situation discouraging sexism compared to participants low in both sources of motivation. However, only high IMS-S participants rated the jokes negatively whether the situation encouraged or discouraged sexism and whether their response was public or private. Implications for understanding the similarities and differences between sexism and racism are discussed. PMID:16055643

  9. Respondent uncertainty in a contingent market for carbon offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to provide additional empirical evidence of what explains respondent uncertainty in contingent valuation (CV) and how this in turn affects stated willingness to pay (WTP). Air travelers asked to pay a carbon travel tax to offset carbon emissions from flying were asked how likely it is that they will actually pay if the tax is voluntary. When changing the market compliance imperative from a mandatory carbon tax to a voluntary contribution, a third of all air travelers consider it unlikely they will actually pay their stated WTP amount. An ordered probit estimation approach is applied to identify the sources of respondent uncertainty. Besides the bid price, respondent sense of responsibility and belief in the effectiveness of the voluntary carbon market are among the main reasons for the experienced uncertainty. (author)

  10. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  11. ASA24® Instructions for Study Staff & Respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following documents have been created by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as resources for study staff and Respondents. Each resource is available as a ready-to-use PDF as well as in Word format to allow users to adapt the content as desired.

  12. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum....

  13. Responding to Student Unrest: A Guide for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James; Miller, William

    The aim of this essay is to help educators understand, respond to, and survive student militancy. The author analyzes the problem of student unrest; discusses programs for reducing militancy; and explains why student involvement is necessary and how it helps accomplish the purposes of education, stimulates interest, and reduces dropouts and…

  14. Mobilizing Community Strength: New York Art Therapists Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barbara Ann; Berberian, Marygrace; Brigmon, La Shae V.; Gonzalez, Susan Natacha; Koepfer, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    After the World Trade Center terrorist attacks on 9/11/01, New York's art therapy community found itself faced with difficult political, professional, and emotional challenges. As volunteerism across this country responded to the need for assistance, many New York art therapists were on the front lines of a wounded and frightened city while…

  15. 49 CFR 1114.31 - Failure to respond to discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... governed by 49 CFR 1104.13. (2) Reply to motion to compel in stand-alone cost and simplified standards rate... filing of the reply to the motion to compel. Appeals of a Director's ruling will proceed under 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to respond to discovery. 1114.31...

  16. WS-009: EPR-First Responders: Personnel protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a laboratory explosion with radioactive material and a contamination risks by cobalt source. The first responder have to identify the incident commander, the type of response required, the risks of the emergency, the requirements for transporting the victims to the hospital and the actors involved in a radiological emergency

  17. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  18. Resources for Responding to Doomsday 2012: An Annotated Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Educators at all levels and in all settings are getting questions these days about the approaching "end of the world" catastrophes supposedly coming in December 2012. This resource guide provides a selection of useful resources for responding to student and public questions in this arena. The latest internet myth to gain traction is the notion…

  19. 40 CFR 2.103 - Responsibility for responding to requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility for responding to requests. 2.103 Section 2.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.103...

  20. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  1. Survey Shows Home Buyers Responding to Lower City Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Existing-home sales rose from the first quarter in 13 states, largely from buyers responding to discounted home prices. Nearly one-quarter of metropolitan areas showed rising home prices in the second quarter from a year ago,with greatly mixed conditions continuing around the country.

  2. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  3. Assessment of Respondent Acceptability for Preference Measures in Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M.; Bothe, Anne K.; Bramlett, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using one or more of four standard economic preference measures to assess health-related quality of life in stuttering, by assessing respondents' views of the acceptability of those measures. Method and results: A graphic positioning scale approach was used with 80 adults to assess four variables previously…

  4. First Responders: Community Colleges on the Front Line of Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although homeland security has gained prominence as a national focus and investment, it is clear that much of the most effective preparation must begin at local, state, and regional levels. This report reveals that an astonishing number of community colleges offer degree and certificate programs for first responders--law enforcement officers,…

  5. Responding to a Fiscal Crisis: A Data-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Trudy W.; Busby, A. Katherine; Kahn, Susan; Black, Karen E.; Johnson, James N.

    2007-01-01

    The Division of Planning and Institutional Improvement (PAII) at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis provides for the campus data for academic planning and management, assessment and evaluation services, and progress reports on mission-critical goals. To respond to a forecast fiscal crisis and support long-range planning for the…

  6. Radiological emergencies in public domain and role of first responder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While preparedness is existing for quick response to nuclear and radiological emergencies caused by the accidents at the nuclear facilities or during the transport of radioactive sources, concern on the misuse of radioactive sources is increasing world over. Malicious use of radioactive sources including explosion of Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) is considered to cause panic out of proportion. At national level, this calls for development of quick response capability through expert emergency response teams with DAE and other government agencies. Radioactive sources, if placed or exploded in public domain also may lead to radiation exposure or large area contamination and disrupt human life. To respond promptly and bring the situation under normalcy, large numbers of first responder teams are required to be trained in radiation monitoring, impact assessment and protection aspects. These teams should be kept in a state of readiness to respond to wherever these emergencies may arise. Based on the type of radiological emergency and area affected, emergency operations and action plans are to be executed. This paper discusses the role of first responders during radiological emergencies in public domain including suspected RDD threats. (author)

  7. Biblical behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L

    1996-07-01

    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving. PMID:8826763

  8. Reserpine differentially affects cocaine-induced behavior in low and high responders to novelty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, M.M.M.; Cools, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals are known to differ in their sensitivity to cocaine. Cocaine is known to inhibit the re-uptake of monoamines. The response to cocaine has also been found to depend on monoamines inside reserpine-sensitive storage vesicles. The present study examined the effects of reserpine (1-2 mg/kg) o

  9. The Behavioral Symptoms of Hyperkinetic Children Who Successfully Responded to Stimulant Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Douglas G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eighteen hyperkinetic boys (ages 5-12) who had a history of successful drug treatment with methylphenidate were compared with a similar group of normal controls on a series of objective measures of activity and attentional problems. (Author/DLS)

  10. Rule-governed behavior and sensitivity to changing consequences of responding

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Steven C; Brownstein, Aaron J.; Zettle, Robert D.; Rosenfarb, Irwin; Korn, Zamir

    1986-01-01

    Humans were presented with a task that required moving a light through a matrix. Button presses could produce light movements according to a multiple fixed-ratio 18/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 6-s schedule, with components alternating every 2 min. Moving the light through the maze earned points worth chances on money prizes. In Experiment 1 four conditions were assessed through between-subject comparisons: minimal instructions, instructions to press rapidly, instructions to press s...

  11. Survey sustainability Biomass. Appendix. Results of the international respondents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an array of strategies to combat climate change, biomass is being used increasingly as a substitute for fossil fuels. It is important that the sustainability benefits thus accruing to the Netherlands are not at the expense of sustainable development in producer countries. Against this background the 'Sustainable biomass imports' project group is developing a set of criteria for evaluating the sustainability of biomass projects. To assess support for such criteria, CE conducted an internet survey among the various stakeholders (NGOs, industry, government), drawing a total of 104 responses. This report presents all the results and conclusions of the survey, for each category of stakeholders and overall. Among the most striking conclusions are the following: The majority of respondents see a sustainability audit on biomass as feasible, provided the sustainability criteria are adequate for the purpose (68%); Almost all the respondents are of the opinion that such sustainability criteria should apply to all applications of biomass (90%); On the issue of whether these criteria should vary according to the producer region concerned, respondents were divided (50% for, 50% against); Many NGOs state there should be different sustainability criteria in force for different biomass flows (50%), in contrast to industry, which argues for a uniform set of criteria for all flows; Most respondents hold that any biomass criteria should apply to both subsidised and unsubsidised projects; At the same time, a sizable majority of respondents state that subsidisation of biomass projects should depend on the degree of sustainability (72%) and in particular on the CO2 emission cuts achieved, this being regarded as the single most important factor; When it comes to the issue of GMO, opinions differ markedly between NGOs and industry, with some 75% of NGOs wanting this aspect included, but only 10% of industry; Respondents also commented on a number of additional issues of their

  12. Behavioral Aspects of Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Ben; Lowe, Julian; Lynch, David

    2012-01-01

    Buyers sometimes exhibit seemingly “irrational” behavior with respect to prices and use socially embedded heuristics to simplify their purchase decisions. In some cases small changes in prices can lead to much larger than anticipated changes in sales and profitability. Sellers need to understand the heuristics consumers use, the situations in which they emerge, and recognize how they can respond in markets where information and knowledge of product attributes and competitive prices is increas...

  13. 78 FR 55064 - First Responder Network Authority Board Special Review Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration First Responder Network Authority Board Special.... Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting of the First Responder Network Authority Special Review Committee. SUMMARY: The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) Board Special ]...

  14. Emotion Control Values and Responding to an Anger Provocation inAsian-American and European-American Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Mauss, Iris B.; Butler, Emily A.; Nicole A Roberts; Chu, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined whether Asian-American (AA) versus European-American (EA) women differed in experiential, expressive, or autonomic physiological responding to a laboratory anger provocation and assessed the mediating role of values about emotional control. Results indicate that AA participants reported and behaviorally displayed less anger than EA participants, while there were no group differences in physiological responses. Observed differences in emotional responses were part...

  15. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS WITH RESPONDENT-DRIVEN SAMPLING DATA: A STUDY OF RACIAL INTEGRATION ON CAMPUS1

    OpenAIRE

    Wejnert, Cyprian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) as a viable method of sampling and analyzing social networks with survey data. RDS is a network based sampling and analysis method that provides a middle ground compliment to ego-centric and saturated methods of social network analysis. The method provides survey data, similar to ego-centric approaches, on individuals who are connected by behaviorally documented ties, allowing for macro-level analysis of network structure, similar to that s...

  16. Characteristics of the traumatic stressors experienced by rural first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regambal, Marci J; Alden, Lynn E; Wagner, Shannon L; Harder, Henry G; Koch, William J; Fung, Klint; Parsons, Carly

    2015-08-01

    First responders routinely experience work-related events that meet the definition of a traumatic stressor. Despite the high exposure to traumatic events, prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are relatively low. This discrepancy points to the potential value of identifying factors that distinguish those traumatic stressors that produce ongoing traumatic stress symptoms from those that do not. The present study surveyed 181 first responders from rural settings. A repeated-measures design was used to compare characteristics of traumatic stressors that were or were not associated with ongoing PTSD symptoms. A factor analysis revealed that distressing events were characterized by chaos and resource limitations. Consistent with contemporary models, two mediational analyses revealed that each event characteristic predicted peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic cognitions, which in turn predicted PTSD symptoms. Moreover, the effect of each event characteristic on PTSD symptoms was partially mediated by these cognitive processes. PMID:26188614

  17. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-02-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol and sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  18. Responding during reinforcement delay in a self-control paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, A. W.; Peña-Correal, T E

    1984-01-01

    Eight pigeons chose between a small, immediate reinforcer and a large, increasingly delayed reinforcer. Responding during the large-reinforcer delays was examined. During large-reinforcer delays, pecks on one key produced the small, immediate reinforcer; pecks on the other key had no effect. Thus, a pigeon could reverse its initial choice of the large, delayed reinforcer, or it could maintain its original choice. Pigeons that made a relatively high number of initial large-reinforcer choices t...

  19. Cost per responder of TNF-α therapies in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gissel, Christian; Repp, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors ranked highest in German pharmaceutical expenditure in 2011. Their most important application is the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective is to analyze cost per responder of TNF-α inhibitors for RA from the German Statutory Health Insurance funds' perspective. We aim to conduct the analysis based on randomized comparative effectiveness studies of the relevant treatments for the German setting. For inclusion of effectiveness studies, ...

  20. How do Analyst Recommendations Respond to Major News?

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Jennifer S.; Cornell, Brad; Landsman, Wayne R.; Rountree, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how analysts respond to public information when setting their stock recommendations. Specifically, for a sample of stocks that experience large stock price movements, we model the determinants of analysts’ recommendation changes. Using an ordered probit model based on all available IBES stock recommendations from 1993 to 1999, we find evidence of an asymmetry following large positive and negative returns. Large stock price changes are associated with more frequent change...

  1. Identifying responders and nonresponders to interferon therapy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosperini L

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Luca Prosperini,1 Marco Capobianco,2 Costanza Giannì31Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 2Regional Multiple Sclerosis Centre, University Hospital San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano, Italy; 3Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Interferon beta is a well established disease-modifying agent used for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Despite treatment, a relevant proportion of patients continue to experience clinical (ie, relapses, worsening of disability and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI activity. Early identification of responders and nonresponders to interferon beta is strongly recommended to select patients who need a prompt switch to another disease-modifying agent and to ultimately avoid accumulation of fixed disability over time. Detecting responders and nonresponders to interferon beta can be challenging, mainly because of the lack of a clear and shared clinical definition of response to treatment. Clinical features at the start of treatment should be considered as prognostic factors, but MRI parameters assessed during treatment, such as contrast-enhancing lesions or new T2-hyperintense lesions, may be sensitive markers of response to interferon beta. Quantitative scoring systems derived from a combination of relapses and MRI activity have recently been proposed as practical tools for use in the everyday clinical setting. Blood biomarkers, such as neutralizing antibodies to interferon beta and Myxovirus resistance protein A, provide further useful information for detecting responders and nonresponders to interferon beta. However, since the presence of neutralizing antibodies can only partially explain the nonresponse to interferon beta, biomarkers of interferon beta activity possibly related to the pathogenesis of the disease could represent a future step toward a tailored, long-lasting effective treatment against multiple sclerosis

  2. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital (“visual”) brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4–17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). ...

  3. Helping women respond to the global food price crisis:

    OpenAIRE

    Quisumbing, Agnes; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bassett, Lucy; Usnick, Michael; Pandolfelli, Lauren; Morden, Cheryl; Alderman, Harold

    2008-01-01

    "The current food price crisis has received widespread attention, but discussions to date have largely overlooked the gender dimensions of the crisis. More than 15 years of rigorous research on gender and intrahousehold resource allocation suggest not only that men and women will be affected differently by the global food crisis, but also that, as both consumers and producers, they will have different stocks of resources with which to respond to rising prices. Although the current situation c...

  4. Monitoring the exposure of "America Responds to AIDS" PSA campaign.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, E M; Jorgensen, C M

    1991-01-01

    The "America Responds to AIDS" campaign is the focal point of an integrated mass communications system for AIDS education and information dissemination developed by the National AIDS Information and Education Program of the Centers for Disease Control. Television and radio public service announcements are an integral part of the campaign. One measure of their success is the extent to which they are aired on both national and local levels. Since 1987, the total dollar value for air time donate...

  5. Lysosomal Adaptation: How the Lysosome Responds to External Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Settembre, C.; Ballabio, A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the importance of the lysosome in cell metabolism and organism physiology goes far beyond the simple disposal of cellular garbage. This dynamic organelle is situated at the crossroad of the most important cellular pathways and is involved in sensing, signaling, and transcriptional mechanisms that respond to environmental cues, such as nutrients. Two main mediators of these lysosomal adaptation mechanisms are the mTORC1 kinase complex and the transcription factor...

  6. Responding to PEPFAR - How NGOs navigate aid conditionalities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Stine Skoett

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to explore how two Ugandan NGOs, the Straight Talk Foundation and the Family Planning Association of Uganda have responded to and negotiated with the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Ascertaining a conflictual relation between the rights-based approach to HIV prevention for young people of the two NGO and the value-based approach by PEPFAR, it is demonstrated that this contradiction can to some degree be prevailed over through negotiation, assimi...

  7. Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

  8. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  9. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  10. Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice / Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.

  11. Investigating Empathy-Like Responding to Conspecifics’ Distress in Pet Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Faerber, Viola; Faragó, Tamás; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Empathy covers a wide range of phenomena varying according to the degree of cognitive complexity involved; ranging from emotional contagion, defined as the sharing of others’ emotional states, to sympathetic concern requiring animals to have an appraisal of the others’ situation and showing concern-like behaviors. While most studies have investigated how animals reacted in response to conspecifics’ distress, dogs so far have mainly been targeted to examine cross-species empathic responses. To investigate whether dogs would respond with empathy-like behavior also to conspecifics, we adopted a playback method using conspecifics’ vocalizations (whines) recorded during a distressful event as well as control sounds. Our subjects were first exposed to a playback phase where they were subjected either to a control sound, a familiar whine (from their familiar partner) or a stranger whine stimulus (from a stranger dog), and then a reunion phase where the familiar partner entered the room. When exposed to whines, dogs showed a higher behavioral alertness and exhibited more stress-related behaviors compared to when exposed to acoustically similar control sounds. Moreover, they demonstrated more comfort-offering behaviors toward their familiar partners following whine playbacks than after control stimuli. Furthermore, when looking at the first session, this comfort offering was biased towards the familiar partner when subjects were previously exposed to the familiar compared to the stranger whines. Finally, familiar whine stimuli tended to maintain higher cortisol levels while stranger whines did not. To our knowledge, these results are the first to suggest that dogs can experience and demonstrate “empathic-like” responses to conspecifics’ distress-calls. PMID:27124485

  12. Investigating Empathy-Like Responding to Conspecifics' Distress in Pet Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Faerber, Viola; Faragó, Tamás; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Empathy covers a wide range of phenomena varying according to the degree of cognitive complexity involved; ranging from emotional contagion, defined as the sharing of others' emotional states, to sympathetic concern requiring animals to have an appraisal of the others' situation and showing concern-like behaviors. While most studies have investigated how animals reacted in response to conspecifics' distress, dogs so far have mainly been targeted to examine cross-species empathic responses. To investigate whether dogs would respond with empathy-like behavior also to conspecifics, we adopted a playback method using conspecifics' vocalizations (whines) recorded during a distressful event as well as control sounds. Our subjects were first exposed to a playback phase where they were subjected either to a control sound, a familiar whine (from their familiar partner) or a stranger whine stimulus (from a stranger dog), and then a reunion phase where the familiar partner entered the room. When exposed to whines, dogs showed a higher behavioral alertness and exhibited more stress-related behaviors compared to when exposed to acoustically similar control sounds. Moreover, they demonstrated more comfort-offering behaviors toward their familiar partners following whine playbacks than after control stimuli. Furthermore, when looking at the first session, this comfort offering was biased towards the familiar partner when subjects were previously exposed to the familiar compared to the stranger whines. Finally, familiar whine stimuli tended to maintain higher cortisol levels while stranger whines did not. To our knowledge, these results are the first to suggest that dogs can experience and demonstrate "empathic-like" responses to conspecifics' distress-calls. PMID:27124485

  13. Called to respond: The potential of unveiling hiddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Black

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interested in exploring how personal stories and aesthetic modes of representing experiences can nudge open academic and educational spaces, this article/collection of particles seeks to document our encounters of being affected and called to respond to things the other has written and represented. As a way of engaging with questions about what research and research data might be and become, our attention has been drawn to stories and images from our lives that we have not shaken off – and to how, as we have opened these to the other, making once private moments public, our hiddens have morphed tenderly into a shared knowing and being. As we have acted on the call we have felt to respond we have found ourselves entering spaces of collaboration, communion, contemplation, and conversation – spaces illuminated by what we have not been able to – and cannot – set aside. Using visual and poetic materials we explore heartfelt and heartbroken aspects of our educational worlds and lives, to be present with each other and our (reemerging personal and professional meanings. We see the shared body (of work, of writing, of image that develops from the taking of brave steps and the risky slipping off of academic masks and language, as a manifestation of the trusted and nurturing spaces that can be generated through collaborative opportunities to gather together. These steps towards unveiling hiddens are producing in us and of us a friendship, fluency, and fluidity as we write new ways of becoming. In turn, we hope the uncovering and revealing of our dialogue in the public gathering of this journal might supports readers’ telling of their own life stories through what calls them to respond.

  14. Behavioral dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J H

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are often more debilitating than the motor manifestations. These occur both as primary manifestations of the disease and as drug-induced complications. While dementia and abulia are common problems that are not currently treatable, depression and psychosis often respond extremely well to medication. Phenomenology, pathology, and general approaches to treatment will be discussed. PMID:10785833

  15. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  16. The human cost of being a 'first responder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabjohn, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    It is curious that among all the literature published on emergency planning and business continuity, the impact on those individuals tasked with dealing with the human cost of disasters is rarely considered. Emergency service personnel are certainly considered a vital component of any response; heroes when outcomes are successful, valiant when they do their best but fail, and occasionally incompetent when the media think it makes a good story. This paper argues that human suffering carries a cost for both responders and society. PMID:23615066

  17. What information strategy responding to social needs should be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kunihiko

    With the contemporary social phenomena that people think much of diversity of value, they are concerned with differentiation from others. Consumers' tendency to seek unique goods is common to all, giving impetus to makers' attitude that they try to produce varieties of goods but small amount for each. Consequently, life cycle of goods has become smaller than ever, and rapid and creative information gathering and utilization have become essential when makers produce goods responding to consumers' need. The author discusses how information strategy should be worked in the comprehensive business activities, and how information should be located as the powerful management resource.

  18. A Case of Vascular Hemichorea Responding to Topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Ae Kim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although vascular chorea often comes into remission spontaneously, a few patients may remain with persistent movement disorder. Most movements respond well to neuroleptics as well as other antidopaminergic drugs, but some patients show poor responses to those neuroleptics. Topiramate is a widely used of broad-spectrum anticonvulsant possessing a complex mechanism of action. It has been proven to enhance gamma-aminobutyrate acid activity and to be effective in the control of other movement disorders. We describe a 63-year-old woman with intractable vascular hemichorea which was controlled with anti-convulsant, topiramate.

  19. Application of PLM processes to respond to mechanical SMEs needs

    CERN Document Server

    Duigou, Julien Le; Perry, Nicolas; Delplace, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    PLM is today a reality for mechanical SMEs. Some companies implement PLM systems very well but others have more difficulties. This paper aims to explain why some SMEs do not success to integrated PLM systems analyzing the needs of mechanical SMEs, the processes to implement to respond to those needs and the actual PLM software functionalities. The proposition of a typology of those companies and the responses of those needs by PLM processes will be explain through the applications of a demonstrator applying appropriate generic data model and modelling framework.

  20. Genes as early responders regulate quorum-sensing and control bacterial cooperation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelei Zhao

    Full Text Available Quorum-sensing (QS allows bacterial communication to coordinate the production of extracellular products essential for population fitness at higher cell densities. It has been generally accepted that a significant time duration is required to reach appropriate cell density to activate the relevant quiescent genes encoding these costly but beneficial public goods. Which regulatory genes are involved and how these genes control bacterial communication at the early phases are largely un-explored. By determining time-dependent expression of QS-related genes of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aerugionsa, we show that the induction of social cooperation could be critically influenced by environmental factors to optimize the density of population. In particular, small regulatory RNAs (RsmY and RsmZ serving as early responders, can promote the expression of dependent genes (e.g. lasR to boost the synthesis of intracellular enzymes and coordinate instant cooperative behavior in bacterial cells. These early responders, acting as a rheostat to finely modulate bacterial cooperation, which may be quickly activated under environment threats, but peter off when critical QS dependent genes are fully functional for cooperation. Our findings suggest that RsmY and RsmZ critically control the timing and levels of public goods production, which may have implications in sociomicrobiology and infection control.

  1. Positive extreme responding after cognitive therapy for depression: Correlates and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, Nicholas R; Strunk, Daniel R; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    "Extreme responding" is the tendency to endorse extreme responses on self-report measures (e.g., 1s and 7s on a 7-point scale). It has been linked to depressive relapse after cognitive therapy (CT), but the mechanisms are unknown. Moreover, findings of positive extreme responding (PER) predicting depressive relapse do not support the original hypothesis of "extreme" negative thinking leading to extreme negative emotional reactions. We assessed the relationships between post-treatment PER on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and these constructs: coping skills, in-session performance of cognitive therapy skills, age, and estimated IQ. Significant correlates were entered into a model predicting rate of relapse to determine whether these constructs explained the relationship between PER and relapse. The sample consisted of 60 individuals who participated in CT for moderate to severe depression. Results indicated the following relationships: a negative correlation between ASQ PER and IQ, negative correlations between DAS PER and performance of CT skills and planning coping, and a positive correlation between DAS PER and behavioral disengagement coping. IQ scores fully accounted for the relationship between ASQ PER and relapse. These results suggest two potential mechanisms linking PER to relapse: cognitive limitations and coping deficits/cognitive avoidance. PMID:27236074

  2. Improving Aspergillus niger as a production host through manipulation of pH responding transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Bruno, K.S.; Thykær, Jette;

    Altering fluxes for overcoming metabolic bottlenecks have traditionally been approached by genetic engineering of a single or few metabolic genes. This strategy struggles to overcome the subjacent regulation thus the outcome has frequently shown to be of limited success. Transcription factors have......., 2008). In the present study the effect of modulation of transcription factors in Aspergillus niger, which is an industrially important micro-organism used in various processes including organic acid and enzyme production, was investigated. The strategy described in this work focuses on regulation...... connected to pH. It was chosen as an important process parameter, due to its significant influences on both organic acid and enzyme production. A previous transcription analysis identified several putative transcription factors with pH responding behavior (Andersen et al., 2009). A number of these genes...

  3. Empathic-like responding by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to distress in humans: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custance, Deborah; Mayer, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    Empathy covers a range of phenomena from cognitive empathy involving metarepresentation to emotional contagion stemming from automatically triggered reflexes. An experimental protocol first used with human infants was adapted to investigate empathy in domestic dogs. Dogs oriented toward their owner or a stranger more often when the person was pretending to cry than when they were talking or humming. Observers, unaware of experimental hypotheses and the condition under which dogs were responding, more often categorized dogs' approaches as submissive as opposed to alert, playful or calm during the crying condition. When the stranger pretended to cry, rather than approaching their usual source of comfort, their owner, dogs sniffed, nuzzled and licked the stranger instead. The dogs' pattern of response was behaviorally consistent with an expression of empathic concern, but is most parsimoniously interpreted as emotional contagion coupled with a previous learning history in which they have been rewarded for approaching distressed human companions. PMID:22644113

  4. Random Walks on Directed Networks: Inference and Respondent-driven Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Malmros, Jens; Britton, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a method often used to estimate population properties (e.g. sexual risk behavior) in hard-to-reach populations. It combines an effective modified snowball sampling methodology with an estimation procedure that yields unbiased population estimates under the assumption that the sampling process behaves like a random walk on the social network of the population. Current RDS estimation methodology assumes that the social network is undirected, i.e. that all edges are reciprocal. However, empirical social networks in general also have non-reciprocated edges. To account for this fact, we develop a new estimation method for RDS in the presence of directed edges on the basis of random walks on directed networks. We distinguish directed and undirected edges and consider the possibility that the random walk returns to its current position in two steps through an undirected edge. We derive estimators of the selection probabilities of individuals as a function of the number of outgoing...

  5. The Sensitivity of Respondent-driven Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xin; Britton, Tom; Camitz, Martin; Kim, Beom Jun; Thorson, Anna; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in many scientific fields make inferences from individuals to larger groups. For many groups however, there is no list of members from which to take a random sample. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new sampling methodology that circumvents this difficulty by using the social networks of the groups under study. The RDS method has been shown to provide unbiased estimates of population proportions given certain conditions. The method is now widely used in the study of HIV-related high-risk populations globally. In this paper, we test the RDS methodology by simulating RDS studies on the social networks of a large LGBT web community. The robustness of the RDS method is tested by violating, one by one, the conditions under which the method provides unbiased estimates. Results reveal that the risk of bias is large if networks are directed, or respondents choose to invite persons based on characteristics that are correlated with the study outcomes. If these two problems are absent, the RD...

  6. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pia Ferraretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes. Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control received FSH (400 IU/day, while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control. Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria.

  7. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  8. Anxiolytic-like effects of leptin on fixed interval responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Susan M; Munn, Robert G K; McNaughton, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Leptin has been shown to affect energy homeostasis, learning and memory, and some models of anxiolytic action. However, leptin has produced inconsistent results in previous non-operant behavioural tests of anxiety. Here, we test the anxiolytic potential of leptin in an operant paradigm that has produced positive results across all classes of anxiolytic so far tested. Rats were tested in the Fixed Interval 60 Seconds (FI60) task following administration of 0/0.5/1.0mg/kg (i.p.) leptin or an active anxiolytic control of 5mg/kg (i.p.) chlordiazepoxide (CDP). By the end of the 14days of testing in the FI60 task, 0.5mg/kg leptin released suppressed responding in a manner similar to CDP, and 1.0mg/kg leptin produced a relative depression in responding, a similar outcome pattern to previously tested 5HT-agonist anxiolytics. This suggests that leptin behaves similarly to established serotonergic anxiolytics such as buspirone and fluoxetine; with the delay in development of effect during testing, and the inverted-U dose-response curve explaining the inconsistent behaviour of leptin in behavioural tests of anxiety, as this type of pattern is common to serotonergic anxiolytics. PMID:27180106

  9. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. PMID:25365629

  10. A Role for Science in Responding to Health Crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colf, Leremy A; Brothers, Reginald; Murata, Christina E

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises. These include pre-developing scientific capabilities to respond agnostically to threats, and disease-specific master question lists to organize and inform initial efforts. We are generating DHS-specific playbooks and tools for anticipating future needs and capturing requests from DHS components and our national and international partners, where efforts will also be used to refine and exercise communication and information-sharing practices. These experiences and improvement efforts have encouraged discussions on the role of science in developing government policy, specifically responding to public health crises. We propose specific considerations for both scientists and government decision makers to ensure that the best available science is incorporated into policy and operational decisions to facilitate highly effective responses to future health crises. PMID:27482881

  11. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  12. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days. PMID:21303536

  13. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masse Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  14. The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure: Different cognitive deficits in different first-responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eLevy-Gigi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on first responders who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events report low levels of PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. However, neuroimaging and behavioral studies show that traumatic exposure is associated with brain and cognitive dysfunctions. Taking together it may suggest that traumatic exposure have a price, which is not sufficiently defined by the standard PTSD measures. In a recent study we revealed that similar to individuals with PTSD, non-PTSD highly exposed firefighters display a selective impairment in hippocampal related functions. In the current study we aimed to test whether different first responders display a similar impairment. We concentrated on unique populations of active duty firefighters and criminal scene-investigators (CSI police, who are frequently exposed to similar levels and types of traumatic events, and compared them to civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a hippocampal dependent cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context related information. We predicted and found that all participants were equally able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations. However, there were significant differences in reversal learning between the groups. Performance among firefighters replicated our prior findings; they struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. CSI police on the other hand showed a selective impairment in reversing the outcome of a negative cue. Hence after learning that a specific cue is associated with a negative outcome, they could not learn that later it is associated with a positive outcome. Performance in both groups did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression or behavioral inhibition symptoms. The results provide further evidence of the hidden price of traumatic exposure, suggesting that this price may differ as a

  15. Personal distress and the influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortensius, Ruud; Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous helping behavior during an emergency is influenced by the personality of the onlooker and by social situational factors such as the presence of bystanders. Here, we sought to determine the influences of sympathy, an other-oriented response, and personal distress, a self-oriented response, on the effect of bystanders during an emergency. In four experiments, we investigated whether trait levels of sympathy and personal distress predicted responses to an emergency in the presence of bystanders by using behavioral measures and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sympathy and personal distress were expected to be associated with faster responses to an emergency without bystanders present, but only personal distress would predict slower responses to an emergency with bystanders present. The results of a cued reaction time task showed that people who reported higher levels of personal distress and sympathy responded faster to an emergency without bystanders (Exp. 1). In contrast to our predictions, perspective taking but not personal distress was associated with slower reaction times as the number of bystanders increased during an emergency (Exp. 2). However, the decrease in motor corticospinal excitability, a direct physiological measure of action preparation, with the increase in the number of bystanders was solely predicted by personal distress (Exp. 3). Incorporating cognitive load manipulations during the observation of an emergency suggested that personal distress is linked to an effect of bystanders on reflexive responding to an emergency (Exp. 4). Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of bystanders during an emergency reduces action preparation in people with a disposition to experience personal distress. PMID:27126708

  16. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    hypothesized that RSD trial responders and non-responders would react differently to gastric acid stimulation. Development of epigastric pain was expected in RSD trial responders after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment, but not during omeprazole treatment. In non-responders, epigastric pain was...... expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross...... not during omeprazole treatment. Results: The acid provocation test was positive in 43% (3/7) of responders compared to only 17% (2/12) non-responders. VAS-score changes showed trends towards a more pronounced symptom reduction during omeprazole treatment in responders compared to non...

  17. Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal conhecer em que medida as motivações interna e externa para responder sem preconceito frente aos negros se correlacionam com os valores humanos. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 308 pessoas da cidade de João Pessoa (PB, distribuídas entre estudantes do ensino médio e universitário, bem como pessoas da população geral. Estes responderam, além de questões demográficas, o Questionário dos Valores Básicos, Escala de Desejabilidade Social e a Escala de Motivação Interna e Externa para Responder sem Preconceito. De acordo com os resultados, a motivação interna se correlacionou de modo positivo principalmente com os valores suprapessoais, como maturidade, beleza e conhecimento. No caso da motivação externa, esta o fez unicamente com os valores de realização, destacando-se entre eles prestígio e privacidade. Estes resultados são coerentes com aqueles apresentados na literatura, que indicam a oposição entre os valores de igualitarismo (suprapessoais vs. ética protestante (realização para explicar o preconceito e as motivações para não apresentar este tipo de atitude.The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa - comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole - were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such

  18. Pregabalin in fibromyalgia - responder analysis from individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paine Jocelyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population mean changes are difficult to use in clinical practice. Responder analysis may be better, but needs validating for level of response and treatment duration. A consensus group has defined what constitutes minimal, moderate, and substantial benefit based on pain intensity and Patient Global Impression of Change scores. Methods We obtained individual patient data from four randomised double blind trials of pregabalin in fibromyalgia lasting eight to 14 weeks. We calculated response for all efficacy outcomes using any improvement (≥ 0%, minimal improvement (≥ 15%, moderate improvement (≥ 30%, substantial improvement (≥ 50%, and extensive improvement (≥ 70%, with numbers needed to treat (NNT for pregabalin 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg daily compared with placebo. Results Information from 2,757 patients was available. Pain intensity and sleep interference showed reductions with increasing level of response, a significant difference between pregabalin and placebo, and a trend towards lower (better NNTs at higher doses. Maximum response rates occurred at 4-6 weeks for higher levels of response, and were constant thereafter. NNTs (with 95% confidence intervals for ≥ 50% improvement in pain intensity compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 22 (11 to 870 for pregabalin 300 mg, 16 (9.3 to 59 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 13 (8.1 to 31 for pregabalin 600 mg daily. NNTs for ≥ 50% improvement in sleep interference compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 13 (8.2 to 30 for pregabalin 300 mg, 8.4 (6.0 to 14 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 8.4 (6.1 to 14 for pregabalin 600 mg. Other outcomes had fewer respondents at higher response levels, but generally did not discriminate between pregabalin and placebo, or show any dose response. Shorter duration and use of 'any improvement' over-estimated treatment effect compared with longer duration and higher levels of response. Conclusions Responder analysis is useful in fibromyalgia

  19. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Investigate the Determinants of Environmental Behavior among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrius Niaura

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have pointed out the importance to investigate the determinants of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among youth. In the present article, the Theory of Planned Behavior is used to examine the gap between the environmental attitudes and the actual behavior of young people. A survey was conducted online among the respondents aged 17-36 (in total 459). The results of this study showed the relationship between the respondents’ behavior and intentions which was twic...

  20. Bonobos Respond to Distress in Others: Consolation across the Age Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Zanna; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2013-01-01

    How animals respond to conflict provides key insights into the evolution of socio-cognitive and emotional capacities. Evidence from apes has shown that, after social conflicts, bystanders approach victims of aggression to offer stress-alleviating contact behavior, a phenomenon known as consolation. This other-orientated behavior depends on sensitivity to the other's emotional state, whereby the consoler acts to ameliorate the other's situation. We examined post-conflict interactions in bonobos (Pan paniscus) to identify the determinants of consolation and reconciliation. Thirty-six semi-free bonobos of all ages were observed at the Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary, DR Congo, using standardized Post-conflict/Matched Control methods. Across age and sex classes, bonobos consoled victims and reconciled after conflicts using a suite of affiliative and socio-sexual behaviors including embracing, touching, and mounting. Juveniles were more likely to console than adults, challenging the assumption that comfort-giving rests on advanced cognitive mechanisms that emerge only with age. Mother-reared individuals were more likely to console than orphans, highlighting the role of rearing in emotional development. Consistent with previous studies, bystanders were more likely to console relatives or closely bonded partners. Effects of kinship, affiliation and rearing were similarly indicated in patterns of reconciliation. Nearby bystanders were significantly more likely to contact victims than more distal ones, and consolation was more likely in non-food contexts than during feeding. The results did not provide convincing evidence that bystander contacts served for self-protection or as substitutes for reconciliation. Overall, results indicate that a suite of social, developmental and contextual factors underlie consolation and reconciliation in bonobos and that a sensitivity to the emotions of others and the ability to provide appropriate consolatory behaviors emerges early in development

  1. Geriatric Respondents and Non-Respondents To Probiotic Intervention Can Be Differentiated By Inherent Gut Microbiome Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja eSenan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Probiotic interventions are known to have been shown to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in geriatrics. The growing concern is the apparent variation in response to identical strain dosage among human volunteers. One factor that governs this variation is the host gut microbiome. In this study, we attempted to define a core gut metagenome which could act as a predisposition signature marker of inherent bacterial community that can help predict the success of a probiotic intervention. Methods and Results: To characterize the geriatric gut microbiome we designed primers targeting the 16S rRNA hypervariable region V2-V3 followed by semiconductor sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM. Among respondents and non- respondents the chief genera of phylum Firmicutes that showed significant differences are Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Eubacterium, and Blautia (q< 0.002 while in the genera of phylum Proteobacteria included Shigella, Escherichia, Burkholderia and Camphylobacter (q <0.002. Conclusion: We have identified potential microbial biomarkers and taxonomic patterns that correlate with a positive response to probiotic intervention in geriatric volunteers. Future work with larger cohorts of geriatrics with diverse dietary influences could reveal the potential of the signature patterns of microbiota for personalized nutrition.

  2. Assessing and responding to infant mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2013-09-01

    Early recognition of mental health problems in maltreated infants, coupled with tailored support to aid recovery, has the potential to offer significant benefits to a population whose needs have perhaps remained hidden in the past. All forms of maltreatment may adversely affect infant mental health, but perhaps none more so than emotional neglect. Universal contact with families with young children makes health visitors ideally placed to provide early support to this vulnerable group, but such practice requires considerable knowledge and understanding. This paper examines how emotional neglect can impact on an infant's mental health and explores how health visitors can assess and respond effectively to this key health need. Throughout, the term 'infant' is used to describe children from birth to age three. PMID:24133942

  3. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood. PMID:21639629

  4. Capacity of Old Trees to Respond to Environmental Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathan G. Phillips; Thomas N.Buckley; David T.Tissue

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] has increased dramatically within the current life spans of long-lived trees and old forests. Consider that a 500-year-old tree in the early twenty-first century has spent 70% of its life growing under preIndustrial levels of [CO2], which were 30% lower than current levels. Here we address the question of whether old trees have already responded to the rapid rise in [CO2] occurring over the past 150 years. In spite of limited data, aging trees have been shown to possess a substantial capacity for increased net growth after a period of post-maturity growth decline.Observations of renewed growth and physiological function in old trees have, in some instances, coincided with Industrial Age increases in key environmental resources, including [CO2], suggesting the potential for continued growth in old trees as a function of continued global climate change.

  5. Operant schedule transformations and human behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Lawrence, J B

    1997-09-01

    Behavioral momentum, which can be defined as the persistence of behavior under altered environmental contingencies, is derived from Newtonian physics and operant psychology, and has relevance to behavior therapy in terms of shaping strong behaviors and ensuring effective relapse prevention strategies. The present study investigated whether changing operant schedule contingencies affects how humans respond to different stimuli when reinforcement density is systematically manipulated. Fifteen subjects participated in a computer study, in which each of two keys in a baseline condition was associated with the same schedule of reinforcement, multiple variable interval schedules, the only difference being that one reinforcer was ten times larger than the other. After six sessions, the contingency schedule changed to either an extinction condition, a variable time schedule, or a changed variable interval schedule to assess how 'subjects' responses persisted when reinforcement contingencies were systematically changed. Results of this study were found to be consistent with the general predictions of behavioral momentum. Subjects not only biased responding in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, subjects showed continued biased responding. Implications for behavioral momentum for behavior modification and behavior therapy are discussed, and it is concluded that behavioral momentum has significant implications for designing new and comprehensive behavior change programs. PMID:9327296

  6. A tracking technology for security personnel and first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Phillip; Barzilov, Alexander; Paschal, Jon; Hopper, Lindsay; Music, Abe; Morgan, Timothy; Moore, Ryan; Pinson, Dudley; Schultz, Frederick; Maston, Michael J.; Kowalik, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Northwest Nuclear, LLC (NWN), the Applied Physics Institute (API) at Western Kentucky University, and Crisis Prep Services, LLC (CPS) have developed a tracking technology for first responders and security personnel based upon the AeroScout system (a product of AeroScout, Inc.) and technologies developed independently by NWN, API, and CPS. These systems provide location information using 802.11XXX architecture by measuring the time of arrival of packets from a set of active radio frequency (RF) tags to a set of location receivers. The system can track and graphically display the location on maps, drawings, floor plans or photographs of tagged items on any 802.11-compliant devices (PDAs, laptops, computers, WiFi telephones) situated both outside and inside structures. This location information would be vital for tracking the location of first responders, security, and other emergency personnel during rescue operations; particularly, under adverse conditions (e.g., fires). NWN, API, and CPS have been improving the precision of the location measurement to an uncertainty of 20 cm or 8 inches (under certain conditions) and also developing algorithms to increase the accuracy. NWN and API personnel have developed: 1) special tags which indicate tampering or sudden movement and transmit briefly under these conditions, and 2) permanent and portable systems which can be deployed rapidly. Additional software created by Crisis Prep Services, LLC allows response force personnel to be tracked and located inside a building in real time as well as use the software and tags as a training and rehersal system. The location of each person is depicted on a drawing of the building and is displayed on a laptop computer or any other browser capable device.

  7. For Their Sake: Recognizing, Responding to, and Reporting Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Becca Cowan

    This guidebook provides specific information about child abuse to recreational staff, camp staff, childcare workers, and others who provide programs and services for minors. Part I describes the prevalence and causes of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect; outlines physical and behavioral indicators that can alert staff…

  8. Some Effects of Magnitude of Reinforcement on Persistence of Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.; Hartman, Ellie C.; Jimenez, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The influence of magnitude of reinforcement was examined on both response rate and behavioral persistence. During Phase 1, a multiple schedule of concurrent reinforcement was implemented in which reinforcement for one response option was held constant at VI 30 s across both components, while magnitude of reinforcement for the other response option…

  9. Specific strategies: interventions for identified problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S A

    1990-12-01

    Negativism, complaining, underachievement, game playing, passive-aggressive behavior, and workaholism constitute a repertoire of problem employee behaviors that impact on the productivity and morale of the work environment. Responding appropriately to the employee who presents with any of these behaviors is a formidable challenge to the nurse manager. Understanding the etiology of unmet needs, psychosocial dynamics (as discussed in Chapter 1) and variety of interventions can empower the nurse manager to achieve success in these difficult interactions. PMID:2081113

  10. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  11. Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and How to Respond

    OpenAIRE

    Liverman, Diana; MacDonald, Glen

    2009-01-01

    Diana Liverman explores the theoretical positions for reducing greenhouse gas emissions including “earth-system management”, cap and trade policies, individual and community behavioral change, political economy of carbon governance (“carbon capitalism”), and government regulation and incentives. She supports a blending of the last three to produce “political ecology”. Liverman is critical of the Kyoto Accords but argues in favor of the Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] with some significant a...

  12. Responding to suicidal risks: bridging between research and clinical practice.

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, J.; Hickey, L.

    2012-01-01

    Here is an audio slideshow of a recent presentation by our Academic Director Dr John McGowan and regular supervisor Dr Lucy Hickey of Oxleas NHS Trust. This is based on a presentation they gave to the European Symposium of Suicide and Suicidal Behavior in September 2012. It offers a model for clinical decision making when confronted with the risk of suicide or self-harm.

  13. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self......The self-generated validity theory (Feldman and Lynch 1988) uses the following arguments: First, re-existing intentions may become more accessible in memory when the researcher asks the question. The measurement process thereby leads survey respondents to form judgments that they otherwise would...

  14. Factors That Impact the Ethical Behavior of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob; Berry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 182 college students in the midwestern and northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior of students. Success (in terms of grade point average) of students, and gender of the respondents, also significantly impacted ethical…

  15. The Impact of High School Teacher Behaviors on Student Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive student behaviors are of concern to every school in the nation. Discovering ways to help teachers prevent and/or respond to such student behavior is of great importance. This reported research sought to discover if and how teacher behaviors impact student aggression in the classroom. In doing so, the researcher did not set out to blame…

  16. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Keer; B. van den Putte; P. Neijens

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude, subj

  17. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement.

  18. Signal Network Analysis of Plant Genes Responding to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we irradiated Arabidopsis plants with various doses of gamma-rays at the vegetative and reproductive stages to assess their radiation sensitivity. After the gene expression profiles and an analysis of the antioxidant response, we selected several Arabidopsis genes for uses of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)' and conducted over-expression and knock-down experiments to confirm the radio sensitivity. Based on these results, we applied two patents for the detection of two RMG (At3g28210 and At4g37990) and development of transgenic plants. Also, we developed a Genechip for use of high-throughput screening of Arabidopsis genes responding only to ionizing radiation and identified RMG to detect radiation leaks. Based on these results, we applied two patents associated with the use of Genechip for different types of radiation and different growth stages. Also, we conducted co-expression network study of specific expressed probes against gamma-ray stress and identified expressed patterns of duplicated genes formed by whole/500kb segmental genome duplication

  19. Students vs. Jurors: Responding to Enhanced Video Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Rossner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of visual media technologies used in remote witness testimony, examining whether it is suitable to use students as mock jurors when measuring the impact of new technologies. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial design explored how student status impacted ratings of the quality of the technology and remote witness facilities. A sample of 79 students and non-empanelled jurors from the Victorian Metropolitan County Court viewed direct questioning of four lay witnesses who testified from a remote location via standard or enhanced video technology. Students differed significantly from jurors in their attitudes towards media and technology. In responding to technology enhancements, students were similar in rating changes in the quality of the technology, but differed significantly in how they rated changes to the design of remote witness facilities. Students were thus a suitable sample to measure the effect of technological change in court on perceptions of technology, but not on perceptions of design. We conclude by stressing such technology enhancements can improve the quality of experience for all jurors.

  20. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation. PMID:24124344

  1. Respondent-driven sampling and an unusual epidemic

    CERN Document Server

    Malmros, Jens; Britton, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is frequently used when sampling hard-to-reach and/or stigmatized communities. RDS utilizes a peer-driven recruitment mechanism where sampled individuals pass on participation coupons to at most $c$ of their acquaintances in the community ($c=3$ being a common choice), who then in turn pass on to their acquaintances if they choose to participate, and so on. This process of distributing coupons is shown to behave like a new Reed-Frost type network epidemic model, in which becoming infected corresponds to receiving a coupon. The difference from existing network epidemic models is that an infected individual can not infect (i.e.\\ sample) all of its contacts, but only at most $c$ of them. We calculate $R_0$, the probability of a major "outbreak", and the relative size of a major outbreak in the limit of infinite population size and evaluate their adequacy in finite populations. We study the effect of varying $c$ and compare RDS to the corresponding usual epidemic models, i.e.\\ the...

  2. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liliana G Gigova; Natalia J Ivanova

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.

  3. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M.; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network. PMID:26679927

  4. Disgust sensitivity predicts defensive responding to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. PMID:25775230

  5. Chemical spill responder's use of website data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Response Team (ERT) of the US Environmental Protection Agency provides technical assistance to state and local government agencies. It has also provided hazardous waste and emergency response assistance to countries in North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. In order to address the increased level of involvement in multi-governmental response activities and counter terrorist incidents, ERT has developed a responder's technical assistance website. The site contains 6 links that can be divided into the following three information support areas: (1) generation information about ERT, (2) a response resources site which provides information regarding air sampling, monitoring plans, phytoremediation, and information related to oil spill incidents where physical and chemical properties of specific petroleum products are needed. The health and safety section of this site links to the Environment Canada Emergencies Science Division (ESD) website. The ESD site has a document entitled Properties of Crude Oils and Oil Products which provides information on Louisiana crude. This site also provides links to all Federal agency websites that have hazardous waste operations and emergency response requirements or guidelines, and (3) the Weather Information Program (WIP) and Response Operation and Validation Retriever (ROVR) service which provides interactive response pages for Federal on-scene coordinators, remedial project managers and the general public. This paper also described the next generation of ROVR and WIP interactive function involving real-time on-site air plume modeling

  6. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediate the Intention-Behavior Relation for Adherence and Exercise Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Sheeran, P.; Kok, G.; Hiemstra, A.; Prins, J.M.; Hospers, H.J.; Breukelen, G.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior re

  7. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Bruin; P. Sheeran; G. Kok; A. Hiemstra; J.M. Prins; H.J. Hospers; G.J.P. van Breukelen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior re

  8. 11 CFR 111.39 - When must the respondent pay the civil money penalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Commission's final determination under 11 CFR 111.37. (b) If the respondent submits a written... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must the respondent pay the civil money... (2 U.S.C. 437g, 437d(a)) Administrative Fines § 111.39 When must the respondent pay the civil...

  9. Predicting Classroom Achievement from Active Responding on a Computer-Based Groupware System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Deno, Stanley L.; Robinson, Steven L.; Marston, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The predictive validity of active responding on a computer-based groupware system was examined with 48 second graders. Results showed that active responding correlated highly with initial and final performance measures and that active responding contributed significantly to predicting final performance when initial performance was controlled.…

  10. Interaction in the Research Interview and Drug-Related Disclosures among Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Interviewers and respondents judged interview interactions during a survey of drug-related sentiments. Pronounced variability in interviewer-respondent judgements occurred in unanticipated ways related to gender, role, and ethnicity of participants. Positive interaction yielded different respondent cognitions and reports of illicit drug ingestion…

  11. Standardized Index of Shape (SIS): a quantitative DCE-MRI parameter to discriminate responders by non-responders after neoadjuvant therapy in LARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the potential of DCE-MRI to discriminate responders from non-responders after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We investigated several shape parameters for the time-intensity curve (TIC) in order to identify the best combination of parameters between two linear parameter classifiers. Seventy-four consecutive patients with LARC were enrolled in a prospective study approved by our ethics committee. Each patient gave written informed consent. After surgery, pathological TNM and tumour regression grade (TRG) were estimated. DCE-MRI semi-quantitative analysis (sqMRI) was performed to identify the best parameter or parameter combination to discriminate responders from non-responders in response monitoring to CRT. Percentage changes of TIC shape descriptors from the baseline to the presurgical scan were assessed and correlated with TRG. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and linear classifier were applied. Forty-six patients (62.2 %) were classified as responders, while 28 subjects (37.8 %) were considered as non-responders. sqMRI reached a sensitivity of 93.5 % and a specificity of 82.1 % combining the percentage change in Maximum Signal Difference (ΔMSD) and Wash-out Slope (ΔWOS), the Standardized Index of Shape (SIS). SIS obtains the best result in discriminating responders from non-responders after CRT in LARC, with a cut-off value of -3.0 %. (orig.)

  12. Standardized Index of Shape (SIS): a quantitative DCE-MRI parameter to discriminate responders by non-responders after neoadjuvant therapy in LARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Petrillo, Mario; Granata, Vincenza [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Radiology; Sansone, Mario [Naples Univ. ' ' Federico II' ' (Italy). Dept. of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering; Avallone, Antonio [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology; Delrio, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Gastrointestinal surgical Oncology; Pecori, Biagio [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Radiotherapy; Tatangelo, Fabiana [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy). Div. of Diagnostic Pathology; Ciliberto, Gennaro [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Giovanni Pascale - IRCCS, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    To investigate the potential of DCE-MRI to discriminate responders from non-responders after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We investigated several shape parameters for the time-intensity curve (TIC) in order to identify the best combination of parameters between two linear parameter classifiers. Seventy-four consecutive patients with LARC were enrolled in a prospective study approved by our ethics committee. Each patient gave written informed consent. After surgery, pathological TNM and tumour regression grade (TRG) were estimated. DCE-MRI semi-quantitative analysis (sqMRI) was performed to identify the best parameter or parameter combination to discriminate responders from non-responders in response monitoring to CRT. Percentage changes of TIC shape descriptors from the baseline to the presurgical scan were assessed and correlated with TRG. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and linear classifier were applied. Forty-six patients (62.2 %) were classified as responders, while 28 subjects (37.8 %) were considered as non-responders. sqMRI reached a sensitivity of 93.5 % and a specificity of 82.1 % combining the percentage change in Maximum Signal Difference (ΔMSD) and Wash-out Slope (ΔWOS), the Standardized Index of Shape (SIS). SIS obtains the best result in discriminating responders from non-responders after CRT in LARC, with a cut-off value of -3.0 %. (orig.)

  13. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Tyack

    Full Text Available Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by

  14. Context-aware event detection smartphone application for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Dave, Rakesh P.; McCartney, Matt; West, James A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    The rise of social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc…, have provided seamless sharing of information (as chat, video and other media) among its user community on a global scale. Further, the proliferation of the smartphones and their connectivity networks has powered the ordinary individuals to share and acquire information regarding the events happening in his/her immediate vicinity in a real-time fashion. This human-centric sensed data being generated in "human-as-sensor" approach is tremendously valuable as it delivered mostly with apt annotations and ground truth that would be missing in traditional machine-centric sensors, besides high redundancy factor (same data thru multiple users). Further, when appropriately employed this real-time data can support in detecting localized events like fire, accidents, shooting, etc…, as they unfold and pin-point individuals being affected by those events. This spatiotemporal information, when made available for first responders in the event vicinity (or approaching it) can greatly assist them to make effective decisions to protect property and life in a timely fashion. In this vein, under SATE and YATE programs, the research team at AFRL Tec^Edge Discovery labs had demonstrated the feasibility of developing Smartphone applications, that can provide a augmented reality view of the appropriate detected events in a given geographical location (localized) and also provide an event search capability over a large geographic extent. In its current state, the application thru its backend connectivity utilizes a data (Text & Image) processing framework, which deals with data challenges like; identifying and aggregating important events, analyzing and correlating the events temporally and spatially and building a search enabled event database. Further, the smartphone application with its backend data processing workflow has been successfully field tested with live user generated feeds.

  15. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  16. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in [3H]TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves

  17. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  18. Experience with pups sustains maternal responding in postpartum rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpen, B G; Fleming, A S

    1987-01-01

    In these studies, we investigated the sustaining of postpartum maternal responsiveness through pup experience. In the first study, females were tested for maternal behavior at various times after pregnancy termination by Caesarean section (CS) at term. The females remained rapidly responsive to young for 7 days after pregnancy termination, but were no more responsive than virgins after 10 days. In the second study, females were allowed varying times of complete access to pups, beginning 24 hours after CS, and were tested for maternal behavior 10 days later. Females who retrieved and cared for pups for 30 minutes during exposure, remained rapidly maternal 10 days after CS; those who were allowed only 15 minutes of caring for pups did not. In the third study, females received 24 hours of exposure to distal sensory stimuli from pups, beginning 24 hours after CS. The proportion of females who became maternal within 24 hours of the beginning of maternal testing, 10 days after CS, was greater than that among females who received no exposure to pups. PMID:3615654

  19. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  20. Rapamycin reduces motivated responding for cocaine and alters GluA1 expression in the ventral but not dorsal striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Morgan H; Quinn, Rikki K; Ong, Lin Kooi; Levi, Emily M; Smith, Doug W; Dickson, Phillip W; Dayas, Christopher V

    2016-08-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates synaptic protein synthesis and therefore synaptic function and plasticity. A role for mTORC1 has recently been demonstrated for addiction-related behaviors. For example, central or intra-accumbal injections of the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin attenuates several indices of cocaine-seeking including progressive ratio (PR) responding and reinstatement. These behavioral effects are associated with decreased mTORC1 activity and synaptic protein translation in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and point to a possible therapeutic role for rapamycin in the treatment of addiction. Currently, it is unclear whether similar behavioral and biochemical effects can be achieved by administering rapamycin systemically, which represents a more clinically-appropriate route of administration. Here, we assessed the effects of repeated, systemic administration of rapamycin (10mg/kg, i.p.) on PR responding for cocaine. We also assessed whether systemic rapamycin was associated with changes in measures of mTORC1 activity and GluA1 expression in the ventral and dorsal striatum. We report that systemic rapamycin treatment reduced PR breakpoints to levels comparable to intra-NAC rapamycin. Systemic rapamycin treatment also reduced phosphorylated p70S6K and GluA1 AMPARs within the NAC but not dorsal striatum. Thus, systemic administration of rapamycin is as effective at reducing drug seeking behavior and measures of mTORC1 activity compared to direct accumbal application and may therefore represent a possible therapeutic option in the treatment of addiction. Possible caveats of this treatment approach are discussed. PMID:27181066

  1. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  2. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  3. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  4. Differences in metabolomic and transcriptomic profiles between responders and non-responders to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Julien, Pierre; Barbier, Olivier; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated large within-population heterogeneity in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. The objective of the study was to compare metabolomic and transcriptomic profiles of responders and non-responders of an n-3 PUFA supplementation. Thirty subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with n-3 PUFA (3 g/d). Six subjects did not lower their plasma TG (+9 %) levels (non-responders) and were matched to 6 subjects who...

  5. Understanding how adolescents with autism respond to facial expressions in virtual reality environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Esubalew; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy; Crittendon, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-04-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by atypical patterns of behaviors and impairments in social communication. Among the fundamental social impairments in the ASD population are challenges in appropriately recognizing and responding to facial expressions. Traditional intervention approaches often require intensive support and well-trained therapists to address core deficits, with many with ASD having tremendous difficulty accessing such care due to lack of available trained therapists as well as intervention costs. As a result, emerging technology such as virtual reality (VR) has the potential to offer useful technology-enabled intervention systems. In this paper, an innovative VR-based facial emotional expression presentation system was developed that allows monitoring of eye gaze and physiological signals related to emotion identification to explore new efficient therapeutic paradigms. A usability study of this new system involving ten adolescents with ASD and ten typically developing adolescents as a control group was performed. The eye tracking and physiological data were analyzed to determine intragroup and intergroup variations of gaze and physiological patterns. Performance data, eye tracking indices and physiological features indicated that there were differences in the way adolescents with ASD process and recognize emotional faces compared to their typically developing peers. These results will be used in the future for an online adaptive VR-based multimodal social interaction system to improve emotion recognition abilities of individuals with ASD. PMID:23428456

  6. Parental Socialization of Emotion: How Mothers Respond to their Children’s Emotions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Ersay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several research studies suggest a link between parents’ emotion socialization and children’s social competence and behavior problems. Parents contribute to their children’s emotion socialization, more directly, through responses to their children’s emotions. Early emotion socialization experiences with parents establish patterns of emotion experience, expression, and regulation that children carry into their broader social circles. Few scales exist to document parents’ responses to children’s emotions. The aim of this study was to document mothers’ responses to their children’s sadness, anger, fear, and being overjoyed. A study sample of 868 mothers of preschoolers completed the questionnaire in Turkey. The validity and reliability properties of the Responses to Children’s Emotions (RCE Questionnaire were also examined. We found that mothers in Turkey preferred to respond differently to children’s different emotions. Mothers’ responses generally did not differ according to the gender of their children; the only difference was found for sadness. Mothers’ responses to their children’s emotions related to the children’s and mothers’ ages, monthly family income, levels of mothers’ education, mothers’ employment status, birth order of children, and the city they lived in. This study is important in that it is the first to document mothers’ emotion socialization strategies for their children in terms of one positive and three negative emotions.

  7. Humpback whale diets respond to variance in ocean climate and ecosystem conditions in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alyson H; Clark, Casey T; Calambokidis, John; Barlow, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Large, migratory predators are often cited as sentinel species for ecosystem processes and climate-related changes, but their utility as indicators is dependent upon an understanding of their response to environmental variability. Documentation of the links between climate variability, ecosystem change and predator dynamics is absent for most top predators. Identifying species that may be useful indicators and elucidating these mechanistic links provides insight into current ecological dynamics and may inform predictions of future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examine humpback whale response to environmental variability through stable isotope analysis of diet over a dynamic 20-year period (1993-2012) in the California Current System (CCS). Humpback whale diets captured two major shifts in oceanographic and ecological conditions in the CCS. Isotopic signatures reflect a diet dominated by krill during periods characterized by positive phases of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), cool sea surface temperature (SST), strong upwelling and high krill biomass. In contrast, humpback whale diets are dominated by schooling fish when the NPGO is negative, SST is warmer, seasonal upwelling is delayed and anchovy and sardine populations display increased biomass and range expansion. These findings demonstrate that humpback whales trophically respond to ecosystem shifts, and as a result, their foraging behavior is a synoptic indicator of oceanographic and ecological conditions across the CCS. Multi-decadal examination of these sentinel species thus provides insight into biological consequences of interannual climate fluctuations, fundamental to advancing ecosystem predictions related to global climate change. PMID:26599719

  8. Withholding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Withholding Behavior Page Content Article Body I got upset at ... a specific fear is the reason behind his behavior, demonstrate clearly in several different ways—through conversation, ...

  9. Behavioralizing Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shefrin, Hersh

    2010-01-01

    Finance is in the midst of a paradigm shift, from a neoclassical based framework to a psychologically based framework. Behavioral finance is the application of psychology to financial decision making and financial markets. Behavioralizing finance is the process of replacing neoclassical assumptions with behavioral counterparts. This monograph surveys the literature in behavioral finance, and identifies both its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, it identifies possible directions for behav...

  10. Behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, H L

    1995-01-01

    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  11. "False feigners": Examining the impact of non-content-based invalid responding on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form content-based invalid responding indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Danielle; Dragon, Wendy R; Smith Holbert, Ashley M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Mattson, Curtis A; Handel, Richard W; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2016-05-01

    Misinterpretation of non-content-based invalid (e.g., random, fixed) responding as overreporting or underreporting is likely to adversely impact test interpretation and could bias inferences about examinee intentions. We examined the impact of non-content-based invalid responding on the following Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) content-based invalid responding indicators: Infrequent Responses (F-r), Infrequent Psychopathology Responses (FP-r), Infrequent Somatic Responses (FS), Symptom Validity (FBS-r), Response Bias Scale (RBS), Uncommon Virtues (L-r), and Adjustment Validity (K-r). In 4 samples from which invalid responders were excluded, we systematically inserted increasing percentages of random, acquiescent, or counter-acquiescent item responses ranging from 0% to 100% and examined the impact that non-content-based invalid response styles had on the content-based invalid responding indicators. F-r, FP-r, FS, RBS, and L-r were susceptible to non-content-based invalid responding, whereas FBS-r and K-r were unaffected. Individuals with Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) elevations were removed, and the frequencies of content-based invalid responding elevations were then reexamined for false indications of feigning. Findings were consistent across samples and emphasize the need to screen for non-content-based invalid responding before screening for content-based invalid responding in the assessment of personality and psychopathology. VRIN-r and TRIN-r were useful in detecting most-but not all-cases of non-content-based invalid responding. A small but meaningful percentage of the remaining individuals were misclassified as overreporters (i.e., false feigners) by FP-r and FS. Clinicians should interpret FP-r and FS with some caution in the presence of moderate levels of non-content-based invalid responding. Post hoc examinations of scale characteristics indicated that the most

  12. Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Carmit

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  13. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  14. FirstAED emergency dispatch, global positioning of community first responders with distinct roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Finn Lund; Schorling, Per; Hansen, Bruno;

    2016-01-01

    roles in a team structure to reduce response times, ensure citizens' safety and offer equal possibility of early defibrillation. First aid is provided by community first responders who use their smartphone. FirstAED global positioning system (GPS)-tracks the nine nearby first responders and enables the......FirstAED is a supplement to the existing emergency response systems. The aim is to shorten the community first responder response times at emergency calls to below five minutes in a bridge connected island area. FirstAED defines a way to dispatch the nearby three first responders and organise their...... emergency dispatcher to send an organised team of three first responders with distinct roles to the scene automatically. During the first 24 months the FirstAED system was used 718 times. Three first responders arrived in ∼89% of the cases, and they arrived before the ambulance in ∼94% of the cases. First...

  15. Low- and high-cocaine locomotor responding rats differ in reinstatement of cocaine seeking and striatal mGluR5 protein expression

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Diana L.; Mandt, Bruce H.; Ng, Christopher M.C.; Richards, Toni L.; Yamamoto, Dorothy J.; Zahniser, Nancy R.; Allen, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral responsiveness to initial cocaine use varies among individuals and may contribute to differential vulnerability to cocaine addiction. Rats also exhibit individual differences in cocaine’s effects and can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively), based on their initial cocaine-induced locomotor activity (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Here, we used the extinction/reinstatement model to address whether or not LCRs and HCRs differ in (i) extinction/reinstatement ...

  16. WS-008: EPR-First Responders: Establishment of facilities and zones of response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a city explosion. The first responder have to identify the incident commander, the type of response required, the risks of the emergency, the requirements for transporting the victims to the hospital and the actors involved in a radiological emergency. The first responder have to know the time of the emergency, the number of potential victims, the equipment required and the responder number

  17. Empathic Responding in Toddlers at Risk for an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicole M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Empathy deficits represent an important social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about the early development of empathy prior to diagnosis. This study examined empathic responding to parental distress in toddlers at risk for an ASD. Children later diagnosed with an ASD engaged in less empathic responding at 24 and 30 months than children with no later diagnosis. Lower empathic responding was associated with higher autism symptomatology at 30 ...

  18. Relating Question Type to Panel Conditioning: A Comparison between Trained and Fresh Respondents

    OpenAIRE

    Toepoel, V.; Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A. H. O.

    2008-01-01

    Panel conditioning arises if respondents are influenced by participation in previous surveys, such that their answers differ significantly from the answers of individuals who are interviewed for the first time. Having two panels—a trained one and a completely fresh one—created a unique opportunity for analysing panel conditioning effects. To determine which type of question is sensitive to panel conditioning, 981 trained respondents and 2809 fresh respondents answered nine questions with diff...

  19. Flexibility of the incident command system to respond to domestic terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Favero, Gerald T.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis argues that the current Incident Command System (ICS) is inadequate for activating the National Guard Military Support Detachment - Rapid Assessment Initial Detection (RAID) Teams, which are vital for responding to domestic terrorism. The current ICS does not allow first responders to contact National Guard units directly during a WMD incident. First responders must send a request via their Emergency Operation Center (EOC), through the State Emergency Management Division (EMD), to...

  20. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 351.204 Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions. (a) Introduction... fiscal quarters (or, in an investigation involving merchandise imported from a nonmarket economy...

  1. School Lunch Source and Adolescent Dietary Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Babey, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As rates of childhood obesity rise, the nutritional content of lunches eaten at school is more heavily scrutinized. We examined the association between dietary behaviors and the number of days that adolescents bring lunch to school. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data for 2,774 adolescents who responded to the 2005 California Health Interview Survey and reported dietary behaviors for a weekday. Results In bivariate analyses, adolescents who typically brought their lunch from...

  2. Behavioral inhibition and PTSD symptoms in veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Catherine E.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental bias to respond to novel stimuli with avoidance behaviors, is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether BI accounts for additional variance in PTSD symptom severity beyond that accounted for by general anxiety. Here, 109 veterans (mean age 50.4 years, 9.2% female) provided self-assessment of PTSD symptoms, state and trait anxiety, combat exposure, and current (adult) and retrospective (childhood) BI. Adult BI was ...

  3. Kinetics Characteristics of Nitrogen Hydrates Respond to Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Liu, C.; Ye, Y.; Gong, J.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a high pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP DSC) based on thermo-analytical technique was applied to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics characteristics of nitrogen hydrates. Nitrogen hydrates was synthesized in the sample vessel under different pressures as temperature decreased from 293 to 233 K with a constant cooling rate of 0.2 K/min controlled by the DSC. To measure the hydrates dissociation enthalpies , the temperature was slowly raised up from 233 to 293 K at a constant rate ranging of 0.05 K/min. 1. Peak area on the heat flow curves represents the amount of heat during phase transition. In these experiments, the total water added to the sample vessel (mt) is already known. By integrating the peak areas of ice and hydrate, we know the total heats of ice (Qi) and hydrate (Qh), respectively. As the heat of ice per gram can be measured easily (336.366 J/g), the mass of ice (mi) can be obtain. Then, the dissociation heat of nitrogen hydrate per gram (Hh ) can be calculated by the equation: H(J/g)=Qh/(mt-mi) It is shown that the dissociation heats of nitrogen hydrates are a little larger than ice, but do not change a lot with different pressures. The average value of dissociation heat is 369.158 J/g. 2. During the DSC cooling stage, hydrate formed at temperature much lower than equilibrium. The biggest sub-cooling is about 291 K, while the smallest one is about 279 K. However, during these experiments, the pressure did not show obvious relationship with sub-cooling. It confirmed that even the proper conditions were achieved, formation was still a stochastic process. For one thing, due to the random distribution of dissolved gas in water, the interfacial tension and the water activity were not equal in the whole system. And if there was a free gas phase, which leads to different fugacity on water-gas interface, the stochastic behavior would be more significant in the sample vessel. 3. The energy released from hydrates formation as

  4. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  5. Addressing Children's Challenging Behavior: Teaching with Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Teachers encounter a variety of discipline issues in the classroom each day. One might wonder, "What are the reasons for these behaviors, and how should teachers respond?" Teachers want children to be successful in preschool and in life; therefore, the author asserts that they must acquire and teach the skills children need to develop socially and…

  6. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  7. Contrafreeloading, reinforcement rate, and behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina

    2016-07-01

    Contrafreeloading involves organisms working for food when an identical source of food is freely available. The present study assessed whether training reinforcement rates influenced contrafreeloading by arranging a within-subject and within-session design using pigeons. Across different alternating discriminative stimuli, variable-interval schedules arranged leaner (30 per hour) and richer (120 per hour) rates of food reinforcement. Responding decreased but persisted in the presence of free food during the session (i.e., contrafreeloading). Further, responding tended to be similar between components initially but greater persistence emerged in the richer component with additional exposure. With pre-session feeding, responding did not change systematically across test sessions and tended to be more persistent in the richer component. Greater persistence with greater training reinforcement rates is generally consistent with an influential theory of response persistence, behavioral momentum theory. However, the different patterns of responding across test sessions between pre- and within-session feeding reveals multiple behavioral processes involved in contrafreeloading that have yet to be fully understood. Behavioral momentum theory could provide a useful theoretical framework for understanding and quantifying the behavioral processes underlying contrafreeloading. PMID:27045696

  8. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  9. Financial Behaviors of Female Teachers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaimah R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the pattern of financial behavior among female teachers in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. A total of 325 female teachers was involved in the study. Questionnaires were used in the survey to collect data. Data on questions relating to socioeconomic background, financial knowledge and financial behavior were gathered. The financial behavior pattern was formulated using the 5-Likert scale and financial knowledge with the choice of either ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answer. The analysis showed four dimensions that were interrelated on the assessment measurement of financial behavior: i planning, ii cash flow management, iii saving and iv usage of credit card. Descriptive analysis includes t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the differences between the mean score of financial behavior across the factors such as age, level of education, monthly income and financial knowledge level. The findings showed the respondents had a substantial mean score in the four dimensions of financial behavior described above. The highest mean score was on the dimension of cash flow management which involve activities of paying bills and other expenses by installments. The findings also showed respondents aged more than 45 years old had good financial behavior in term of saving. In another word, as they grew older they cultivate better saving habit. The findings also showed that the respondents with the good financial behavior were among those who were good in saving their income. Further study is suggested to identify factors that influence the financial behavior among teachers. The financial behavior can describe the financial well-being of an individual or group which has an impact on the individual productivity level.

  10. Major histocompatibility complex-linked immune-responsiveness is acquired by lymphocytes of low-responder mice differentiating in thymus of high-responder mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female murine T cells can respond to the Y antigen of male cells by generating cytotoxic T-killer lymphocytes. Responsiveness is linked to several H-2 genes. Two types of low responders can be distinguished: the B10.A(5R)(H-2/sup i5/) strain, a low responder because it lacks Y-specific precursor T cells able to differentiate into cytotoxic T-killer cells; and the CBA/J (H-2/sup k/) strain, a low responder because it lacks Y-specific T-helper cells able to support differentiation of T-killer cell precursors. B10.A(5R) stem cells differentiating in an x-irradiated (CBA/J x C57BL/6) (H-2/sup k/ x H-2/sup b/)F1 host respond to Y antigen by generating T-killer cells whereas CBA/J stem cells do not. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that diversity of T-cell receptors is generated by somatic mutation of germ-line genes encoding specificity for self-H-2. A detailed account of this hypothesis is presented

  11. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Korbinian Riepl; Patrick Mussel; Roman Osinsky; Johannes Hewig

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders...

  12. 43 CFR 2.31 - How will DOI respond to my appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will DOI respond to my appeal? 2.31... OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.31 How will DOI respond to my appeal? (a) Appeals will be decided... will state the basis for DOI's decision as follows: (1) Decision to release or withhold records. (i)...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.232 - When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When must DOI respond to a request for reconsideration? 1000.232 Section 1000.232 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.232 When must DOI respond to a request...

  14. 43 CFR 2.32 - How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal? 2.32 Section 2.32 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT FOIA Appeals § 2.32 How long does DOI have to respond to my appeal?...

  15. 77 FR 27442 - Recruitment of First Responder Network Authority Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ..., integrating federal first responders and public-safety-related uses to maximize the efficiency of the new..., through NTIA, will accept expressions of interest from any individual or organization who wishes to... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Recruitment of First Responder Network...

  16. Empathic Responding in Toddlers at Risk for an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Empathy deficits represent an important social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about the early development of empathy prior to diagnosis. This study examined empathic responding to parental distress in toddlers at risk for an ASD. Children later diagnosed with an ASD engaged in less empathic responding at 24 and…

  17. The Role of Emotionality and Regulation in Empathy-Related Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Wentzel, N. Michelle; Harris, Jerry D.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses research on the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding (sympathy and personal distress). Links sympathy to intense emotionality and high regulation. Empathy-related responding is better predicted by a combination of emotionality and regulation than by either separately. Examples are…

  18. L-63: The IAEA response role in the radiological emergencies: Revision for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this conference is that the first responders have to know the IAEA role importance in a radiological emergency. The IAEA is prepared to provide assistance at the scene as well as medical treatment, mistake corrections, monitoring and respond to the media questions.

  19. Dogmatism and Externality in Locus of Control As Related to Counselor Trainee Skill in Facilitative Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Alfred F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesized that dogmatism and externality in locus of control are inversely related to skill in facilitative responding. Dogmatism and externality were measured by the Opinion Scale, and skill in facilitative responding was determined with the Gross Rating of Facilitative Interpersonal Functioning Scale. Results supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  20. Affective and Cardiovascular Responding to Unpleasant Events from Adolescence to Old Age: Complexity of Events Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Muller, Viktor; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the "overpowering hypothesis" as a possible explanation for the currently inconclusive empirical picture on age differences in affective responding to unpleasant events. The overpowering hypothesis predicts that age differences in affective responding are particularly evident in highly resource-demanding situations that…

  1. Understanding Why Students Participate in Multiple Surveys: Who are the Hard-Core Responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at survey response across multiple surveys to understand who the hard-core survey responders and non-responders are. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use the number of surveys…

  2. Random Responding as a Threat to the Validity of Effect Size Estimates in Correlational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Random responding to psychological inventories is a long-standing concern among clinical practitioners and researchers interested in interpreting idiographic data, but it is typically viewed as having only a minor impact on the statistical inferences drawn from nomothetic data. This article explores the impact of random responding on the size and…

  3. 78 FR 33072 - Recruitment of First Responder Network Authority Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... broadband network (PSBN) based on a single, national network architecture.\\4\\ FirstNet is responsible for... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Recruitment of First Responder Network Authority... (NTIA) issues this Notice on behalf of the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) as part of...

  4. A Writer-Respondent Intervention as a Means of Developing Academic Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharuthram, S.; Mckenna, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of a project in which a writer-respondent intervention was used to develop the academic literacy practices of students. Writer-respondent projects are based on the idea that detailed developmental comments and questions on students' draft writing can assist them in acquiring the peculiar norms of academic…

  5. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  6. Behavioral Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral finance is the study of how psychology affects financial decision making and financial markets. A valuable resource for both academics and practitioners, this authoritative collection brings together the main works in both psychology and finance, dealing with the debate between proponents of the behavioral school and advocates of the efficient market school. The first volume contains works written by leading psychologists that underlie behavioral finance, focusing on general issues...

  7. Behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

    2000-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  8. Assertive Behavior and Likeability in Elementary School Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnilower, Daniel A.; Gross, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    The social impact of assertive versus nonassertive behavior in fourth- and fifth-grade boys was investigated. Subjects viewed and evaluated eight videotaped scenes of different ten-year-old male models responding assertively or nonassertively to given situations. Results suggest that assertive behavior is valued by elementary school boys. (RDN)

  9. Attorney Attitudes Regarding Behaviors Associated with Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Georgia L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Prosecuting and defense attorneys across Indiana were surveyed concerning the acceptability of specific behaviors associated with child abuse. Among respondents (n=154) prosecutors had more severe judgments than defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as an explanation for these findings. (Author/DB)

  10. Behavioral sensitivity of temporally modulated striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Portugal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations into the neural mechanisms that underlie temporal perception have revealed that the striatum is an important contributor to interval timing processes, and electrophysiological recording studies have shown that the firing rates of striatal neurons are modulated by the time in a trial at which an operant response is made. However, it remains unclear whether striatal firing rate modulations are related to the passage of time alone (i.e., whether temporal information is represented in an “abstract” manner independent of other attributes of biological importance, or whether this temporal information is embedded within striatal activity related to co-occurring contextual information, such as motor behaviors. This study evaluated these two hypotheses by recording from striatal neurons while rats performed a temporal production task. Rats were trained to respond at different nosepoke apertures for food reward under two simultaneously active reinforcement schedules: a variable-interval (VI-15 sec schedule and a fixed-interval (FI-15 sec schedule of reinforcement. Responding during a trial occurred in a sequential manner composing 3 phases; VI responding, FI responding, VI responding. The vast majority of task-sensitive striatal neurons (95% varied their firing rates associated with equivalent behaviors (e.g., periods in which their snout was held within the nosepoke across these behavioral phases, and 96% of cells varied their firing rates for the same behavior within a phase, thereby demonstrating their sensitivity to time. However, in a direct test of the abstract timing hypothesis, 91% of temporally modulated “hold” cells were further modulated by the overt motor behaviors associated with transitioning between nosepokes. As such, these data are inconsistent with the striatum representing time in an “abstract’ manner, but support the hypothesis that temporal information is embedded within contextual and motor functions

  11. The Relational Responding Task: Toward a New Implicit Measure of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eDe Houwer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond true to the statement Flemish people are wiser than immigrants or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond true to the statement Flemish people are dumber than immigrants. The difference in performance between these two tasks correlated with ratings of the extent to which participants explicitly endorsed the belief that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants and with questionnaire measures of subtle and blatant racism. The current study provides a first step towards validating RRT effects as a viable measure of implicit beliefs.

  12. Visual avoidance in phobia: particularities in neural activity, autonomic responding, and cognitive risk evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Aue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the neural mechanisms and the autonomic and cognitive responses associated with visual avoidance behavior in spider phobia. Spider phobic and control participants imagined visiting different forest locations with the possibility of encountering spiders, snakes, or birds (neutral reference category. In each experimental trial, participants saw a picture of a forest location followed by a picture of a spider, snake, or bird, and then rated their personal risk of encountering these animals in this context, as well as their fear. The greater the visual avoidance of spiders that a phobic participant demonstrated (as measured by eye tracking, the higher were her autonomic arousal and neural activity in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and precuneus at picture onset. Visual avoidance of spiders in phobics also went hand in hand with subsequently reduced cognitive risk of encounters. Control participants, in contrast, displayed a positive relationship between gaze duration toward spiders, on the one hand, and autonomic responding, as well as OFC, ACC, and precuneus activity, on the other hand. In addition, they showed reduced encounter risk estimates when they looked longer at the animal pictures. Our data are consistent with the idea that one reason for phobics to avoid phobic information may be grounded in heightened activity in the fear circuit, which signals potential threat. Because of the absence of alternative efficient regulation strategies, visual avoidance may then function to down-regulate cognitive risk evaluations for threatening information about the phobic stimuli. Control participants, in contrast, may be characterized by a different coping style, whereby paying visual attention to potentially threatening information may help them to actively down-regulate cognitive evaluations of risk.

  13. The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Steensland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974, in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.

  14. Human Serum-Specific Activation of Alternative Sigma Factors, the Stress Responders in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang-Siegel, Gaoyan; Bumgarner, Roger; Ruiz, Teresa; Kittichotirat, Weerayuth; Chen, Weizhen; Chen, Casey

    2016-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a known pathogen causing periodontal disease and infective endocarditis, is a survivor in the periodontal pocket and blood stream; both environments contain serum as a nutrient source. To screen for unknown virulence factors associated with this microorganism, A. actinomycetemcomitans was grown in serum-based media to simulate its in vivo environment. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed distinct growth phenotypes only in the presence of human serum, and they were grouped into high- and low-responder groups. High-responders comprised mainly serotype c strains, and showed an unusual growth phenomenon, featuring a second, rapid increase in turbidity after 9-h incubation that reached a final optical density 2- to 7-fold higher than low-responders. Upon further investigation, the second increase in turbidity was not caused by cell multiplication, but by cell death. Whole transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq identified 35 genes that were up-regulated by human serum, but not horse serum, in high-responders but not in low-responders, including prominently an alternative sigma factor rpoE (σE). A lacZ reporter construct driven by the 132-bp rpoE promoter sequence of A. actinomycetemcomitans responded dramatically to human serum within 90 min of incubation only when the construct was carried by a high responder strain. The rpoE promoter is 100% identical among high- and low-responder strains. Proteomic investigation showed potential interactions between human serum protein, e.g. apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data clearly indicated a different activation process for rpoE in high- versus low-responder strains. This differential human serum-specific activation of rpoE, a putative extra-cytoplasmic stress responder and global regulator, suggests distinct in vivo adaptations among different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:27490177

  15. Assessment of community healthcare providers ability and willingness to respond to emergencies resulting from bioterrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous findings have demonstrated that preparedness and planning within the public health system are inadequately developed to respond to an act of biological or chemical terrorism. Methods:This investigation used Internet-based surveys to assess the level of preparedness (PL and willingness to respond (WTR to a bioterrorism attack, and identify factors that predict PL and WTR among Florida community healthcare providers. Invitations were sent to 22,800 healthcare providers in Florida, which resulted in 2,279 respondents. Results: Respondents included physicians (n=604, nurses (n=1,152, and pharmacists (n=486. The results indicated that only 32% of Florida healthcare providers were competent and willing to respond to a bioterrorism attack, 82.7% of providers were willing to respond in their local community, and 53.6% within the State. Respondents were more competent in administrative skills than clinical knowledge (62.8% vs. 45%. Areas in which respondents had the highest competency were the initiation of treatment and recognition of their clinical and administrative roles. Areas in which respondents showed the lowest competency were the ability to identify cases and the ability to communicate risk to others. About 55% of the subjects had previous bioterrorism training and 31.5% had conducted emergency drills. Gender, race, previous training and drills, perceived threats of bioterrorism attack, perceived benefits of training and drills, and feeling prepared were all predictors of overall preparedness. Conclusions: The findings suggest that only one-third of Florida community healthcare providers were prepared for a bioterrorism attack, which is an insufficient response rate to effectively respond to a bioterrorism incident.

  16. Essential readings for graduate students in behavior analysis: A survey of the JEAB and JABA boards of editors

    OpenAIRE

    Saville, Bryan K; Beal, Scott A.; Buskist, William

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed the editorial boards of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior and the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in an attempt to construct an essential reading list for graduate students in behavior analysis. Respondents were asked to list up to 10 behavior-analytic journal articles, 10 behavior-analytic books, and 5 non-behavior-analytic books or journal articles that they felt were essential readings. Several behavior-analytic books were listed by members of both edito...

  17. The song remains the same: Juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels do not respond differentially to mother's or colony member's alarm calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. HARE, Kurtis J. WARKENTIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alarm calls are emitted by Richardson's ground squirrels Urocitellus richardsonii in response to avian and terrestrial predators. Conspecifics detecting these calls respond with increased vigilance, promoting predator detection and evasion, but in doing so, lose time from foraging. That loss can be minimized if alarm call recipients discriminate among signalers, and weight their response accordingly. For juvenile ground squirrels, we predicted that the trade-off between foraging and vigilance could be optimized via selective response to alarm calls emitted by their own dam, and/or neighboring colony members over calls broadcast by less familiar conspecifics. Alarm calls of adult female Richardson's ground squirrels were elicited in the field using a predator model and recorded on digital audio tape. Free-living focal juveniles were subjected to playbacks of a call of their mother, and on a separate occasion a call from either another adult female from their own colony, or an adult female from another colony. Neither immediate postural responses and escape behavior, nor the duration of vigilance manifested by juveniles differed with exposure to alarm calls of the three adult female signaler types. Thus, juveniles did not respond preferentially to alarm calls emitted by their mothers or colony members, likely reflecting the high cost of ignoring alarm signals where receivers have had limited opportunity to establish past signaler reliability [Current Zoology 58 (5: 773–780, 2012].

  18. The song remains the same: Juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels do not respond differentially to mother's or colony member's alarm calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James F.HARE; Kurtis J.WARKENTIN

    2012-01-01

    Alarm calls are emitted by Richardson's ground squirrels Urocitellus richardsonii in response to avian and terrestrial predators.Conspecifics detecting these calls respond with increased vigilance,promoting predator detection and evasion,but in doing so,lose time from foraging.That loss can be minimized if alarm call recipients discriminate among signalers,and weight their response accordingly.For juvenile ground squirrels,we predicted that the trade-off between foraging and vigilance could be optimized via selective response to alarm calls emitted by their own dam,and/or neighboring colony members over calls broadcast by less familiar conspecifics.Alarm calls of adult female Richardson's ground squirrels were elicited in the field using a predator model and recorded on digital audio tape.Free-living focal juveniles were subjected to playbacks of a call of their mother,and on a separate occasion a call from either another adult female from their own colony,or an adult female from another colony.Neither immediate postural responses and escape behavior,nor the duration of vigilance manifested by juveniles differed with exposure to alarm calls of the three adult female signaler types.Thus,juveniles did not respond preferentially to alarm calls emitted by their mothers or colony members,likely reflecting the high cost of ignoring alarm signals where receivers have had limited opportunity to establish past signaler reliability.

  19. Elevated Circulating TNF-α in Fat-Free Mass Non-Responders Compared to Responders Following Exercise Training in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Fisher; C. Scott Bickel; Hunter, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences in inflammatory cytokines exist between fat-free mass responders versus non-responders following a combined resistance/aerobic training program in older women. Fifty women over 60 years old, mean BMI 27 ± 4 (kg/m2) and physically untrained, participated in a combined training program for 16-weeks. Body composition, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory markers (TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6) were assessed at baseline and 16-weeks post...

  20. Effects of d-amphetamine, WIN 35,428, pentobarbital and morphine on schedule-controlled responding in two inbred rat strains that differ in locomotor stimulatory effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J.M.; Goldberg, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    Behavioral effects of d-amphetamine, the cocaine analog, WIN 35,428, morphine, and pentobarbital were compared in NBR/NIH and F344CR1BR rats. Either nose-poke or lever-press responding was maintained under 3-min fixed-interval schedules of food presentation. The effects of morphine, WIN 35,428 and pentobarbital depended upon the rat strain studied: morphine increased nose-poke responding in NBR but not F344 rats; significant strain x dose interactions were observed with WIN 35,428; and pentobarbital was more potent in decreasing nose-poke responding in NBR than in F344 rats. No strain differences were observed in the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine. There were also prominent differences in the effects of drugs that were related to the nature of the response requirement. In both rat strains, nose-poke responding was affected differently than lever-press responding by morphine, d-amphetamine, and WIN 35,428. Pentobarbital produced effects that were independent of the specified response topography. A global underlying difference in these rat strains cannot be identified at present to account for the diversity of findings. The behavioral effects of these drugs appear to be influenced by a host of interactive factors including the drug, strain of animal, the baseline response rate and physical dimensions of the response. PMID:11224148

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  2. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment, but...... situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory is...... producing positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on...

  3. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  4. Stress-induced increases in avoidance responding: an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Francis X.; Kevin D. Beck; Ross, Richard J.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    One prominent symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is avoidance of stimuli reminiscent of the traumatic event. We attempted to study this aspect of PTSD in two experiments. Groups of rats received forty 3-s tailshocks, or served as home cage controls (HCC). Twenty-four hours later, all subjects received a 4-h session of leverpress escape/avoidance conditioning. In Experiment 1, shock periods in the absence of a response were 1 s; in Experiment 2 they were 30 s. No group difference...

  5. Speech Act of Responding to Rudeness: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Politeness conventions vary across cultures and so is impoliteness and rudeness. In some cases, what is considered rude in one culture or a society is not necessarily rude or impolite in another. This cannot be explained unless more studies on the use of language functions in a specific culture are conducted. The aim of this paper is to investigate Malaysians university students’ realization of responding to rudeness. For this purpose, 51 Malaysian university students at Universiti Sains Malaysia took part in this research. The respondents completed a Discourse Completion Task consisting of six situations in which they had to respond to an offensive or a rude language directed toward them. The findings were then analyzed using Beebe and Waring’s (2005 a coding scheme of responding rudeness to examine the type and use of strategies in responding to rudeness. Moreover, a post-structured interview was conducted to explore the respondents’ perception of politeness, cognition and language of thought (i.e. the language they think in their mind to produce response in the moment in responding to rudeness. The results showed that participants employ different strategies with variations in contextual variables (i.e. social distance and social status in their responses. The comparison of participants' production and perception in responding to rudeness provided significant results. It is hoped that the analysis of Malaysian university students’ responding to rudeness could add to the body of knowledge in pragmatics and speech act studies in general and to our understanding of Malays university students’ realization in responding to rudeness in particular.

  6. Elevated Circulating TNF-α in Fat-Free Mass Non-Responders Compared to Responders Following Exercise Training in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences in inflammatory cytokines exist between fat-free mass responders versus non-responders following a combined resistance/aerobic training program in older women. Fifty women over 60 years old, mean BMI 27 ± 4 (kg/m2 and physically untrained, participated in a combined training program for 16-weeks. Body composition, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory markers (TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6 were assessed at baseline and 16-weeks post-training. A significant time effect was observed for weight, %fat, fat mass, and all strength measures (p < 0.05. A group interaction was observed for TNF-α (p < 0.05, which revealed higher concentrations of circulating TNF-α at baseline (18% and post-exercise training (24% in non-responders compared to responders (p < 0.05. In conclusion, this study revealed a significantly greater concentration of circulating TNF-α in older women that do not increase fat-free mass following training.

  7. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  8. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sunhee; Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or...

  9. When approach motivation and behavioral inhibition collide: Behavior regulation through stimulus devaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Harm

    2008-01-01

    In the present article a theory is outlined that explains why and when behavioral inhibition alters stimulus evaluations. In addition, some initial evidence is presented that supports the theory. Specifically, results of three experiments show that refraining from responding to stimuli results in devaluation of these stimuli, but only when these stimuli are positive. These findings suggest automatic behavior-regulation, in terms of devaluation of positive stimuli, in situations in which envir...

  10. Promoting healthy behaviors in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Alves de Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the perception of education professionals regarding self-care behaviors displayed by preschoolers from the implementation of an education extension project as well as understand their difficulties in teaching self-care measures, assess their satisfaction with working conditions and the implementation of the education extension project. Methods: This is a descriptive, qualitative cross-sectional study conducted from September to December 2009 at the day care center “Children’s House” in Petrolina, PE. A semi-structured interview was performed with eight professionals of the day care center. Data were analyzed using content analysis with emerging themes that were interpreted based on the literature concerning the theme. Results: Respondents highlighted the change in children’s behavior relating to nutrition, oral and body hygiene; however, professionals lack skills and competencies to develop such actions. Conclusion: The respondents highlighted the change in children’s behavior regarding self-care measures, evidencing their satisfaction; however, it was verified that they lack skills and competencies doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p387

  11. Concurrent Reinforcement Schedules for Problem Behavior and Appropriate Behavior: Experimental Applications of the Matching Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Borrero, John C.; Bourret, Jason C.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated how children who exhibited functionally equivalent problem and appropriate behavior allocate responding to experimentally arranged reinforcer rates. Relative reinforcer rates were arranged on concurrent variable-interval schedules and effects on relative response rates were interpreted using the generalized matching equation.…

  12. Consumers' punishment and rewarding process via purchasing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nebenzahl, Israel D.; Jaffe, Eugene D.; Kavak, Bahtisen

    2000-01-01

    While there have been many studies of the ethical behavior of managers, little research investigated the ethical beliefs and ideologies of consumers. Moreover, even less is known about the relationship between consumer beliefs and ideology and purchasing behavior. The present study investigates the extent to which consumers punish or reward what they perceive as either a firm`s ethical or unethical behavior. The research model was tested on samples of Israeli and Turkish respondents. The resu...

  13. Modelling Signal Controlled Traffic Based on Driving Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wang; Yanyan Chen; Ning Chen

    2015-01-01

    In urban traffic, of particular interest the traffic breakdown which is primarily resulted from the driving behaviors is emerged to respond to the traffic signal. To investigate the influences of driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown, a cellular automaton model has been developed by incorporating a number of driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicle approaching a traffic light. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a road segment co...

  14. Readers Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Wig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is in response to the MSM theme monograph Academia-Industry Symposium 2007: Medical Practice and the Pharmaceutical Industry: And Ever the Duo shall Meet.I recall that it was just five years ago when you first wrote to me, informing me about the start of Mens Sana Monographs . I was excited because it was something new, something different that was happening in the field of mental health and philosophy in India.You have come a long way since then. In fact, it is amazing how rapidly MSM has progressed, as testified to by the present theme monograph. Your readers and contributors are no longer confined to India; you are now international in reach and outlook. Please allow me to wholeheartedly congratulate you. It is a remarkable achievement by any standard.The present volume is excellent in its design and contents. The two editorials by Jerome Kassirer and Joel Lexchin are outstanding and deeply thought provoking. The article by Martin Van Der Weyden is equally rewarding and has very useful information. The main monograph has been superbly, very competently, and comprehensively written by both of you.In the series "What Medicine Means To Me," I especially liked the piece by Helen Herrman. Her message of public health psychiatry is particularly relevant for developing countries.The book review of David Healy's book by Leemon McHenry is very refreshing and challenging. I congratulate you on your decision to publish it when other journals were still hesitating.And lastly, the obituary reference to my dear friend Dr. Ravi Kapur by Ajit Bhide and you were so touching; I cried all over again.So keep up your good work, dear friends. May God bless you and may you both achieve many more successes in your careers.

  15. How Does the PAC Respond to Changes in the Payment Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — How Does the Volume of Post-Acute Care Respond to Changes in the Payment Rate Measure the effect of changes from 1997 to 2001 in Medicares payment rates for skilled...

  16. L-045: EPR-First Responders: Evaluation of the risk and establishment of inner cordoned area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the risk evaluation knowledge by the first responders in a radiological emergency. They have to establish the inner cordoned area , identify dangerous symbols , devices, packages, radioactive source, material and equipment used

  17. L-037: EPR-First Responders: Action Guides commander of incident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the main action guides responses implemented by the incident commander in a radiological emergency. The public exposure, the contamination, the radioactive sources and suspicious material are important aspects to be considered by the first responders

  18. What If the Leukemia Doesn't Respond or Comes Back After Treatment? (AML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor about acute myeloid leukemia? What if acute myeloid leukemia doesn’t respond or comes back after treatment? For most types of acute myeloid leukemia If acute myeloid leukemia (AML) doesn’t go ...

  19. Behavioral economics and behavioral momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, J A

    1995-11-01

    Some relations between elasticity of demand and the conditions of reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of resistance to change, in ways suggested by the metaphor of behavioral momentum; some relations between resistance to change and the conditions of reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of elasticity of demand, in ways suggested by behavioral economics. In addition, some data on labor supply in relation to variable-ratio schedules and alternative reinforcement are reanalyzed in terms of resistance to change and compared with steady-state resistance data for performance on multiple and concurrent interval schedules. The results of these studies can be summarized by two functions based on the behavioral momentum approach, relating relative behavioral mass to relative reinforcement per response or per unit time. The former is a relation between relative unit price and relative behavioral mass, suggesting the possibility of convergent measurement of a theoretical construct common to both approaches. However, the momentum and economic approaches differ fundamentally on whether it is preferable to construe discriminated operant behavior as selected and strengthened by its consequences or as part of a behavior-consequence bundle that maximizes utility. PMID:16812775

  20. Does respondent uncertainty explain framing effects in double bounded contingent valuation?

    OpenAIRE

    Luchini, Stephane; Watson, Verity

    2008-01-01

    Many stated preference studies have reported framing effects in responses to valuation questions. This occurs when respondents use irrelevant information contained in a question to help them value the good. We investigate if respondent uncertainty can explain two commonly observed framing effects in contingent valuation studies. Specifically using a double bounded dichotomous choice elicitation format, we investigate anchoring (or starting-point bias) and the shift effect, which may indicate ...

  1. Toward Development of a Fibromyalgia Responder Index and Disease Activity Score: OMERACT Module Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mease, Philip J; Clauw, Daniel J; Christensen, Robin;

    2011-01-01

    outcome indices of these domains from archived randomized clinical trials in FM. Possible clinical domains that could be included in a responder index and disease activity score include pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbance, tenderness, stiffness, and functional...... impairment. Outcome measures for these domains demonstrate good to adequate psychometric properties, although measures of cognitive dysfunction need to be further developed. The approach used in the development of responder indices and disease activity scores for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing...

  2. Comparison of different ovarian hyperstimulation protocols efficacy in poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Linli; Bu, Zhiqin; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; ZHAI, JUN; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols have been proposed to improve IVF outcomes for poor ovarian responders. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age, ovarian hyperstimulation protocol and IVF/ICSI outcomes in poor ovarian responder (POR) according to the Bologna criteria, and to compare the efficacy of different protocols used in PORs undergoing IVF/ICSI. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 4875 IVF/ICSI cycles, including 592 cycles of women diagnosed with POR according to Bologn...

  3. Criticisms of the satiety hypothesis as an explanation for within-session decreases in responding.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, F K; Murphy, E S

    2000-01-01

    The authors of four papers recently reported that satiation provides a better explanation than habituation for within-session decreases in conditioned responding. Several arguments question this conclusion. First, the contribution of habituation to within-session changes in responding seems clearly established. Information that is consistent with habituation, but that is difficult to reconcile with satiation, is not adequately addressed. Second, the limited evidence offered in support of sati...

  4. Transcript Profiling Distinguishes Complete Treatment Responders With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Retana, Jorge; Lasa-Gonsebatt, Federico; Lopez-Urrutia, Eduardo; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Cantu de Leon, David; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Perez-Montiel, Delia; Reynoso-Noveron, Nancy; Vazquez-Romo, Rafael; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) mortality is a major public health concern since it is the second cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Patients diagnosed with locally advanced CC (LACC) have an important rate of recurrence and treatment failure. Conventional treatment for LACC is based on chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, up to 40% of patients will not respond to conventional treatment; hence, we searched for a prognostic gene signature able to discriminate patients who do not respond to th...

  5. Alterations in empathic responding among women with posttraumatic stress disorder associated with childhood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Parlar, Melissa; Frewen, Paul; Nazarov, Anthony; Oremus, Carolina; MacQueen, Glenda; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although studies increasingly point toward problems with social cognition among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have assessed empathic responding. The aim of the current study was to investigate empathic responding in women with PTSD related to childhood trauma, and the contribution of parental bonding to empathic abilities in this sample. Methods Participants with PTSD (n = 29) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) completed two self-...

  6. Determination of energy respond of dose monitor for environment round nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K-fluorescence reference radiations, low air kerma rate X-ray reference radiators, 241Am, 137Cs and 60Co γ-ray reference radiations established by China Institute of Atomic Energy are recommended. Instrument and method for exposure rate determination is described. Energy responds of BH3103A dosimeter are measured, the relative compound uncertainties of the energy responds are 3.5%. (authors)

  7. The ethics of everyday practice in primary medical care: responding to social health inequities

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer Victoria J; Furler John S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Results Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to...

  8. Cue-responding behaviours of oncology nurses in video-simulated interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Uitterhoeve, R.; Leeuw, J. de; BENSING, J; Heaven, C.; Borm, G; Mulder, P; van Achterberg, T

    2008-01-01

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to describe nurse-patient interactions, i.e. nurses' cue-responding behaviour in encounters with actors playing the role of patients. Background. Patients with cancer seldom express their concerns directly but express cues instead. Few studies empirically investigated nurses' cue-responding behaviour and the subsequent influence of disclosure of cues and concerns. Methods. In this descriptive observational study, conducted from April to June 2004, five o...

  9. Flexibility Now, Consistency Later: Psychological Distance and Construal Shape Evaluative Responding

    OpenAIRE

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Trope, Yaacov; Chaiken, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have long been interested in understanding the conditions under which evaluations will be more or less consistent or context-dependent. The current research explores this issue by asking when stability or flexibility in evaluative responding would be most useful. Integrating construal level theory with research suggesting that variability in the mental representation of an attitude object can produce fluctuations in evaluative responding, we propose a functional relationship betwe...

  10. Are non-responders in a quitline evaluation more likely to be smokers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilljam Hans

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In evaluation of smoking cessation programs including surveys and clinical trials the tradition has been to treat non-responders as smokers. The aim of this paper is to assess smoking behaviour of non-responders in an evaluation of the Swedish national tobacco cessation quitline a nation-wide, free of charge service. Methods A telephone interview survey with a sample of people not participating in the original follow-up. The study population comprised callers to the Swedish quitline who had consented to participate in a 12 month follow-up but had failed to respond. A sample of 84 (18% of all non-responders was included. The main outcome measures were self-reported smoking behaviour at the time of the interview and at the time of the routine follow-up. Also, reasons for not responding to the original follow-up questionnaire were assessed. For statistical comparison between groups we used Fischer's exact test, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI on proportions and OR. Results Thirty-nine percent reported to have been smoke-free at the time they received the original questionnaire compared with 31% of responders in the original study population. The two most common reasons stated for not having returned the original questionnaire was claiming that they had returned it (35% and that they had not received the questionnaire (20%. Non-responders were somewhat younger and were to a higher degree smoke-free when they first called the quitline. Conclusion Treating non-responders as smokers in smoking cessation research may underestimate the true effect of cessation treatment.

  11. Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

  12. CONSUMER SWITCHING BEHAVIOR FROM ONLINE BANKING TO MOBILE BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Chian-Son Yu

    2014-01-01

    Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resou...

  13. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  14. A Self-Administered Parent Training Program Based upon the Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Parents often respond to challenging behavior exhibited by their children in such a way that unintentionally strengthens it. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a research-based science that has been proven effective in remediating challenging behavior in children. Although many parents could benefit from using strategies from the field of ABA with…

  15. The attitude-behavior relationship in consumer conduct: the role of norms, past behavior, and self-identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Manstead, Antony S R; Louis, Winnifred R; Kotterman, Diana; Wolfs, Jacqueline

    2008-06-01

    The authors used a revised planned behavior model in the consumer domain. The revised model incorporated separate measures of descriptive and injunctive/ prescriptive norms, self-identity, and past behavior in an effort to improve the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985) in relation to a self-reported consumer behavior: purchasing one's preferred soft drink. At Time 1, respondents (N = 112) completed self-report measures of (a) attitudes, (b) perceived behavioral control, (c) descriptive and injunctive/prescriptive norms, (d) self-identity, (e) past behavior, and (f) intentions. The authors assessed self-reported behavior 1 week later (Time 2). Attitudes, injunctive/prescriptive norms, descriptive norms, past behavior, and self-identity were all positively related to purchase intentions, and intentions were predictive of self-reported behavior at Time 2. These findings highlight the utility of the TPB in the consumer domain. PMID:18605180

  16. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  17. Dissimilarities in behavioral responses of snakes to roads and vehicles have implications for differential impacts across species

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Kimberly M.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield

    2005-01-01

    Roads can act as a barrier to overland movement of animals by causing habitat fragmentation, disrupting landscape permeability, and having an impact on survivorship patterns and behavior. We conducted field experiments to determine how southeastern U.S. snake species with different behaviors and ecologies responded to roads. We attributed interspecific differences in how individual snakes responded to ecological and behavioral differences among the species tested. The probability that a snake...

  18. Who responds to placebos? Considering the "placebo personality" via a transactional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Margot; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is now recognised as a genuine psychobiological phenomenon; however, the question of how it can be systematically harnessed to improve health outcomes is not yet clear. One issue that remains unresolved is why some respond to placebos and others do not. A number of traits have been linked to responding, but findings are scattered. In extending prior work, this paper offers three considerations. First, attempts to describe the placebo responder via a single personality trait may be limiting. A synthesis of findings to date suggests placebo responsiveness may reflect a two-faceted construct, with "inward" and "outward" orientation representing the different but related facets of placebo responsiveness. Second, the lack of theoretically driven research may be hindering progress. Personality measures rather than personality theory appear to be driving research and higher order traits are descriptive tools with limited use in predicting behaviour. A biologically based stimulus-response model of personality that considers how individuals respond to certain environmental cues may be more appropriate. Third, a transactional model of placebo responding in which dispositional characteristics interact with environmental contingencies is presented. Responsiveness may manifest in placebo environments where there is a match between an individual's biological trait-like response systems and environmental contingencies. This type of model may be useful in both research and clinical settings. Systematic consideration of how different individuals might respond to different placebo environments might facilitate identification of stable individual characteristics predictive of responding. The ability to determine who is responsive to placebo treatments, and in what context, may enable the matching of individual to treatment, thereby maximising the effectiveness of treatment and minimising possible iatrogenic harm. In the increasingly overtaxed modern health care

  19. Fire fighters as basic life support responders: A study of successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Erika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background First responders are recommended as a supplement to the Emergency Medical Services (EMS in order to achieve early defibrillation. Practical and organisational aspects are essential when trying to implement new parts in the "Chain of Survival"; areas to address include minimizing dispatch time, ensuring efficient and quick communication, and choosing areas with appropriate driving distances. The aim of this study was to implement a system using Basic Life Support (BLS responders equipped with an automatic external defibrillator in an area with relatively short emergency medical services' response times. Success criteria for implementation was defined as arrival of the BLS responders before the EMS, attachment (and use of the AED, and successful defibrillation. Methods This was a prospective observational study from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 (28 months in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The BLS responder system was implemented in an area up to three kilometres (driving distance from the central fire station, encompassing approximately 81,500 inhabitants. The team trained on each shift and response times were reduced by choice of area and by sending the alarm directly to the fire brigade dispatcher. Results The BLS responders had 1076 patient contacts. The median response time was 3.5 minutes (25th percentile 2.75, 75th percentile 4.25. The BLS responders arrived before EMS in 789 of the 1076 patient contacts (73%. Cardiac arrest was diagnosed in 53 cases, the AED was attached in 29 cases, and a shockable rhythm was detected in nine cases. Eight were defibrillated using an AED. Seven of the eight obtained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Six of the seven obtaining ROSC survived more than 30 days. Conclusion In this study, the implementation of BLS responders may have resulted in successful resuscitations. On basis of the close corporation between all participants in the chain of survival this project

  20. Topiramate in the treatment of compulsive sexual behavior: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullino Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the multiple mechanisms of action of topiramate, AMPA/kainate antagonism may be particularly interesting for the treatment of disorders characterized by conditioned cognitive and behavioral cue reactivity. Case presentation We report the case of a patient consulting primarily for obesity and cue triggered snacking, who responded well on topiramate at doses up to 50 mg. Coincidentally he reported on an improvement of compulsive nonparaphilic sexual behaviors (consumption of prostitution, which was also strongly triggered by environmental cues. Both addictive behaviors (snacking and consumption of prostitution reoccurred after discontinuation of topiramate and again responded reintroduction of the drug. Conclusion The present case report of topiramate's effect on comorbid obesity and nonparaphilic addiction could be interpreted as a further indication that topiramate acts on the common pathway underlying conditioned behaviors and seems to be a treatment of behavioral disorders associated with environmental cues.

  1. Development, maternal effects, and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral, hormonal, and genetic processes interact reciprocally, and differentially affect behavior depending on ecological and social contexts. When individual differences are favored either between or within environments, developmental plasticity would be expected. Parental effects provide a rich source for phenotypic plasticity, including anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits, because parents respond to dynamic cues in their environment and can, in turn, influence offspring accordingly. Because these inter-generational changes are plastic, parents can respond rapidly to changing environments and produce offspring whose phenotypes are well suited for current conditions more quickly than occurs with changes based on evolution through natural selection. I review studies on developmental plasticity and resulting phenotypes in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi), an ideal species, given the competing demands to avoid predation while gaining sufficient weight to survive an upcoming hibernation, and the need for young to learn their survival behaviors. I will show how local environments and perceived risk of predation influence not only foraging, vigilance, and anti-predator behaviors, but also adrenal functioning, which may be especially important for obligate hibernators that face competing demands on the storage and mobilization of glucose. Mammalian behavioral development is sensitive to the social and physical environments provided by mothers during gestation and lactation. Therefore, maternal effects on offspring's phenotypes, both positive and negative, can be particularly strong. PMID:24820855

  2. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1993 - 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data are from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). All respondents to the BRFSS...

  3. Tackling Disrespectful, Unprofessional Provider Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    To address problematic provider behaviors that can affect patient safety, physician leaders at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) developed the Coworker Observation Reporting System (CORS), a systematized approach for retrieving and addressing concerns about providers reported by staff. To encourage staff members to report concerns, they have to trust that the organization is going to respond, and they also have to feel that they have a certain element of psychological safety. Selected peer messengers share staff complaints with providers, enabling them to offer their perspectives on the issues or events in question. Three years into the implementation of CORS, investigators found that the majority of providers self-correct their behaviors when reports about staff concerns are shared. Additional level 1, level 2, and level 3 interventions are built into the CORS system for providers who fail to self-correct after one or two reports. PMID:27295820

  4. Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkow P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phil Arkow National Link Coalition – The National Resource Center on The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence, Stratford, NJ, USA Abstract: The identification of a “battered pets” syndrome, which put the veterinary profession on a parallel footing with its counterparts in human medicine who respond to battered children, women, and elders, expanded the veterinarian’s role as an advocate for animals’ welfare to include the recognition of, response to, and prevention of animal abuse. Professional policies and legislation in several nations have been amended to define these responsibilities and delineate appropriate responses when animal maltreatment or other forms of family violence are suspected. This article reviews these changes, discusses abuse as a matter of animal welfare and public health, and summarizes research describing animal abuse as a possible indicator and predictor of interpersonal violence. Five steps that helped build human health care’s response to child abuse, domestic violence, and elder abuse, and that are analogous to forces in contemporary veterinary practice, are described. It familiarizes practitioners with terminology used in animal cruelty investigations. It describes clinical presentations, client profiles and behaviors, and environmental conditions that may raise a practitioner’s index of suspicion of possible animal maltreatment. It reviews protocols that practitioners may employ to respond compassionately and effectively to suspected animal abuse and enhance successful law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. Such responses can unite human and veterinary medicine in a common concern for vulnerable, victimized, and at-risk populations and position veterinarians as an essential part of public health approaches to break the cycles of violence affecting animals and human members of the family and community. Keywords: animal cruelty, animal abuse, neglect, reporting, animal welfare, domestic

  5. Consensus in landscape preference judgments: the effects of landscape visual aesthetic quality and respondents' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivoda, Ondřej; Vojar, Jiří; Skřivanová, Zuzana; Zahradník, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Landscape's visual aesthetic quality (VAQ) has been widely regarded as a valuable resource worthy of protection. Although great effort has been devoted to determining the factors driving aesthetic preferences, public consensus in judgments has been neglected in the vast majority of such studies. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze three main possible sources of judgment variance: landscape VAQ, landscape type, and variability among respondents. Based upon an extensive perception-based investigation including more than 400 hikers as respondents, we found that variance in respondents' judgments differed significantly among assessed landscape scenes. We discovered a significant difference in judgment variances within each investigated respondent characteristic (gender, age, education level, occupational classification, and respondent's type of residence). Judgment variance was at the same time affected by landscape VAQ itself - the higher the VAQ, the better the consensus. While differences caused by characteristics indicate subjectivity of aesthetic values, the knowledge that people better find consensus for positively perceived landscapes provides a cogent argument for legal protection of valuable landscape scenes. PMID:24594757

  6. Spatial Coding as a Function of Handedness and Responding Hand: Theoretical and Methodological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Isabel; Weiss, Peter H; Timpert, David C; Fink, Gereon R; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    The Simon effect shows that choice reactions are faster if the location of the stimulus and the response correspond, even when stimulus location is task-irrelevant. The Simon effect raises the question of what factors influence spatial coding. Until now, the effects of handedness, responding hand, and visual field were addressed in separate studies that used bimanual and unimanual tasks, providing inconclusive results. Here we aimed to close this empirical gap by looking at the effects of these variables in the same study. We used a unimanual version of a Simon task with four groups of participants: left-handed and right-handed, responding with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our results show that the Simon effect is substantially reduced in the field of the responding hand for all groups of participants, except for left-handed individuals responding with the left-hand. These findings highlight the importance of attention mechanisms in stimulus-response coding. They reflect that stimulus-response interference is influenced by hierarchical activation of response units. At a practical level, these findings call for a number of methodological considerations (e.g., handedness, responding hand, and visual field) when using stimulus-response conflict to address spatial coding and cognitive control functions in neurological populations. PMID:27031523

  7. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  8. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S.; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH; Zepf, FD

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals wit...

  9. Eating Disorder Behaviors Are Increasing: Findings from Two Sequential Community Surveys in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa J.; Jonathan Mond; Petra Buttner; Anita Darby

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents) and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents). Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metro...

  10. Eating Disorder Behaviors Are Increasing: Findings from Two Sequential Community Surveys in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa J.; Mond, Jonathan; Buttner, Petra; Darby, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. Methodology/Principal Findings Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents) and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents). Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropo...

  11. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  12. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  13. 77 FR 75299 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault... standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse and assault in DHS confinement facilities....

  14. Overview of Hazard Assessment and Emergency Planning Software of Use to RN First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, E; Millage, K; Blakely, W F; Ross, J A; Mercier, J R; Sandgren, D J; Levine, I H; Dickerson, W E; Nemhauser, J B; Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Homann, S; Buddemeier, B R; Curling, C A; Disraelly, D S

    2008-08-26

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear (RN) terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear (RN) events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators.

  15. Percentage of vestibular dysfunction in 361 elderly citizens responding to a newspaper advertisement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Michael Smærup; Grönvall, Erik; Mørch, Marianne Metz;

    2011-01-01

    Percentage of Vestibular Dysfunction in 361 Elderly Citizens Responding to a Newspaper Advertisement. Brandt M, Grönvall E, Henriksen JJ, Larsen SB, Læssøe U, Mørch MM, Damsgaard EM Introduction Elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction have an eight-fold increased risk of falling compared...... to other fall patients. We believe that elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction either don’t consult their GP or have been abandoned by their GP. The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of vestibular dysfunction among elderly citizens with complaints of dizziness responding to a newspaper...... advertisement. Method To recruit elderly citizens with dizziness we advertised in a local newspaper. A telephone interview with the respondents was done by a physiotherapist (PT). If the PT concluded that the reason for the dizziness could be vestibular dysfunction the citizen was invited to further...

  16. Dementia does not preclude very reliable responding on the MMPI-2 RF: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Dominic A; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) family of personality tests has long been used by psychologists, in part because it provides extensive information on the validity of patient responses. Although much of the research on MMPI validity indicators has focused on over-reporting or under-reporting symptoms, the consistency (i.e., reliability, a requirement for validity) of responding is also critical to examine. Clinicians tend to avoid using the MMPI-2 or the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) in patients with dementia based on the belief that severe cognitive impairment would make reliable responding impossible given the large number of items (567 and 338, respectively). In contrast with this belief we present the case of a 65-year-old woman with severe memory impairments and executive dysfunction due to a non-specific dementia syndrome who was able to provide remarkably consistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:24967883

  17. A Simulation Learning Approach to Training First Responders for Radiological Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Robert Lon [ORNL; Rhodes, Graham S. [Applied Research Associates, Inc.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of simulation learning technology, popularized by the emerging serious games industry, for training first responders to properly act in the event of a radiological emergency. Using state-of-the-art video game production tools and runtime engines as an enabling technology, simulation learning combines interactive virtual worlds based on validated engineering models with engaging storylines and scenarios that invoke the emotional response-and the corresponding human stress level-that first responders would encounter during a real-world emergency. For the application discussed here, in addition to providing engaging instruction about the fundamentals of radiological environments and the proper usage of radiological equipment, simulation learning prepares first responders to perform effectively under high stress and enables them to practice in teams.

  18. A Simulation Learning Approach to Training First Responders for Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the application of simulation learning technology, popularized by the emerging serious games industry, for training first responders to properly act in the event of a radiological emergency. Using state-of-the-art video game production tools and runtime engines as an enabling technology, simulation learning combines interactive virtual worlds based on validated engineering models with engaging storylines and scenarios that invoke the emotional response-and the corresponding human stress level-that first responders would encounter during a real-world emergency. For the application discussed here, in addition to providing engaging instruction about the fundamentals of radiological environments and the proper usage of radiological equipment, simulation learning prepares first responders to perform effectively under high stress and enables them to practice in teams

  19. Percentage of vestibular dysfunction in 361 elderly citizens responding to a newspaper advertisement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smærup, Michael; Læssøe, Uffe; Damsgaard, Else Marie;

    2011-01-01

    Percentage of Vestibular Dysfunction in 361 Elderly Citizens Responding to a Newspaper Advertisement. Brandt M, Grönvall E, Henriksen JJ, Larsen SB, Læssøe U, Mørch MM, Damsgaard EM Introduction Elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction have an eight-fold increased risk of falling compared...... advertisement. Method To recruit elderly citizens with dizziness we advertised in a local newspaper. A telephone interview with the respondents was done by a physiotherapist (PT). If the PT concluded that the reason for the dizziness could be vestibular dysfunction the citizen was invited to further...... Department, Aarhus University Hospital. Results 361 elderly citizens responded to the advertisement. 8 patients had alcohol problems, 14 had significantly impaired vision, 42 had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, 49 didn’t want to participate, 50 had evidence of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV...

  20. Overview of hazard assessment and emergency planning software of use to RN first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, E; Millage, Kyle; Blakely, William F; Ross, James A; Mercier, John R; Sandgren, David J; Levine, Ira H; Dickerson, William E; Nemhauser, Jeffrey B; Nasstrom, John S; Sugiyama, Gayle; Homann, Steve; Buddemeier, Brooke R; Curling, Carl A; Disraelly, Deena S

    2009-08-01

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators. PMID:19590274

  1. Data for First Responder Use of Photoionization Detectors for Vapor Chemical Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith A. Daum; Matthew G. Watrous; M. Dean Neptune; Daniel I. Michael; Kevin J. Hull; Joseph D. Evans

    2006-11-01

    First responders need appropriate measurement technologies for evaluating incident scenes. This report provides information about photoionization detectors (PIDs), obtained from manufacturers and independent laboratory tests, and the use of PIDs by first responders, obtained from incident commanders in the United States and Canada. PIDs are valued for their relatively low cost, light weight, rapid detection response, and ease of use. However, it is clear that further efforts are needed to provide suitable instruments and decision tools to incident commanders and first responders for assessing potential hazardous chemical releases. Information provided in this report indicates that PIDs should always be part of a decision-making context in which other qualitative and more definitive tests and instruments are used to confirm a finding. Possible amelioratory actions ranging from quick and relatively easy fixes to those requiring significant additional effort are outlined in the report.

  2. The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: the role of motivations to respond without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Patricia G; Plant, E Ashby; Amodio, David M; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Vance, Stephanie L

    2002-05-01

    Three studies examined the moderating role of motivations to respond without prejudice (e.g., internal and external) in expressions of explicit and implicit race bias. In all studies, participants reported their explicit attitudes toward Blacks. Implicit measures consisted of a sequential priming task (Study 1) and the Implicit Association Test (Studies 2 and 3). Study 3 used a cognitive busyness manipulation to preclude effects of controlled processing on implicit responses. In each study, explicit race bias was moderated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice, whereas implicit race bias was moderated by the interaction of internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice. Specifically, high internal, low external participants exhibited lower levels of implicit race bias than did all other participants. Implications for the development of effective self-regulation of race bias are discussed. PMID:12003481

  3. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  4. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  5. Anycast responder selection in mobile IPv6-based IPv6 global anycasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guosheng; Yu, Shaohua

    2007-11-01

    Abstract Mobile IPv6-based IPv6 Global Anycasting(MGA) proposed using Mobile IPv6 mechanisms to implement global IPv6 anycasting. The Correspondent Anycast Responder(CAR) selection in MGA can not assure that the selected Anycast Responder(AR) is the closest one to the Home Anycast Agent(HAA). We propose using round trip time(RTT) between HAA and the AR to select the CAR. Analysis and testing shows that this mechanism can achieve shorter response time than that in MGA.

  6. Intradermal hepatitis B virus vaccination for low- or non-responded health-care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumura,Satoshi

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses to hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine in six low- or non-responded health-care workers were tested with an intradermal low dose (5 micrograms of the recombinant vaccine. The injection was repeated three or four times at fortnightly intervals. These successive doses of the vaccine induced a high concentration of antibodies with delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH skin reactions in all six subjects. A few minor temporary side effects, such as irritation and itching at the injection site, were reported by some of the vaccinees. The results suggest low-dose of intradermal HBV vaccinations for low- or non-responders are safe and readily effective.

  7. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Silva Brignol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil, one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS. Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks’ structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  8. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  9. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  10. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  11. OPEC behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    This thesis aims to contribute to a further understanding of the real dynamics of OPEC production behavior and its impacts on the world oil market. A literature review in this area shows that the existing studies on OPEC still have some major deficiencies in theoretical interpretation and empirical estimation technique. After a brief background review in chapter 1, chapter 2 tests Griffin's market-sharing cartel model on the post-Griffin time horizon with a simultaneous system of equations, and an innovative hypothesis of OPEC's behavior (Saudi Arabia in particular) is then proposed based on the estimation results. Chapter 3 first provides a conceptual analysis of OPEC behavior under the framework of non-cooperative collusion with imperfect information. An empirical model is then constructed and estimated. The results of the empirical studies in this thesis strongly support the hypothesis that OPEC has operated as a market-sharing cartel since the early 1980s. In addition, the results also provide some support of the theory of non-cooperative collusion under imperfect information. OPEC members collude under normal circumstances and behave competitively at times in response to imperfect market signals of cartel compliance and some internal attributes. Periodic joint competition conduct plays an important role in sustaining the collusion in the long run. Saudi Arabia acts as the leader of the cartel, accommodating intermediate unfavorable market development and punishing others with a tit-for-tat strategy in extreme circumstances.

  12. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  13. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  14. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: edclotfelter@amherst.edu; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  15. 77 FR 64531 - Notice of Availability of Guidance for Protecting Responders' Health During the First Week...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Responders' Health During the First Week Following a Wide-Area Anthrax Attack.'' 74 FR 55246. DHS solicited...), July 23, 2010, regarding the ``Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States.'' To access the public... Following a Wide-Area Aerosol Anthrax Attack AGENCY: Office of Health Affairs, DHS. ACTION: Notice...

  16. SUNCT syndrome responding absolutely to steroids in two cases with different etiologies

    OpenAIRE

    de Lourdes Figuerola, María; Bruera, Osvaldo; Pozzo, María Josefina; Leston, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    SUNCT is a syndrome of short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. We are presenting now two cases absolutely responders to steroid therapy, one of them a SUNCT-like secondary to a prolactinoma and the other primary.

  17. Climate change and pastoralists: investing in people to respond to adversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced; Cotula, Lorenzo

    2006-10-15

    While climatic fluctuations have always been a defining feature of dryland areas, and pastoralists have developed resilient livelihood systems to cope with difficult climates, global climate change is raising new challenges for pastoral systems in Africa and elsewhere. Action at local, national and international levels is needed to prevent destitution and help pastoral groups respond to the changing environment.

  18. Confusion, Crisis, and Opportunity: Professional School Counselors' Role in Responding to Student Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Cynthia; Grothaus, Tim; Craigen, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    With the array of challenges facing today's youth, school counselors are in a unique position to recognize and respond to the diverse mental health needs of students. After a brief examination of the challenges and some promising responses, this article will consider the use of advocacy, collaboration, and professional development to aid school…

  19. The Effect of Delayed Responding on Stroop-Like Task Performance among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Derek E.; Fosco, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Forty-four preschoolers completed 2 conditions of a Stroop-like procedure (e.g., saying "boat" for car and "car" for boat) that differed in whether a 3-s delay was imposed before responding. The test card was visible during the delay period for half of the children and occluded for the other children. Preschoolers' interference control was…

  20. Navigating the niche. Three markets respond to the influx of specialty facilities--Indianapolis, Phoenix, Columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jan; Scalise, Dagmara; Thrall, Terese Hudson; Haugh, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Specialty centers that focus on lucrative services such as cardiology and orthopedics pose a challenge to full-service hospitals in already crowded health care markets. We examine how hospitals in three markets have responded, from aggressively working to keep niche facilities from gaining a foothold to partnering with physicians on their own centers. PMID:12197035

  1. Rebuilding the Bridge: An Arab-American Art Therapist Responds to 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Hala L.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a personal account of how one bicultural art therapist responded to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Highlighted are her roles in a workshop for mothers and children and assisting in schools as a facilitator. (Contains 12 references.) (GCP)

  2. 75 FR 16096 - New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New England Power Generators Association Inc., Complainant v. ISO New England Inc., Respondent; ISO New England Inc. and New England Power Pool; Notice of Complaint March 24... Generators Association Inc. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against ISO New England Inc....

  3. 24 CFR 15.106 - How will HUD respond to my request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in accordance with the provisions of FOIA and this part. (b) What type of response will I receive... whom you should submit your appeal. (3) Tell you that HUD's estimate of the fee is more than you have... of your right to appeal. (c) What action may HUD take if I fail to respond? If you fail to...

  4. Resistance to Change of Responding Maintained by Unsignaled Delays to Reinforcement: A Response-Bout Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Ward, Ryan D.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that unsignaled delayed reinforcement decreases response rates and resistance to change. However, the effects of different delays to reinforcement on underlying response structure have not been investigated in conjunction with tests of resistance to change. In the present experiment, pigeons responded on a…

  5. Design of a game-based pre-hospital resuscitation training for first responders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Schmitz, Birgit; Biermann, Henning; Klemke, Roland; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M., Schmitz, B., Biermann, H., Klemke, R., Ternier, S., & Specht, M. (2013). Design of a game-based pre-hospital resuscitation training for first responders. In A. Holzinger, M. Ziefle, & V. Glavinić (Eds.), SouthCHI 2013, LNCS 7946 (pp. 363-372). Germany: Springer, Heidelberg.

  6. 76 FR 6247 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... victims of sexual abuse. III. The Department's Prior Request for Comments On March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11077... Against Persons with Limited English Proficiency, 65 FR 50123. Pursuant to Executive Order 13166 of August... Respond to Prison Rape; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 23 / Thursday, February...

  7. 77 FR 37105 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... independent contractor to perform a cost analysis of the NPREC's proposed standards. On March 10, 2010 (75 FR... standards, the Department published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on February 3, 2011 (76 FR 6248... Respond to Prison Rape; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 119 / Wednesday, June 20,...

  8. Estimating general-population utilities using one binary-gamble question per respondent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.L.; Hammitt, J.K.; Weinstein, M.C.; Hunink, M.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    This study used a single binary-gamble question per health state per respondent to obtain societal preferences for the health states intermittent claudication and major amputation and compare those with Health Utilities Indices obtained from patients, to test the feasibility of this method, and to i

  9. L-061: EPR--First responders: Risk and Protection radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the basic risks, protection and the consequences in a radiological emergency. The first responders have to know the deterministic and stochastic effects in the health as well as the cancer risk due of the high radioactive doses exposure

  10. L-043: EPR-First Responders: Control of contamination resulting from the response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the actions to be carried out by the first responders in a radiological emergency contamination control .The entrance and the exit to the contaminated area, the personnel dose, the waste and the equipment used are important aspects in the situation control

  11. L-040: EPR-First Responders: Forensic Evidence Management group. Action Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the forensic evidence managed by the radiological emergency group. The protection guides, the evidences, the fingerprints, the experience, the strategies, the contamination level, the monitoring, the photography and the interrogation are important aspects to be considered by the first responders.

  12. WS-011: EPR-First Responders: Demonstration of a radiological emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this working session is that the participant can apply their knowledge in a radiological emergency response as well as how to prevent potential contamination damage. The participants have to know how to respond in a radiological criminal scenario, the personal protection and the risks

  13. Is Suicide Training Sufficient for Psychology Trainees to Respond Appropriately to Suicidal Clients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the frequency of suicide training for current psychology trainees. Additionally, the research uses the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-Second Edition (SIRI-2) to assess psychology trainees' ability to respond appropriately to suicidal clients. This study compares scores on the SIRI-2 between participants who are in…

  14. Comparison of mild ovarian stimulation with conventional ovarian stimulation in poor responders

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ji Hee; Cha, Sun Hwa; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Young; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo; Kim, Hye Ok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the IVF outcomes of mild ovarian stimulation with conventional ovarian stimulation in poor responders. Methods From 2004 to 2009, 389 IVF cycles in 285 women showed poor responses (defined as either a basal FSH level ≥12 mIU/mL, or the number of retrieved oocytes ≤3, or serum E2 level on hCG day

  15. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  16. The role of preference axioms and respondent behaviour in statistical models for discrete choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tjur, Tue; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2004-01-01

    , ordering effects, dominance, etc. Unfortunatelythere seems to be some confusion about what is actually being tested,and the link between the statistical tests performed and the relevantunderlying model of respondent behaviour has not been explored inthis literature. The present paper tries to clarify the...

  17. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  18. Responding in Real Time: Creating a Social Media Crisis Simulator for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Betsy; Swenson, Rebecca; Kinsella, John

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a realistic online crisis unit, in which students practice: (1) responding to fast-paced information on multiple social media channels; (2) coordinating and making team decisions; and (3) creating effective responses. These skills are required for entry-level positions such as digital specialists and community managers,…

  19. Interested Theory and Theorising as Goal: A Reader Responds to "Symposium: Theory in TESOL"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Julian

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the "Theory in TESOL" symposium in "TESOL Quarterly" (June 2008). One thing that the author learned from the symposium was the importance of adding an element of "for what purpose?" to the question of the role of theory in TESOL. He was struck by the fact that although each writer responded to the…

  20. Supporting Preservice Science Teachers' Ability to Attend and Respond to Student Thinking by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosun; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    A teacher's ability to attend and respond to student thinking is a key instructional capacity for promoting complex and deeper learning in science classrooms. This qualitative multiple case study examines 14 preservice science teachers' (PSTs) responses to learning opportunities created to develop this capacity, as provided by a teacher…

  1. WS-005- EPR- First responders. Carry out a declaration to the media and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this workshop is that the first responders know how to transmit a radiological emergency information at the media and the public through newspapers, television, internet, e mail and press information. This radiological emergencies information have to contain the facts written by the responsible organizations such as fire brigades, security forces, police, regulators, medical and forensic institution.

  2. WS-018: EPR-First Responders: Development of communications to the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this working session is that the participant can apply their knowledge in the implementation of the radiological emergency communication to the media. In case of a potential loss of a radioactive source the first responders have to provide information to the public and the actors involved

  3. L-038: EPR-First Responders: Forces / safety equipment. Action Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference is about the actions carry out by the forces and the safety equipment in a radiological emergency. The security area, the victims, the hospitals, the police vehicles area, the safety cordon, the evacuation, the contamination level and the risk of life are important aspects to be considered by the first responders.

  4. 77 FR 49345 - Preventing and Responding to Violence Against Women and Girls Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    .... (a) Recognizing that gender-based violence undermines not only the safety, dignity, and human rights... violence globally. (b) Under the leadership of my Administration, the United States has made gender... education challenges. (c) Preventing and responding to gender-based violence is a cornerstone of...

  5. Repeated Cocaine Experience Facilitates Sucrose-Reinforced Operant Responding in Enriched and Isolated Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Emily D.; Gehrke, Brenda J.; Green, Thomas A.; Zentall, Thomas R.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether repeated cocaine exposure differentially affects sucrose-reinforced operant responding in rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) or an isolated condition (IC). Specifically, the performance of EC and IC rats pressing a lever for sucrose under a high fixed-ratio schedule (FR 30)…

  6. Experiencing and Responding to Private Competition: The Importance of Subjectivity and Intermediate Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyadarshani

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial growth in private schooling in developing countries, there has been little attention paid to the question of how public schools are experiencing and responding to competition in these contexts. To address this research gap, I collected primary survey data from two districts in Nepal and used descriptive and logistic regression…

  7. Persecution in Central Europe and its consequences on the lives of SHARE respondents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Myck, M.

    Heidelberg : Springer, 2011 - (Börsch-Supan, A.; Brandt, M.; Hank, K.; Schröder, M.), s. 271-285 ISBN 978-3-642-17471-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : persecution * Central Europe * SHARE respondents Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  8. Still Struggling: Characteristics of Youth with OCD Who Are Partial Responders to Medication Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J.; Sapyta, J.; Garcia, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; Khanna, M.; Choate-Summers, M.; Moore, P.; Chrisman, A.; Haff, N.; Naeem, A.; March, J.; Franklin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of youth with OCD who are partial responders (i.e., still have clinically significant symptoms) to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medication. The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, treatment history, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and…

  9. Effects of Post-Session Wheel Running on Within-Session Changes in Operant Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the effects of post-session wheel running on within-session changes in operant responding. Lever-pressing by six rats was reinforced by a food pellet under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule in 30-min sessions. Two different flavored food pellets were used as reinforcers. In the wheel conditions, 30-min operant-sessions…

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Urban Search and Rescue Members Who Responded to a Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of disaster management requires urban search and rescue (US&R) members to be well trained to respond to complex, unpredictable, and difficult to manage disasters anywhere in the world on short notice. Disasters are becoming more complex and difficult to manage as was witnessed by the multi-faceted disaster in Japan in…

  11. Responding Effectively to Sexual Harrassment: Victim Advocacy, Early Intervention, and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteele, Susan; Pearson, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    If a university is to respond effectively to campus sexual harassment problems, a comprehensive, proactive program of prevention education and complaint resolution must be in place. The University of Hawaii at Manoa has developed such formalized assistance for student and employee victims of harassment through prevention education, supportive…

  12. Recommendations for Biomonitoring of Emergency Responders: Focus on Occupational Health Investigations and Occupational Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, John A.; DeBord, D. Gayle; Bernard, Bruce; Dotson, G. Scott; Halpin, John; Hines, Cynthia J.; Kiefer, Max; Myers, Kyle; Page, Elena; Schulte, Paul; Snawder, John

    2013-01-01

    The disaster environment frequently presents rapidly evolving and unpredictable hazardous exposures to emergency responders. Improved estimates of exposure and effect from biomonitoring can be used to assess exposure–response relationships, potential health consequences, and effectiveness of control measures. Disaster settings, however, pose significant challenges for biomonitoring. A decision process for determining when to conduct biomonitoring during and following disasters was developed. ...

  13. Ganirelix for luteolysis in poor responder patients undergoing IVF treatment: a Scandinavian multicenter 'extended pilot study'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lena; Andersen, A.N.; Lindenberg, Svend; Hausken, J.; Andersen, C.Y.; Kahn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    To enhance oocyte yield and pregnancy outcome in poor responder women undergoing IVF treatment, daily low dose GnRH antagonist administration was given during the late luteal phase to induce luteolysis and possibly secure a more synchronous cohort of recruitable follicles. An open extended pilot...

  14. Prepared for School Violence: School Counselors' Perceptions of Preparedness for Responding to Acts of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rebecca Anne; Zyromski, Brett; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Kimemia, Muthoni

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of 103 St. Louis metro area school counselors' using the National School Violence Survey (Astor et al., 1997; Astor et al., 2000; Furlong et al., 1996) suggests school counselors' perceptions of school violence and their preparedness to respond to said violence vary by both community setting and years of experience. Discussion frames the…

  15. Are Universities Responding to the Needs of Students from Refugee Backgrounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Jaya; Joyce, Andrew; de Mori, Gabriella; Silvagni, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Although many Australian universities have been proactive in responding to students' diverse needs through orientation and support programs, very little is known about programs needed for the successful transition of students from refugee backgrounds into tertiary study. Facilitating the early engagement of students with their studies and campus…

  16. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  17. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwense, S.A.; Olesen, S.S.; Drewes, A.M.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs

  18. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  19. An Association Perspective: Responding to the American Dental Association's Future of Dentistry Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rowland A.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    In response to the American Dental Association's (ADA) Future of Dentistry Project, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) provided perspective on the most critical issues facing the dental profession. ADEA responded in six areas, each corresponding to areas of focus in the ADA project. This report reflects comments provided to the ADEA…

  20. Interpreting Community Accountability: Citizen Views of Responding to Domestic Violence (or Not)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jacob Z.; Allen, Nicole E.; Todd, Nathan R.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of common public condemnations of domestic violence, survey research suggests that citizens aware of actual abuse often believe they cannot or should not personally respond. Through in-depth interviews with 20 local citizens across the political spectrum, we sought to explore this dynamic more carefully by better understanding community…

  1. Mental Health and Native Americans: Responding to the Challenge of the Biopsychosocial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburg, Galen Sanford

    1983-01-01

    A rural, hospital-based, community mental health program at Keams Canyon Indian Hospital (Arizona) utilizes an array of remedial, developmental, and preventive strategies to respond to the unique biopsychosocial needs of the Navajo and Hopi populations. Outpatient, outreach, and aftercare programs, and development of treatment and consulting…

  2. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W;

    2011-01-01

    R-26a, and miR-451, from the weighted cumulative context ranking methodology, indicated that miRNA changes in the low responders may be compensatory, reflecting a failure to "activate" growth and remodeling genes. We report, for the first time, that RT-induced hypertrophy in human skeletal muscle...

  3. 40 CFR 24.10 - Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling the hearing; pre-hearing submissions by respondent. 24.10 Section 24.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Hearings on Orders Requiring Investigations or Studies § 24.10 Scheduling the hearing;...

  4. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used…

  5. How the "Public Relations Journal" Responds to Criticism of Public Relations Ethics: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    A quantitative analysis of 40 years of articles appearing in the "Public Relations Journal" was made to determine how the journal has responded to ethical criticism of public relations over the years. While 17% of the articles during one eight-year period discussed questions touching on ethics in some way, quantitative analytical tools did not…

  6. Assessment of nuclear medicine capabilities in responding to a radiological terrorism event. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial effort has been placed into enhancing federal capabilities for responding to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attack. However, little emphasis has been placed on including the local-level medical responders in these efforts. In effecting response to a radiological incident, potentially useful resources to access are health care professionals with training in matters of ionizing radiation, namely: nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and technologists. In this report, we focus on Nuclear Medicine expertise in Canada, and place this expertise into the context of assisting with a radiological terrorist incident. Nuclear Medicine expertise, along with its supporting infrastructure has already been deployed in proportion to the distribution of the civilian population. Given the expectations that the civilian population places in these health care professionals, their immediate access to specialized equipment, and the delay between a radiological terrorist incident and the arrival of federal expert capabilities, it is likely that these health care professionals will play important roles in emergency response. These roles will likely be: identifying the nature of the incident, triage, decontamination, coordinating with First Responders, and communicating with the media. Acknowledging the potential value of these professionals in responding to a radiological terrorist incident, steps should be taken to enlist their support and integrate them into a coherent national strategy. (author)

  7. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  8. A Call to Action: Responding to Large-Scale Disasters, Catastrophes, and Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, William D.

    2011-01-01

    The ascendance of large-scale disasters, catastrophes, and traumas as a concentrated focus of academic inquiry in counseling psychology is timely, and this special issue and subsequent investigations represent welcome areas of scholarship. The observations and comments herein salute the authors for responding to a post-Katrina discovery by…

  9. Response Cards as a Strategy for Increasing Opportunities to Respond: An Examination of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Crystalyn I.; Freeman-Green, Shaqwana; Test, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of the research and evidence base for using response cards to increase opportunities to respond (OTR) for students with and without disabilities at the elementary level (i.e., kindergarten through Grade 5). Using quality indicator criteria for single-case research, six single-case studies investigating response…

  10. Brain death and organ transplant legislation:analysis of 969 respondents by classroom questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Liang Song; Xiao-Hua Cui; Zhan Gao; Shao-Lin Deng; You-Ping Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: China has the largest potential market for organ transplants in the world, but it has not yet established brain death and organ transplant laws. We aimed to investigate the attitudes and suggestions of doctors, pharmacists, and civil servants concerning brain death, organ transplantation, and their respective legislation. METHODS: A questionnaire with 10 sections and 44 questions was designed and distributed. The effective questionnaire data were then recorded and checked for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: In 1400 questionnaires distributed, 1063 were responded and 969 of them were valid and analyzed. The respondents showed an incomplete understanding of brain death and organ transplantation laws. Seventy-four percent of the respondents recognized and accepted the standard of brain death. They agreed that legislation should be involved in the removal of organs for transplantation, the future use of organs, and insurance and compensation for the donor for possible health risks induced by organ removal. Of the 969 respondents, 92%considered it necessary to have legislation in brain death and organ transplantation, and 61% thought that it is time to legislate. CONCLUSIONS: Legislation for brain death and organ transplantation is urgent and timely in China. The laws must include the respective rights and obligations of patients, close relatives, and medical institutions. Educating the public about brain death and organ transplantation should also be encouraged in a variety of ways.

  11. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  12. Equivalence-Equivalence Responding: Training Conditions Involved in Obtaining a Stable Baseline Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andres; Bohorquez, Cristobal; Perez, Vicente; Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Gomez, Jesus; Luciano, Carmen; Wilson, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the variables associated with equivalence-equivalence responding, in which participants match pairs of equivalent or nonequivalent stimuli. One such variable is the presence of response competition from nonarbitrary (physical) relational response options. In the current analysis, the experimenters examined the effect…

  13. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-01-01

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required. PMID:25323086

  14. Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required. PMID:22576135

  15. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Gnambs

    Full Text Available In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383 demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray; but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144 replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue. Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors.

  16. Bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neuron responds to chemically diverse insect repellents in the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jackson T.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    Female mosquitoes feed on blood from animal hosts to obtain nutritional resources used for egg production. These contacts facilitate the spread of harmful human diseases. Chemical repellents are used to disrupt mosquito host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors; however, little is known about the gustatory sensitivity of mosquitoes to known repellents. Here, we recorded electrical responses from gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) housed within the labellar sensilla of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), picaridin, IR3535, 2-undecanone, p-menthane-3,8-diol, geraniol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, quinine, and quinidine. A bitter-sensitive GRN responded to all tested repellents and quinine, a known feeding deterrent. Responses of the bitter-sensitive neuron to quinine and an isomer, quinidine, did not differ. Delayed bursts of electrical activity were observed in response to continuous stimulation with synthetic repellents at high concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings from bitter-sensitive GRNs associated with mosquito gustatory sensilla represent a convenient model to evaluate candidate repellents.

  17. Bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neuron responds to chemically diverse insect repellents in the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jackson T; Dickens, Joseph C

    2016-06-01

    Female mosquitoes feed on blood from animal hosts to obtain nutritional resources used for egg production. These contacts facilitate the spread of harmful human diseases. Chemical repellents are used to disrupt mosquito host-seeking and blood-feeding behaviors; however, little is known about the gustatory sensitivity of mosquitoes to known repellents. Here, we recorded electrical responses from gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) housed within the labellar sensilla of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), picaridin, IR3535, 2-undecanone, p-menthane-3,8-diol, geraniol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, quinine, and quinidine. A bitter-sensitive GRN responded to all tested repellents and quinine, a known feeding deterrent. Responses of the bitter-sensitive neuron to quinine and an isomer, quinidine, did not differ. Delayed bursts of electrical activity were observed in response to continuous stimulation with synthetic repellents at high concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings from bitter-sensitive GRNs associated with mosquito gustatory sensilla represent a convenient model to evaluate candidate repellents. PMID:27108454

  18. Health enhancing behaviors of teachers and other school staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Woynarowska-Sołdan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any activity undertaken for the purpose of health enhancing behavior is an important element of taking care of one's health. The aim of this paper was to analyze the frequency of health enhancing behaviors and avoiding health-risk behaviors among teachers and other school staff by gender and age. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 750 teachers and 259 individuals of non-teaching staff of 22 health promoting schools. A questionnaire that included Positive Health Behaviors Scale for Adults and questions on avoiding risk behaviors were used as a research tool. Results: Of the 32 analyzed health enhancing (positive behaviors, only 11 were undertaken by teachers and 10 by non-teaching staff at a desirable frequency (always or almost always in a group of more than 50% of respondents. Almost one third of health enhancing behaviors were undertaken with this frequency by less than 20% of respondents. The highest deficits concerned physical activity, nutrition and mental health-related behaviors, and the lowest concerned safety. Deficits in all positive health behaviors were smaller in teachers than in non-teaching staff, in women than in men and in older than in younger teachers. The majority of respondents, mostly teachers, irrespective of gender and age did not undertake risk behaviors. Conclusions: There was a lot of deficits in the healthy lifestyle of teachers and other school workers what is alarming from the point of view of school workers' health, their tasks and their role in shaping positive health behavior in children and adolescents. There is a great need for taking actions to improve the situation, such as the development of health promotion programs addressed to teachers and other school staff, including issues concerning healthy lifestyles in teacher's pre- and in-service training, counselling in the area of healthy lifestyle in preventive health care of school staff. Med Pr 2013;64(5:659–670

  19. Behavioral indicators for conserving mammal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas W; Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel S; Sundararaj, Vijayan; Ale, Som B

    2009-04-01

    Mammals are threatened with population decline and extinction. Numerous species require immediate conservation intervention. But our ability to identify species on the brink of decline, and to intervene successfully, depends on developing reliable leading indicators of population, community, and environmental change. Classic approaches, such as population and life history assessment, as well as indicator species, trail environmental change. Adaptive behaviors honed by natural selection to respond quickly to environmental changes represent true leading indicators that we can learn to apply to conservation and management. Excellent examples of useful behaviors for conservation include foraging behavior, patch use, and habitat selection. Comparisons among giving-up densities collected in artificial resource patches can effectively indicate the forager's predation costs, its habitat quality, mechanisms of coexistence, and environmental richness. Patterns of adaptive habitat use can similarly reveal the relative value of different types of habitat, the location, and amounts of source versus sink habitat in a landscape, the effects of human disturbance, and projections on future extinction risk. Each behavior is likely to change more quickly than population size. As useful as these and related indicators may be to managers and conservationists, similar behaviors can emerge from different causes, and immediate returns of behavior to fitness may cause rapid evolution of associated morphological and physiological traits. Conservation strategies will thereby often be most effective if they build on research programs targeting the processes influencing adaptive behaviors and that assess whether wild-type or novel behaviors are most likely to sustain populations into the future. PMID:19432655

  20. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  1. Logical Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...

  2. "Why Should I? That's Not My Problem." Defensive Thought and Behavior Patterns and Children's Resistance to Adult-Sponsored Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H.

    1994-01-01

    Using excerpts from structured interviews conducted by teachers, this paper discusses three thought and behavior patterns commonly used by students with behavior disorders to justify behavior teachers consider inappropriate: (1) denial, (2) projection, and (3) rationalization. Suggestions are made about how to respond to these defensive behavior…

  3. Globalization and culture a study of purchase behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Danish; Azam, Rehan; Syed Akbar, Suleman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate that whether Globalization, culture and purchase behavior differ across the three demographic factors (age, income and gender). Further study empirically substantiate that the globalization is impacting on consumer culture and purchase behavior of the Pakistani consumer. The data comprised of 250 respondents who are urban, educated, middle-class belongs to the different organizations operating in Karachi. The data was collected through structure...

  4. BUYING BEHAVIOR AND CONSUMPTION: SOCIAL CLASS VERSUS INCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić, Mirela; Čulina, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical part of the paper examines the significance of social class and income in understanding consumption and purchasing behavior based on the previous research results. The empirical part displays research methodology and results. The aim is to determine which of the two analyzed concepts - social class or income - has more influence over the buying behavior, i.e. consumption of certain products/services. The research was conducted on a sample of 270 respondents. Keeping in mind th...

  5. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  6. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwense SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan AW Bouwense,1 Søren S Olesen,2 Asbjørn M Drewes,2 Harry van Goor,1 Oliver HG Wilder-Smith31Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Surgery, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods: This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15 or placebo (n=12; n=17 treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects and Ventral T10 (segmental effects. Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015. This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9% vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001. CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006. Conclusion: This hypothesis

  7. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  8. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  9. Implementation of respondent-driven sampling among female sex workers in Brazil, 2009 Implementação do método de amostragem respondent-driven sampling entre mulheres profissionais do sexo no Brasil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Nogueira Damacena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Female sex workers are known in Brazil and elsewhere in the world as one of the most-at-risk populations for risk of HIV infection, due to their social vulnerability and factors related to their work. However, the use of conventional sampling strategies in studies on most-at-risk subgroups for HIV is generally problematic, since such subgroups are small in size and are associated with stigmatized behaviors and/or illegal activities. In 1997, a probabilistic sampling technique was proposed for hard-to-reach populations, called Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS. The method is considered a variant of chain sampling and allows the statistical estimation of target variables. This article describes some assumptions of RDS and all the implementation stages in a study of 2,523 female sex workers in 10 Brazilian cities. RDS proved appropriate for recruiting sex workers, allowing the selection of a probabilistic sample and the collection of previously missing information on this group in Brazil.O grupo das mulheres profissionais do sexo é reconhecido, nacional e internacionalmente, como uma população de maior risco à infecção pelo HIV pela sua vulnerabilidade social e por fatores relacionados à atividade profissional. Porém, a utilização de estratégias convencionais de amostragem em estudos nos subgrupos de maior risco de contraírem HIV é, em geral, problemática, já que estes têm pequena magnitude em termos populacionais e estão vinculados a comportamentos estigmatizados ou atividades ilegais. Em 1997, foi proposta uma técnica de amostragem probabilística para populações de difícil acesso, o Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS. O método é considerado como uma variante da amostragem em cadeia e possibilita a estimação estatística dos parâmetros de interesse. Este artigo descreve alguns pressupostos do RDS e todas as etapas de implementação em um estudo com 2.523 profissionais do sexo em dez municípios brasileiros. A utilização do

  10. The Relationship between Behavioral Activation/Inhibition Systems (BAS/BIS) and Bullying/ Victimization Behaviors among Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Basharpoor; Usha Barahmand; Parviz Molavi; Seyed Amin Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullying-victimization behaviors among adolescents. Method This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behav...

  11. Disciplinary Differences and Undergraduates' Information-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Ethelene

    2002-01-01

    Applied the Biglan model of disciplinary differences to the information-seeking behavior patterns of undergraduates responding to questions on the College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ). Discusses implications for the redesign of academic library services and use of the Biglan model as a theoretical framework for future library research.…

  12. Reading Poetry for Critical Reflection on Consumer Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Like many other dimensions of everyday life, people's need to satisfy themselves with stuff derives from deep impulses and responds to both obvious and subtle images. Ultimately, it isn't the commodities people buy so much as the behaviors they exhibit that are worth critical examination. What better way, then, to understand this phenomenon than…

  13. The Relationship Between Psychological Differentiation and Perceptions of Supervisory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Michael J.; Weissenberg, Peter

    The hypothesis that individual differences in psychological differentiation are related to the perceptions of the independence of leadership behaviors was tested. After viewing a supervisor-subordinate interaction sequence on closed circuit television tape, subjects responded to questionnaires measuring their perception/judgments of the…

  14. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arriving at an Early Head Start Program. Lesson 3: Adapt Using ‘Flexible Responses’ You’ve “Watched” and ... ways to respond to the behavior. In Lesson 3, you can use the answers to the “I ...

  15. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  16. Help-Seeking Behaviors of Accounting Principles I Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Susan M.; Sanders, Joseph C.

    This study examined the help-seeking propensities of college students enrolled in a "Principles of Financial Accounting I" course. A total of 364 students responded to a questionnaire on various aspects of help-seeking behavior. It was found that the most frequently used source of help was friends or classmates, followed by the instructor and the…

  17. Transactional and Transformational Leader Behaviors and Christian School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, James Ward, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    School enrollment trends and how leaders respond are critical to the sustainability of Christian schools. This study applied quantitative and qualitative approaches to address the question, are there significant differences in the mean scores for behavioral factors or in the mean scores for transactional and transformational leadership styles for…

  18. Education Level, Liberal Attitudes, and Sexual Behavior: A Reinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to Krull's conclusions (1994) that higher educational attainment is indirectly related to sexual promiscuity through more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex. Criticizes Krull's omission of certain variables, recoding of variables, and assumption of a one-way causal relationship between sexual attitudes and behaviors. Reanalysis with…

  19. When Clients' Morbid Avoidance and Chronic Anger Impede Their Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cory F.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for major depressive disorder is an empirically supported treatment, some clients do not respond optimally or readily. The literature has provided a number of hypotheses regarding the factors that may play a role in these clients' difficulties in responding to CBT, with the current paper…

  20. A mobile computer system to support first responders to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision-making in emergency situations is characterized by its speed, pressure, and especially the uncertainty of information. Uninformed decisions or decisions based on unreliable data may lead to inappropriate actions. Although several studies that aim to combine different databases and provide full information to emergency response operation commanders can be found, only few of them are dedicated to radiological emergencies situations and even less are those that aim to provide support for the emergency first responder. We developed a system to support first responders to deal with radiological emergencies using cognitive task analysis techniques to elicit the tacitly knowledge of practitioners to grasp what information is really needed during radiological emergency response. (author)

  1. A mobile computer system to support first responders to a radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio J.D. da, E-mail: antoniojoseds@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Informatica; Santos, Joao R. dos; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Decision-making in emergency situations is characterized by its speed, pressure, and especially the uncertainty of information. Uninformed decisions or decisions based on unreliable data may lead to inappropriate actions. Although several studies that aim to combine different databases and provide full information to emergency response operation commanders can be found, only few of them are dedicated to radiological emergencies situations and even less are those that aim to provide support for the emergency first responder. We developed a system to support first responders to deal with radiological emergencies using cognitive task analysis techniques to elicit the tacitly knowledge of practitioners to grasp what information is really needed during radiological emergency response. (author)

  2. 幽默交际中的回应策略%Responding strategies in humorous communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓月

    2014-01-01

    为研究幽默交际中的回应策略,基于礼貌原则、关联理论、言语行为和刻意曲解等理论和原则,对幽默交际中听话人运用的非言语回应、言语回应、不回应等回应策略进行了深入分析,为言语和非言语幽默交际提供了更多研究视角和分析方法。%To study responding strategies in humorous communications, politeness principle, relevance theory, speech act theory and deliberate misinterpretation were adopted to deeply analyze several responding strategies employed by recipients in humorous communications:nonverbal response, verbal response, no response, etc. The result will provide a new per-spective for analyzing verbal and nonverbal humorous communication.

  3. Repeated vaccinations do not improve specific immune defenses against Hepatitis B in non-responder health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Marcellini, Valentina; Santoro, Anna Paola; Scarsella, Marco; Camisa, Vincenzo; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Musolino, Anna Maria; Nicolosi, Luciana; Rosado, M Manuela; Carsetti, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B is a major infectious occupational hazard for health care workers and can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine. The serum titer of anti-HBsAg antibodies is the most commonly used correlate of protection and post-vaccination anti-HBsAg concentrations of ≥ 10 mIU/ml are considered protective. Subjects with post-vaccination anti-HBsAg titers of vaccination, who tested negative for HBsAg and anti-HBc, are defined as non-responders. The question of whether non-responders should be repeatedly vaccinated is still open. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and the percentage of HBsAg-specific memory B cells in responders and non-responders (ii) assess whether non-responders can be induced to produce antibodies after administration of a booster dose of vaccine (iii) determine whether booster vaccination increases the number of specific memory B cells in non-responders. Combining flow-cytometry, ELISPOT and serology we tested the integrity and function of the immune system in 24 health care workers, confirmed to be non-responders after at least three vaccine injections. We compared the results with those obtained in 21 responders working in the same institution. We found that the great majority of the non-responders had a functional immune system and a preserved ability to respond to other conventional antigens. Our most important findings are that the frequency of HBsAg-specific memory B cells is comparable in non-responders and controls and that booster immunization does not lead either to antibody production or memory B cell increase in non-responders. PMID:25444815

  4. Behavior Modification is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawney, James W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

  5. Effects of reinforcement history on responding under progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S L; Pedersen, J.; Kinney, G G; Myers, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of experimental history on responding under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement were examined. Sixteen pigeons were divided into four equal groups. Groups 1 to 3 were trained to peck a key for food under a fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, or differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule of reinforcement. After training, these pigeons were shifted to a progressive-ratio schedule, later were shifted back to their original schedule (with decreased rates of reinforcement), and...

  6. The practical implication of comparing how adults with and without intellectual disability respond to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooper, Jeff; Wigram, Tony; Carson, Derek;

    2011-01-01

    Previous researchers who compared how people with, and without, an intellectual disability respond to music focused on musical aptitude, but not on arousal. This paper presents the background, methodology, and results of a study that selected fifteen different pieces of music, and compared...... the arousal response of adults with (n = 48), and without (n = 48), an intellectual disability. There was a very strong significant positive correlation (rho = 0.831, N = 15, P

  7. Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Ashley M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have long recognized the importance of a central government’s political “commitment” in order to mount an effective response to HIV. The concept of political commitment remains ill-defined, however, and little guidance has been given on how to measure this construct and its relationship with HIV-related outcomes. Several countries have experienced declines in HIV infection rates, but conceptual difficulties arise in linking these declines to political commitment as opposed to underlying social and behavioural factors. Methods This paper first presents a critical review of the literature on existing efforts to conceptualize and measure political commitment to respond to HIV and the linkages between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. Based on the elements identified in this review, the paper then develops and presents a framework to assist researchers in making choices about how to assess a government's level of political commitment to respond to HIV and how to link political commitment to HIV-related outcomes. Results The review of existing studies identifies three components of commitment (expressed, institutional and budgetary commitment as different dimensions along which commitment can be measured. The review also identifies normative and ideological aspects of commitment and a set of variables that mediate and moderate political commitment that need to be accounted for in order to draw valid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. The framework summarizes a set of steps that researchers can follow in order to assess a government's level of commitment to respond to HIV and suggests ways to apply the framework to country cases. Conclusions Whereas existing studies have adopted a limited and often ambiguous conception of political commitment, we argue that conceiving of political commitment along a greater number of dimensions will allow

  8. Home Care Providers to the Rescue: A Novel First-Responder Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Steen Møller; Brøndum, Stig; Thomas, Grethe; Rasmussen, Susanne R.; Kvist, Birgitte; Christensen, Anette; Lyng, Charlotte; Lindberg, Jan; Lauritsen, Torsten L. B.; Lippert, Freddy K; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Poul Anders

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the implementation of a novel first-responder programme in which home care providers equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were dispatched in parallel with existing emergency medical services in the event of a suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods We evaluated a one-year prospective study that trained home care providers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and using an AED in cases of suspected OHCA. Data were collected from ca...

  9. Systolic Peak Detection in Acceleration Photoplethysmograms Measured from Emergency Responders in Tropical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Schuurmans, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmogram (PPG) monitoring is not only essential for critically ill patients in hospitals or at home, but also for those undergoing exercise testing. However, processing PPG signals measured after exercise is challenging, especially if the environment is hot and humid. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can detect systolic peaks under challenging conditions, as in the case of emergency responders in tropical conditions. Accurate systolic-peak detection is an important f...

  10. The role of the Intermediate Care Team in detecting and responding to loneliness in older clients

    OpenAIRE

    Chana, R.; Marshall, P.; Harley, C

    2016-01-01

    The Intermediate Care Team (ICT) supports patients in their own homes to manage complex needs. They are ideally placed in the community to identify older adults at risk of loneliness. However, little is known about how ICT professionals perceive, detect, or respond to loneliness in their clients. This study explores ICT professional’s attitudes to loneliness in the context of perceived service priorities and their experiences of managing loneliness in their clients. Eight ICT professionals (n...

  11. Network model-assisted inference from respondent-driven sampling data

    OpenAIRE

    Gile, KJ; Handcock, MS

    2015-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling is a method to sample hard-to-reach human populations by link-tracing over their social networks. Beginning with a convenience sample, each person sampled is given a small number of uniquely identified coupons to distribute to other members of the target population, making them eligible for enrollment in the study. This can be an effective means to collect large diverse samples from many populations. Inference from such data requires specialized techniques for two r...

  12. Soil bacterial and fungal communities respond differently to various isothiocyanates added for biofumigation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ping; Hollister, Emily B.; Somenahally, Anilkumar C.; Hons, Frank M.; Terry J. Gentry

    2015-01-01

    The meals from many oilseed crops have potential for biofumigation due to their release of biocidal compounds such as isothiocyanates (ITCs). Various ITCs are known to inhibit numerous pathogens; however, much less is known about how the soil microbial community responds to the different types of ITCs released from oilseed meals (SMs). To simulate applying ITC-releasing SMs to soil, we amended soil with 1% flax SM (contains no biocidal chemicals) along with four types of ITCs (allyl, butyl, p...

  13. Testosterone administration in chicks affects responding in the presence of task irrelevant stimulus changes

    OpenAIRE

    Oades, R.D.; Messent,

    1981-01-01

    Introduction: A series of studies have shown that circulating testosterone increases the persistence with which animals search for and select a particular visual cue to respond to (as a consequence of experience with it) - and hence incur a perseveration of response towards such cues (e.g. Rogers 1971; Andrew 1972, Archer 1976; Earley & Leonard 1978). We tested the effect of testosterone on such attention-related mechanisms by studying the effect of intradimensionsional colour changes...

  14. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  15. Low or High Cocaine Responding Rats Differ in Striatal Extracellular Dopamine Levels and Dopamine Transporter Number

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Anna M.; Larson, Gaynor A.; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2009-01-01

    Both humans and animals exhibit marked individual differences in cocaine responsiveness. By using the median split of cocaine-induced locomotor activity, we have classified outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats as either low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs, respectively). LCR/HCR classification predicts differences in cocaine inhibition of striatal dopamine (DA) transporters (DATs), cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, cocaine-conditioned place preference, and motivation to self-admin...

  16. Soil bacteria and fungi respond on different spatial scales to invasion by the legume Lespedeza cuneata

    OpenAIRE

    Yannarell, Anthony C.; Ryan R. Busby; Denight, Michael L.; Gebhart, Dick L.; Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial scale on which microbial communities respond to plant invasions may provide important clues as to the nature of potential invader-microbe interactions. Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don is an invasive legume that may benefit from associations with mycorrhizal fungi; however, it has also been suggested that the plant is allelopathetic and may alter the soil chemistry of invaded sites through secondary metabolites in its root exudates or litter. Thus, L. cuneata invasion may in...

  17. Speech Act of Responding to Rudeness: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Farnia; Hiba Qusay Abdul Sattar; Hooi Chee Mei

    2014-01-01

    Politeness conventions vary across cultures and so is impoliteness and rudeness. In some cases, what is considered rude in one culture or a society is not necessarily rude or impolite in another. This cannot be explained unless more studies on the use of language functions in a specific culture are conducted. The aim of this paper is to investigate Malaysians university students’ realization of responding to rudeness. For this purpose, 51 Malaysian university students at Universiti Sains Mala...

  18. Path planning for first responders in the presence of moving obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Navigation services have gained much importance for all kinds of human activities ranging from tourist navigation to support of rescue teams in disaster management. However, despite the considerable amount of route guidance research that has been performed, many issues that are related to navigation for first responders still need to be addressed.During disasters, emergencies can result in different types of moving obstacles (e.g., fires, plumes, floods, which make some parts of the road network temporarily unavailable. After such incidents occur, responders have to go to different destinations to perform their tasks in the environment affected by the disaster. Therefore they need a path planner that is capable of dealing with such moving obstacles, as well as generating and coordinating their routes quickly and efficiently.During the past decades, more and more hazard simulations, which can modify the models with incorporation of dynamic data from the field, have been developed. These hazard simulations use methods such as data assimilation, stochastic estimation, and adaptive measurement techniques, and are able to generate more reliable results of hazards. This would allow the hazard simulation models to provide valuable information regarding the state of road networks affected by hazards, which supports path planning for first responders among the moving obstacles.The objective of this research is to develop an integrated navigation system for first responders in the presence of moving obstacles. Such system should be able to navigate one or more responders to one or multiple destinations avoiding the moving obstacles, using the predicted information of the moving obstacles generated from by hazard simulations. In this dissertation, the objective we have is expressed as the following research question:How do we safely and efficiently navigate one or more first responders to one or more destinations avoiding moving obstacles?To address the

  19. Responding to racial and ethnic disparities in use of HIV drugs: analysis of state policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Stephen F.; Sengupta, Sohini; Cozen, Myrna; Richards, T. Anne; Shriver, Michael D.; Palacio, Herminia; Kahn, James G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess racial/ethnic trends in surveillance data in four states--California, New York, Florida and Texas, identify structural barriers to and facilitators of access to HIV pharmaceuticals by individuals in Medicaid and the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP), and identify treatment education and outreach efforts responding to the needs of ethnic minority HIV patients. METHODS: State surveillance and claims data were used to assess trends by rac...

  20. Cue-responding in a simulated bad news situation: exploring a stress hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Valck, C. de; Bruynooghe, R.; Bensing, J.; Kerssens, J.J.; Hulsman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stress-coping paradigm of Folkman and Lazarus (1984) was applied to investigate if the communicative reactions of the physician in a bad news transaction are related to the stressfulness of the situation. A standardized video bad news consultation was presented to 88 medical students. To examine their communicative reactions we selected 10 patient cues with different levels of expressed emotion to which the participants responded from the physician's point of view. A strongly positive rel...