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Sample records for carabobo venezuela ii

  1. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

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    A. Sarmiento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  2. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

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    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  3. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela

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    Sarmiento A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 con respecto a la concentración máxima permisible establecida por la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los EE.UU. (80 μg/l para el total de los cuatro THM. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran que en la zona de estudio existe un riesgo de efectos adversos para la salud por la presencia de THM en agua de consumo humano, especialmente en la Red Baja y Red San Diego del SRC-I.

  4. del Estado Carabobo

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    Jennifer Fuenmayor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Al iniciarse el proceso de descentralización político-territorial a finales de los ochenta, las gobernaciones de Venezuela deben redefinir sus directrices debido al traspaso de funciones y competencias que les son otorgadas desde el gobierno central, e insertarse en una dinámica orientada hacia una economía de mercado impulsada por la globalización, y enmarcada en el discurso del desarrollo sustentable. El propósito de este artículo es explorar las acciones desplegadas por la Gobernación de Carabobo en el período 1990-2004, en pro del desarrollo sustentable y sostenible en los ámbitos: económico, ambiental y social. Para ello se considera la definición que nos da Dourojeanni (1999 sobre el desarrollo sustentable y sostenible. Se parte del supuesto de que debido a la orientación neoliberal del Gobierno de Carabobo, este ha concentrado sus esfuerzos en la promoción del crecimiento, la eficiencia, la productividad y la competitividad, privilegiando con ello sólo un ámbito del desarrollo: el económico. La metodología consistió en el estudio de documentos teóricos y empí-Al iniciarse el proceso de descentralización político-territorial a finales de los ochenta, las gobernaciones de Venezuela deben redefinir sus directrices debido al traspaso de funciones y competencias que les son otorgadas desde el gobierno central, e insertarse en una dinámica orientada hacia una economía de mercado impulsada por la globalización, y enmarcada en el discurso del desarrollo sustentable. El propósito de este artículo es explorar las acciones desplegadas por la Gobernación de Carabobo en el período 1990-2004, en pro del desarrollo sustentable y sostenible en los ámbitos: económico, ambiental y social. Para ello se considera la definición que nos da Dourojeanni (1999 sobre el desarrollo sustentable y sostenible. Se parte del supuesto de que debido a la orientación neoliberal del Gobierno de Carabobo, este ha concentrado sus esfuerzos en

  5. [Sponges (porifera) distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela].

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    Núñez Flores, Mónica; Rodríguez-Quintal, José Gregorio; Cristina Díaz, María

    2010-10-01

    Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela) fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 m), 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to 6 m of depth (6.03ind/m2; 11%), that coincides with the lowest net sedimentation and highest substrate heterogeneity. Most abundant species were Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina and Scopalina rueztleri. Principal component analysis divided this community in three zones according to depth. The shallow zone of the reef (1 and 3 m), where wave force and high irradiance exert a constant stress sponges, shows the lowest density and coverage by sponges. In contrast, medium depth (6, 9 y 12 m) and deep zone (15 y 18 m) with lower light and sedimentation levels seem to enhance sponge growth and survival that are reflected on the higher densities and coverage of sponges.

  6. El burnout en la profesión docente: un estudio en la escuela de bioanálisis de la Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Venezuela

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    Ekaterina Bustamante

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome de Burnout se ha definido como una respuesta al estrés laboral crónico. Debido a la importancia de la labor realizada por los docentes, y los altos niveles de estrés que esta profesión genera, con los agravantes de la presencia de factores externos personales y organizacionales que puedan estar presentes, se hace evidente la necesidad de estudiar en los docentes el síndrome de burnout. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles del síndrome de burnout existentes en el personal docente de la Escuela de Bioanálisis de la Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Venezuela. Material y métodos: Estudio de campo de tipo descriptivo y documental. La población estuvo constituida por un total de 96 docentes (ordinarios y contratados. Para la selección de la muestra se empleó un muestreo de tipo no probabilístico de carácter intencional, y quedó representada por un total de 78 docentes. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un cuestionario, la versión en español del Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Los datos, fueron analizados usando el programa estadístico Minitab 16 y siguiendo los criterios del Manual de EEUU de Maslach y Jackson en cuanto a los puntos de corte para las dimensiones que mide el cuestionario. Resultados: Se obtuvo un 57,69% de respuesta. Se encontró que el 16% de los docentes bajo estudio presenta el síndrome de burnout; mientras que en el resto de los docentes hubo un predominio de niveles medios en las dimensiones Agotamiento Emocional (53%, Despersonalización (33% y Realización Personal (55%. Conclusión: Se concluye que la población bajo estudio, solo presentan el síndrome el 16% de los docentes. Sin embargo en la mayoría de los docentes, hubo un predominio de niveles medios para las dimensiones Agotamiento Emocional, Despersonalización y Realización personal. Según esta combinación de niveles, si no se toman las medidas preventivas para su afrontamiento estos docentes pueden llegar a

  7. Factores de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no ransmisibles en estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina: Universidad de Carabobo, Venezuela. Año 2006 Risk factors of nontransmissible chronic diseases in students of medicine of carabobo university: Venezuela. Year 2006

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    G. Oviedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalmente, un estudiante cambia de estilo de vida cuando ingresa a la Universidad, esta modificación puede conducir a hábitos alimentarios diferentes que podrían convertirse en factores de riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT. Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de factores de riesgo de ECNT en estudiantes de la carrera de medicina de la Universidad de Carabobo. Metodología: Se evaluaron 120 personas, cursantes del tercero al sexto año de la carrera de Medicina, Universidad de Carabobo, año 2006. Se estudiaron antecedentes familiares, hábitos nutricionales, consumo de alcohol y tabaco. Se realizaron medidas antropométricas, presión arterial, glicemia y lípidos séricos. Resultados: De los estudiantes evaluados 68 pertenecían al sexo femenino y 52 al masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 26 años. El factor de riesgo más frecuente fue el sedentarismo (72,49%, seguido de hábitos alcohólicos (68,3%, tabáquicos (34,16%. Un 37,5% tuvo alto consumo de aceites y grasas, 58,3% de almidones y azúcares. Se encontró 33,34% de sobrepeso u obesidad; 3,33 % presentó hipertensión arterial y síndrome metabólico. El antecedente familiar predominante fue hipertensión arterial (60% y obesidad (28,2%. Conclusión: En esta población estudiantil existen factores de riesgo para ECNT, lo cual alerta sobre la necesidad de instaurar planes de educación y medidas de prevención primaria a fin de disminuir a futuro la presencia de ECNT en los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina de la Universidad de Carabobo.Generally, a student changes lifestyle when enters to the University, this can lead to different alimentary habits that could become as risk factors of nontransmissible chronic diseases (NTCD. Objective: To evaluate the presence of risk factors of NTCD in students of medicine race in Carabobo University. Methodology: 120 people were evaluated, students of third to the sixht year of the medicine race, Carabobo University

  8. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y perfil apolipoprotéico en un grupo de adultos atendidos en un centro público de salud del estado Carabobo, Venezuela Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoproteic profile in a group of adults treated in a public health center in Carabobo state, Venezuela

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    Nelina Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    individuals (44.0 ± 15.5 years of both genders blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile and apolipoproteins A-I and B; body mass index (BMI was calculated from weight and height; smoking habit, alcohol intake and consumption pattern were established. Results. 27.5% of individuals had low levels of Apo A-I, 45.2% high Apo B and 60.6% high Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Serum levels of apolipoproteins and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio did not vary with age or gender, while the ratio HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I decreased with the age. Obese individuals, smokers, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemics, hypertriglyceridemics or with low HDL cholesterol showed higher Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Older individuals, smokers or individuals with increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed lower HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I ratio. Consumption of three or more alcoholic drinks/day was associated with decreased Apo B. Conclusions. These results show high prevalence of altered apolipoprotein profile, which is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. The results support the inclusion of the evaluated apolipoproteins in laboratory determinations made in public health centers in Venezuela.

  9. Venezuela.

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    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers

  10. Non-Formal education in astronomy: The experience of the University the Carabobo

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    Falcón, Nelson

    2011-06-01

    Since 1995, the University the Carabobo, in Venezuela, has come developing a program of astronomical popularization and learning Astronomy using the Non formal education methods. A synopsis of the activities is presented. We will also discuss some conceptual aspects about the extension of the knowledge like supplementary function of the investigation and the university teaching. We illustrate the characteristics of the communication with an example of lectures and printed material. The efficiency of the heuristic arguments could be evaluated through a ethnology study. In that order of ideas, we show some images of the activities of astronomical popularization. We can see the population and great concurrence with chronological (and cultural) heterogeneity. We conclude that the Non formal education, structured with characteristic different to the usual educational instruction, constitutes a successful strategy in the diffusion and the communicating astronomy.

  11. Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela. II

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    Grande, José R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Four new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae, and Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae are described and illustrated from the summit areas of Sierra de Maigualida in the Gua - yana Highlands of southern Venezuela. To date, one genus, 32 spe cies, one subspecies, and one variety of angiosperms are known only from the Maigualida meadows and shrublands, between 1800 m and the highest elevation areas at 2400 m. Here we describe the first iteroparous species for the genus Sohnreyia K. Krause, a Turnera L. species with apically villose, apiculate petals, and a Siphocampylus Pohl species with aculeiform hairs and pinnatisect leaves. The new species, Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus, together with S. Tillettii Steyerm., represents a morphologically distinct subgroup within the genus.

    Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies nuevas procedentes de las cumbres de la Sierra de Maigualida: Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus J.R. Grande (Campanulaceae, Phyllanthus huberi Riina & P.E. Berry (Phyllanthaceae, Sohnreyia maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Kallunki (Rutaceae y Turnera maigualidensis J.R. Grande & Arbo (Turneraceae. Hasta ahora un género, 32 especies, una subespecie y una variedad de angiospermas se conocen exclusivamente de la Sierra de Maigualida, y todas ellas proceden de herbazales y arbustales desarrollados entre los 1800 m y las áreas más altas, a 2400 m. Aquí, se describen por primera vez una especie iterópara del género Sohnreyia K. Krause (Rutaceae, una especie de Turnera L. con pétalos apiculados apicalmente vilosos y una especie de Siphocampylus Pohl con pelos aculeiformes y hojas pinnatisectas. La nueva especie Siphocampylus acanthidiotrichus representa

  12. Formulación estratégica: Caso: empresas del sector alimentos y bebidas del estado Carabobo

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    Ana Emilia Cordero Borjas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el proceso de formulación estratégica de un grupo de empresas del sector alimentos y bebidas del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Para ello se llevó a cabo un estudio no experimental, con especial énfasis en un diseño transeccional descriptivo, y se aplicó un instrumento a una muestra no probabilística de once organizaciones dedicadas a la fabricación de productos alimenticios y bebidas en el Estado Carabobo. La conclusión a que se llegó es que en el grupo de empresas encuestadas no hay una clara tendencia o identificación con respecto de alguna de las escuelas del pensamiento estratégico, en particular, en lo referido al proceso de formulación estratégica; en otras palabras no existe suficiente homogeneidad en las respuestas que permitan detectar qué escuela del pensamiento estratégic tiene mayor presencia entre las empresas. Al considerar el carácter prismático del proceso de formulación estratégica, se puede afirmar que las escuelas con mayor influencia al momento de hacer la formulación estratégica son de Planificación, de Posicionamiento, Cultural, Ambiental y de Configuración.

  13. State of the knowledge management in two groups of enterprises of state of Carabobo and state of Tamaulipas

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    Ana Emilia Cordero Borjas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree of implementation of the knowledge management process in two selected groups of companies of the states of Carabobo (Venezuela and Tamaulipas (Mexico. A non-experimental research was made, with a transactional - correlational design, in which a questionnaire was used as instrument for recollection of information and it was applied to executives of the area of human resources or administration of 16 companies of the great industry which formed a part of a nonprobabilistic sample. From the obtained results, can be affirm that the various activities of the KM process are present in the administrative practice of the selected companies, and with almost no difference can be conclude that the Venezuelan companies have more homogenous answers and develop more activities of knowledge management than do the Mexican ones.

  14. Descentralizacón y gestión de la salud en la Gobernación de Carabobo

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    Haydée Ochoa Henríquez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la descentralización de la salud iniciada en Venezuela en los noventa, las gobernaciones asumieron esta materia adoptando diversos estilos de gestión. Este trabajo explora la gestión de la salud en la gobernación del Estado Carabobo entre 1994 y 2004. Se partió del supuesto que se tiende a sustituir las prácticas burocrático- populistas que caracterizaban al aparato central, por prácticas tecnocráticas. Se seleccionó como muestra un ambulatorio administrado directamente por la Fundación Instituto Carabobo para la Salud y un hospital administrado a través de una Fundación. La investigación se apoya en documentos y entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a informantes clave. Los resultados revelan que la gobernación: 1 Recibió indicadores de salud deteriorados, 2 La estructura de decisiones concentra el poder en el gobernador, 3 Tiende a la reducción de personal y a la flexibilización laboral, 4 Combina controles sobre el proceso de trabajo con controles sobre resultados vinculados a la reducción de costos laborales, sin participación ciudadana y 5 Las condiciones de prestación de servicio de los centros han mejorado. Se concluye sobre una gestión tecnocrática de la salud que viola principios constitucionales y favorece la exclusión.

  15. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

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    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  16. en Venezuela

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    Allan R. Brewer Carías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución de Venezuela, en la cual se establecen las regulaciones fundamentales relativas a la justicia constitucional y, en particular, a la Jurisdicción Constitucional, regula sólo dos supuestos, tanto en materia de control difuso como de control concentrado de la constitucionalidad de las leyes, en los cuales los jueces están autorizados para actuar de oficio. Sin embargo, mediante la jurisprudencia constitucional y en la Ley Orgánica del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia de 2004, sin fundamento constitucional alguno se han dispuesto poderes de control constitucional de oficio, en algunos casos, en forma ilimitada. Este trabajo tiene por objeto analizar todos estos supuestos.

  17. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

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    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: Nueva Esparta, Distrito Federal, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas y Delta Amacuro. El instrumento arrojó resultados que evidenciaron deficiencias, omisiones y ausencias durante el hecho supervisorio y su validación condujo a garantizar el éxito y calidad en la supervisión educativa venezolana.Abastract: This investigation must like intention present/display the approach to a Model for the functions of the scholastic supervision in Venezuela sustained in the scopes, supervisora action and denominated functions: Techniques, Administrative, Social, of Attendance and Mediation. The model was based theoretically on Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Theory of Systems of Bertalanffy, focuses humanist and hierarchy of the necessities of Maslow. It is an investigation of field made in Venezuela in the states: Nueva Esparta, Federal District, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas and Delta Amacuro. The instrument threw results that demonstrated deficiencies, omissions and absences during the fact supervisorio and its validation lead to ensure the success and quality in the Venezuelan educative supervision.

  18. DAMPAK PENERAPAN SUCRE TERHADAP PEREKONOMIAN VENEZUELA

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    LATIEF, BASRI HASANUDDIN

    2016-01-01

    2016 ABSTRAKSI Basri Hasanuddin Latief, E131 11 258, dengan skripsi berjudul ???Dampak Penerapan SUCRE terhadap Perekonomian Venezuela???, dibawah bimbingan Drs. H. M. Imran Hanafi, MA., M.Ec. selaku Pembimbing I dan Nur Isdah, S.Ip., MA. selaku Pembimbing II pada Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak SUCRE terhadap perekonomian Venezuela yang telah menggunak...

  19. en Venezuela

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    Luis Caraballo Vivas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos esbozar los escenarios de gobernabilidad e ingobernabilidad de la democracia en Venezuela a partir del rol cumplido positiva o negativamente por los partidos políticos. Abordamos la cuestión de la crisis de gobernabilidad como un fenómeno complejo. La ingobernabilidad se presenta como una crisis básicamente como crisis de legitimidad, crisis, de conducción política y crisis del Estado, es decir no se logra conformar un ambiente y escenario definido por la legitimidad y eficiencia que conlleva a un deterioro del sistema político a causa de la disfunción de los partidos como productores de representación y gobernabilidad en la sociedad venezolana a finales de los años ochenta. Finalmente analizamos el agotamiento del bipartidismo y la llegada del fenómeno Chávez y naturalmente la persistencia antes y ahora de indicadores de ingobernabilidad democrática.

  20. [Environmental evaluation near a fuel vendor within Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: Water quality, sediments and biota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, M; Losada, F

    2000-12-01

    This paper is the second part of a base line study carried out in the coastal region near a marine service station located in Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. Results from a physical and chemical characterization of the water and sediments of four sites located around the service station are presented. The physical and chemical factors measured in water included: temperature, salinity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen, pH, total suspended solids, transparency, oil and grease, total residual petroleum hydrocarbon, vanadium and lead, total coliform bacteria, and the presence of coliform bacteria. The factors measured in sediments include: granulometry, organic material, total carbonates, vanadium, lead, oil and grease, and total hydrocarbons. In addition, the amount of vanadium and lead in sample tissue from three species which are abundant and widely distributed in each site was measured in order to evaluate the potential of these species as bio-indicators. The water in the area where this study was conducted is shallow, warm, and thermally homogeneous, with high salinity and normal pH and dissolved oxygen, and supersaturated with oxygen in certain hours in sites adjacent to abundant underwater vegetation. The water is moderately turbid with a tendency towards less dissolved oxygen with increased depth. The estimated values of NMP/100 ml of the coliform fecal organisms is within legal limits even though the total number of water coliforms measured in Site 2 was ten times higher than in Site 1. This increase is associated with the proximity of Site 2 to an outflow of pre-treated sewage. The values of TRPH in the water collected from each site were low and very close to the detection limit (0.8/ml). Vanadium was not found, while lead was detected in 11 of the 12 samples. Compared to the values measured for Site 1, which was the local reference, only one sample had a concentration of three times the maximum baseline

  1. ESTRATEGIAS PARA CONSOLIDAR LA CULTURA ORGANIZATIVA, PARA LA COMPETITIVIDAD: COOPERATIVAS DE CONSUMO, MUNICIPIO LIBERTADOR DEL ESTADO CARABOBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailyn Medina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las cooperativas han generado respuestas a un sin fin de necesidades de la sociedad; en virtud de ello se plantea la presente investigación, cuyo objetivo es proponer estrategias para la consolidación de la cultura organizativa, como vía competitiva, en las cooperativas de consumo en el Municipio Libertador del Estado Carabobo. Este estudio se abordará bajo una perspectiva cuantitativa. Se pudo evidenciar que en las unidades de estudios existe una débil cultura corporativa, razón fundamental para que sus niveles competitivos también sean deficientes. Se les recomienda afianzar una cultura corporativa, difundirla entre sus miembros, conformación de redes de cooperación, programas de capacitación.

  2. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  3. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  4. Estudio de valores referenciales para bioquímica sérica en población canina de la Parroquia San José, Distrito Valencia, Estado Carabobo - Reference values study of serum biochemistry in canine population of the Parroquia San José, Valencia Municipality, Carabobo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano, Aylet

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEstudio de valores referenciales para bioquímica sérica en población canina de la Parroquia San José, Distrito Valencia, Estado Carabobohttp://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n050510/51012.pdf1 Los valores de referencia se utilizan para diferenciar pacientes sanos de enfermos, para el pronóstico y evaluación de los factores de riesgo, así como para monitorear la efectividad de un tratamiento; sin embargo su uso puede ser limitado cuando proceden de animales de otros países, ya que han sido determinados en diferentes condiciones climáticas y ambientales. El propósito de este estudio fue establecer intervalos bioquímicos de referencia para caninos de la Parroquia San José, Distrito Valencia, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se tomaron muestras séricas de 937 perros clínicamente sanos (449 machos y 488 hembras pertenecientes a 48 razas diferentes, entre septiembre de 2006 y diciembre de 2008, a los cuales se les practicó pruebas bioquímicas de laboratorio. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: Glicemia: 79,3 ± 16,5 mg/dL; Urea: 31,8 ± 14,0 mg/dL; Nitrógenoureico: 15,3 ± 6,7 mg/dL; Creatinina: 0,94 ± 0,33 mg/dL; Proteínastotales: 6,1 ± 0,73 g/dL; Albúmina: 2,9 ± 0,83 g/dL; Globulinas: 3,2 ± 1,1 g/dL; Bilirrubina total: 0,46 ± 0,17 mg/dL; Bilirrubina directa: 0,15 ± 0,07 mg/dL; Bilirrubina indirecta: 0,31 ± 0,15 mg/dL; Aspartatoaminotransferasa: 51,1 ± 16,0 U/L; Alanino-aminotransferasa: 47,6 ± 17,0 U/L; Fosfatasa Alcalina: 53,3 ± 40,8 U/L. No se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas de las variables bioquímicas estudiadas en función de la raza y el sexo (P0,05, mientras que los caninos menores de un año presentaron valores superiores de Fosfatasa Alcalina e inferiores de Proteínas totales y Globulinas (P0,05. Los intervalos bioquímicos fueronestablecidos usando los P2,5 y P97,5. Los resultados obtenidos pueden usarse en laboratorios de diagnóstico veterinario.SummaryThe reference values are

  5. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...... against the US and how China is considered a valuable ally to acquire more independence. However, this situation of interdependence can paradoxically lead to a new kind of dependence, in this case on China. To analyze these relations, I propose a conceptual framework consisting of three dimensions: 1...... of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...

  6. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  7. Prevalencias de las geohelmintiasis intestinales en 100 municipios de Venezuela (1989-1992 Intestinal nematode prevalences in 100 municipalities from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Morales C.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available El examen coproparasitológico (técnica de Kato-Katz de un total de 113.254 personas, pertenecientes a 100 municipios de Venezuela, permitió establecer las siguientes prevalencias a nivel nacional: Ascaris lumbricoides: 26,9%, Trichuris trichiura: 32,6% y Anquilostomideos: 5,6%. Además se determinaron los valores de la prevalencia para los mencionados geohelmintos en los 100 municipios considerados observándose una gran variabilidad. Para T. trichiura los valores máximos se obtuvieron en los municipios Arévalo González (54,6%, en el Estado Miranda, Urama (76,9% en el Estado Carabobo y Punta de Piedra (78,4% en el Estado Sucre. Para A. lumbricoides, en los municipios Punta de Piedra (63% y Tunapuy (61,9%, en el Estado Sucre y Arévalo González (62,7% en el Estado Miranda. Mientras que para los Anquilostomideos las prevalencias máximas se detectaron en los municipios El Amparo (39,5% y San Camilo (35,9% en el Estado Apure. En cuanto a la edad las prevalencias más altas se determinaron en niños de edad pre-escolar y escolar, para A. lumbricoides y T. trichiura y en adolescentes y adultos para anquilostomideos.A total of 113254 individuals from 100 venezuelan municipalities were studied by mean of Kato-Katz coprological examination and the geohelminth prevalences were established. The national prevalences of T. trichiura, A. lumbricoides and Anquilostomideos were 32.6%, 26.9% and 5.6% respectivelly. For T. trichiura the highest values were obtained for the following municipalities: Arévalo González (54.6% in Miranda state, Urama (76.9% in Carabobo state and Punta de Piedra (78.4% in Sucre state. For A. lumbricoides the highest values were determined in Punta de Piedra (63%, Tunapuy (61.9% in Sucre state and Arévalo González (62,7% in Miranda state. For hookworm the highest values were detected in El Amparo (39.5% and San Camilo (35.9% in the state of Apure. In relation to the age, the highest prevalence of Ascariosis and Trichuriosis

  8. Water control wells methodology, applied in Orinoco Belt Morichal district, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcano, B.; Ramos, M.; Brown, J.; Lagrave, G.; Lista, H.; Ugas, L. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt is located next to the lower Orinoco River in eastern Venezuela, and contains large deposits of extra heavy oil. Water cut is a significant problem in the area due to aquifer activity and the fact that many wells are drilled in close proximity to the aquifer. This paper provided details of a pilot test conducted in the Carabobo and Morichal oilfield to evaluate a water control technique designed for use with horizontal wells. The method drained water through the horizontal wells that reached a water cut of higher than 80 per cent in order to protect neighbouring wells from potential water breakthrough in cases where the wells were completed close to aquifers. Results of the 2 pilot tests demonstrated that the method reduced water cut in the wells by 45 per cent. Total expected production increases were estimated at 542 bpd for a 4 well cluster. It was concluded that simulation and reservoir characterization studies are needed to optimize the methodology. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Venezuela y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cardozo de da Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela es uno de los principales actores económicos de América Latina, de allí la importancia de conocer las características de su política exterior. Los desarreglos de la política exterior hacia el caribe pueden ser resueltos si se les comprende en su dimensión local y global. En este sentido es necesario avanzar del espacio "inter-societal" de la preocupación estrictamente comercial a los espacios culturales y de cooperación técnica.

  10. Apheresis activity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, Christiane

    2005-07-01

    Interest for apheresis activity has been growing in Venezuela. In 1976 there were only a few devices; in 2003, 80 apheresis machines performed 27,675 donor apheresis procedures and 547 therapeutic procedures countrywide. We report the activity at the Metropolitan Blood Bank (the largest one of the country) in the period 1999-2003: 597 therapeutic procedures were performed in 171 patients, during 212 crisis episodes. The average age was 38 +/- 16 years, 65% male and 35% female. Most of the therapeutic procedures were therapeutic plasma exchange for hematology diseases (mainly thrombotic thrombocitopenic purpura and hemophilia inhibitors), including 184 therapeutic procedures with the Autopheresis-C (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL). Most common adverse effects (3.9%) were hypotension and allergic reactions to the plasma.

  11. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  12. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  13. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  14. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  15. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI (A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION MODEL FOR VENEZUELA IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SOCIALISM OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Miguel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo se basa en un análisis de la educación universitaria en el contexto socio-político de la realidad venezolana, en el período referencial es 2007-2013, centrado a partir de la promulgación de la Ley Orgánica de Educación (2009. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Unidad de Investigación de Análisis de Políticas Públicas y Desarrollo Socio-educativo de la Universidad de Carabobo. Tomando como referencias teóricas a E. Morin y J. Habermas, se desarrollan tres categorías presentes en la realidad de Venezuela: el Socialismo del Siglo XXI, el Estado Docente y la Autonomía Universitaria. El tratamiento metodológico parte del planteamiento de la premisa: el Nuevo Modelo de Educación Universitaria que está por construirse, se debe a la crisis del modelo cognitivo instrumental instituido en la Constitución de la República de Venezuela (1961, sus Leyes y Reglamentos. Al triangular las tres categorías se plantea, como valor agregado, concebir la educación a través de un proceso transdisciplinario, sustentado en una primera instancia por el ordenamiento jurídico que le dé concreción y sincronización en el tiempo y el movimiento. En el caso de la educación venezolana, se concluye que no se han producidos cambios significativos que nos indiquen que estamos en presencia de un nuevo modelo de educación. La educación universitaria sigue atada al modelo cognitivo instrumental, impidiendo cualquier cambio que desde su seno se pretenda impulsar, de manera que la nueva Ley de Educación Universitaria y el nuevo modelo de educación siguen diferido.Abstract: This essay is based on an analysis of the higher education in the context socio-political of the Venezuelan reality, in the reference period is 2007-2013, focused the promulgation of the organic law of education (2009. This study was developed in the research unit of analysis of public policies and development partner-education of the University of Carabobo. On

  16. Transporte Urbano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Ocaña Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño e implantación de políticas públicas expresas en el área del transporte urbano en Venezuela data de finales de los años ochenta. En él se contempló la “modernización” y la “municipalización” del transporte urbano. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la intervención de los poderes locales en el diseño e implementación de la política de transporte urbano en las ciudades venezolanas. La metodología utilizada consistió en el análisis de información documental y entrevistas semiestructuradas a funcionarios de Alcaldías y del gobierno central. Los resultados indican que la política fue diseñada en el seno del Ministerio de Transporte y Comunicaciones y del Ministerio de Infraestructura, por un grupo de especialistas, siguiendo lineamientos de la banca multilateral, sin consultar a los actores del sistema, y muy especialmente a los Municipios o Alcaldías. Se concluye que los poderes locales han intervenido de forma limitada en la implantación de la política, con muy escaso poder de decisión y siguiendo lo establecido por el gobierno nacional.

  17. Desarrollo humano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idana Berosca Rincón Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo tiene como objetivo principal analizar la tendencia y evolución del desarrollo humano en Venezuela para el periodo 2000-2010. Se abordó la investigación enmarcada en una metodología de tipo positivista con técnicas estadísticas. Se concluyó que los recursos escasos y las dificultades históricas exigen un incremento de esfuerzos presupuestarios y de gestión, en cantidad, calidad y transparencia por parte del Estado a través del gasto público. En los últimos años, el Estado no ha aprovechado plenamente el potencial de la política fiscal y los periodos de bonanza económica, precedidos por los auspiciosos auges petroleros, para fomentar, estimular y consolidar el desarrollo humano que permita a la población en general tener calidad de vida cónsonos con una sociedad conducente al bienestar general sostenible y permanente. Esto se explica por diversas limitaciones y retos afrontados, como la falta de diversificación del financiamiento y gasto público, la exigua carga fiscal, la corrupción dentro de la praxis política, la estructura mayormente regresiva del sistema de recaudación, el gasto público y social insuficiente e inequitativo.

  18. Prevalencia de infeccion humana por Trypanosoma cruzi en bancos de sangre en Venezuela Prevalence of human infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Venezuelan blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Aché

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Las primeras investigaciones realizadas a nivel de bancos de sangre, durante la década 50, indican que la seroprevalencia por infecciones a T. cruzi entre hemodadores fue de 12%. Un estudio posterior, entre 1963-64, efectuado en varios bancos de sangre, así como otros centros, registró una seroprevalencia global de 6.0% (1.1-10.1%. La donación de sangre en Venezuela es gratuita. El control de los bancos de sangre recae en el Departamento de Transfusiones y Bancos de Sangre del Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social. A partir de 1988, se emplea uniformemente la técnica de ELISA para el diagnóstico de infecciones a T. cruzi en los Bancos de Sangre. La seropositividad promedio interanual, entre 1984-1992, fue de 1.20% (1.09-1.94%. Existen variaciones geográficas entre las localidades de varias entidades federales. Los estados con mayor prevalencia se ubican en las regiones del occidente y centro del país, a saber: Portuguesa, Barinas, Lara, Trujillo, Cojedes y Carabobo. Por las dificultades en obtener tasas de incidencia para el Mal de Chagas, resulta adecuado emplear tasas de prevalencia para uso en salud pública, en función de su mayor estabilidad; y en el caso de Venezuela, dada la severidad menor y una sobrevivencia mayor por esta patologia hoy día. La especificidad, como parámetro de las pruebas serológicas, debería considerarse en función de la baja seroprevalencia detectada a nivel nacional. Convendría emplear varias pruebas diagnósticas en paralelo para buscar un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad.Primary investigations carried out in blood banks in Venezuela during the 1950s, indicated that overall seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 12% amongst blood donors. In Venezuela, blood donation is free. All public and private blood banks are controlled by the Ministry of Health. As from 1988 the ELISA technique was uniformly used in blood banks for the detection of T. cruzi infections. Annual median

  19. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  20. El ensayo inmunoenzimatico en microgotas sobre nitrocelulosa (Dot-ELISA en el diagnostico de la enfermedad de Chagas: II. Estudio seroepidemiologico en cuatro comunidades rurales de Venezuela The Dot-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA in the diagnosis of Chagas' disease: II. Seroepidemiologic study in four rural hamlets of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. de Hubsch

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó estudio seroepidemiológico sobre la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en habitantes de cuatro comunidades rurales de Venezuela, que presentan diferentes situaciones epidemiológicas en relación a la Enfermedad de Chagas, con la finalidad de evaluar la técnica de Dot-ELISA y compararla con las pruebas serológicas convencionales. En los caseríos de Kamana y caño Hondo del estado Zulia, donde no existe transmisión, la seropositividad fue 15,7% en adultos solamente. En las comunidades de las Rosas y Solano del estado Cojedes, área de alta endemicidad, la seropositividad en los menores de 14 años fue 8,9% y en los mayores de 15,51,6%. En el estudio comparativo con las pruebas serolgicas convencionlaes, Dot-ELISA presentó altos índices de co-positividad, co-negatividad y eficiencia. El valor predictivo positivo de la prueba fue de 66% y 60% con al antígeno citoplasmático e integral respectivamente, en el estado Zulia y 100% y 95% en el estado Cojedes. Estos resultados sugieren que Dot-ELISA puede ser una alternativa práctica para estudios seroepidemiológicos sobre la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en los paises en desarrollo.A survey of human Trypanosoma cruzi infection in four rural communities of two Venezuelan states with different epidemiological Chagas' disease situations was carried out using the Dot-ELISA and conventional serology. In the two hamlets of Zulia state, no seropositives were found in the under-15 age group whereas seropositivity in the over-15 group was 15.6%. In Cojedes state, the two hamelts studied exhibited a seropositivity of 8.9% in the under-15 group and 51.6% in the over-15 group. Upon comparison with conventional methods, Dot-ELISA evidenced high co-positivity, co-negativity and efficiency indexes. In the samples taken from Zulia, the predictive value of the test was 66% and 60% for cytoplasmatic and integral antigens, respectively; with the Cojedes samples, 100% and 95%. The results suggest

  1. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  2. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  3. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  4. China Strengthens Energy Cooperation with Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Deliang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Venezuela is the 5th biggest oil export country in the world, and a member of OPEC. With rich reserves of crude oil, its average daily oil output reached 3.1 million barrels in 2004. Venezuela's state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA), the biggest oil company in South America, launched its China representative office in Beijing on 22 Aug. Ma Fucai, Vice Director of the State Energy Leading Group Office, and Rafael Ramrez,Minister of the Energy and Oil Ministry of Republic of Venezuela, attended the opening ceremony.

  5. Family cluster of Mayaro fever, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime R; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Barrera, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  6. Family Cluster of Mayaro Fever, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime R. Torres; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Robert B Tesh; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M.

    2004-01-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

  7. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Briceno, Cesar

    2003-01-01

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formatio...

  8. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  9. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  10. Evolución del e-gobierno en la Alcaldía del Municipio Naguanagua, estado Carabobo: período 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubiza Osio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, tiene como objetivo realizar una comparación evolutiva, sobre los avances del gobierno electrónico en el área específica de los servicios disponibles a través de la página Web de la Alcaldía de Naguanagua, estado Carabobo, durante el periodo comprendido entre el año 2004 y el año 2014. Su fundamentación se basó en el análisis de datos provenientes de dos investigaciones de las cuales, se precisó el avance sobre el e-gobierno en dos momentos: año 2004 y 2007, en el contexto de la referida Alcaldía. Estas investigaciones, fueron realizadas por Alvarado, Meza y Peroza (2005 y Gómez (2007. En función de los resultados previamente obtenidos para el año 2014, se procedió a realizar una evaluación, con el fin de determinar el posicionamiento alcanzado mediante el e-gobierno con respecto al contexto que administra esta institución, a través de su página web. Se utilizó la metodología desarrollada por Esteves (2005, la cual permitió medir los atributos presentes en las páginas web de las Alcaldías y así mostrar el posicionamiento evolutivo que ha tenido el e-gobierno, a través de los e-servicios ofrecidos en la página web de la Alcaldía de Naguanagua, en los tres periodos referidos: 2004, 2007 y 2014. Como resultado, se exponen las ventajas y desventajas de la página web con respecto a los servicios que provee. Al final se evidencia los resultados y las conclusiones sobre el objeto de estudio

  11. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Justice First (Primero Justicia), Project Venezuela ( Proyecto Venezuela), and A New Era (Un Nuevo Tiempo, UNT); leftist parties that defected from...would not be freed from a federal immigration facility in El Paso , Texas.142 In November 2006, however, a U.S. federal judge, who was considering...whereupon he was transferred from immigration detention in El Paso to a county jail in New Mexico near the Texas border. Posada was released from jail in

  12. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo se basa en un análisis de la educación universitaria en el contexto socio-político de la realidad venezolana, en el período referencial es 2007-2013, centrado a partir de la promulgación de la Ley Orgánica de Educación (2009. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Unidad de Investigación de Análisis de Políticas Públicas y Desarrollo Socio-educativo de la Universidad de Carabobo. Tomando como referencias teóricas a E. Morin y J. Habermas, se desarrollan tres categorías presentes en la realidad de Venezuela: el Socialismo del Siglo XXI, el Estado Docente y la Autonomía Universitaria. El tratamiento metodológico parte del planteamiento de la premisa: el Nuevo Modelo de Educación Universitaria que está por construirse, se debe a la crisis del modelo cognitivo instrumental instituido en la Constitución de la República de Venezuela (1961, sus Leyes y Reglamentos. Al triangular las tres categorías se plantea, como valor agregado, concebir la educación a través de un proceso transdisciplinario, sustentado en una primera instancia por el ordenamiento jurídico que le dé concreción y sincronización en el tiempo y el movimiento. En el caso de la educación venezolana, se concluye que no se han producidos cambios significativos que nos indiquen que estamos en presencia de un nuevo modelo de educación. La educación universitaria sigue atada al modelo cognitivo instrumental, impidiendo cualquier cambio que desde su seno se pretenda impulsar, de manera que la nueva Ley de Educación Universitaria y el nuevo modelo de educación siguen diferido.

  13. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  14. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, C

    2003-01-01

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  15. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  16. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  17. Una metodología alternativa para la enseñanza de la anatomía en los de estudios enfermería de la Universidad de Carabobo An alternative methodology for the teaching of anatomy in Nursing at the University of Carabobo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Maria Arenas

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es ofrecer una alternativa metodológica para la enseñanza de la Anatomía humana que contribuya a mejorar el rendimiento académico de los Enfermería de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Carabobo en dicha asignatura. Participaron en el experimento cincuenta estudiantes del ler. Año de Enfermería, cursantes de Anatomía humana, subdivididos en dos grupos identificados como grupo control y experimental. El diseño de la investigación es de tipo casi-experimental y metodología de trabajo es evaluativa-experimental. Para la recolección de la información se utilizaron tres instrumentos: una encuesta tipo escala de Lickert consistente de cuarenta proposiciones relacionadas con la los estudiantes hacia el estudio de la asignatura y la metodología de la enseñanza (EAEAM, acompañada de la escala de Intereses de Thrustone y del Test Psicométrico de Raven, a fin de determinar sus relaciones de acuerdo a los objetivos de la investigación. En función de los resultados empíricos del experimento y de la revisión y recopilación de la literatura del tema en estudio, se presenta una propuesta metodológica para enseñanza de la Anatomía humana, cuya naturaleza teórico-práctica exige: el estudio previo, la observación, la discusión y, fundamentalmente, la disección como alternativa para mejorar el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de Enfermería.An alternative methodology for teaching of Human Anatomy which contributes to improve academic yield by Nursing students at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Carabobo is presented. A total of 50 first-year Nursing students who participated in the experiment were divided into 2 groups, control and experimental. This research project was of the almost-experimental type and the work methodology was experimental-evaluation. Three instruments were used to obtain data: an investigation of the Lickert school type consisting of 40

  18. Pobreza y asistencialismo en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Alvarado Chacín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de contribuir a discernir la compleja problemática de la pobreza y de sus posibles salidas, en este trabajo se discuten algunas razones que explicarían la continuidad del estilo asistencial compensatorio focalizado, propio de la política social neoliberal, en la actual estrategia venezolana de atención a la pobreza, pese a que el discurso del presente gobierno se opone frontalmente a dicho modelo. Destacan, entre otros, dos factores básicos: 1 la vigencia de los mecanismos psicológicos del rentismo, manifiesto en la cultura clientelar aún internalizada en el venezolano, tanto en los ciudadanos como en los gobernantes, a pesar de los cambios de la coyuntura económica y sociopolítica del país, y 2 la importancia político-estratégica del asistencialismo en función del objetivo prioritario, no declarado, de mantener una relativa paz social, legitimidad política, estabilidad del gobierno y del régimen democrático. Se señalan riesgos potenciales del asistencialismo y se bosquejan algunos de los prerrequisitos que hoy exige el enfrentamiento a la pobreza en Venezuela.

  19. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de R...

  20. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  1. Sistema de salud de Venezuela The health system of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle Bonvecchio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Venezuela, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, los recursos humanos y materiales con los que cuenta, y las actividades de rectoría que en él se desarrollan. Este sistema cuenta con un sector público y un sector privado. El sector público está constituido por el Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud (MS y diversas instituciones de seguridad social, dentro de las que destaca el Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS. El MS se financia con recursos del gobierno central, estados y municipios. El IVSS se financia con cotizaciones patronales, cotizaciones de los trabajadores y con aportes del gobierno. Ambas instituciones cuentan con su propia red de atención ambulatoria y hospitalaria. El sector privado está constituido por prestadores de servicios que reciben pagos de bolsillo y por compañías aseguradoras. El sistema de salud venezolano atraviesa por un proceso de reforma desde la aprobación de la Constitución de 1999 que plantea la creación de un Sistema Público Nacional de Salud cuya punta de lanza hoy es el programa Barrio Adentro.This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS. The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999

  2. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Venezuela, RB

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Venezuela RB. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  3. Implementing Pre-Vocational Studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi

    This paper describes prevocational education in Venezuela on each educational level. First, it sets a historical context by identifying aspects of technical education that emerged at different times in its development; then it identifies certain strategies created to support the implementation of prevocationalization, and finally it concludes by…

  4. The Development of Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, George I.

    The present study aims to bring to the reader an understanding of Venezuela's educational patterns, needs, and development within the framework of the country's economic and social situation. Much of this report is devoted to historical backgrounds --to cultural development, politics, immigration, economics, and international attitudes-- to give…

  5. Venezuela: Higher education, neoliberalism and socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhr, T.; Verger, A.; Hill, David; Rosskam, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we analyse the Higher Education For All (HEFA) policies and practices in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In the construction of a 21st Century Socialism, universal access to higher education has not only become a constitutional right but assumes a pivotal role in both the repay

  6. Determinants of plasma pepsinogen levels in a population at high risk for stomach cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Miki, K; Muñoz, N; Vivas, J H; Lopez, G; Peraza, S; Carillo, E; Castro, D; Andrade, O; Sanchez, V

    1995-09-04

    Determinants of plasma pepsinogens (PG) levels were studied in 1365 participants in a chemoprevention trial for gastric pre-cancerous lesions being conducted in Venezuela. Gastric biopsies, plasma samples and information on smoking and dietary habits were obtained at baseline examination. Both PG-I and PG-II levels increased progressively with the level of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric biopsies, resulting in no clear trend in the I/II ratio. Instead, there was a progressive decrease in the I/II ratio with increasing degrees of infiltration of polynuclear cells and monocytes, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and the stage of pre-cancerous lesions. The mean I/II ratios for atrophic gastritis or more advanced lesions were less than 4.0. When subjects with the I/II ratio 4 or higher were used as controls, severe reduction in the I/II ratio (food on the development of atrophic gastritis need to be studied further.

  7. Venezuela- China Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bordering Columbia, Brazil and Guyana,Venezuela's economy developed speedily in recent years. It is a comparatively active country in South America. The main industries of the country are petroleum, mining, telecom, husbandry and tourism. The visiting enterprises include the leading enterprises of each key industry. This fair provides abundant trade and investment opportunities for China's execution of "Introduce in and Walk Out" development strategy.

  8. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    to sign a revised Acta. The Contradora process was effectively superseded by direct negoti- ations among the Central American states. encomienda -A...131 203, 206 Central Bank of Venezuela (BCV), cocoa (see also cacao), 94; boom, 3; un- 36-37, 85, 99; interest rate policies of, der encomienda system...211 ment budget, 196; stability of, 196; un- Costa Rica, 185 der trienio, 180 cotton: under encomienda system, 82; as ex- defense spending, 195-9t

  9. Fauna fitotelmata en las bromelias Aechmea fendleri André y Aechmea fendleri y Aechmea fendler del Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela stellata S c h u l t d e l P a r q u e N a c i o n a l S a n E s t e b a n , V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo caracteriza la asociación de mosquitos y otros invertebrados sobre bromelias del Parque Nacional San Esteban del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 18 plantas de Aechmea fendleri (11 Aechmea fendleri (1 1 Aechmea fendleri y Hohenbergia stellata (7 durante las épocas lluvia (Septiembre 2004 y sequía (Marzo 2005. Fueron colectados un total de 2020 macroinvertebrados. Los taxa más importantes fueron las Familias Chironomidae (43%, Culicidae (25% y Chaoboridae (6% del Orden Diptera, y Scyrtidae (5% del Orden Coleoptera. En Culicidae las especies más abundan- tes fueron: Culex consolador (31%, Cx. neglectus (27% y Wyeomyia celaenocephala (17%. La mayor abundancia y riqueza se encontró en la época de sequía, con el aumento de diversidad en Culicidae. La diversidad y equitabilidad de macroinvertebrados fue mayor H. stellata , pero similares entre estaciones para las comunidades de A. fendleri y A. fendleri y A. fendleri H. stellata .

  10. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  11. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  12. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Núñez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M

    2008-01-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

  13. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hamar, V.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Mendez, Z.; Nunez, L. A.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.

    2007-07-01

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bio climate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA). (Author)

  14. El derecho de petición en España y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo primordial de la Tesis consiste en analizar el derecho de petición en los ordenamientos jurídicos vigentes de España y Venezuela. Los objetivos específicos, para ambos países, consisten en: (i) determinar el régimen jurídico-constitucional del derecho de petición; (ii) precisar el objeto del mencionado derecho; (iii) expresar quienes pueden ser titulares y destinatarios del mismo; (iv) analizar el procedimiento que a tales efectos se debe seguir; y (v) determinar la protección jur...

  15. Nuevos significados de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Karina Núñez Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es interpretar los nuevos significados de la demo- cracia en Venezuela, construidos a partir de los cambios y transformaciones iniciados en 1999 (proceso constituyente-reforma política, teniendo como centro los discursos y prácticas de una ciudadanía que debe participar de forma activa y organizada en los asuntos públicos con miras a la búsqueda de la solución de sus problemas más apremiantes. La aproximación metodológica (cualitativa-hermenéutica se realizó con- siderando que esta redefinición es una construcción intersubjetiva de los valores, acciones y normas en el ámbito político que intenta explicar cómo se construye la ciudadanía, fundamentalmente en el nivel local, a través de formas asociativas (como los consejos comunales en su interrelación con el Estado. Se concluye que a partir del nuevo orden constitucional de 1999 se comien- za a construir en Venezuela un nuevo sujeto que intenta viabilizar sus de- mandas a través de las organizaciones sociales.

  16. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  17. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  18. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  19. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Maracaibo and Venezuelan Population Growth Rates. Ingles, Urbanization and Regional Development in Venezuela, p. 58. Izard, Serie estadistica para la...Regional Development in Venezuela. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, 1975. Izard, Miguel. Serie estadistica para la historia de Venezuela. Merida

  20. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, J L; Hamar, V; Isea, R; Rojas, F; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M; Florez-Lopez, J; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Núñez, L A

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web-based scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CeCalCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the \\textit{E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America} (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria.

  1. Las elecciones presidenciales en Venezuela 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Jiménez, Juan Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    IntroducciónEl pasado 3 de diciembre, se llevaron a cabo las elecciones presidenciales en Venezuela. La disputa estaba concentrada en las candidaturas del actual presidente Hugo Chávez Frías y la de Manuel Rosales, Gobernador del estado Zulia. Toda la campaña estuvo signada por una dinámica discusión en torno a la construcción de procesos enmarcadotes, a través de los cuales definían su perspectiva y visión acerca de la democracia, el sistema político y la utilización de la renta petrolera. P...

  2. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  3. [Historical overview of antimalarials used in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerpa de Artiles, N

    1993-06-01

    A historical review of antimalarials used in Venezuela is presented from the time when the bark of quina was used until the massive distribution of quinine and metoquine by the Dirección de Malariología y Saneamiento Ambiental. The utility of chloroquine and primaquine against sensible parasite isolates and of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine, currently used against P. falciparum resistant strains, is thoroughly discussed. The author suggests use of artemisimine and its derivatives as a very promising antimalarial drug. She also stresses the possibility of the application of new antimalaria vaccine against P. falciparum blood states, presently assayed in the country as an additional tool in malaria control programs.

  4. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping... a sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan,...

  5. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to... on subject imports from India and Kazakhstan were inadequate. Notwithstanding this, the...

  6. Aproximación al conocimiento de las briofitas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Efraín J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the up-dated taxonomic placement of 106 genera of Hepaticae and 233 genera of Musci known from Venezuela. Besides, a summarized version from the geographical distribution in Venezuela of 383 species of Hepaticae and 1009 species of mosses is presented. Information was derived from an exhaustive revision of bryophyte collections in the Venezuelan herbaria, and from publications about bryophytes collected in Venezuela. It is concluded that Venezuela, despite having been li...

  7. Development of an Army Stationary Axle Efficiency Test Stand - Interim Report TFLRF No. 471

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2012 - See Phillips 66 Deltaven S.A. Planta Distribucion PDVSA Yagua Via Variante Barbula Distribuidor Yagua Valencia Estado Carabobo Venezuela 31-Jul-15...PRI GL 0428 Translub EP SAE 80W-90 Deltaven S.A. Planta Distribucion PDVSA Yagua Via Variante Barbula Distribuidor Yagua Valencia Estado Carabobo

  8. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  9. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  10. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY... from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. de filiales de empresas multinacionales: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Sigala Paparella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la influencia de los diferentes factores determinantes de los roles que tienen las filiales dentro de las empresas multinacionales, a través de la ponderación del comportamiento de factores del contexto de unas filiales sometidas a un entorno adverso. Se utiliza la metodología de estudio de casos en diecisiete filiales localizadas en Venezuela de diversos sectores. El estudio comprueba que la adversidad del entorno es uno de los factores contextuales que mayor influencia ejerce en la determinación de los roles de las filiales, induciendo a una devaluación de los roles de las mismas. El impacto de los determinantes varía dependiendo del tipo de filial: aquellas que realizan pocas actividades de valor agregado, usualmente de mercadeo y ventas, dependen más de la asignación de la matriz, mientras que las que incorporan un mayor número de actividades de la cadena de valor, integran otros determinantes como la adversidad del entorno y la iniciativa desarrollada por la propia filial.

  12. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  13. [Enterobiasis in students from Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devera, R; Pérez, C; Ramos, Y

    1998-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is a nematode with a peculiar biological cycle, thus requiring a special diagnostic technique. In order to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, 282 children aged 5-14 years old were evaluated between november 1995 and august 1996 by the Graham technique (three perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape). The prevalence of enterobiasis in the studied children was estimated 19.1% (54/282). There was no difference between sexes (P > 0.05), but there was a difference between ages (x2 = 13.8; 1.g. = 4), being the infection more frequent between 5 and 8 years. Symptoms were observed in 90.7% of the schoolchildren. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (81.6%). Other less frequent manifestations were enuresis (28.6%) and vulvitis in girls (26.1%). This intestinal parasitosis occurs with high frequency among schoolchildren in Ciudad Bolívar with characteristic and identifiable symptoms in most cases. The Graham method must be used for its diagnosis. This test is not routinely performed in our laboratories unless specifically requested by the attending physician.

  14. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  15. In situ combustion field experiences in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, M.; Estrada, M.; Bolivar, J. [INTEVEP, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-02-01

    A literature review of four in situ combustion projects: in Miga, Tia Juana, Melones and Morichal fields in Venezuela was made, and a summary of these projects is presented. Reservoir description and project performance data were analyzed. The behavior of the four in situ combustion field tests can be summarized as follows: The problems most often encountered were corrosion and high temperature producing wells. The direction in which the burning front moved was guided essentially by reservoir characteristics. The produced oil was upgraded by about 4{degrees} API, and viscosity was substantially reduced. For Mirochal and Miga fields, the analyses of available information from the combustion projects indicated that the process has been successful in the affected region. Conclusions from this review indicate that the two most frequent problems encountered were operational problems in producing wells and the direction of the burning front. The heterogeneous nature of the sands probably resulted in the burning front moving in a preferential direction, hence reducing areal sweep efficiency.

  16. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  17. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  18. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  19. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela.

  20. pobres y nuevas coaliciones en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Briggs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los gobiernos locales junto con el gobierno nacional, crearon un sistema nacional de salud paralelo, Misión Barrio Adentro (MBA, ubicando a unos 33.000 profesionales de la salud, inicialmente cubanos, en vecindarios de bajos ingresos. A través de la etnografía y entrevistas, se concluye que MBA proporcionó acceso a la atención médica y logró obtener apoyo popular a consecuencia de: movimientos sociales de los pobres; cooperación entre trabajadores comunitarios, residentes, profesionales de salud y funcionarios públicos; la integración de la atención médica con programas sociales y económicos; la ubicación de médicos como residentes en barrios pobres; interacciones positivas y equitativas médico-paciente; el papel clave de los Comités de Salud; y el impacto de la hostilidad de la prensa, un segmento grande de los médicos venezolanos y la oposición en transformar a la salud en un tema político esencial. Todo esto nos sugiere que el Estado puede confrontar las inequidades de salud cuando se unen perspectivas teóricas de la medicina social y la epidemiología crítica con los saberes populares dentro de las comunidades afectadas. Estructuras institucionales flexibles, no burocráticas y creativas aumentan la efectividad de las intervenciones.

  1. e innovación en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Peña cedillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestra investigación ha estado dirigida a evaluar las `Agendas de Investigación e Innovación` desarrolladas en Venezuela a partir de 1995. Las Agendas representaron un conjunto de políticas dirigidas a la constitución de redes de innovación en múltiples áreas, impulsando nuevas formas de colaboración entre investigadores, empresarios, ciudadanos, políticos, entre otros. En función de alcanzar nuestros objetivos de evaluación, desarrollamos algunas herramientas e indicadores para estimar si ellas fueron exitosas o no, centrándonos en este escrito en la apreciación cualitativa de las características generales de las Agendas como programas de innovación (un componente de una más compleja macro-evaluación institucional, quedando para otras publicaciones la presentación de los resultados específicos asociados a cada una de las Agendas. Los resultados preliminares aquí reportados indican un abandono de sus planteamientos originales y una vuelta a la tradición que privilegiaba la investigación académica frente a otros esfuerzos de generación de conocimiento. La puesta al día de estas políticas pareciera pasar por la profundización del planteamiento original de redes de actores y agentes sociales, superando el modelo `gerencialista` centrado en lograr `investigaciones más pertinentes`, el cual ha impedido el despliegue frontal de las promesas contenidas en el enfoque de redes.

  2. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  3. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  4. Tricorythodes faeculopsis (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae, description of new stages and first record from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos MOLINERI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricorythodes faeculopsis Belmont, Salles & Hamada, es redescripto e ilustrado a partir de todos los estados. Se registra por primera vez esta especie de Venezuela. Los imagos macho y hembra y los huevos son descriptos por primera vez, y se brinda nueva información para las ninfas. Esta especie se caracteriza por presentar, en los adultos: longitud del ala anterior 2.9–3.6 mm; vena CuP ausente o reducida; forceps con segmentos I y II subiguales en longitud; penes piramidales, con márgenes amarillentos; ninfas: palpo maxilar pequeño, 1-segmentado; razón longitud / ancho máximo de los fémures ca. 0.3; uñas tarsales con 4–10 dentículos marginales y 1–2 submarginales; huevos con costillas longitudinales.

  5. Quaternary Faults and Stress Regime of Venezuela Fallas y campo de esfuerzos cuaternarios de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Audemard M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial configuration of Quaternary active tectonic features along the southern Caribbean plate boundary suggests that the region is subject to a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato regime, characterized by a NNW-SSE maximum horizontal stress (sH=s1 and/or an ENE-WSW minimum (s h=s3 or s2 horizontal stress. Stress inversion applied to fault-plane kinematic indicators measured essentially in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks confirms this tectonic regime. Accordingly, this stress regime is responsible for the Quaternary activity and kinematics of six sets of brittle features along northern Venezuela (from Colombia in the west to Trinidad in the east: (1 east-west rightlateral faults, (2 NW right-lateral faults -acting as synthetic Riedel shears-, (3 ENE to east-west dextral faults -P shears-, (4 NNW normal faults, (5 almost north-south left-lateral faults -antithetic Riedel shears- and (6 mostly subsurface ENE reverse faults associated with folding of the same orientation. Brittle deformation conforms to the simple shear model, although not all the deformation can be accounted for it since strain partitioning is also taking place because regional folding and thrusting are due to the normal-to-structure component of the relative slip vector between the Caribbean and South America plates. On the other hand, the maximum horizontal stress in western Venezuela, particularly in the Maracaibo block and south of the Oca-Ancón fault, progressively turns counter-clockwise to become more east-west oriented, producing left- and right-lateral slip along the north-south striking and NE-SW striking faults, respectively. The orientation and spatial variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the superposition of the two major neighboring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (sH: roughly east-west trending stress across the Nazca-South America type-B subduction along the pacific coast of Colombia and NNW

  6. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  7. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticideslegislation in Venezuela was recovered, usingthe search engine Google. Progress and setbackswas analyzed, with information about imports,exports, inventories, storage sites, controls andactions taken for disposal and participation ininternational conventions. The country appearsto have adequate legislation, however, greaterconsistency of laws and decrees are required. Updatethe technical rule is necessary and increasesthe capacity to monitoring, iden...

  8. The Majorat of Sartenejas in Colonial Venezuela 1740-1858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egilda Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Ponte and Martinez de Villegas, based on law 33, of the Leyes de Toro. Three “noble” families with roots in Venezuela, the Mixares, Ponte and Tovar families were linked to the above-mentioned property and they were joined by marriage alliances to preserve their properties.

  9. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  10. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies pert

  11. Building Coalitions for Change : Venezuela Judicial Infrastructure Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnast, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Government of Venezuela urgently requested assistance from the World Bank to combat corruption, improve the business climate, and create a sense of transparency and involvement of civil society in state matters. The country's judicial system was identified as the institution in which to begin such reforms, because it was widely perceived as lacking credibility and e...

  12. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  13. The Educational System of Venezuela. Education around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Edward J.

    History, structure, legal bases, and planned reforms of the educational system of Venezuela are discussed. The conflicting roles of church and state in administering education have been reconciled within the past two decades, with resultant increases in enrollment and government financing. Curriculum regulation, coordination, and supervision are…

  14. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  15. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  16. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?; Kan Venezuela's oliesector Chavez' ambities nog langer dragen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-15

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [Dutch] De auteur beschrijft de teruggang van de olie-industrie van Venezuela en de reacties van president Chavez op de budgettaire crisis in Venezuela. Politisering, dalende investeringen en de verplichtingen m.b.t. de overvloed aan sociale uitgaven zorgen er voor dat de nationale oliemaatschappij Petroleos de Venezuela niet in staat is om efficient te produceren en de productie op peil te houden. Dalende olie-productie en lagere olieprijzen zorgen er ook voor dat de president niet in staat is om de rijkdom te verdelen over de armen in Venezuela. Hij is op zoek naar manieren om meer te halen uit de slecht functionerende economie. Zijn dure buitenlandse Venezuela beleid, onder meer door ondersteuning van regionale bondgenoten, in het bijzonder Cuba, en het zoeken naar export mogelijkheden, behalve naar de USA, pakt fiancieel gezien slecht uit. De verarmde massa's van Venezuela steunden Chavez nog in de verkiezingen in

  17. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  18. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  19. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  20. THE INFORMAL HOUSING PRODUCTION: THE MARACAIBO CASE, VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by prívate and national enterprises, and ttie "informal" sector, which produces tiouses in marginal áreas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector tías become larger ttian ttie formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. Ttiese people tiave resolve...

  1. Historical Development of Organochlorine Pesticides Legislation in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Information about organochlorine pesticides legislation in Venezuela was recovered, using the search engine Google. Progress and setbacks was analyzed, with information about imports, exports, inventories, storage sites, controls and actions taken for disposal and participation in international conventions. The country appears to have adequate legislation, however, greater consistency of laws and decrees are required. Update the technical rule is necessary and increases the capacity to monito...

  2. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 ...

  3. Severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a thoroughbred horses from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria, D.; Andrea, J.; Leal, L.; García, Francisco; Morales Briceño, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the disease caused by protozoan hemoparasites Babesia caballi and/or B. (Theileria equi). The aim of this study was to report of case of severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a Thoroughbred horse from Venezuela. The equine present acute abdominal pain in 24 hours and complicated post 48 hours and death in the 72 hours. Temperature oscillate 41;2°C. Icterus and hematury severed. We realized a multidisciplinary study clinical, laboratory, biochemistry, necropsy, hi...

  4. Lessons Learned by Venezuela Fighting in Low Intensity Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    BUILDING 122 CARLISLE, PA 17013-5050 ga. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING I 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION I...Congress, 29 April 1960. 1 7Colonel Juan Biaggini Gutierrez et al., Los Cinco de Linea (Caracas: Direccion de Educaion del Ejercito, 4 August 1980), 102...Barracks, PA : U.S. Army War College, 3 August 1992. Low Intensity Conflict. Venezuela Case Study. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  5. Nota sectorial: Servicio eléctrico en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2010-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial tiene por objetivo facilitar el diálogo de políticas públicas, oportunidades de cooperación y la elaboración de la estrategia de país del Banco con las autoridades del Gobierno de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela para en las áreas de energía eléctrica y el Plan Nacional de Inversión.

  6. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    Venezuela has been affected by destructive earthquakes for the past four centuries. According to entries in the national seismic catalog, there have been about 180 earthquakes which have caused some type of damage to the country. The most catastrophic earthquake occurred on March 26, 1812, on the Bocono fault system and caused widespread destruction in the cities of Merida and Caracas and claimed an estimated 30,000 lives.

  7. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  8. 委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带Carabobo油区M区块Morichal段地层沉积演化特征%Sedimentary Evolution Characteristics of Morichal Member in M Block of Carabobo Area of Orinoco Heavy-oil Belt, Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 陈和平; 黄文松; 万广峰; 张超前

    2016-01-01

    综合岩心观察、测井、钻井和取样分析等资料,对委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带内Carabobo油区M区块Morichal段油层组沉积类型及沉积演化特征在垂向和平面上的展布规律进行了研究.结果表明:研究区Morichal段油层组主要发育辫状河三角洲沉积体系,以辫状河三角洲平原亚相为主,进一步可以划分为辫状河道、心滩、溢岸\\决口扇、泛滥平原等沉积微相.其中,辫状河道与心滩为主要发育的沉积微相,其骨架砂体是研究区内最有利的储集体,储层的展布形态主要受控于古地貌形态和沉积微相的展布.主河道沿南西—北东方向发育,溢岸\\决口扇和泛滥平原微相仅在局部少量发育.

  9. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  10. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  11. Venezuela: La descentralización en el socialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodriguez Rojas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La nueva dinámica del poder político y el desarrollo económico en Venezuela hay que entenderlos en el contexto de La Nueva geometría del Poder, el necesario reacomodo territorial, el fortalecimiento del poder popular, Comunal y de los Núcleos de Desarrollo Endógeno. En Venezuela el desarrollo endógeno es un mecanismo dentro del proceso para la construcción de nuestro socialismo. Por lo tanto este debe partir por el debate teórico y filosófico de los fundamentos que deben sustentar esta nueva economía y sociedad. Por eso el propósito de este trabajo tiene que ver con los cambios ocurridos en la administración publica, la dialéctica entre centralización y descentralización, la ocupación del territorio en Venezuela, y los espacios alcanzados por la organización popular, para entender el papel que juegan en el desarrollo armónico de las comunas y la sociedad socialista.

  12. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  13. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  14. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  15. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  16. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

    The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

  17. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela (73 FR 841, January 4, 2008). The Commission is now... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if a..., and Venezuela (67 FR 36149). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  18. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve "commun

  19. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  20. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  1. The first report of Tityus (Scorpiones: Buthidae in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela: a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiroga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus gonzalespongai n. sp. is a species endemic to the high mountains of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. It is found between 1,600 and 2,200 m in ''La Laguna'' mountain. Its habitat includes the area of ''Bosque Húmedo Montano Bajo'' with the type of vegetation of ''Bosque Ombrófilo Montano Siempreverde'' (''Bosques Nublados Costeros'' that includes the ''Subpáramos Arbustivos''. It is distinguished from other Tityus species (T. caripitensis, T. monaguensis, and T. nororientalis by the following characteristics: 1- the disposition of the trichobothria in the pedipalps; 2- ventral keels of the caudal segments of the metasoma (segment II, double and parallel in the proximal two thirds, then convergent and finally divergent in the base; segments III and IV, double and parallel in the basal third, then convergent in a single keel that divides in the base; 3- the number of lines of denticles of the movable finger of the right pedipalp (male = 14; female = 14; 4- pectineous teeth (right/left: male = 15/15: female = 16/15; 5- color: movable and fixed fingers dark brown; prosoma and metasoma, ochre; caudal segment IV, slightly darker than the previous ones; V and the telson, dark brown. T. gonzalespongai belongs to the ''androcottoides'' group and presents a marked sexual dimorphism. It is the first species of the Tityus genus described and reported in Anzoátegui State, expanding this taxa distribution in Venezuela.

  2. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  3. Explora??o sexual feminina na fronteira: Brasil e Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Andr?a Freitas de

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho procurou abordar o fen?meno da Explora??o Sexual feminina na sociedade de consumo, fundamentando-se na sociologia das rela??es de g?nero, ao tomar como estudo as situa??es de explora??o sexual feminina e de prostitui??o que acontecem na fronteira Brasil/Venezuela, no per?odo compreendido entre a ?ltima d?cada (anos dois mil), aos dias atuais. O percurso te?rico conceitual adotado considera essa tem?tica um assunto relevante para o campo de estudos sociol?gicos e da din?mic...

  4. Cambio y orden social en Venezuela, durante el "chavismo"

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Calderón, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    En Venezuela comienza un proyecto político en el año 1998, cuando gana las elecciones el Teniente Coronel Hugo Chávez Frías. Que pretendió cambios en el sistema político corrupto, populista y clientelar. Para lo cual, en una primera etapa que denominamos Democracia Bolivariana, se da inicio a un proceso nacional constituyente, que cambió el sistema político venezolano de Democracia Representativa Liberal a Democracia Participativa y Protagónica. Un Estado federal, descentralizado, alternativo...

  5. VENEZUELA: DISENSO Y CONFLCITO EN LAS ELECCIONES 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Partiendo desde una concepción de la democracia como conflicto, a través de la cual se amplían los espacios de participación pública y por lo tanto de los ciudadanos, se analiza la transición política experimentada en Venezuela, particularmente del proceso electoral de julio de 2000, que significó la construcción definitiva de un nuevo orden en el sistema político. El enfrentamiento de julio de 2000 estuvo signado por la fractura en la unidad en torno a Hugo Chávez y el surg...

  6. BYTTNERIA CARIPENSIS (STERCULIACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Byttneria caripensis Cristóbal (sección Crassipetala de Edo. Bolívar, Venezuela se describe como nueva. Se estudia también la anatomía de los nectarios de la hoja y la venación menor. El tamaño y la forma muy peculiar de la cavidad glandular de los nectarios multiaperturados están estresados. Se presentan dos ilustraciones.

  7. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-04

    America, 2006, preliminary version, December 2006. 47 Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), República Bolivariana de Venezuela, “Línea de Pobreza ... Mexico , Spain, and Portugal, in establishing a group known as the “Friends of Venezuela” — to lend support to the OAS Secretary General’s efforts. U.S...supplier in 2005, after Canada, Mexico , and Saudi Arabia), providing about 12% of U.S. crude oil imports, a key U.S. interest has been ensuring the

  8. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela); Flores, N.; Urbani, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Dept. de Geologia, Caracas (Venezuela); Carreno, R. [Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleologia, Apdo. 47334, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela)

    2001-09-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m{sup 3}. (Author)

  9. Academic Writing Books in Argentina, Venezuela and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Mónica Prior; Carpio, Guillermo Cordero; Pereira, Claudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n3p253The books are:Reading and writing in learning within the different IFD graduate courses and subjects that prepare teachers for secondary school: concepts and practices stated by teachers’ trainers;Writing Seedbed: writing tasks throughout three courses at the UNGS;Academic writing in Venezuela: Research, reflection and proposals;Reading and writing in academic and professional contexts: Genres, Corpus and Methods.  Os livros resenhados são:L...

  10. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  11. [History of psychiatry in Venezuela: milestones in social work education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J

    1991-01-01

    A historical compilation, initiated with Dr. Lorenzo Campins y Ballester in 1773, covering the teaching aspect, and culminated with the creation of the first postgraduate in psychiatry at the Central University of Venezuela in 1939, is made. On the assistential side, the way in which patients were treated during colonial times is mentioned, introducing the attempts which were carried out up to 1892, when Dr. G.T. Villegas Pulido ordered the moving of 30 patients to the remodeled military hospital, becoming this latter institution the Psychiatric Hospital of Caracas. The influence of private institutions on both teaching formation and assistential level is also mentioned.

  12. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  13. Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Salas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni, 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa, and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle. This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70% and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research.

  14. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  15. CURRENT SPACE PROJECTS OF THE BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del a ̃o 2008, con el lanzamiento exitoso del primer sat ́lite venezolano de telecomunicaciones, sat ́lite n e e VENESAT-1, la Rep ́blica Bolivariana de Venezuela pasa a formar parte del grupo de pa ́ u ıses que a nivel internacional utilizan activamente la ciencia y la tecnolog ́ espacial como una herramienta para promover el ıa desarrollo nacional. Sobre esa base, a trav ́s de la Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales (ABAE, se e ha impulsado la ejecuci ́n de diversos proyectos espaciales, entre los que destacan la fabricaci ́n y lanzamiento o o del primer sat ́lite venezolano para la observaci ́n de la Tierra, la construcci ́n de un centro especializado para e o o el dise ̃o y fabricaci ́n de sat ́lites de peque ̃o peso, as ́ como actividades de investigaci ́n y desarrollo relativas n o e n ı o a la medici ́n de propiedades f ́ o ısicas de la Tierra. El trabajo presenta una breve descripci ́n de los proyectos o espaciales desarrollados en Venezuela.

  16. Venezuela: del neoliberalismo al socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la dinámica de la aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela y sus consecuencias económicas, políticas y sociales hasta llegar a la propuesta de construir el socialismo del siglo XXI. Para ello hacemos una breve retrospectiva de lo que ha sido la sociedad venezolana desde la década de 1970, del auge rentístico hasta llegar a la crisis de la década de 1980 y la inserción del programa neoliberal. La aplicación del modelo neoliberal en Venezuela, como en buen parte de América Latina, no fue un proceso fácil, por el contrario produjo fuertes conflictos y contradicciones. Asimismo, el periodo iniciado en 1999 con la llegada de Hugo Chávez al poder está cargado de dificultades y obstáculos, pero sin lugar a duda ha sido un proyecto contra el neoliberalismo. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar el proceso venezolano hacia el socialismo.

  17. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEIXEIRA, Bertinellys; RODULFO, Hectorina; CARREÑO, Numirin; GUZMÁN, Militza; SALAZAR, Elsa; DONATO, Marcos DE

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America. PMID:27007556

  18. Venezuela, en la prensa internacional: una cobertura sesgada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Casado-Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se investigó la cobertura de Venezuela en 28 grandes diarios de América Latina, Europa y EEUU a lo largo de un año. El objetivo del trabajo fue dilucidar si existía un sesgo sistemático. Metodología. Se compaginó el análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de contenido. Se condensaron varias categorías en dos variables –tendencia e impacto– con una simple escala de medición adscrita. Resultados. Se demostró un sistemático sesgo negativo en la cobertura de Venezuela en los grandes diarios: el 82% de los artículos publicados tienen un impacto negativo. A la vez, el 95% de los temas está relacionado con el gobierno venezolano. Discusión y conclusiones. La comprobación de un sesgo negativo sistemático significa que el derecho de información de los ciudadanos-lectores no se está cumpliendo.

  19. VENEZUELA: DISENSO Y CONFLCITO EN LAS ELECCIONES 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo desde una concepción de la democracia como conflicto, a través de la cual se amplían los espacios de participación pública y por lo tanto de los ciudadanos, se analiza la transición política experimentada en Venezuela, particularmente del proceso electoral de julio de 2000, que significó la construcción definitiva de un nuevo orden en el sistema político. El enfrentamiento de julio de 2000 estuvo signado por la fractura en la unidad en torno a Hugo Chávez y el surgimiento de una nueva oposición alrededor de Francisco Arias Cárdenas, uno de los excomandantes del intento de golpe de Estado del 4 de febrero de 1992. Se concluye que a partir de agosto de 2000 se consolida el liderazgo político de Chávez y una nueva forma de concebir la democracia en Venezuela

  20. Venezuela, 1. Fenomenologìa de una Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Neira Fernández

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor muestra una primera reflexión, la coyuntura histórica presentada en la crisis de los procesos sociales y estructurales en Venezuela. Esta crisis presenta procesos simultáneos derivados del principal, que ha sido el que Venezuela ha pasado de ser un país agrariamente pobre a ser un país con una gran riqueza petrolera, lo cual ha provocado la modernización y urbanización de las ciudades, y por consiguiente la incorporación de ciencia avanzada y tecnología de punta en los diferentes campos de la economía nacional. Las principales manifestaciones de esta crisis están en la inhabilidad de la clase política, la falta de una generación de líderes de relevo y la falta de institucionalización que ha dejado la sociedad sin marcos firmes y claramente definidos para encauzar su desarrollo. Se aúnan a todo lo anterior, los vicios presentes en la ciudadanía venezolana tales como la desidia en cuanto a la responsabilidad social, la cobardía cívica y la dejadez ante la propia suerte y la de la sociedad

  1. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  2. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  3. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  4. Development and application of steam injection simulators in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, J.; Quintero, L.; Aquino, C.; Guevara, F.; Avila, A.

    1980-01-01

    Steam injection is a major oil recovery method in Venezuela, with 3 trillion bbl of oil possibly recoverable by this technqiue. Alongside progress in steam injection technology, the development of a series of numerical simulators has been proceeding at an accelerated pace. This work describes 3 of the steam injection simulators developed, and their application to 2 major heavy oil reservoirs. These simulators describe 3-phase, nonisothermal multicomponent flow, consisting of 4, 3, and 2 components, respectively, in 3 dimensions. The implicitness of the simulators increases in the order of decreasing number of components. However, for a variety of problems, the less implicit but more efficient simulators are adequate. The finite difference methods used for each simulator are outlined. These, as well as the computational performance, are compared with the existing simulators. The application of the simulators to 2 major reservoirs in Venezuela-morichal and M/sup -6/ is described and compared. Effects of such factors as spacing, injection rate, and gravity segregation are examined. 14 references.

  5. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  6. La evolución político-institucional de Venezuela 1975-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ayala Corao; Jesús M. Casal

    2008-01-01

    Del mismo modo que ha ocurrido en otros países de América Latina, Venezuela ha experimentado un convulsionado proceso de reforma institucional y constitucional en las últimas décadas. En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos relacionados con el sistema de gobierno, el poder judicial, los derechos fundamentales y los partidos políticos en Venezuela. Este trabajo intenta extraer algunas enseñanzas y también algunos desafios que presenta esta evolución política de Venezuela, sobre todo, examinan...

  7. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario;

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat......Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted....... reported in donkeys of Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela....

  8. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  9. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  10. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  11. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  12. Three new rarely collected or endangered species of Annonaceae from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Pirie, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Annonaceae from Venezuela are described here: Cremastosperma venezuelanum Pirie, Klarobelia subglobosa Chatrou, and Pseudomalmea wingfieldii Chatrou. All three are represented by few collections (in comparison to those of other Neotropical species of Annonaceae). Klarobelia subg

  13. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922.

  14. Venezuela's Petroleum Diplomacy and China & Venezuela Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The considerable potential of oil and gasproduction in VenezuelaVenezuela is located in the north end of the South American continent. The oil reserve of Venezuelan announced by OPEC is 296.5 billion barrels (about 40.62 billion tons). Most of the oil reserve locates in Orinoco River area where heavy oil and ultra heavy oil can be explored, are highly viscosity and highly sulfur.

  15. Venezuela’s Changing Foreign Policy Towards the United States: A Holistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Economic Indicators, 1995-2000”, http://www.latin- focus.com/countries/venezuela/venindex.htm [12 Feb 2001]. 58 Ministerio de Finanza de Venezuela website...Plinio, “Un Foro Con Orejas de Lobo”, Analitica.com, http://www.analitica.com/va/ internacionales /opinion/7811628.asp, [02 Dec 2001]. 60 Gonzalez...Analitica.com, accessed online at: http://www.analitica.com/va/ internacionales /opinion/7811628 .asp, [02 Dec 2001]. “Proyecto de Ley Habilitante

  16. Amphinomidae y Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta de la costa nororiental de Venezuela Amphinomidae and Euphrosinidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from northeastern coast of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Liñero-Arana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron ejemplares pertenecientes a ocho especies de Amphinomidae y una de Euphosinidae recolectados en diferentes lugares de la costa oriental de Venezuela: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus cana-riensis, L. paucibranchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae y Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Excepto para Eurythoë, Hermodice y Notopygos, los demás géneros y/o especies constituyen nuevos registros para la costa de Venezuela.Specimens belonging to eight species of Amphinomidae and one of Euphosinidae collected in different localities of the East coast of Venezuela were identified: Amphinome rostrata, Chloeia viridis, Chloenopsis atlantica, Eurythoë complanata, Hermodice carunculata, Linopherus canariensis, L. pauci-branchiata, Notopygos crinita (Amphinomidae and Euphrosine triloba (Euphrosinidae. Except for Eurythoë, Hermodice and Notopygos, the remain genera or species constitute new records from Venezuelan coast.

  17. ATLAS Virtual Visit-Venezuela-Colombia-05-06-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The Virtual Center of High Energy Studies (Centro Virtual de Altos Estudios en Altas Energias CeVALE2) is a Colombian-Venezuelan initiative to promote the research on particle physics in the region. It groups four Colombian universities and four Venezuelan institutions. The two main objectives of CeVALE2 are the development and transfer of collaborative and organizational platforms in the area and the creation of opportunities for the dissemination of particle physics such as courses and seminars. A cycle of conferences has been organized during June 2014 for teachers and students from the member institutions. The ATLAS Virtual Visit will be a key part of this experience - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/Venezuela-Colombia-2014.html#sthash.tZw8PxLn.dpuf

  18. SOCIEDADES DE GARANTÍAS RECIPROCAS REGIONALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se propone describir el funcionamiento, los servicios que ofrecen las Sociedades de Garantías Reciprocas Regionales (SGRs en Venezuela y presentar de forma sintetizada, las nociones elementales para su constitución, así como también las bases legales por las cuales se deben regir, agregando un resumen ejecutivo de la Ley del Sistema Nacional de Garantías Reciprocas y las Normas de Promoción, Constitución y Funcionamiento de los Fondos Nacionales de Garantías Recíprocas y SGRs.  La metodología aplicada es documental, de revisión y exploración bibliográfica, que permitió inferir que las SGRs Regionales representan una alternativa de financiamiento a las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (Pymes

  19. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  20. Legalidad o ilegalidad de la desobediencia civil tributaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariadela Bello Atencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudió la legalidad o ilegalidad de la Desobediencia Civil Tributaria en Venezuela en lo que al término hermenéutico se refiere. El artículo 350 de la carta magna consagra el derecho del pueblo a desacatar cualquier régimen, autoridad o legislación cuando contraríe los principios y garantías constitucionales o menoscabe los derechos humanos. El objetivo fundamental es analizar la legalidad o ilegalidad de la misma. Se trata de una investigación jurídica documental de tipo descriptivo, con un diseño bibliográfico. El método utilizado fue el sociológico auxiliado por la hermenéutica jurídica, concluyéndose que la desobediencia civil tributaria es legal conforme al referido artículo 350.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  2. Low occurrence of Helicobacter DNA in tropical wild birds, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Amado, María Alexandra; Sanz, Virginia; Martinez, Leoncia Margarita; Contreras, Mónica; Lentino, Miguel; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-10-01

    Enteric Helicobacter species (Helicobacter pullorum, Helicobacter pametensis, Helicobacter canadensis, Helicobacter anseris, and Helicobacter brantae) have been found in birds from temperate latitudes. We evaluated the occurrence of Helicobacter spp. in terrestrial wild birds from Venezuela. A fragment of 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR with Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Helicobacter spp. were detected in four of 80 fecal and in three of 42 intestinal tissue samples. Analyses of 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences confirm for the first time the presence of Helicobacter in tropical terrestrial wild birds. However, the occurrence of Helicobacter was low, suggesting these bacteria may be uncommon in the populations we studied.

  3. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  4. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  5. La emigración gallega a Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Álvarez, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un estudio de la emigración gallega a Venezuela entre los años 1945 y 1985 a través de la utilización de fuentes orales, complementadas con material bibliográfico, hemerográfico y de archivo. Así, veremos cómo a finales de los años cuarenta esta república sudamericana se convirtió en receptora de inmigración masiva debido a la profunda transformación económica que está experimentando, impulsada por el auge petrolífero y por la política inmigratoria de p...

  6. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  7. La universidad virtual en Venezuela. Un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Fernández de Pelekais

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito presentar una visión general de la educación virtual en Venezuela con el fin de validar un nuevo enfoque educativo. Se presenta un estudio de caso, donde se evidencia la necesidad de planificar la aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías en las diferentes áreas de la educación a fin de tomar decisiones adecuadas que garanticen las relaciones costo-beneficio y la optimización del uso masivo de las mismas; así como prever el mantenimiento de esos recursos para garantizar su productividad y eficiencia.

  8. La credibilidad del sistema de banda cambiaria de Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Campos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la credibilidad del régimen cambiario de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante de Venezuela durante el periodo julio de 1996-febrero de 2002. Mostramos que los análisis de credibilidad aplicados a zonas objetivo, introduciendo algunas modificaciones, también pueden utilizarse para estudiar la credibilidad de sistemas cambiarios de bandas de fluctuación crecientes a tasa constante. En este trabajo aplicamos tanto el denominado test de credibilidad de Svensson como el método de ajuste de la deriva. Con ambos métodos obtenemos resultados similares en cuanto al alto grado de credibilidad del sistema durante el periodo analizado.

  9. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  10. Dimensiones de Personalidad de Marca. Estudio exploratorio en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pirela Saavedra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo explorar el modelo de Personalidad de Marca en Venezuela, a través del estudio propuesto por Aaker (1997 de los rasgos de personalidad, utilizando los centros comerciales como producto de referencia. La investigación de tipo exploratorio adoptó un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. La muestra resultó de ciento sesenta y ocho personas (168 entre encuestas auto suministradas y vía correo electrónico. En el procesamiento de los datos se aplicó un análisis de Confiabilidad vía Alfa de Cronbach encontrándose que las dimensiones de personalidad de marca para Venezuela son: Emocionante (0.91, Sinceridad (0.83, Pasional (0.88 Pasividad (0.76 y Rudeza (0.68. Estos resultados revelaron importantes diferencias con un estudio previo realizado en el país. La causa puede deberse a la falta de un procedimiento muestral más representativo de ambos estudios, ya que hasta la fecha no se ha realizado un estudio de escala nacional para medir Personalidad de Marca. A pesar de ello, se consiguieron evidencias que los rasgos de personalidad alrededor de la dimensión “Emocionante” pudiesen ser explicativos de la personalidad del venezolano promedio, ya que además de su consistencia interna, presentan coincidencias con otros estudios empíricos de segmentación realizados en el país.

  11. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  12. Funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo / Functions of the scholastic supervision in venezuela. Approach to a model

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: ...

  13. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  14. The importance of trenching in paleoseismic studies in Venezuela: brief historical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoseismic studies have proved to be a powerful tool in seismic hazards assessment by he contributing to asses the seismogenic potential of a given fault by expanding the time window o seismic activity beyond the limits of historical and instrumental seismicity. Trenching has been an essential tool for paleoseismic studies in Venezuela. The first paleoseismic trenching project in Venezuela goes back to 1968 when Compania Shell de Venezuela retained the services of Woodward Clyde and Associates,(WCA), USA to asses the seismic integrity of the earthen dikes of Costa Oriental of Lake Maracaibo Protection System (COLM) in western Venezuela. The study was carried out under the general coordination of this author. An important part of this project included a seismology and seismic geology study under the direction of Geologist L.S. Cluff. This was the first ever study undertaken in Venezuela and included two excavations across the Oca Fault north of the city of Maracaibo. After several years of inactivity, FUNVISIS (The Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research) carried out in 1980 a seismic hazard (SHA) for the Uribante Caparo Hydroelectric Project southwest Venezuela. In 1989, MARAVEN, an operating company of PETROLE0S DE VENEUELA S.A. (PDVSA) undertook the project of a products pipeline form Maracaibo to El Vigia, south of Lake Maracaibo. Again, FUNVISIS was contracted to carry out a SHA, which included the digging of 5 trenches, which were supplemented with five more trenches for the COLM project. Trenching activity contined in Venezuela in the framework of SHA project, under the direction of Dr. Audemard. In 2001 Venezuelan trenching experience was exported to the neighboring Colombia as e Dr. Audemard t undertook a palaoseismicity project which included the digging of five trenches. In conclusion, paleoseismicty studies have given us the possibility of extending the scope of both instrumental and historical seismicity by some 10,000 years, trenching has

  15. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  16. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    mainly of consumer products, such as television sets, radios, refrigerators, and washing machines - goods not readily available or else very costly in...London. December, 1990. "Hector Jurado Toro en Impacto : Indocumentados Trabajan en la Busqueda de Oro." El Universal (Caracas, Venezuela). November 5

  17. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela

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    Ramón Syr Salas Perea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Note from the Editors: This article by Drs. Borroto Cruz and Salas Perea was published in the Fall 2008 edition of MEDICC Review. We will be publishing a Spanish translation this month in Medicina Social. We present here the abstract of the article. We encourage readers to read the English original which is available at: www.medicc.org/mediccreview/. The issue is entitled: Teaching for Health Equity: Changing Paradigms of Medical Education. National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, Venezuela Introduction: Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans’ health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention: Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results: Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six

  18. Asymmetrical and heterogeneous elasto-static deformation along the El Pilar Fault in Northeastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoza, C.; Jouanne, F.; Audemard, F. A.; Beck, C.

    2013-05-01

    Velocities field in both sides of the El Pilar fault, the most important right-lateral strike-slip fault of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary, present an important asymmetry. This pattern suggests a change in elastic properties when crossing the fault. We have applied an asymmetric model to simulate observed velocities with 20 mm/yr creep at depth, corresponding at the relative velocity of Caribbean plate versus South America plate. The preferred model indicated a shallow locking depth at 4.5 km. In a second part, a near-fault low-rigidity compliant zone from 3 km of depth with a 30 per cent of rigidity reduction respect to the environment is proposed using a 3D elasto-static model. We use GPS data from 23 stations collected in 2002 and 2005 like input parameters as well as geometry parameters based in previous work. The shallow locking depth and the interseismic velocities used in the asymmetry and compliant zone models respectively support: i) the hypothesis of a partially locked seismogenic upper part, ii) the concentration of the Caribbean- South America relative displacement entirely along the El Pilar Fault. Reinoza Carlos PhD thesis and stay in ISTerre Laboratory is funded through Venezuela's FUNDAYACUCHO Grant N° 756514C. This research is a contribution to FONACIT-ECOS Nord grant 2009000818 (French code V10U01). Observed velocities (white) from 2002 and 2005 GPS campaign measurements data with error ellipses drawn for 66% confidence level expressed in the South America plate reference frame.

  19. The evaluation of a dipstick test for Plasmodium falciparum in mining areas of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, A; Ache, A

    1996-11-01

    A field trial comparing a dipstick test, an antigen-capture test detecting trophozoite-derived histidine-rich protein-II, and the quantitative buffer coat (QBC) (acridine orange staining technique) assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum was carried out on a population of 1,398 suspected malaria patients in gold mining areas of Venezuela. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were higher for the dipstick test than for the acridine orange staining compared with the thick blood smear. The sensitivity for the dipstick method was 86.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 82-90%), the specificity was 99.3% (95% CI = 98.5-99.7%), and the positive predictive value was 97.1% (95% CI = 94-98%) as compared with the thick blood smear. The sensitivity for acridine orange staining was 82.2% (95% CI = 77-86%), the specificity was 98.5% (95% CI = 97.6-99.1%), and the positive predictive value was 94.1% (95% CI = 90-97%); with a P. falciparum asexual parasitemia higher than 21 parasites/microliter, the dipstick was 100% sensitive, when parasitemia was 10-20/microliter, sensitivity was 88%, and when parasitemia was less than 10/microliter, it was only 13.4%. The dipstick assay meets the criteria for an appropriate, rapid, and reliable test for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and has advantages over the acridine orange staining method. Nonetheless, its effectiveness seems limited in areas with low prevalence and among patients with low levels of parasitemia.

  20. [Recent and future trends in general fertility in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J

    1983-01-01

    Data from the 1977 Venezuela Fertility survey were used to assess recent trends in fertility and to attempt an understanding of future fertility based on observed trends. Between 1951-61, the total fertility rate increased from 5.96 to 6.61. In the 1960s, the fertility of women aged 15-30 years declined somewhat and the use of contraception and sterilization became more widespread, so that by 1971 the total fertility rate fell to 5.58. It is possible that the 1977 fertility survey slightly underrepresented women in the Caracas area, which would tend to overestimate fertility at the national level. The small sample size of 4361 women aged 15-44 involved considerable fluctuations in fertility rates from year to year. The risk of errors resulting from the method of retrospective reporting of live births appeared to be small since the recall period was relatively short. A series of quinquennial rates for women aged 15-39 was constructed for each age group from 1968-77. Fertility rates estimated for 1971 and 1976 respectively from the Venezuela Fertility Survey results using a moving average for 3 years were 120.7 and 105.1 for women 15-19, 259.0 and 225.1 for women 20-24, 255.0 and 213.1 for women 25-29, 214.3 and 167.7 for women 30-34, and 150.0 and 103.6 for women 35-39. The results were quite close to fertility rates estimated in other sources. The 1977 fertility survey indicated a trend toward later age at marriage and a correlation of ideal family size with age. The ideal number of children was 4.2 for the total sample, 5 children for women aged 35-39 years, 4.5 for those aged 30-34, 3.9 for those 25-29, and 3.5 for those aged 20-24. 55% of women in union stated they wanted no more children. 46% of women exposed to risk of pregnancy used a modern method of contraception; the proportion varied from 40% of those with 1 child to 56% with 4 children. The fertility decline, reduced ideal family size, and use of modern contraception were closely associated with

  1. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  2. Venezuela: calidad de las elecciones y calidad de la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam KORNBLITH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de la afirmación de Levine y Molina (2006, según la cual la calidad de la democracia depende del funcionamiento de los procesos mediante los cuales la población selecciona y controla sus gobernantes, en este trabajo se examina el caso venezolano, haciendo especial énfasis en el análisis de la dinámica electoral del período marcado por la presidencia de Chávez (1999-2006. Dicho examen nos lleva a concluir que el régimen sociopolítico venezolano actual puede ser caracterizado más adecuadamente como un «régimen autoritario electoral», más que como una democracia representativa convencional. Los rasgos autoritarios del gobierno venezolano actual explicarían la baja puntuación obtenida por Venezuela en los índices de Freedom House. Sin embargo, este examen también nos lleva a considerar la pertinencia de los supuestos de la calidad de la democracia en el contexto de un cambio de régimen que explícitamente se aleja de las aspiraciones e ideales que sustentan el concepto, dimensiones e indicadores de la calidad de la democracia propuestos.ABSTRACT: Taking off from the affirmation by Levine and Molina that «the quality of democracy depends on the operation of procedures whereby the population selects and controls its government», this article examines the dynamics of elections during the Presidency of Chávez, (1999-2006. This examination leads to the conclusion that the current regime is better characterized as «an autoritarian electoral regime» than as a conventional representative democracy. This re-definition explains the low scores obtained by Venezuela both in Freedom House. At the same time, this study throws light on the bases of democracy and of definitions of quality of democracy in a regime that explicitly rejects the very ideals and aspirations that underlie the definitions, dimensions and indicators of democracy itself.

  3. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  4. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  5. 委内瑞拉奥里诺科重油带地质与油气资源储量%Geology and reserve of the Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuela

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆龙新; 韩国庆; 徐宝军

    2009-01-01

    Orinoco heavy oil belt is the largest heavy oil enriched area in the world, with the total area of 54 000 km~2, heavy oil reserves of about 200 billion tons, and recoverable reserves of about 50 billion tons. It is located in the marginal uplift belt of East Venezuela Basin, and is a monocline dipping to the north. The main reservoir is Tertiary fluvial deltaic facies sandstone characterized by shallow depth of oil layer, large thickness, high porosity, high permeability, high oil saturation,poor consolidation, and strong heterogeneity. The main trap is lithologic trap, and locally controlled by faults. The belt is subdivided into 4 large areas with 32 blocks, and the proved reserves are mainly in the JUNIN and CARABOBO regions.Oil pools are characterized by "three highs and one low" in the fluidity of the heavy oil, that is, high gravity, high sulfur, high content of heavy metals vanadium and nickel, and low viscosity, and foamy oil can be formed. Under the conditions of cold production, the oil can flow and single well production is high, the production with horizontal well is up to 200 tons per day, and the oil recovery is relatively low (5 %-10 %).%奥里诺科重油带是目前世界上最大的重油富集带,位于东委内瑞拉盆地南缘的北倾单斜上,总面积为54 000 km~2,重油地质储量约2 000×10~8t,可采储量约500×10~8t.该重油带主要储集层是一套第三系河流一三角洲相砂岩,油层埋藏浅,厚度大,孔隙度、渗透率、含油饱和度高,岩石固结程度差,非均质性强.重油带油藏以岩性圈闭为主,局部受断层控制.重油带被划分为4大区32个可开发区块,目前探明储量主要分布在JUNIN和CARABOBO两个地区,区内油藏具有三高一低可流动的特点,即:高比重,高含硫.高含重金属钒和镍,低黏度,可形成泡沫油.冷采条件下可流动并能获得很高的单井产能,水平井冷采产量一般可达200 t/d,冷采采收率较低,为5%~10%.图7表4参6

  6. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela : A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzman, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a h

  7. ANÁLISIS BIOGEOGRÁFICO DE LOS PECES CHARACIFORMES DE VENEZUELA Biogeographic Analysis of the Characiformes Fishes of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BONILLA RIVERO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis biogeográfico basado en los peces Characiformes de Venezuela con el objetivo de explorar la importancia relativa de los procesos que han contribuido con el establecimiento de los patrones de distribución actuales de la ictiofauna continental venezolana. La información geográfica y filogenética disponible se analizó siguiendo los métodos de Análisis de Parsimonia de Endemismos (PAE y Análisis de Parsimonia de Brooks (BPA. El PAE señaló fundamentalmente a los Llanos Occidentales y el sur del Amazonas como áreas de endemismo. El BPA realizado con la información filogenética de siete géneros mostró un patrón generalizado con los clados (Caribe + Maracaibo y ((((Río Negro+Orinoco + Paria + Valencia + Cuyuní, donde se destaca un evento de dispersión desde la cuenca del río Negro hacia el río Orinoco. Los resultados de ambos métodos biogeográficos indican que la región de los llanos - amazonas, donde se conjugó la biota del incipiente Orinoco con la biota amazónica, contiene el mayor número de especies, las áreas de endemismo mejor sustentadas, así como distintos eventos de especiación y posterior dispersión hacia otras regiones. La biota de la región nortecostera del país parece más bien gobernada por procesos de especiación vicariante de carácter puntual por el aislamiento histórico de sus drenajes.Based on the information available on fishes of the order Characiformes of Venezuela a biogeographical analysis was performed to explore the relative importance of the processes that may have contributed to the establishment of current distribution patterns of the Venezuelan continental ichthyofauna. Geographic and phylogenetic information available for this group of fishes was analyzed by Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA. PAE uncovered the western plains and southern Amazonas as areas of endemism. BPA, using the phylogenetic information of seven genera

  8. Late quaternary environmental history of lake valencia, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J P; Leyden, B; Salgado-Labouriau, M; Lewis, W M; Schubert, C; Binford, M W; Frey, D G; Whitehead, D R; Weibezahn, F H

    1981-12-18

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed.

  9. Sucesos de la Venezuela Rentista, 1989 y 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibelis Coromoto Blanco Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XX, Venezuela fue catalogado uno de los países de Sudamérica más ricos del continente, destacándose por su y estabilidad económica. Sin embargo, el capitalismo rentístico tanto de la época democrática como en el socialismo del siglo XXI sobredimensionó el tamaño del estado, utilizó mecanismos de subsidios que desaceleró el aparato productivo, generó niveles de inflación y déficit fiscal que se reflejaron en malestar y estallido social. Este artículo hace una reflexión sobre la crisis que atraviesa este país, para lo cual se describen elementos de política económica de corte neoliberal en 1989 y un resumen de los catorce años del gobierno actual caracterizado por las medidas de control cambiario que han generado, escasez. De igual forma se revisan los hechos desataron la crisis social en 1989 y 2014, así como los puntos en común presentes en los dos momentos, el más característico: la inseguridad.

  10. Venezuela en el comercio internacional y frente al desarrollo sustentable

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    Marysela Coromoto Morillo Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela pese a los innumerables dotes naturales no ha podido alcanzar el anhelado desarrollo, tampoco el bienestar de todos sus habitantes, en parte porque sus acciones y prácticas económicas no se han fundamentado en el desarrollo sustentable, su comercio exterior se limita a la exportación de materias primas básicas sin mucho valor agregado cuya explotación intensiva incrementa la vulnerabilidad ecológica irreversible. En el presente trabajo se analiza la economía venezolana en el marco del desarrollo sustentable, vinculando su participación en el comercio exterior con el desarrollo sustentable. Se recomienda la urgente reducción de la dependencia petrolera, la diversificación económica y de exportaciones, para participar en el comercio internacional de forma dinámica con productos de alto valor agregado. El reto son los procesos de liberalización comercial y mundialización que promueva la sustentabilidad ecológica y el desarrollo humano equitativo, integrando mundialmente las políticas ecológicas y comerciales, dado que el comercio internacional no necesariamente eleva la calidad de vida y la salud del planeta, por el contrario, todo depende del uso eficiente de los recursos para crear riquezas en concordancia con la protección del medio ambiente.

  11. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  12. Venezuela: regiones fronterizas y globalización

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    Germán Cardozo Galué

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización, al mismo tiempo que introduce tendencias hacia la homogeneidad económica, impulsa la “economía difusa” a través de procesos de descentralización y reubicación de las estructuras industriales en asentamientos territoriales como las regiones fronterizas. Ha sido señalado el peligro de tales estrategias para la integridad y futuro de los Estados nacionales. En este artículo se analiza, en la perspectiva del proceso histórico, el caso específico de la región fronteriza que comparten Venezuela y Colombia, compuesta por los Estados Zulia y Táchira y el Departamento de Santander, respectivamente. La categoría “región histórica” sirve de marco teórico-metodológico para la comprensión del problema originado por el actual juego dialéctico de “Globalización-Estado nacional-Región” con el objeto de sustentar posibles propuestas de carácter sociopolítico.

  13. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  14. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  15. [Anthropometric characterization of an institutionalized elderly population from Caracas, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérrera, Hector; Rebato, Esther; Rocandio, Ana María; Hernández, Rosa; Rodríguez, Nahir; Barbosa, Johanna; Hernández-Valera, Yolanda

    2005-06-01

    Most of the anthropometric standards are derived from adult populations but not from older subjects, so their use to evaluate the nutritional status in the elderly may not be the most appropriate. In this sense, the anthropometric characteristics and their relationship to sex and age in a cross-sectional sample of 809 Venezuelan subjects (370 males and 439 females), aged 60 to 102 years old, randomly selected from a elderly institution-alised population were studied. The results indicate that anthropometric variables show different degrees and signs of sexual dimorphism. Males presented higher stature, weight, waist and calf circumferences and higher bone diameters, while females have higher hip and thigh perimeters, and bigger trunk and extremities skinfolds. Independently of the changes observed in these variables with age, the difference spread between the sexes tends to stay and even to increase with age in the height and weight, in hip perimeter and in thigh and calf skinfolds; while, on the contrary, they attenuate in waist perimeter and in triceps, subescapular and suprailiac skinfolds. Males and females appear to be more similar for these variables in the advanced ages. In general, these results could be used as reference elements for similar researches in Venezuela, due to the low number of studies developed in the country in older populations

  16. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  17. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  18. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunping [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)], E-mail: yunpingxu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Jaffe, Rudolf [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C{sub 23} and C{sub 25} relative to C{sub 29} and C{sub 31}n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C{sub 32} 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C{sub 32} bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions.

  19. Second record of Tityus bahiensis (Scorpiones, Buthidae from Venezuela: epidemiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the scorpion Tityus bahiensis Perty from Venezuela. The specimen was found alive in a wardrobe at a hotel resort in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela. Morphological characterization allowed its assignment to the Tityus bahiensis population inhabiting the southernmost area of the species' geographic range, e.g. the state of São Paulo in Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. The fact that the only available Venezuelan antiscorpion (anti-Tityus discrepans serum does not neutralize the effects of alpha- and beta-toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom (which resembles in composition that of T. bahiensis constitutes a warning to local clinicians confronted with envenomations by noxious species transported to Venezuela from Brazil by human agency.

  20. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera coletados na Venezuela na copa de Matayba (Sapindaceae e Vochysia (Vochysiaceae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerambycidae coletados em Surumoni, Amazonas, Venezuela, com o auxílio de uma grua, por armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha luminosa nas copas de Matayba guianensis Aubl e Vochysia sp. resultaram em novos registros para 14 espécies e descrição de quatro novas: Erythropterus urucuri sp. nov. (Heteropsini, Eriphus ruBELLus sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Lissonotus kuaiuba sp. nov. (Lissonotini e Acyphoderes itaiuba sp. nov. (Rhinotragini.Cerambycidae (Coleoptera collected in Venezuela at the canopy of Matayba (Sapindaceae and Vochysia (Vochysiaceae. Cerambycidae collected in Surumoni, Amazonas, Venezuela, with help of a crane, made with interception and light traps in the canopy of Matayba guianensis Aubl and Vochysia sp. resulted in new records for 14 species and descriptions of four new species: Erythropterus urucuri sp. nov. (Heteropsini, Eriphus ruBELLus sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Lissonotus kuaiuba sp. nov. (Lissonotini and Acyphoderes itaiuba sp. nov. (Rhinotragini.

  1. Seven new species of Notiospathius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae from Northwest Venezuela

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    Estefany Karen López-Estrada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe seven new species of the doryctine wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews & Marsh from Northwest Venezuela: N. araguae sp. n., N. bolivari sp. n., N. curvilineatus sp. n., N. dantei sp. n., N. estradae sp. n., N. larensis sp. n., and N. venezuelae sp. n. These represent the first described species of the genus reported for this country. Species boundaries for the above taxa were confirmed using the General mixed Yule-coalescent method with 441 DNA barcode sequences from specimens assigned to Notiospathius and other closely related genera collected in different countries along the Neotropics.

  2. Notas sobre la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Hector; Fajardo, Eddy Johanna

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una evaluación de la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública en Venezuela. En la primera parte del estudio se presenta un breve bosquejo teórico de los modelos para evaluar la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública que aparece reflejado en la literatura económica. Asimismo, se presenta la evolución de los indicadores de sostenibilidad de la deuda pública, así como una comparación internacional de los niveles de deuda de Venezuela en comparación con otros países d...

  3. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

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    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais nessas zonas de contato. Nessa fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, podemos afirmar que o trânsito maior é de brasileiros para a Venezuela e para a Guiana, em decorrência das possibilidades de atuarem nas atividades de mineração, no comércio local e no setor de transportes, além das atividades ilegais, como tráfico de mulheres, contrabando de combustível e câmbio ilegal de moeda. Apresenta-se, no entanto, uma nova tendência que é a imigração de estrangeiros de outros países do continente, tais como peruanos e colombianos. Esses migrantes transfronteiriços percorrem os países fronteiriços em itinerários cuja porta de entrada é a Venezuela e a Guiana, mas também o Estado do Amazonas.BORDER zones are zones of cultural lending, borrowing and appropriation, and, therefore, a privileged vantage point for understanding the phenomenon of international migration. This essay attempts to examine certain aspects of the transborder dislocation process in northern Brazil (the city of Pacaraima, state of Roraima and in southern Venezuela (the city of Gran Sabana, state of Bolívar, and point out its trends and reflections on the sociocultural makeup of those contact zones. In this Brazil-Venezuela border, the largest movement is clearly that of Brazilians going into Venezuela and Guyana in search of job opportunities in mining, local business and transportation, not to mention illegal activities such as the traffic of women, fuel smuggling and

  4. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  5. Sostenibilidad de la televisión digital terrestre en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Marquina, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Partiendo de la teoría de los sistemas y de la ciencia de la complejidad, en este trabajo se pretende delimitar el campo sobre el cual se implemente la Televisión Digital Terrestre en Venezuela (TDT). Hablar de la sostenibilidad de la Televisión Digital Terrestre en Venezuela (TDTv), implica una delimitación clara del concepto para entender los niveles de incertidumbre, y la ausencia de estudios sistemáticos sobre los contenidos a difundirse en la Televisión Digital Venezolana (TDv). Por ello...

  6. Normativas contables aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo planteó como objetivo, analizar las normativas contables internacionales aplicables a la contabilidad de gestión medioambiental en Venezuela. Se realizó una investigación analítica, con diseño documental, obteniendo como resultado que en Venezuela no existen normas contables en materia medioambiental específicamente; se asume lo establecido de manera indirecta en las normas internacionales de información financiera (NIIF), en cuanto al reconocimiento de activos y provisiones medi...

  7. Phlebotominae de Venezuela: Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. del estado Lara

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    Conrado Arredondo Cardona

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el macho de Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. capturado en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Distrito Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La especie puede ser identificada por la forma característica del parámetro. Pertenece al grupo Verrucarum, serie Verrucarum de Theodor (1965.A description is given of the male of Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. who was collected in the National Park of Yacambú, State of Lara, Venezuela. This species is identified by the characteristic form of the paramere. It belongs to the Verrucarum Group, Verrucarum Series of Theodor (1965.

  8. Impacto Distributivo de las Reformas del IVA en Venezuela (1993-2011

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    Veruschka Quilez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular los impactos distributivos de las reformas a las exenciones del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2011. Los impactos distributivos se midieron a través de indicadores locales de progresividad/regresividad, bajo un enfoque de equilibro parcial, utilizando las encuestas nacionales de presupuestos familiares de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las Leyes del IVA. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que el diseño de las exenciones en Venezuela logró conferir progresividad al impuesto

  9. Un nuevo Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Venezuela noroccidental

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    Osvaldo Villarreal Manzanilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, la cual habita en una caverna del Estado Lara en la región noroccidental de Venezuela y es la cuarta especie del mismo conocida para este país. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. representa el primer registro del género para la fauna hipogea venezolana.A new species of Hansenochrus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from a cave in Lara state, in the northwest region of Venezuela, and is its fourth species known from this country. Hansenochrus urbanii sp. nov. represents the first record of this genus from Venezuelan hypogean fauna.

  10. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-14

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  11. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

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    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  12. Hechos estilizados del crecimiento económico en Venezuela

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    Idana Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir el comportamiento del crecimiento económico en Venezuela para el período 2000-2010 a través de las variaciones del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB como indicador macroeconómico. El abordaje se enmarcó con una metodología de tipo descriptiva mediante la revisión de fuentes documentales. Por su parte, los hechos estilizados permiten evidenciar el comportamiento de la economía venezolana en el período de estudio y los elementos fundamentales de incidencia sobre el crecimiento económico. Finalmente se concluyó que los variantes e inestables niveles del crecimiento económico en los últimos años, estuvieron influidos generalmente por el gasto público auspiciado por los altos ingresos petroleros. La economía venezolana se caracteriza por tener un sector productivo “estrangulado”, no obstante, los últimos cinco años del período estudiado, el PIB ha presentado una propensión decreciente generado por la disminución del crecimiento económico. En suma, no se ha logrado subsanar y erradicar los problemas sociales más importantes en la economía venezolana como la pobreza, la inflación, el desempleo, entre otros; muchas de estas dificultades inciden directa y proporcionalmente sobre el bienestar social y por ende sobre el desarrollo humano, concluyendo que los beneficios económicos de los períodos de bonanza, no se trasladan en significativas mejoras de la calidad de vida.

  13. Open data: realidades sobre apertura de datos en Venezuela

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    Franklin Sandoval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El vertiginoso crecimiento de datos producidos y necesarios para el desarrollo de las organizaciones, tienen un gran valor que se acrecienta con el uso de estos en otros ámbitos. En función de ello, el objetivo del artículo se basa en el análisis del estado del arte de los datos abiertos, su fundamentación y marco legal que lo rige. Se fundamenta en una investigación descriptiva-proyectivo, mediante la cual se determina la necesidad de la apertura de datos, conocido con el término en inglés Open Data (datos abiertos, esta filosofía que persigue que ciertos datos que han estado en dominio de organizaciones públicas o privadas sean liberados para su uso por cualquiera que los requiera, sin restricciones de licencias, copyright y/o patentes. Para que un dato sea considerado abierto, tiene que ser accesible y reutilizable por la comunidad, sin exigencia legal y/o permisos. Los resultados se plantean con el fin de que la Administración Pública Nacional (APN se mantenga a la vanguardia, aproveche las ventajas competitivas de los datos abiertos y cumpla con las disposiciones legales establecidas, asimismo se requiere la implementación de mecanismos que apoyen una adecuada administración y publicación de sus datos para uso de los ciudadanos. Se recomienda la efectividad de una propuesta de portal de datos que permita la apertura de datos de la APN, como alternativa para garantizar la apertura de los datos en Venezuela.

  14. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  15. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

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    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  16. Neogene history of the Carapita Formation, Eastern Venezuela basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Zambrano, Dennis Alberto

    The planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the lower to middle Miocene shales of the Carapita Formation of Eastern Venezuela in three exploration wells and one outcrop section are analyzed with the objectives of establishing a precise biostratigraphy of the formation and its bathymetric history. Comparison with the well-preserved microfaunas of the correlative Cipero Formation of Trinidad made possible the achievement of these objectives. The formation, up to 4500 to 6000 m thick in outcrops, extends from northeastern Anzoategui and North of Monagas States to the Gulf of Paria and is both an important oil reservoir towards the east and the main seal rock for the Oligocene reservoir in the north of Monagas State. In the area studied the Carapita Formation spans lower to lower middle Miocene Zones N6/M3 to N9/M6; its upper part is unconstrained as only rare long ranging early Miocene to early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera occur above the Orbulina datum. Unexpectedly, we found that the four lower to middle Miocene sections are highly discontinuous, with hiastuses as long as 4 Myr. Based on the abundance patterns of sixty-nine species of benthic foraminifera and analysis of morphotype abundance following the methodology of Corliss and Chen (1988) and Corliss and Fois (1993), we show that the Carapita Formation was deposited at outer neritic to middle bathyal depths (≥200--1000 m), whereas the Cipero Formation was deposited at middle to lower bathyal depths (≥600--2000 m). Importantly, the bathymetric changes are associated with unconformities in all sections, strongly suggesting that both (shallowing and associated unconformities) were tectonically induced.

  17. Los nobles de Caracas y la Independencia de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero, Inés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many other Spanish Empire’s provinces abroad, Venezuelan colonial society was based on hierarchical values and inegality. This was a direct consequence of translating Spain’s mores and forms to its American territories during trhe Conquest period. A creole nobility thus appeared that could not but behave accordingly to the values and principles of the Ancien Regime. Many creole noblemen, however, embraced the independentist movement and supported the political changes that put an end to the colonial order and gave way to a republican one. How this process same about, what contradictions emerged as it evolved and what ultimate effects —if any— it had upon the Provincia de Caracas is the main subject of this paper

    En Venezuela, como en otras provincias ultramarinas, se constituyó una sociedad jerárquica y desigual, consecuencia directa de la traslación y adecuación a estos territorios de las formas y procederes sociales existentes en España en el momento de la conquista. Como consecuencia de este proceso, se formó una nobleza criolla que actuó de acuerdo con los valores y principios jerárquicos de la sociedad del Antiguo Régimen. Muchos de los hombre pertenecientes a los sectores privilegiados de la sociedad se sumaron a la causa de la Independencia y apoyaron el cambio político que puso fin a la sociedad antigua y dio paso a la instauración de un orden republicano. Cómo se dio este proceso en la provincia de Caracas, cuáles fueron sus contradicciones y qué efectos tuvo sobre la sociedad resultante, es el objetivo del presente artículo.

  18. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling

  19. Spionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, D; Viéitez, J M

    2002-03-01

    Five species of polychaetes (Spionidae) were found associated to Thalassia testudinum meadows in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. We included a guide for their identification and present range extensions for the Venezuelan coasts and Southern Caribbean Sea. The species are: Dipolydora socialis, Prionospio (Minuspio) cirrifera, P. (Prionospio) fallax, P. (P.) steenstrupi, and Spio pettiboneae.

  20. A new cryptic species of lizard (Sauria: Teiidae: Gymnophthalmus) from Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cole, C.J.; Ayarzaguena, J.

    1992-01-01

    Gymnophthalmus cryptus spec. nov. is described and illustrated on the basis of males and females collected in the Territorio Federal Amazonas, southern Venezuela. Some details on ecology and distribution are also presented. The females of G. cryptus are very similar to the unisexual Gymnophthalmus u

  1. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  3. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  4. China Henan Cultural and Art Troupe’s Performance Tour of Venezuela and Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Venezuelan National Council of Culture and the Brazil Chinese Cultural Exchange Association, a 69-member cultural and art troupe from Henan Province, China gave three performances with a total audience of over 20,000 people in Venezuela and Brazil from February 25 to March 8.

  5. Politicas de Seguridad Alimentaria en los Paises de la Comunidad Andina: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Yep, Susana Chu; Gamarra, Rosario Gomez; Bucheli, Fausto Jordan; Studzinski, Karlos La Serna; Aguancha, Alberto Lora; Castro, Juan Fernando Marrero; Bohrt, Julio Prudencio; Baca, Salomon Salcedo; Mena, Raul Sanchez; Abril, Octavio Villamarin

    2005-01-01

    This book analyses the complex concept of food security in the Andean Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. The food security situation is examined from a sub regional perspective, and the possible elements of a sub regional food security strategy are outlined. Food security policies are analyzed and policy proposals are made for each Andean country.

  6. Sobre la guerra de símbolos y espacios de poder: el caso Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Yolanda; Universidad Simón Bolívar

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo propone un acercamiento a los símbolos visuales del poder en la crisis política de Venezuela. Más que como un conjunto de imágenes, estos símbolos se entienden en tanto sistemas de significación que pueden moviliar masas, conciencias, confrontaciones, violencias y guerra.

  7. 78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the Commission's Web site at http... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations...

  8. Diagnóstico Institucional del Sistema de Servicio Civil en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El presente documento es un estudio de caso sobre el Sistema de Servicio Civil (SSC) en Venezuela. Se concentra en el sistema de gestión del empleo público y los recursos humanos adscritos al gobierno central, aunque se presentan algunas estadísticas e indicadores cuantitativos que se extienden a la totalidad del sector público.

  9. The promise of transformation through participation: an analysis of Communal Councils in Caracas, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Triviño Salazar (Juan Carlos)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCommunal Councils (CCs) in Venezuela are deemed as part of a greater project of social transformation under a radical approach to participatory democracy. The Hugo Chavez’s administration endorsed the creation of thousands of allegedly self-governing CCs in every neighbourhood of every c

  10. The Universidad Nacional Abierta of Venezuela. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H. Z.

    A brief description of the country of Venezuela (geography, population, economy, internal communications, and politics) and its educational system introduce a description of the Universidad Nacional Abierta (UNA). The UNA was opened in July 1978 to expand the national system of higher education by the use of distance learning techniques. These…

  11. The Cost Analysis of Learning at a Distance: Venezuela's Universidad Nacional Abierta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville

    1982-01-01

    Examines the cost structure and future system costs of Venezuela's Universidad Nacional Abierta, compares them with the costs of other distance universities, and discusses the cost implications of media choice, size of program, and number of students. The usefulness of cost analysis and projection for decision making is also discussed. (EAO)

  12. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  13. The freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa from northern Venezuela and Trinidad (Brachyura, Potamonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, G.

    1966-01-01

    During a study of collections of Venezuelan Pseudothelphusa deposited at the Museum of Biology of the Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, and at the La Salle Museum of Natural History, Caracas, examples of two new forms were discovered; one of these is here described as a new species, the othe

  14. "El Fenomeno Chavez:" Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Revolutionary: The president of Venezuela has a vision, and Washington has a headache,” The New Yorker, 6 September 2001. 6. Gabriel Garcia Marques, “The...that Chavez transferred $1 million to the Taliban through Venezuelan ambassador to India, Walte Marquez , in New Delhi, designating $900,000 to Al

  15. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  16. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  17. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  18. LA CAPACITACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE FUNCIONARIOS POLICIALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Sofía Rodríguez Ugueto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacitación del funcionario policial en la actualidad, en cuanto a la práctica policial, presupone la delimitación de contradicciones que resultan necesarias en la sociedad y que no se corresponde con la pertinencia del momento histórico. Esta realidad está presente en la sociedad venezolana, que de manera particular la están viviendo los cuerpos policiales del país, los cuales en el marco de las transformaciones sociales que se llevan a cabo, requiere también cambios de su rol como funcionario a nivel nacional en la orientación del proyecto social, exigencia que conlleva a un Nuevo Modelo Policial alejado de lo tradicional y poco funcional como cuerpo represivo capaz de orientarse hacia una nueva disposición como funcionario inserto en la comunidad cuya función de represión se ha de ajustar a un plano primario de prevención y formación ciudadana. Los autores reflexionan en estas problemáticas.PALABRAS CLAVE: capacitación profesional; capacitación continua; modelo policial.THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF POLICE OFFICIALS IN VENEZUELA ABSTRACTThe police official's training at the present time, as for the police practice, it presupposes the delimitation of contradictions that are necessary in the society and that doesn't belong together with the relevancy of the historical moment. This reality is present in the Venezuelan society that are living her the police bodies of the country in a particular way, which also requires changes of its list like official at national level in the orientation of the social project in the mark of the social transformations that are carried out, demand that bears a New Police Model far from the traditional and not very functional as repressive body able to be guided toward a new disposition like official inserts in the community whose function of repression must be adjusted to a primary plane of prevention and civic formation. The authors meditate in these problems.KEYWORDS: professional training

  19. Prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganadería de altura en Bailadores Mérida, Venezuela (Prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gauta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis bovina es una enfermedad de importancia en Venezuela. Por denuncias de productores de la zona sobre numerosos decomisos de hígados y disminución de la producción, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado lechero de Bailadores (Mérida, Venezuela en base a análisis coprológico.SummaryBovine fasciolosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases on Venezuela. Attending to the claim of farmers in the Andean zone about the high levels of infected livers detected at the slaughterhouse and milk production decrease, the aim of this work was to determine prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle of Bailadores, State of Mérida, Venezuela.

  20. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  1. A new species of Bachia (Teiidae, Sauria) from Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, with notes on the zoogeography of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bachia guianensis nov. spec, is described from Guri, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, on the basis of a single specimen. The species is closely related to Bachia heteropa (Lichtenstein), but differs from this species in lacking the interparietal scale.

  2. Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    fractured society’s success in the amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) process. In Venezuela, there remains a fractured political system...Balancing the Societal Dimensions of Venezuela and Colombia through the Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration (AR2) Process A Monograph by... Reintegration (AR2) Process 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ngo, Danielle J., Major, USA 5f. WORK

  3. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  4. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND VENEZUELA........................53 B. THE FUTURE OF VENEZUELA (WHAT DOES POST- FUJIMORI PERÚ TEACH US...highly critical perspective of the Bush administration, William Leogrande argues that due to the distraction of the Global War on Terror , President...of democracy after Fujimori in Perú will be used to evaluate possible scenarios in a post- Chávez Venezuela. The chapter will conclude with some

  5. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  6. Density estimates of the domestic vector of Chagas disease, Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), in rural houses in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, J E; Gürtler, R E; Leal, J A; Feliciangeli, D

    1995-01-01

    We reported the use of the timed manual method, routinely employed as an indicator to the relative abundance of domestic triatomine bugs, to estimate their absolute density in houses. A team of six people collected Rhodnius prolixus Stål bugs from the walls and roofs of 14 typical palm-leaf rural houses located in Cojedes, Venezuela, spending 40 minutes searching in each house. One day after these manual collections, all the houses were demolished and the number of triatomine bugs were identified by instar and counted. Linear regression analyses of the number of R. prolixus collected over 4 man-hours and the census counts obtained by house demolition indicated that the fit of the data by instar (stage II--adult) and place of capture (roof versus palm walls versus mud walls) was satisfactory. The slopes of the regressions were interpreted as a measure of "catchability" (probability of capture). Catchability increased with developmental stage (ranging from 11.2% in stage II to 38.7% in adults), probably reflecting the increasing size and visibility of bugs as they evolved. The catchability on palm wall was higher than that for roofs or mud walls, increasing form 1.3% and 3.0% in stage II to 13.4% and 14.0% in adults, respectively. We reported, also, regression equations for converting field estimates of timed manual collections of R. prolixus into absolute density estimates.

  7. Concursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la información y bases de los siguientes concursos: --Concurso para Periodistas -X Convocatoria del Premio Tenerife al Fomento y la Investigación de la Artesanía de España y América -I Premio Casa de América de Narrativa Americana Innovadora Casa de América / Ediciones Lengua de Trapo -II Premio Internacional de Poesía Nicolás Guillén -III Certámen USC de Cuentos de Ciencia Ficción Isaac Asimov Universidad de Santiago de Compostela -I Bienal internacional de Literatura de Puerto Rico -Premio Internacional de Poesía; Bienal Latinoamericana de Literatura para Niños "Canta Pirulero" Ateneo de Valencia, Carabobo (Venezuela.

  8. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves,E.; Rondon, M.; Zamora, E.; Salazar M

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), se determinó una prevalencia ...

  9. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  10. Venezuela: confrontación social y polarización política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bracamonte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Medófilo Medina y Margarita López Maya. Venezuela: Confrontación social y polarización política. Bogotá: Ediciones Aurora, 2003. La intensidad del debate público y del enfrentamiento político al que asiste el país desde 1998, ha logrado penetrar los espacios ociales más diversos, incluso aquellos en los que se creía que estaban vedados asuntos tan terrenales como los políticos, tenidos hasta la víspera como banales y de poca monta. Tal es uno de los saldos más trascendentales del proceso de transformación en curso hoy en Venezuela. Esto último es tan innegable, que constituye una verdad compartida por los dos bandos en que fatalmente está dividido el país

  11. UNASUR o la Confluencia de dos Liderazgos Regionales de Signo Dispar: Brasil y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Ríos Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo académico pretende servir de aproximación a los dos escenarios geopolíticos que en la actualidad son referencia en América del Sur: Brasil y Venezuela. El objetivo es analizar la confluencia de ambos en el último de los esquemas de integración que ha acontecido en la región, esto es, UNASUR. Así, se auspicia la necesidad de un liderazgo que sirva de referencia en el proceso de integración económica de América del Sur. Un liderazgo que, de mejor manera, debe ser asumido por Brasil y el entramado institucional que, per se, representa MERCOSUR, y frente al cual se erige, como alternativa, principalmente discursiva, Venezuela y el proyecto ALBA.

  12. La violencia como mecanismo del debate público en Venezuela durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Guardia Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente ensayo es describir los mecanismos por medio de los cuales la violencia política se presenta como uno de los elementos fundamentales del debate público en dos coyunturas históricas en Venezuela: en la Revolución de Octubre y en la Revolución Bolivariana. El trabajo se desarrolla en torno a dos ideas: primero se abordará el problema de la violencia y el miedo desde una perspectiva teórica, luego se describirá cada una de estas coyunturas históricas; finalmente se revisa comparativamente este fenómeno que se repite a lo largo del tiempo en Venezuela.

  13. Discurso y comunicación en Venezuela: del determinismo al nacionalismo tecnológico

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    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de las tecnologías de información en Venezuela y cómo el elemento discursivo legitima su uso; para ello, se identifican tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico. Se parte del supuesto de que la hegemonía es un proceso ideológico en constante búsqueda de poder, que usa el discurso para su legitimación. Se analiza cómo en Venezuela, junto con las políticas estatales que buscan la construcción de un modelo comunicacional basado en tecnologías de información, el discurso técnico "permea" los ambientes donde las tic puedan legitimar su existencia, con el fin de establecer una hegemonía ideológica en la sociedad.

  14. ANÁLISIS DEL COMERCIO DE GAS ENTRE COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN OSORIO RUIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las oportunidades de intercambio de gas natural de Colombia con otros mercados regionales. Para dicho análisis, se propone un modelo del mercado de gas natural en Colombia, el cual incluye la oferta, la demanda, y las restricciones de transporte, así como las importaciones y exportaciones. El modelo se basa en la representación del comportamiento de los productores y su efecto en el mercado. Ya en este mercado la oferta es un oligopolio y el modelo es un modelo de equilibrio espacial con competencia a la Cournot. Los fl ujos resultantes del modelo indican que el impacto inicial de las exportaciones a Venezuela sobre el mercado Colombiano es bajo, y que las importaciones desde Venezuela mejoran la seguridad del suministro de gas al mercado y aumentan la competencia entre los productores.

  15. Los efectos de las elecciones de 1993 y 1995 sobre el sistema de partidos en Venezuela

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    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza los cambios ocurridos en las dos últimas convocatorias electorales en Venezuela. Sus observaciones muestran cómo un sistema de partidos tradicionalmente fuerte, bipartidista, se recompone a partir de la crisis política derivada de la dificultades económicas que vive este país. Emergencia de nuevas fuerzas, altas tasas de volatilidad y de desidentificación política son algunos de los nuevos procesos que aparecen en la vida política venezolana.ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the changes which have happened in the last two elections in Venezuela. Her observations show how a strong traditionally party system, bipartidist, it's recomponed from the political crisis provoked by economic problems in the country. The emergency of new political forces, high rates of volatility and political desafection are some of the new processes which appeared in the Venezuelan political life.

  16. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  17. Reception, audiences, and cultural consumption in Venezuela (period 2000-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Díaz, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Analizamos el estado del arte de los estudios de recepción, audiencias y consumo cultural en Venezuela durante el período 2000-2011. Examinamos enfoques teóricos sobre el campo de la recepción mediática y cultural, desde las propuestas conceptuales de Aguirre, Barrios y Hernández Díaz. Se pudo constatar, en esta revisión documental, que los estudios de recepción en Venezuela abordan cuatro campos de estudio: 1) Educación para la recepción. 2) Influencia de la televisión. 3) Ciber-recepción. 4...

  18. SIMULACIÓN DE UN MODELO DE EQUILIBRIO GENERAL COMPUTABLE PARA VENEZUELA

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    Luis Enrique Pedauga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de la simulación de un modelo de equilibrio general computable construido para Venezuela. El uso de este modelo se ejempli-fica mediante la calibración y simulación de una economía abierta con tres agentes institucionales (hogares, empresas y gobierno y tres sectores productivos (petró-leo, manufactura y resto, para una economía abierta. Se considera diferentes re-glas de política. En cada caso se muestra el proceso de calibración y los resultados de las simulaciones utilizando información proveniente de la serie de matrices de contabilidad social para Venezuela entre 1997 y 2005. Se aporta simulaciones de la economía hasta 2009, tanto en los parámetros pertinentes y como algunos ejerci-cios de sensibilidad

  19. Perú y Venezuela: desempeño económico e instituciones

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    Alberto Martínez C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 Venezuela implementó un programa de reformas para fortalecer el papel del mercado en la asignación de los recursos y disminuir la intervención del Estado y un año después Perú hizo otro tanto. Sin embargo, Perú creció a una tasa de 6,3 por ciento en las siguientes dos décadas, mientras que Venezuela lo hizo al 3,1 por ciento. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar, mediante una investigación documental, las causas que explican ese resultado. La principal conclusión es que el marco institucional es un elemento fundamental para explicar el desempeño económico de estos dos países

  20. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini with description of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: B. aragua sp. n., B. asymmetricus sp. n., B. capanaparo sp. n., B. castaneus sp. n., B. corozo sp. n., B. ebeninus sp. n., B. garciai sp. n., B. humeralis sp. n., B. jolyi sp. n., B. llanensis sp. n., B. megaphallus sp. n., B. ornaticollis sp. n., B. repertus sp. n., and B. tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: B. ambogynus Mouchamps, B. consobrinus Knisch, B. elegans Knisch, B. geayi d’Orchymont, B. ghanicus d’Orchymont, B. guyanensis Queney, B. holdhausi Knisch, B. marquardti Knisch, B. olivae Queney, B. reticulatus Knisch, B. wintersteineri Knisch, and B. zimmermanni Knisch.

  1. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease.

  2. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  3. A new species of Piaroa (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Venezuela, with taxonomic notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Osvaldo Villarreal; De Armas, Luis F; García, Luis Fernando

    2014-02-19

    A new species belonging to the schizomid genus Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi and Tourinho, 2008 is described from north-western Venezuela. A complementary description of Piaroa guipongai Villarreal and Garcia, 2012 is provided including SEM pictures of relevant structures of both sexes. A key for males of Piaroa and Colombiazomus Armas and Delgado-Santa, 2012 is included. The presence of Dm3 setae on Hubbardiidae is discussed.

  4. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    planning by the Lusinchi government, and upon whether the market price of petroleum drops no lower than the U.S. $28 per barrel to which it fell in...neutralizing the cazador units. The United States also should keep abreast of any Venezuelan plans to create a conven- tional rapid deployment force that could...Before additional initiatives could be undertaken, Venezuela’s Social Democrats ( Accion 0 Democratica) were ousted from power by the reactionary military

  5. Venezuela: o projeto de refundação da república

    OpenAIRE

    Villa,Rafael Duarte

    2000-01-01

    O governo de Hugo Chávez representa uma transição política, cujo significado mais fundo consiste no rompimento do pacto das elites que governaram a Venezuela até a chegada ao poder desse militar controvertido. Está em jogo um processo de circulação de elites, cujo alcance e profundidade são discutidos.

  6. QUO VADIS VENEZUELA: DE LA DEMOCRACIA DELEGATIVA AL AUTORITARISMO DEL SIGLO XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Chaguaceda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende, a partir del abordaje de un caso particular (el venezolano analizar algunas de las características que definen la Democracia Delegativa en tanto modo de concebir el acceso, ejercicio y fines del poder público y los recursos estatales, así como exponer las modalidades y consecuencias de su deriva a un régimen político abiertamente autoritario en la Venezuela actual.

  7. Malaria entomological inoculation rates in gold mining areas of Southern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E Moreno; Yasmín Rubio-Palis; Elisa Páez; Enrique Pérez; Víctor Sánchez; Elena Vaccari

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of malaria vectors aiming to describe the intensity of transmission was carried out in five villages of Southern Venezuela between January 1999-April 2000. The man-biting, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated based on 121 all-night collections of anophelines landing on humans, CDC light traps and ultra violet up-draft traps. A total of 6,027 female mosquitoes representing seven species were collected. The most abundant species were Anophele...

  8. A stable demand for money despite financial crisis: The case of Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for broad money in Venezuela, over a period of financial crisis and substantial exchange rate fluctuations. The analysis shows that there exist a long run relationship between real money, real income, inflation, the exchange rate and the domestic interest rate, that remains stable over major policy changes and large shocks. The long run properties emphasize that both inflation and exchange rate depreciations have negative effects on real money demand. The lo...

  9. Eficiencia y productividad en el comercio del sector manufacturero entre Venezuela y Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R. Martínez C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la eficiencia y la productividad del comercio del sector manufacturero entre Venezuela y el Mercosur durante el 1999-2009. El tipo de investigación fue explicativa con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal. La población estuvo constituida por unidades de decisión, en adelante (DMU representadas por Venezuela, Brasil, Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. La técnica de recolección de datos fue documental. La técnica de análisis de datos utilizada, fue la metodología no paramétrica del Análisis Envolvente de Datos y el método del Índice de Malmquist. Los resultados indican que Venezuela muestra ineficiencia técnica de insumos con tendencia descendente entre 0,7% al 26,3%, Uruguay con 4,9% al 5,7%; Brasil y Paraguay se destacan debido al uso eficiente de recursos, Argentina en menor importancia. Venezuela fue la única que registró pérdidas de productividad en el comercio de manufacturas 0,102%, el resto avanzaron: Argentina crece con 2,13%, Brasil en 0,0234%, Paraguay en 0,2823% y Uruguay en 0,51%. Se concluye como prioridad que el país desarrolle condiciones de eficiencia y productividad para adelantar una mejor posición competitiva en ámbito internacional.

  10. La regulación del referendo revocatorio de mandato en Venezuela y en Colombia

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    David Matheus Brito

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe y analiza la regulación constitucional, legal y jurisprudencial, de la revocatoria del mandato de los funcionarios de elección popular como mecanismo de participación política directa, tanto en Venezuela como en Colombia. Determina los elementos característicos en cada caso y, efectúa una comparación de ambas regulaciones; también establece sus diferencias esenciales.

  11. ESTUDIO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BACTERIOLÓGICO DEL RÍO MANZANARES, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA VALENTINA FUENTES; WILLIAM SENIOR; IVIS FERMÍN; L. TROCCOLI

    2008-01-01

    The Manzanares River is one of the most important bodies of water in northeastern Venezuela. However, a vast influx of industrial and domestic sewage from farm and urban dwellings enters the river without much control by the pertinent authorities. To ascertain the environmental quality of the river 45 sampling sites were set throughout the area comprising the high, middle, and low-lying areas of the river basin during three different periods, namely, rainy season (2003), transitio...

  12. ESTUDIO FISICOQUÍMICO Y BACTERIOLÓGICO DEL RÍO MANZANARES, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA VALENTINA FUENTES; WILLIAM SENIOR; IVIS FERMÍN; L. TROCCOLI

    2008-01-01

    The Manzanares River is one of the most important bodies of water in northeastern Venezuela. However, avast influx of industrial and domestic sewage from farm and urban dwellings enters the river without much control by thepertinent authorities. To ascertain the environmental quality of the river 45 sampling sites were set throughout the areacomprising the high, middle, and low-lying areas of the river basin during three different periods, namely, rainy season (2003),transitional period (2003...

  13. La producción informal de viviendas: caso Maracaibo, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by private and national enterprises, and the "informal" sector, which produces houses in marginal areas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector has become larger than the formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. These people have resolved their housing need accordingly to...

  14. Freed together, split by creed - A comparative study of the development strategies of Colombia and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    McCay Martinez, Éamonn; Gordon, Lev Julian; Niels, Dreesen; Pidoux, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Colombia and Venezuela were once united as Gran Colombia, but since the liberation under Simon Bolivar in 1819, both countries have since taken different paths. Especially during the 1990’s, where Colombia implemented Neoliberalism, while Hugo Chavez initiated the Bolivarian Revolution. This comparative study defined criterias for economic success and social justice, which will be used to measure the performance of both countries on the basis of different indicators. While Colombia performs b...

  15. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  16. Contraloría social a las gobernaciones en Venezuela. Estudio de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Boscán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar la realidad de la contraloría social en la gobernación del Estado Lara en Venezuela. El estudio parte de cuatro variables: marco legal larense, condiciones en las cuales se encuentra el objeto y el sujeto de contraloría social, y otros recursos disponibles para el ejercicio de este derecho ciudadano.

  17. Constructing (Il)Legitimate Democracy : Populism and Power Concentration in Newspaper Discourse on Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite scholarly consensus about the importance of the media for democracy, scant attention has been paid to what democracy means to journalistic discourse and how discourses on democracy are interrelated with legitimacy. The aim of this paper is to explore how (il)legitimate democracy is constructed in newspaper discourse. By using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines foreign news items about Venezuela, a country that under the presidency of Hugo Chávez has challenged the ...

  18. Nuevo Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de la Sierra San Luis, Venezuela noroccidental

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    Luis F. de Armas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo esquizómido del género Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, proveniente de la Sierra de San Luis, Estado Falcón, en Venezuela noroccidental. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. se caracteriza por el dedo móvil del quelícero con un diminuto diente subdistal, una débil eminencia dorsoposterior en el segmento abdominal XII del macho y espermatecas constituidas por dos pares de lóbulos largos y sinuosos, tenuemente quitinizados, sin bulbo terminal notable. Su asignación al género Rowlandius es tentativa, pues posee varios caracteres que no concuerdan plenamente con el mismo, sin embargo la carencia de caracteres sinapomórficos limita su asignación a otro género. Este es el primer registro del género para Venezuela y la tercera especie suramericana conocida.A new species of the genus Rowlandius Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 is described from Sierra San Luis, Falcón State, northwestern Venezuela. Rowlandius arduus sp. n. may be characterized by having movable finger of chelicerae with a diminute sub-distal tooth, male with a poorly developed dorsal eminence on abdominal segment XII, and female with two pairs of weakly sclerotized, sinuous spermathecal lobes, without conspicuous terminal lobe. It is assigned to Rowlandius tentatively, because some characters are not congruent with this genus, nevertheless the absence of synapomorphic characters limits its inclusion in other one. This is the first record of the genus from Venezuela, and the third South American species described.

  19. Decentralization process in Venezuela, under perspective of mayors elected for the term 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Josefina REVERÓN ESCOBAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the process of decentralization in Venezuela, under mayors’ perspective, elected for the period 2000-2004. Our main goal is to identify the vision they have over such an important process that theoretically strengthens, supports, and enhances the democratic system. We contrast decentralization theory (which states that if there is not democracy at levels of government closer to the citizens-municipal government-democracy is not sustained over real bases with what Venezuelan mayors exposed about the facts observed in the nation in this sense. Our hypothesis is that the concepts and visions that the mayors expressed must coincide with the theory sustaining decentralization in general and particularly decentralization in Venezuela, which must coincide with their praxis in their municipalities. We concluded that the positive perspectives and visions as the negatives or pessimistic ones stated by the interviewed mayors coincided with theory supporting decentralization in different countries and with the evaluations of decentralization that have been conducted in different nations. Venezuelan decentralization process is not different from those that have been discovered in other countries in this sense. It seems to be that the decentralization policy in Venezuela enjoys the same virtues and suffers the same problems that decentralization policies in other countries.

  20. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  1. El impacto fiscal de las reformas del IVA en Venezuela. 1993-2012

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    Veruschka Quílez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto fiscal de las reformas a la ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA en Venezuela, desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2012. Para ello, se utilizaron las Encuestas Nacionales de Presupuestos Familiares (ENPF de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las leyes del IVA, así como la data de consumo final de los hogares en el mercado interno que publica el BCV en sus Cuentas Nacionales. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que en Venezuela el sacrifico fiscal de las exenciones del IVA es elevado, y para el período en estudio oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,17% del PIB en 2008 y un máximo de 4,51% del PIB en 1999. Esta pérdida fiscal se incrementa en la medida que aumenta la base exenta y la alícuota aplicada son mayores y los costos fiscales que asume el Estado son entre 9 y 11 veces superiores para el diez por ciento de la población de mayor ingreso comparado con el diez por ciento de menores ingresos.

  2. Un nuevo Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae de la Cordillera de Mérida, Andes de Venezuela

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    Chacón-Ortiz, A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new frog of the genus Eleutherodactylus is described from the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuelan Andes. The species is distinguished from others by its moderate size, first finger equal or shorter than second, basal webbing on toes, and dominant colour immaculate brown or with a few spots. The species is compared with the groups unistrigatus and conspicillatus, but not assigned to either of them. A distribution map and a sonogram (of the song are presented. Comments about current knowledge of frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in Venezuela are provided.Se describe una nueva rana del género Eleutherodactylus de la Cordillera de Mérida, Andes de Venezuela. La especie se distingue del resto de congéneres por su tamaño moderado, primer dedo de la mano igual o más corto que el segundo, palmeadura pedal basal, y color dominante marrón uniforme o con pocas manchas. Se compara la especie con los grupos unistrigatus y conspicillatus, pero no se asigna a ninguno de ellos. Se presenta un mapa de distribución y un sonograma del canto. Se comenta brevemente sobre el conocimiento actual de las ranas del género Eleutherodactylus en Venezuela.

  3. Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

  4. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  5. Presencia de Ptychodus Mortoni (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae en el Cretácico Superior de Venezuela Presence of Ptychodus Mortini (Elasmobranchii: Ptychodontidae in the Upper Cretaceous of Venezuela

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    Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ptychodus mortoni es un tiburón durofago característico del Cretácico Superior, con un registro cronoestratigráfico entre el Turoniano-Maastrichtiano. En la presente contribución se ilustra y describe un conjunto de dientes de un mismo ejemplar de Ptychodus mortoni, proveniente de la Formación La Luna, del Cretácico Superior de La Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Este material representa el único registro conocido de esta especie para América del sur y extiende la distribución paleobiogeográfica del taxón, el cual era conocido sólo para África, América del Norte y EuropaPtychodus mortoni is a durophagous shark characteristic from the Upper Cretaceous, with a chronostratigraphic record between the Turonian-Maastrichtian. The present contribution illustrate and describes a set of teeth of Ptychodus mortoni from the La Luna Formation, Upper Cretaceous of the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State, Venezuela. This material represents the only known record for South America, increasing the paleobiogeographi distribution of the taxon, which was previously known only from Africa, North America and Europe.

  6. Venezuela’s Potential Threat to the United States’ National Security: An Analysis of the Conflictual Inter-Country Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-07

    State run oil company, Petróleos de Venezuela ( PDVSA ), is in a chaotic turmoil. “ PDVSA has become far more poorly managed since a strike two years ago...corruption, PDVSA oil production is declining which requires private companies to make up more of the oil supply. 25 However, Venezuela current economy

  7. Yoduria en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela 2007-2008 Urinary Iodine in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo state, Venezuela 2007-2008

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    L Caballero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La principal función del yodo, es contribuir en la síntesis de hormonas tiroideas, las cuales participan en el desarrollo cerebral y regulación del metabolismo. La excreción urinaria de yodo (yoduria es un útil e importante indicador de la situación del yodo en la población. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomienda que la mediana de la concentración de yodo urinario (CYU en una población de embarazadas y de niños en edad escolar, deba estar en un rango de 150-249 μg/L y 100-200 μg/L respectivamente. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de deficiencia de yodo en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, en la región andina de Venezuela. Material y métodos: Un estudio transversal realizado en 400 escolares de 7 a 14 años de edad y en 300 embarazadas. Muestras casuales de orina fueron recolectadas y analizadas en su contenido de yodo mediante la reacción de Sandell-Kolthoff. Se aplicaron los criterios de suficiencia yodada establecidos por la OMS. Resultados: La mediana de excreción urinaria de yodo en escolares fue 175 μg/L; 6,25 % de los niños presentaron concentraciones de yodo urinario menores de 50 μg/L. La mediana de excreción urinaria de yodo en embarazadas fue 228 μg/L; 25 % de ellas presentaron concentraciones de yodo urinario menores de 150 μg/L. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a las recomendaciones de la OMS, los escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela, son yodo suficientes.The main role of iodine is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related to brain development and metabolic regulation. Urinary iodine excretion is a useful and important indicator of the iodine status of a population. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends that the median urinary iodine concentration in a population of pregnant women should range between 150 and 249 μg/L and in a population of school children it should range between 100 and 200 μg/L. Objective: To determine the prevalence of

  8. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela

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    Nieves, E*

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, se determinó una prevalencia de infección de un 42 % en el bebedero, del 43% en el potrero y del 39% en el manantial. Ademas, se detectó un 39% de infección por F. hepática en los bovinos de la finca. La alta prevalencia de F. hepatica en la zona . In the present study was evaluated the presence of Fasciola hepatica in the farm The Joque Merida State, Venezuela. The installation of the natural focus of fascioliasis was verified through of finding the larval forms in the intermediate snail host and coprologics exams in cattle from the farm. The snails were collected in diferents places of the farm, registering the 77% belongs to the Lymnaea genus (Pulmonata:Lymnaeidae intermediator host infected naturally with Fasciola was 42% in the water fill, 43% in the herder and 39% in the source. The results shows that the region presents one prevalence to fascioliasis in cattle of 39%. The very high prevalence of F. hepatica in area studied, suggest that could act as a potential risk to public health.

  9. CARIOTIPO DEL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus(SAURIA: TROPIDURIDAE EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA Lizard Karyotipe Tropidurus hispidus (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the East of Venezuela

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    LUIS ALEJANDRO GONZÁLEZ S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por seis pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa 13% de longitud relativa total (LRT, siendo el cromosoma de mayor tamaño con respecto a la población peninsular con un 9,4 % y a la población insular con 7,1 %, conteniendo esta última población los cromosomas más pequeños. Considerando las diferencias cromosómicas y el aislamiento geográfico existente, estos lagartos podrían presentar un proceso de especiación alopátrica de tipo vicariante.A cytogenetic study by Giemsa staining in three xerophytic regions (continental, peninsular and insular in eastern Venezuela, showed a diploid number 2n=36, consisting of 6 pairs of metacentric and submetacentric macrochromosomes and 12 pairs of acrocentric microchromosomes maintained, this feature in males and females in the three populations studied. It was determined that the first pair of macrochromosomes is metacentric and the continental region represents 13% of total relative length (LRT as the larger chromosome, with respect to the peninsular population with 9.4% and the insular population 7.1%, the latter population containing the smallest chromosomes. Whereas chromosomal differences and geographic isolation exists, these lizards have a process of vicariant allopatric speciation.

  10. Crisis política y narrativas transmedia en las protestas de 2014 en Venezuela/ Political crisis and transmedia storytelling in the 2014 protests in Venezuela

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    Noé Orlando Pernía Peñalver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación en curso sobre el surgimiento en Venezuela de los online espacios de autonomía que vienen alterando los regímenes de intercambio informativo. Las protestas civiles de 2014 sumaron evidencias a la disolución de las fronteras, cada vez más imprecisas, entre los medios clásicos de comunicación de masas y las plataformas digitales que han posibilitado el acceso directo de los usuarios a la mediasfera. Abordamos ejemplos que lo demuestran y aportamos elementos teóricos para una interpretación del fenómeno. El bloqueo informativo gubernamental es el eje que ha obligado a los nuevos infociudadanos a formar colectividades en red para construir las narraciones y modelos de lectura sobre el entorno crítico y sus fases de tensión. This work is part of an ongoing research on the rise in Venezuela of online autonomy spaces which are altering the information exchange regimes. Civil protests of 2014 brought into evidence the dissolution of borders, increasingly blurred, between traditional mass media and digital platforms which are enabling direct user access to the media sphere. In this article, we provide and analyze examples and also, theoretical elements contributing to an interpretation of the phenomenon. The government's information blockade is the axis that has forced communities to form new social info-network where to build stories and models of reading on critical environment and its phases of tension.

  11. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

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    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  12. Partidos políticos, opinião pública e o futuro da democracia na Venezuela

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    Richard S. Hillman

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo apresenta a evolução da política partidária na Venezuela, identificando as condições de seu processo de institucionalização. Além disso, os autores fazem inferências sobre as bases culturais de consolidação do sistema democrático.This article presents the evolution of party politics in Venezuela, by identifying the conditions of it's institutionalization process. In addition, the authors draw inferences about the cultural basis for further consolidation of the democratic system.

  13. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

    OpenAIRE

    Amada Mogollón de González

    2006-01-01

    Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los e...

  14. Estudio preliminar del borde dorsal del cuello en caballos de pura raza colombiana en Caracas-Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, A.; Méndez, A.; Pérez Arévalo, J.

    2013-01-01

    Se plantea como objetivo un estudio preliminar del borde dorsal del cuello en caballos de pura raza Colombiana en Caracas-Venezuela. Fueron estudiados un total de 57 caballos de esta raza, con edades entre 4 y 10 años, en Caracas, Venezuela. Todos ellos sometidos a ejercicio de moderada intensidad, a las mismas condiciones de alimentación y manejo. Se practicó un examen clínico mediante la inspección y palpación siguiendo el protocolo descrito para equinos. Se realizo un estudio morfológico c...

  15. Problemas Comunes de Vecinos a Espaldas: Seguridad social y empleo informal en Barbados, Trinidad y Tobago y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Freije; Patricia Monteferrante

    2002-01-01

    El empleo informal representa una porción significativa y, en algunos países, creciente del empleo total en América Latina y El Caribe. Entre los países de la región, Venezuela es uno de los que ha experimentado un crecimiento más rápido y notable de la informalidad. El presente estudio tiene dos objetivos: evaluar las condiciones de pobreza y desprotección social de los trabajadores informales en tres países de la región: Barbados, Trinidad y Tobago, y Venezuela, y recomendar mecanismos para...

  16. MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY: CAUSES OF ENTERPRISES CLOSED IN VENEZUELA. A CASE STUDY IN THE ZULIA STATE.GROUP SIDEPRO.

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    Javier Agostini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy has been impacted because of the monopoly and oligopoly Venezuela markets. This study analyzes the causes of the closure of the main company producing pipes for the oil industry in Zulia State.(Group SIDERPRO It is a research field, documentary and descriptive. The information was collected on experiences arising in the process of expropriation and recovery. As a result evidence of the need to propose a macroeconomic planning and control allowing to speed recovery of closed industrial parks and Venezuela recovery process model.

  17. Derechos de propiedad, compañías petroleras, Estado y renta en Venezuela

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    Jesús MORA CONTRERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo muestra que las compañías petroleras internacionales han estado haciendo negocios en Venezuela durante más de cuatro quintas partes de casi un siglo de historia de la industria petrolera en este país (1917-2009. Muestra también que lo que ha cambiado para ellas a lo largo del tiempo es la manera de hacer negocios en la industria petrolera venezolana, valga decir, los términos y condiciones de acceso a las actividades de exploración y producción que les ha impuesto el propietario del recurso natural, relacionados particularmente con el reparto de la renta petrolera internacional. El artículo, dividido en cuatro secciones, es una síntesis de la historia del derecho de propiedad del subsuelo, de las compañías petroleras, del Estado y de la renta petrolera internacional en Venezuela desde 1920 hasta el presente. ABSTRACT: This paper shows that in almost a century of history of the Venezuelan oil industry (1917-2009, International Oil Companies (IOCs have been doing business in this country for just more than fourth fifth of this period (74/92 years. It shows too that during that time, what has been changing in this country for the oil companies, IOCs or National Oil Companies (NOCs, is the way of doing business in the upstream of the oil industry: the terms and conditions of the owner of the underground property rights. Terms and conditions mean in this context how much of the oil generated rents in the underground public and national property rights goes to the pockets of the oil companies and government. This paper summarizes the history of the underground property rights, oil companies, the State, and rent in Venezuela from 1920 up to the present.

  18. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  19. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  20. La alta gerencia corporativa, el marketing y la responsabilidad social empresarial: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Raspa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003 hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Venezuela y como se viene desarrollando durante las últimas décadas. Finalmente, al comparar las tendencias mundiales sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y la situación venezolana se destaca la propensión del empresariado venezolano a la puesta en práctica de la acción social de una manera eficiente y con orientación al Marketing.Palabras Clave: Responsabilidad social empresarial; marketing, estrategia; acción social; ciudadano corporativo.Corporate senior management, marketing and corporate social responsibility: Venezuela Case AbstractThe work presented below is an overview that draws the development of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and global marketing from the perspective of authors like Lindbaek (2003 to modern trends of this perspective, through regulations that control and encourage social action of the companies in the concert of nations. After an analysis of these trends, it goes deeper into the situation of the Social Responsibility and Marketing in Venezuela and how it has been developing itself over recent decades. Finally, and to compare global trend about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Venezuelan situation, it is highlighted the propensity of the Venezuelan entrepreneurial to the implementation of social action in an efficient way and marketing focused.Keywords: corporate social responsibility; marketing; strategy; social action; corporate citizen.

  1. Transformaciones sociodemográficas de la élite parlamentaria en Venezuela (1993-1998

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    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Si bien Venezuela no es un caso representativo de nuevo régimen democrático, ya que ha funcionado ininterrumpidamente como tal desde hace treinta años, sí existen una serie de elementos que permiten plantear la existencia de una importante ruptura en la composición de la élite parlamentaria, constituyendo las dos últimas legislaturas un punto de inflexión claro en el desarrollo político venezolano y una muestra de la ruptura definitiva del bipartidismo que venía funcionando desde 1958.El objeto de este artículo es el estudio de la estructura sociológica de la élite parlamentaria en el período 1993- 1998, comparando algunas particularidades de la misma con características de la actual legislatura intentando establecer rupturas y continuidades entre ambas Cámaras. En el mismo se contrastan hipótesis clásicas, al estilo de las recogidas por Putnam y Von Beyme sobre la relación entre determinadas características sociodemográficas y demográficas y la élite política.ABSTRACT: Although Venezuela is not a representative case of new democracy, because it is established thirty years ago, there are now some important element that implied an break in parliamentarian elite composition. The last two legislatures can be interpreted as an evident point in Venezuela Political.The object of this article is the study of sociological estructure of parliamentarian elite durign the period of 1993-1998, comparing some o( their particularities and trying to stablish breaks and continuities along them. Some clasical hipothesis, as posited by Von Beyme and Putnam about correlation sociademoghapich characterists and political elites, are contrasted in the article.

  2. Distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela

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    Samuel FREIJE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El análisis de la distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela se puede resumir en tres conclusiones generales. En primer lugar, la distribución del ingreso en Venezuela es más desigual en el año 2000 que a finales de la década de 1970. En segundo lugar, esta situación se debe a un descenso en la acumulación de capital que está también asociado al colapso del producto y el ingreso. En tercer lugar, el descenso en la acumulación de capital no parece estar asociado a la desigualdad inicial de la economía o a mecanismos redistributivos por parte del gobierno. Puede decirse que la contracción del crecimiento económico es lo que ha causado el aumento de la pobreza y el aumento de la desigualdad en la economía venezolana.ABSTRACT: An analysis of distribution and redistribution of income in Venezuela leads to three general conclusions. In first place, the distribution of income is more unequal in 2000 than by the end of the seventies. In second place, this situation is due to a drop in the accumulation of capital, also linked to the collapse of the product and the income. In third place, the drop in the accumulation of capital does not seem to be associated to the initial inequality of the economy or to redistributive mechanisms of the government. It is possible to say that the reduction of the economic growth has caused an increase of the poverty and the raise of inequality in the Venezuelan economy.

  3. Microcrédito y pobreza en Venezuela: un caso de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor analiza y evalúa el Proyecto de Desarrollo de Comunidades Rurales Pobres (PRODECOP como uno de varios programas que existen en Venezuela para reducir los índices de pobreza. La metodología utilizada comprende tanto investigación documental como trabajo de campo. Dentro de los principales resultados obtenidos resaltan el éxito del PRODECOP en el fortalecimiento de los activos humanos, sociales, financieros y físicos de las familias bene- ficiarias y el extraordinario crecimiento de las cajas rurales, que se han convertido en un mecanismo de financiamiento para las familias rurales pobres

  4. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  5. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

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    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  6. Historia reciente y situación política actual de Venezuela

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    Elizabeth Burgos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista (en español Presentación Elisabeth Burgos es una antropóloga y escritora venezolana; coautora del libro Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia (Madrid, Editores Siglo XXI, 1998, sobre la vida de la dirigente indígena guatemalteca ganadora del Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1992. Actualmente reside en París donde realiza estudios de Historia. En esta entrevista, Elisabeth Burgos nos presenta su visión de la historia de Venezuela desde 1936, año en el que ella sitúa el i...

  7. Tendencias actuales en autorregulación: el caso de las comunicaciones comerciales en Venezuela

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    David López Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La autorregulación de las comunicaciones comerciales constituye una práctica relativamente reciente. Numerosas empresas, en la actualidad, con buen criterio, están adecuando sus actividades publicitarias a los instrumentos derivados de la autorregulación. Estos últimos, fomentados en ciertas ocasiones por el sector público, constituyen un sugerente complemento de la normativa legal. En el presente estudio, nos referiremos, con carácter general, de forma somera, a esta figura. Posteriormente, tomaremos conciencia de la misma en el caso de Venezuela.

  8. El Consejo Nacional Electoral y los dilemas de la competencia electoral en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel E. ÁLVAREZ

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se expone de manera descriptiva el comportamiento del Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE) en la Venezuela chavista. En ese sentido, se analizan las actuaciones de este organismo electoral en un contexto político, que para el caso venezolano, como mínimo, puede ser clasificado como semidemocrático. Se destaca que el CNE no es un árbitro imparcial, no porque no lo quieran sus miembros, sino porque ello no es posible en el escenario político e institucional actual en el país, por lo...

  9. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez; Adriana M. Márquez

    2007-01-01

    Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km2, 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment...

  10. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez; Adriana M. Márquez

    2007-01-01

    Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km², 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment...

  11. Represión y justicia en Venezuela en tiempos de protesta

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    Rogelio Pérez Perdomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between February and May 2014, wide public demonstrations erupted mayor cities in Venezuela, when young people protested against violent criminality, scarcity of goods, inflation and a general perception of an uncertain future. They were violently repressed by the military police, the police and armed thugs. Fifty people died, many were injured or arrested, and about 2.500 were submitted to criminal procedure. A number of opposition leaders and mayors are still in prison. Prosecutors and judges have collaborated in the repression and have paid no attention to the massive violation of human rights. The article analyzes the meaning of such massive repression for the judicial system and the state.

  12. [A new species of amphipod crustacean of the genus Amphilochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Amphilochidae) from Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, A; Ortiz, M; Atienza, D

    2001-01-01

    A new species of amphipod Crustacea (Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) of the genus Amphilochus Bate, 1862, is described. The species was collected in Phallusia nigra (Savigny, 1816) at depths between 0 and 2 m, in the pier piles of the Marina El Ancla and Los Manglares gas station in Morrocoy National Park (Falcón State, Venezuela), during the months of June and July 1998. The main differences between A. ascidicola new species and all others species of the genus recorded from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, are given.

  13. Comportamiento reproductivo y fertilidad de Macrobrachium carcinus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El camarón "gigante" de agua dulce Macrobrachium carcinus se encuentra presente en Venezuela tanto en puequeflos ríos litorales como en ríos más caudalosos. En el presente trabajo, seis machos y 22 hembras capturados en el río Manzanares del Edo. Sucre, fueron mantenidos durante 14 meses en el laboratorio con el objeto de hacer observaciones sobre el proceso de muda, apareamiento, desove, período de incubación, eclosión de los huevos y número de zonas/hembra. De los 33 procesos de muda observ...

  14. La nación y su pasado: Miradas cruzadas entre Colombia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN Entre las múltiples diferencias que caracterizan las historias nacionales de Colombia y Venezuela, la relación al pasado, no es, ciertamente, la menor. La meta de este trabajo es esbozar unas pistas de reflexión comparativa acerca de la manera cómo se vinieron diferenciando los relatos nacionales y la representación de un pasado nacional en ambos países. Parte de mi propósito es revalorar el estudio de la segunda mitad del siglo xix como un período esencial para entender esta bif...

  15. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.; Bird, David M.; Varland, Daniel E.; Negro, Juan Jose

    1996-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

  16. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima) e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar), e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais n...

  17. Nueva partidización y consolidación partidista en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Valia Pereira Almao

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo explora la nueva partidización en Venezuela para los años 2000 dentro de una perspectiva teórico-metodológico que vincula las explicaciones que los estudios venían ofreciendo sobre las actitudes políticas en el país, basados en el enfoque psicosociológico del comportamiento político y electoral, con las nuevas simpatías partidistas de la actualidad. Para observar el potencial de arraigo de esas simpatías, se indagan algunos factores que, en el enfoque señalado, indican sol...

  18. Democracia y Derechos Humanos en la Globalizacion. Una aproximación a Venezuela

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    José Antonio Rivas Leone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos abordar el debate actual en torno a los efectos positivos que tiene el proceso de globalización en la democracia, y específicamente en los derechos humanos, haciendo en primer lugar un abordaje y valoración teórica y académica, analizando posteriormente la realidad venezolana, en la que el avance y progresividad de los derechos humanos en términos de la Constitución Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 no corresponde con la cruda realidad y violación del Estado de derecho.

  19. Las trabas no arancelarias en el comercio bilateral agroalimentario entre Venezuela y Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Gutiérrez S.

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivos: (a) identificar trabas no arancelarias al comercio bilateral agroalimentario entre Venezuela y Colombia, tomando en cuenta la opinión de actores claves del proceso, y (b) discutir sobre las posibles soluciones e intervenciones públicas y privadas, tomando en consideración la opinión de un grupo de expertos en materia de integración binacional. El artículo sugiere finalmente algunas de las políticas e intervenciones requeridas para reducir las trabas no aran...

  20. Actividad microbiana en suelos de sabanas de los Llanos Orientales de Venezuela convertidas en pasturas

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Gómez; Paolini, J.

    2014-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de la variabilidad temporal y de las prácticas de manejo agrícola sobre las propiedades químicas y parámetros bioquímicos en un típico suelo Ultisol de pasturas nativas e introducidas de las sabanas orientales de los Llanos de Venezuela. La variabilidad temporal, el manejo agrícola y el efecto interactivo de ambos factores, afectaron las propiedades químicas y los parámetros bioquímicos. El carbono orgánico total e hidrosoluble experimentaron una significativa disminuci...

  1. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  2. Legislación y medios comunitarios Análisis comparativo de Bolivia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ava Mariana Gómez; Juan Ramos-Martín

    2014-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación se centra en el análisis de la le - gislación y las políticas públicas concernientes a los medios comunitarios de Bolivia y Venezuela con el objeto de conocer las diferencias y similitu - des existentes en los dos marcos regulatorios, identificar las políticas que ha implementado cada país con vistas a cumplir la legislación vigente, cono - cer los resultados más relevantes de dichas políticas, conocer los derechos y deberes que constituyen ser deno...

  3. EL DOCUMENTAL POLITICO EN EL SALVADOR: ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO CON CUBA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emperatriz Arreaza-Camero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo el documental político en El Salvador: estudio comparativo con cuba y Venezuela, es conocer diferentes experiencias comunicacionales alternativas en situaciones coyunturales de especial significación en América Latina y el Caribe. En general, estas experiencias han tenido como principal propósito promover mayor conciencia y participación política en la población, así como defender los derechos humanos de los grupos subalternos, y/o unificar criterios en torno a proyectos políticos de liberación nacional.

  4. Coexistence of mcr-1 and blaNDM-1 in Escherichia coli from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Blas, Jose F; Ovejero, Cristina M; Abadia-Patiño, Lorena; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We studied the presence of the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in human, animal, and environmental Enterobacteriaceae samples from Cumana, Venezuela, that were collected in 2015. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 2/93 Escherichia coli isolates from swine (novel ST452) and human (ST19) samples that were resistant to colistin. Whole-genome sequencing and transformation experiments identified mcr-1 on an IncI2 plasmid. One of the isolates also bore the widely spread carbapenemase NDM-1. A One Health approach is necessary to further elucidate the flux of these high-risk genes.

  5. Internet y televisión por cable en Venezuela: Una mirada estratégica

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El direccionamiento estratégico en la organización del trabajo de las empresas que operan en el sector de las telecomunicaciones en Venezuela ha sufrido modificaciones, debido a que el mismo se encuentra en un ambiente dinámico, que implica una continua mejora tecnológica; y por tanto, sus procesos se ven afectados y reformados en base a las mismas. En este sentido, los segmentos de Internet y televisión por cable, han estado adaptándose al crecimiento progresivo, estableciendo estrategias op...

  6. Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, América; Caselles, María J; Ettiene, Gretty; de Colmenares, Nélida G; Ramírez, Tibisay; Medina, Deisy

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the residues of seven pesticides organophosphorus (methamidophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos, parathion-methyl, dimethoate, malathion and tetrachlorvinphos), in some vegetables like: potato, lettuce, tomato, onion, red pepper and green onion cultivated in José María Vargas County in Táchira State, Venezuela. The research permitted to detect that 48.0% of the samples were contaminated with some of the pesticides studied. Methamidophos was founded in the vegetables in the rank of 6.3%-65.5%. The results show that 16.7% of the samples tested have residues higher than the maximum limits permitted.

  7. El voto electrónico en las elecciones de alcaldes en Venezuela

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    Héctor Velázquez Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se aborda la transición del voto convencional al voto electrónico en las elecciones municipales en Venezuela. Se hace un recorrido por las elecciones de alcaldes recientes con énfasis en la elección de 2000, cuando se da el primer intento por instaurar el voto electrónico, y en la elección de 2004, donde esta modalidad sustituyó a la convencional. La recuperación histórica destaca dos aspectos: la secrecía y el conteo legal de los sufragios.

  8. Eco-epidemiologia de Haemonchus contortus bahienses, ecotipo presente en ovinos de zonas aridas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Gustavo; Pino,Luz A.

    1987-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus bahiensis Grisi, 1974 parasita a los ovinos de zonas áridas de Venezuela. En las hembras de dicho ecotipo la distribución de frecuencias por nosotros observada fue de un 15,32% para el morfotipo con lengüeta supravulvar, de un 51,61% para el botonado y de un 33,07% para el liso. Correspondiéndole a dicho ecotipo un índice de diversidad de Shannon-Weaver de 1,44 bits. Las medidas corporales, el tamaño de los huevos y el symlophe son similares en los tres morfotipos. La dis...

  9. Significado del consumo de drogas para las adolescentes de la calle, en la ciudad de Valencia, Venezuela Significado do uso de drogas para adolescentes de rua, Valencia, Venezuela Meaning of drugs use for adolescents living in the streets, Valencia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alvarado-Chacón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo con el objetivo de revelar el significado del consumo de drogas en las adolescentes de la calle, condición que las convierte en problema social, por lo que se busca obtener una aproximación teórica para comprender este fenómeno. Siete (7 adolescentes femeninas del paseo Cabriales en la ciudad de Valencia, en Venezuela fueron entrevistadas. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el recurso metodológico de la Teoría fundamentada (Grand Theory y la visión del Interaccionismo simbólico y de ahí surgieron las siguientes categorías: la búsqueda de no ser la buena, la reafirmación del rol femenino, el consumo como experiencia, la mirada de los otros a la adolescente que consume drogas, y la adicta como cuidadora. Finalmente, concluimos que el uso de drogas en la calle para las adolescentes del sexo femenino es una forma de protección, sobrevivencia e inclusión en los grupos.Trata-se de estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi revelar o significado do uso de drogas entre adolescentes que vivem nas ruas, condição que se torna um problema social, de modo que a abordagem teórica busca compreender esse fenômeno. Sete (7 adolescentes do sexo feminino, em Valência, Venezuela, foram entrevistadas. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se como recurso a metodologia da Grounded Theory e a visão do interacionismo simbólico, de onde emergiram as seguintes categorias: a busca de não ser bom, reafirmação do papel das mulheres, consumo como experiência, o olhar dos outros para a adolescente que usa drogas e o toxicodependente como cuidador. Por fim, conclui-se que o uso de drogas na rua, para adolescentes do sexo feminino, é uma forma de proteção, sobrevivência e inclusão grupal.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach aims to reveal the meaning of drugs use among adolescents living in the street, a condition that turns them into a social problem, so

  10. Romanian Communities Abroad (II

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    EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of Romanians living abroad, in Europe, North and South America, Australia and Asia does not excede 11 millions. The biggest Romanian communities are in the United States, Canada, Germany, Australia, France, Italy, Great Britain, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Ireland, Venezuela and New Zeeland. If in the case of Romanian ethnics living in the United States, Canada, France, Venezuela etc., we can mainly talk about either pre-war migration or political anticommunist exile, in other states as Italy, Germany, Spain, Ireland or New Zeeland, most of the Romanian communities have been generated by the economic exile, especially after December 1989.

  11. Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

  12. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Prieto Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, semuestra la aplicabilidad de dichomodelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal en Venezuela, flagelo económico social presente en la realidad venezolana. Se concluye que un modelo de reconversión de la actividad económica informal representaría una alternativa para transformar esta actividad en el país, planteándose la conformación de una PYME con fortalezas financiera y operacional, con altos niveles de racionalidad, cuya actividad principal es ejecutada por otros individuos de manera informal; de esta forma se estructura una estrategia de crecimiento en función de la absorción de los ejecutores informales quienes, a través del financiamiento público o privado, concretan la conformación de una microempresa y la firma de un contrato tipo franquicia con la PYME.

  13. [Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Ixora; Hernández, Yessica; Ramsay, Mario; Salazar, Carmen; Devera, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in a random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 415 individuals attending the Manoa Urban Outpatient Clinic (Caroní Municipality, Bolívar State, Venezuela) in the Adult Hygiene Program and who requested health certification to work as food handlers were studied. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were examined by direct microscopy and the Willis concentration method. A total of 150 individuals were infected (36.14%), 107 (25.78%) of whom with B. hominis. There was no difference between males and females (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between ages (chi(2) = 12.17; g.l. = 4), with infection more frequent between 18 and 27 years. In 71.02% of the cases, B. hominis was the only parasite. Giardia lamblia was the parasite most frequently associated with B. hominis (2.41%). In the majority (85%) of infected individuals, less than five microorganisms per microscopic field were observed. We conclude that B. hominis is a frequent intestinal parasite among food handlers in Caroní Municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

  14. MODELIZACIÓN ACTUARIAL DE LAS NUEVAS PRESTACIONES SOCIALES EN VENEZUELA

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    Evaristo Diz Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente paper se trata el tema de la valoración actuarial del nuevo esquema de prestaciones sociales contempladas en la nueva Ley Orgánica del Trabajo de Venezuela . Se desarrolla un modelo actuarial en detalle y se ilustra con un ejemplo numérico el impacto en temas de pasivo actuarial para una empresa típica. Besides the usual pension benefits the pension plan of a company may be forced by law in some countries to offer wage based Lump-sum payments for labor termination this is the Venezuela case. An actuarial model of funding severance payment liabilities is formulated and studied. All formulas involved are explained in detail. Finally a specific numerical example illustrates the dynamics of the liabilities determined by the Projected Unit Credit Method for a typical Venezuelan company within the new Labor Law context a Venezuelan accounting College is promoting Actuarial Valuations of this contingencies as mandatory so this model can be used for it.

  15. Possible association between gastric cancer and bracken fern in Venezuela: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Amelot, M E; Avendaño, M

    2001-01-15

    To explore a possible connection between specific environmental factors that might explain the high rates of stomach cancer in people living in the highlands of western Venezuela, an epidemiologic study was conducted in 2 regions of contrasting topography. The regions embrace 3 Andean states, Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo, and the vicinal lowland surrounding the Maracaibo lake basin of Zulia State. Statistical sanitary records from 1986 to 1996 comprising 5.5 million people in the study area indicated that age-sex-adjusted gastric cancer death rate per 100,000 people (DR) was up to 3.64 times higher in highland than lowland areas, although total cancer-related DRs were comparable in both regions. DRs of other less frequent cancers from the upper alimentary tract [esophagous (1.18/0.99) and mouth-throat (1.39/2.64)] showed comparable values in both regions as well as colorectal, breast, and uterus-cervix cancers, suggesting that the stomach cancer DRs were related to geographically determined factors. Comparison of some nutrition issues, incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in selected areas, the discovery of the bracken carcinogen ptaquiloside in milk from bracken-fed cows, the prevalence of this plant in mountain cattle households and pasturelands and the rates of bracken-evoked bovine enzootic hematuria led us to conclude that consumption of ptaquiloside-contaminated milk may contribute to human gastric cancer in the Andean states of Venezuela.

  16. Arcoíris documental: tejido del activismo sexodiverso en Venezuela

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    José Alirio Peña Zerpa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Un rasgo determinante en la identificación de un documental de temática sexodiversa es la aparición de personajes protagónicos LGBTI (lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, trans e intersexuales, independientemente de la autoría o del público a quien va dirigido. Partiendo de la situación actual del activismo sexodiverso en Venezuela se realiza una retrospectiva a partir de los documentales producidos desde 1982, construyéndose de este modo un tejido activista; esa habilidad para que las acciones individuales y colectivas beneficien a aquellas personas LGBTI que sienten vulnerados sus derechos. Los directores durante el proceso de realización deben documentarse, acercase a la temática o asumir el documental como un género para hacer activismo con la cámara. El activismo sexodiverso en Venezuela puede tejerse desde los documentales y la experiencia de sus documentalistas, acercándonos a sus vivencias, creencias, valores, saberes, militancia (no militancia y prejuicios. El documental se constituye en el mejor producto activista de un determinado momento histórico; una reconstrucción y explicación diferente a la escrita, mediante la imagen, el sonido, la emoción y el montaje.

  17. Deterioro democrático e ingobernabilidad en Venezuela 1998 - 2016

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    José Antonio Rivas Leone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza los principales cambios que registra la democracia en Venezuela en la última década, y específicamente el sostenido proceso de deterioro institucional, democrático y jurídico, entendiendo estos últimos como inobservancia de la Constitución como norma suprema, ausencia real de división de públicos y violación de derechos y libertades que se suceden en un contexto de precariedad de las instituciones, del entramado y procedimientos democráticos, paralelo a una personalización de la política con tendencias de corte mesiánico y autoritario no sólo en la gestión del presidente Chávez sino en la gestión del presidente Maduro en la Venezuela actual con una crisis económica, un deterioro generalizado del país y de la calidad de vida con una crisis de ingobernabilidad y un proceso de transición indetenible.

  18. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

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    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  19. Auge y declive del sistema financiero eclesiástico en Venezuela

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    LUIS ALBERTO RAMÍREZ MÉNDEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo colonial y hasta muy avanzado el siglo XIX, la colocación de capital y bienes y la percepción de rentas en Venezuela fueron cumplidas mayoritariamente por la Iglesia católica. Esas funciones estuvieron sometidas a diversos marcos de actuación jurídico-legal, especialmente durante el periodo republicano y hasta su extinción en 1870, mediante los decretos emitidos por el presidente Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Así, se examina el funcionamiento y las regulaciones a que estuvo sometido el sistema financiero eclesiástico en Venezuela, y las tensiones que enfrentaron al clero con los gobiernos decimonónicos. El estudio parte de la revisión bibliográfica y documental sobre la temática, en particular de las fuentes manuscritas que reposan en los archivos regionales, nacionales y extranjeros. La investigación demuestra la intensa participación del sector rentista religioso en la protección de sus capitales e intereses y su progresiva decadencia durante el siglo XIX, debido a la incapacidad para obtener nuevos aportes de numerario, recapitalizar intereses, reaccionar ante la competencia de capital foráneo y protegerse de la apetencia de poderosos e importantes grupos políticos que buscaban apropiarse de sus caudales.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in an Indigenous Kariña Community in Eastern Venezuela

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    Mariolga Berrizbeitia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in an indigenous Kariña population in eastern Venezuela. A total of 175 serum samples were collected in the community of Piñantal during February 2009. Interviews targeting socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with the T. cruzi transmission were also conducted. Samples were evaluated using trypomastigote excreted/secreted antigens (TESAs in an ELISA format. TESA-ELISA positive samples were confirmed by indirect haemagglutination (HAI (Wiener. A nonsystematic collection of vectors was also undertaken. T. cruzi seroprevalence was 7.43% according to both assays, and the mean age of infected patients was 48.61±10.40 years (range 34 to 73 years. The vector infection rate was 20.00% (2/10. T. cruzi seropositivity was associated with a history of triatomine bites, the ability to recognize the vector and poor knowledge about Chagas disease, but no associations were found with gender, house type, knowledge of how the disease is transmitted, or the presence of vectors or animals inside dwellings. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. cruzi in an indigenous population in eastern Venezuela. All of the epidemiological variables required for the establishment of active vectorial transmission of T. cruzi were present in this community.

  1. Servicios de mecanización: introducción en Venezuela de la experiencia cubana

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    Arcadio Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto cubano de la responsabilidad del Estado en la ejecución de las tareas inherentes al desarrollo de la mecanización agropecuaria mediante una estructura de apoyo a esta actividad como parte de un servicio social no existía en Venezuela. El trabajo presenta los resultados de la participación activa de los especialistas cubanos en la introducción de su experiencia en la creación y puesta en marcha en ese país de Unidades Territoriales de Servicios de Mecanización, de las cuales en solo dos años se han inaugurado 16 ubicadas en 13 estados, con instalaciones definitivas o provisionales. La diferencia en los modos de la propiedad sobre la tierra en Venezuela hizo que la organización de las unidades no se prestara como en Cuba con maquinaria de las unidades productivas existentes, sino mediante la creación de una Empresa nacional independiente.

  2. Producción, Reservas y Sostenibilidad de la Energía en Venezuela

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    Juan Carlos Rojas-Zerpa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo está relacionado con la evaluación de los recursos energéticos de Venezuela y su posicionamiento estratégico mundial, referido principalmente a la producción y consumo de energía primaria y reservas. Así mismo se han evaluado los recursos energéticos renovables con la finalidad de identificar oportunidades para el desarrollo de la energía sostenible. Los resultados indican que Venezuela posee recursos fósiles para más de 130 años de explotación, lo cual lo convierte en una potencia energética relevante en el contexto mundial. La potencialidad aprovechable de las energías renovables duplicó la producción de recursos fósiles en 2011. En la actualidad, el aprovechamiento de estas fuentes es inferior al 2 % del total disponible, lo que deja abierto un amplio rango de posibilidades para la diversificación de la matriz energética nacional mediante tecnologías limpias o sostenibles

  3. Spinocerebellar ataxias in Venezuela: genetic epidemiology and their most likely ethnic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Irene; Ikonomu, Vassiliki; Arias, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Dominantly inherited ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias, SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar and spinal tract degeneration with ataxia and other signs, common to all known subtypes. Several types are relatively frequent worldwide, but in several countries, one specific SCA may show a higher prevalence owing to founder phenomena. In Venezuela, genetic epidemiological features of SCAs have been assessed during the last 30 years; mutations in ATXN1 (SCA1), ATXN2 (SCA2), ATXN3 (SCA3), CACNA1A (SCA6), ATXN7 (SCA7), ATXN8 (SCA8), ATXN10 (SCA10), TBP (SCA17) and ATN1 (dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, DRPLA) loci were searched among 115 independent families. SCA7 was the most frequent subtype (26.6%), followed by SCA3 (25.0%), SCA2 (21.9%), SCA1 (17.2%), SCA10 (4.7%) and DRPLA (3.1%); in 43% of the families, the subtype remained unidentified. SCA7 mutations displayed strong geographic aggregation in two independent founder foci, and SCA1 showed a very remote founder effect for a subset of families. SCA10 families were scattered across the country, but all had an identical in-phase haplotype carried also by Mexican, Brazilian and Sioux patients, supporting a very old common Amerindian origin. Prevalence for dominant SCAs in Venezuela was estimated as 1:25 000 nuclear families, provenances of which are either Caucasoid, African or Amerindian.

  4. First Report of Heterorhabditis amazonensis from Venezuela and Characterization of Three Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Naiyulin; Morales-Montero, Patricia; Puza, Vladimir; San-Blas, Ernesto

    2016-09-01

    During a survey in western Venezuela in 2011, three new populations of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (LPV081, LPV156, and LPV498) were isolated. Some differences were found in terms of morphometry compared with the original description; however, the distance from the anterior end to the excretory pore is the most variable character; significantly shorter in all infective juveniles and in other developmental stages depending on the population. According to a Principal Component Analysis, LPV498 possesses more differences in morphometric characteristics and can be separated from the other two. Those intraspecific differences could be attributed to the geographic origin of the nematode. Molecular studies of ITS regions demonstrated that the sequences of the Venezuelan strains were identical to those of the type species originally isolated in the Brazilian Amazonian forest. This is an interesting fact because in several studies on heterorhabditids, intraspecific variability has been recorded. Herein, we present the first report of H. amazonensis in Venezuela and the characterization of three populations of this species.

  5. Reformas del Congreso y representación política en Venezuela

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    Michael R. KULISHECK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analiza la representación en la Cámara de Diputados de Venezuela durante el período de 1994-1999 para contextualizar la candidatura presidencial de Hugo Chávez. En 1993, el sistema bipartidista en Venezuela fracasó y se usó una nueva ley electoral mixta por primera vez. Estas reformas reforzaron la influencia congresista de la patronal y los sindicatos, en vez de ampliar los patrones de representación para incluir las preocupaciones de los intereses emergentes.El fracaso de las reformas moderadas para mejorar la representación favoreció a candidaturas de políticas que apoyaron las agendas políticas radicales, como la de Hugo Chávez.ABSTRACT: This article examines representation in the 1994-1999 Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies to contextualize the presidencial candidacy of Hugo Chávez. In 1993, the Venezuelan the two-party system broke down and a new mixedmember electoral law for Congress was implemented. These reforms reinforced the congressional influence of business and labor rather than broaden representation patterns to include the concerns of emerging interests. The failure of moderate reforms to improve representation created conditions that favored the candidacies of politicians, like Hugo Chávez, who endorsed radical political agendas.

  6. Colombia-Venezuela: Comparación de las petroleras nacionales

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    Laszlo Palotas Kelen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compara las Compañías Petroleras de Estado (CPE de Venezuela y Colombia a tres maneras: (1 Describe las trayectorias de Ecopetrol y PDVSA, divergentes desde 2003 (con semi-privatización de la primera y estricto control gubernamental de la segunda. (2 Compara los actuales regímenes de explotación petrolera de Venezuela (Estado-céntrico y Colombia (mercado-céntrico según acceso a recursos, modelo organizativo, competencia-monopolio. (3 Compara la gobernanza de las dos CPE (por sus Estados en varias dimensiones de forma y función, completando esta matriz con una mirada a las relaciones obrero-patronales. Los paralelos entre las dos CPE a través del tiempo inspirarían empatía en sus ejecutivos, facilitando su colaboración en proyectos conjuntos como el oleoducto de la Faja del Orinoco al Pacífico. Una convergencia petrolera colombo-venezolana parecía probable, con China como otra beneficiaria.

  7. Del "Libre Comercio" a la quiebra del sistema colonial (1789-1796. El comercio exterior de Venezuela

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    García, Juan Andreo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Por los estudios realizados hasta el momento, sabemos del impacto positivo de la eliminación del monopolio de la Compañía Guipuzcoana en el comercio exterior de Venezuela; no obstante, en tales estudios se rompe la serie de valores de este comercio a partir de 1790, con lo cual, nos quedamos sin saber el impacto del decreto de Libre Comercio en la Capitanía General (28 de febrero de 1789, aunque conocemos los valores del puerto de la Guaira. El presente trabajo establece el valor del comercio exterior de Venezuela a partir de 1791, hasta el momento en que se produce la quiebra del sistema comercial español con la crisis bélica de 1797; los datos que se aportan demuestran que es en estos años cuando el decreto de Libre Comercio para Venezuela (1789 logra sus mayores éxitos; será pues la incorporación a ese nuevo sistema comercial y no la implantación del Consulado de Caracas, la que lleve a la Intendencia de Venezuela a las más altas cotas en su comercio exterior.

  8. Health Seeking Behaviour and Treatment Intentions of Dengue and Fever : A Household Survey of Children and Adults in Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Jelte; Lizarazo Forero, Erley; Vincenti Gonzalez, Maria F.; Schmidt, Masja; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Arias, Luzlexis; Bailey, Ajay; Tami, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue in Venezuela is a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment influences the outcome of dengue illness, as delay in care-seeking is significantly associated with complications leading to severe dengue. We aimed to u

  9. Spatial Analysis of Dengue Seroprevalence and Modeling of Transmission Risk Factors in a Dengue Hyperendemic City of Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincenti-Gonzalez, Maria F; Grillet, María-Eugenia; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I; Lizarazo, Erley F; Amarista, Manuel A; Sierra, Gloria M; Comach, Guillermo; Tami, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is spatially heterogeneous. Hence, to stratify dengue prevalence in space may be an efficacious strategy to target surveillance and control efforts in a cost-effective manner particularly in Venezuela where dengue is hyperendemic and public health resourc

  10. Hepatitis A virus genetic diversity in Venezuela: exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA and evidence of quasispecies distribution in the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbaran, Y; Gutierrez, C R; Marquez, B; Rojas, D; Sanchez, D; Navas, J; Rovallo, E; Pujol, F H

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is highly prevalent in Latin America, including Venezuela. Subgenotype IA seems to circulate in an almost exclusive fashion, except in Brazil. The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of the HAV infection in Venezuela, in order to characterize the circulating strains and to analyze the presence of quasispecies in sporadic cases and an epidemic outbreak. A total of 125 (113 sera and 12 feces) samples positive for anti-HAV IgM from sporadic cases and epidemic outbreak, were submitted to hemi-nested RT-PCR for amplification of the VP1 N terminus or complete region of the HAV genome. Sequences obtained from 96 Venezuelan isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. The quasispecies distribution was evaluated by cloning of HAV amplicons. Phylogenetic analysis of HAV sequences from Venezuela showed the exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA, but with co-circulation of two lineages, not found in other countries. The genetic variability found among Venezuelan strains was also analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). This technique allowed the detection of intra-strain variability, which was indeed related to the presence of quasispecies populations in the isolates. The quasispecies heterogeneity was higher in some isolates derived from sporadic cases compared to the one observed in the outbreak. The molecular characterization of HAV isolates from Venezuela showed the circulation of a unique subgenotype IA, but with the presence of diverse strains and quasispecies inside the viral populations.

  11. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Maracaibo Basin Province of Venezuela and Colombia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phoung A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean continuous resources of 656 million barrels of oil and 5.7 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Maracaibo Basin Province, Venezuela and Colombia.

  12. A Miocene molluscan faunule from Caucagua (Miranda State, Venezuela), with the description of a new species of Tryonia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Macsotay, O.

    2006-01-01

    A molluscan faunule from the Miocene Cumaca Formation of the western margin of the Tuy Basin (Venezuela) is described. The fauna yields two species of freshwater snails and a single terrestrial snail species. Tryonia vivasi nov. spec. is described from the fauna, and its biogeographical significance

  13. The policy process in a petro-state. An analysis of PDVSA's (Petroleos de Venezuela SA's) internationalisation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, C.E. [Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-07-01

    Venezuela offers a unique case and fertile ground for the study of oil policy-making processes. In the specialised literature very little attention has been paid to the nature and operations of multinationals from developing countries. By analysing Petroleos de Venezuela SA's (PDVSA's) internationalisation policy, this unique book explores the difficulties encountered by a major state oil enterprise in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. This informative study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policy-making in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. (author)

  14. Gasto social y consolidación de la sobrepoblación relativa en Venezuela durante el chavismo (1998-2010

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    Romina De Luca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the administration of Hugo Chavez, social expenditure in Venezuela expanded in relative and absolute terms simultaneously with the increase in oil revenues. Expenditures even went beyond the levels reached during the previous oil boom in the 1970s, particularly due to the expenditures in social security. Based on an analysis of Venezuela's social and economic structure, we show that this increase is aimed mostly towards the working population that is increasingly seen as excess workers. The increase in expenditure substantially improves the living conditions of this group. However, since there is no change in capital accumulation in Venezuela, this group continues to consolidate itself as excess wokers.

  15. Prácticas de responsabilidad social empresarial en la Pyme. Un estudio en el sector metalmecánico de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela

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    Zahira Moreno Freites

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como propósito realizar una investigación sobre las prácticas de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (rse que lleva a cabo la pequeña y mediana empresa (Pyme del sector metalmecánico en la Zona Industrial II de Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La muestra estuvo conformada por siete empresas, a las cuales se les aplicó un cuestionario y una entrevista a profundidad. Se determinó la existencia de capacidades y recursos en la Pyme sin que éstos sean usados estratégicamente para fortalecer sus ventajas competitivas; también se evidenció la práctica de acciones comunes de rse, toda vez que se considera importante la protección del ambiente, la reducción de energía, manejo de desechos, aguas residuales. No obstante, en aspectos relacionados con actuaciones en la comunidad, el mercado (proveedor-cliente y el ambiente de los trabajadores no son abordados considerando los beneficios en términos de creación, fortalecimiento o mejoras de las capacidades competitivas de las empresas. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la Pyme del sector presenta un bajo nivel de apropiación de la práctica de rse.

  16. VENEZUELA 2010-2011: POLARIZACIÓN Y RADICALIZACIÓN DEL PROYECTO SOCIALISTA Venezuela 2010-2011: Polarization and Radicalization of the socialist project

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    RICKARD LALANDER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela el bienio de 2010 y 2011 se caracterizó por una polarización política y social y la radicalización continua del gobierno socialista de Hugo Chávez Frías, con la gecución de nuevas leyes, oficialmente para expandir y profundizar la democracia participativa y radical. Paralelamente, también se manifestó el retorno de la oposición política a partir de las elecciones parlamentarias de 2010. En el 2011, la crisis interna ya existente dentro del chavismo se acentuó con la enfermedad del presidente Chávez y los aspectos de incertidumbre en cuanto al liderazgo de un movimiento político que hasta la fecha se ha caracterizado por un alto grado de personalismo y poder concentrado en el Presidente. En el campo social, el gobierno ha mantenido sus políticas progresistas/asistencialistas de diferentes Misiones sociales del Estado, especialmente a partir del 2011 para confrontar la escasez habitacional. En 2011 igualmente se puede observar el inicio de la precampaña electoral para las presidenciales del 2012. En el presente estudio se ofrece un resumen político de Venezuela en 2010 y 2011 y habrá un enfoque analítico particular en las elecciones parlamentarias de 2010, así como en las tensiones entre dos modelos democráticos: uno liberal representativo y otro más radical y participativo. De este ultimo modelo, habrá un énfasis especial en la evolución de los consejos comunales y sus implicaciones para la democracia.Theyears of2010 and 2011 were characterized by political and social polarization and similarly by a radicalization of the socialist government of Hugo Chávez Frías, with the establishment of new laws to expand the model of radical participatory democracy. The period however also witnessed the return of the opposition to the National Assembly in 2010. In 2011, the already existing crisis within the chavismo was hit by the health problems of the President, which added to uncertainty regarding the leadership ofa

  17. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

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    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  18. DIVERSIDAD MITOCONDRIAL EN EL NOR-OCCIDENTE DE VENEZUELA. IMPLICACIONES PARA PROBABLES RUTAS MIGRATORIAS PREHISPÁNICAS Mitochondrial diversity in Northwest Venezuela. Implications for probable prehispanic migratory routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINORAH CASTRO DE GUERRA

    Full Text Available La utilidad del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt para determinar afinidad genética entre grupos indígenas contemporáneos e inferir sobre migraciones, ha sido demostrada; pero la imposibilidad de estudiar grupos prehispánicos extintos, limita las inferencias sobre migraciones en esa época. El mestizaje en poblaciones neoamericanas ha sido caracterizado por uniones entre hombres europeos y mujeres indígenas, permitiendo detectar en la población contemporánea haplogrupos mitocondriales amerindios que informan sobre poblaciones extintas. Para conocer los linajes femeninos en el occidente de Venezuela, se estudiaron los haplogrupos del ADNmt a partir de RFLP, en una muestra de 193 individuos con antepasados procedentes del occidente de Venezuela, 81 del Estado Lara (Barquisimeto y 112 de tres pueblos del Estado Falcón (Macu-quita=25, Macanillas=29 y Churuguara=58. Se comparó la distribución de haplogrupos entre las poblaciones y se estimó el mestizaje por línea femenina en ellas. Se comparó la distribución de cuatro haplogrupos indígenas con otras regiones de América. Se observa que en las cuatro poblaciones predominan haplogrupos amerindios, seguidos de los africanos. Al comparar la fracción indígena con el resto de América encontramos que Macanillas, Lara y Churuguara se asemejan a grupos de Amazonas y Suramérica, mientras que Macuquita a Aruba. Esto sugiere una diversidad genética importante en esa zona como probable ruta de paso hacia el sur y el Caribe; además refleja vínculos genéticos importantes entre grupos prehispánicos de Aruba y los de la Península de Paraguaná. Evidencias arqueológicas soportan estos postulados. Se recomienda aumentar la muestra y realizar análisis de secuencias para un nivel mayor de precisión.Mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used to study genetic relationships between contemporary Amerindian groups and to infer ancestral migration movements; however inferences about migration routes of

  19. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asención Diez, Matías D.; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli. However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae. The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. PMID:27903647

  20. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

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    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  1. Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela Meningoencefalite por Naegleria fowleri: estudo epidemiológico no Estado de Anzoategui, Venezuela

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    Julman R. Cermeño

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4. An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003. A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD± 2.0 and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD± 32.2, respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources.Um caso de meningoencefalite amebiana primária, causada por Naegleria fowleri, foi diagnosticada no município de Independência no Estado de Anzoategui, Venezuela. Este caso motivou a realização deste estudo epidemiológico com o objetivo de identificar amebas de vida livre nessa área. Foram colhidas amostras representativas de água e realizadas análises fisicoquímicas e microbiológicas. Trofozoítos e cistos de Naegleria spp foram detectados em 44,4% (n=4. Verificou-se excelente concordância entre a observação das amebas de vida livre em esfregaços e aquelas de culturas monoxênicas em ágar não nutriente com Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p=0,003. Obteve-se uma carga variável de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbicos. As médias de mofos e leveduras foram de 3,0 CFU/ml (SD+2,0 e 102,9 CFU/ml(SD+32,2, respectivamente. Cem por cento das amostras apresentaram um número maior prov

  2. ENSEÑANZA DE LA GEOGRAFIA Y FORMACION CIUDADANA EN VENEZUELA

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    José Armando Santiago Rivera

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:La realidad geográfica construida durante el siglo XX, bajo la égida del capitalismo muestra una complicada problemática ambiental y social. En ese contexto, en Venezuela, en la práctica educativa, la enseñanza de la geografía tiene un acento tradicional naturalista-descriptivo. Con el planteamiento de la Educación  Bolivariana, a partir de 1999, la finalidad es educar al ciudadano para que explique su realidad geográfica, al participar en estrategias pedagógicas activas, reflexivas y críticas que contribuyan a fortalecer la vida democrática y el compromiso en el cambio social.PALABRAS-CLAVE: Ciudadanía, educación geográfica. ABSTRACT:The constructed geographic reality during century XX, under the aegis one of Capitalism shows complicated problematic environmental and a social one. In that context, in Venezuela, actually educative, the education of geography has a naturalist-descriptive traditional accent. With the exposition of the Bolivarian Education, as of 1999, the purpose is to educate the citizen so that it explains his geographic reality, when participating in active, reflective pedagogical strategies and critics that contribute to fortify the democratic life and the commitment in the change of articles of incorporation.KEYWORDS: Citizenship, Geography Teaching. RÉSUMÉ:La réalité géographique construite pendant le siècle XX, sous l'égide du capitalisme montre une problématique environnementale et sociale compliquée. Dans ce contexte, au Venezuela, dans la pratique éducative, l'enseignement de la géographie a un accent traditionnel naturaliste- descriptif. Avec l'approche de l'Éducation Bolivarienne, à partir de 1999, le but est d'instruire au citoyen pour qu'il explique sa réalité géographique, en prenant part des stratégies pédagogiques actives, réfléchies et critiques qui contribuent à fortifier la vie démocratique et le compromis dans le changement social.MOTS CLÉ: Citoyenneté, G

  3. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    The growing toward decentralization and democratization of development planning in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has a long tradition of rule by a strong centralized authority. Currently, the Office of the President is vested with considerable power, despite the existence of an elected legislator and an independent judiciary. The president rules by decree. State legislatures are elected, but governors of the states are appointed by the president. There are also elected municipal councils. Both state and municipal governments are almost fully dependent on the federal government for both their operating and capital investment budgets. Development programs are administered through 2 systems. Specific programs are administered by almost 100 different institutes and enterprises. The activities of these various programs are coordinated by administrative bodies at the state and federal level. The 2nd administrative system operates at the regional and federal levels. The administrative body at the federal level is the Central Office for Coordination and Planning and was established by Presidential Decree in 1958. This body prepares and coordinates all national development plans. The administrative bodies at the regional level are the Regional Organizations for Development. These bodies were created in specific regions through a series of legislative acts commencing in 1969 and continuing into the present. The development of these regional bodies represented a 1st step toward decentralization. Decree 478, promulgated in 1980, further promoted the decentalization of developmental planning. The decree established a series of assemblies and councils at various levels. A National Council of Regional Development was created at the federal level, and a Regional Council of Development was established at the regional level. At the state level an Assembly of Participation was organized, and at the municipal level a Committee of Citizen Participation was established

  4. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, Mauro; Ehemann, Nicolás; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Ron, Ernesto; Pérez, Julio Eduardo; Rossi, Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n = 48 (2m + 10sm + 36a) with FN = 60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH

  5. VGG2002, a new high-resolution geoid for Venezuela and Eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, G.; Bosch, W.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a new high-resolution geoid for Venezuela and the East Caribbean Sea. The Venezuelan Gravimetric Geoid 2002 (VGG2002) covers the area between 0oN-20oN and 285oE-305oE with a resolution of 1'x1'. An additional 2o-zone was included to avoid boundary effects. About 1.5 million free-air gravity anomalies were used. They originate from PDVSA (Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.), BGI (Bureau Gravimetrique International) and the GEODAS data base of NGDC (National Geophysical Data Center). In marine areas, 1'x1' gravity anomalies derived from altimetry (S&Sv9.1) were also included. In order to determined the long wavelength geoid signal the EGM96 global geopotential model was used as reference. Short wavelength contributions were derived from a digital terrain model with 30'' (GTOPO30 model) and 2' (S&Sv8.2 model) resolution respectively. Using the GRAVSOFT software, the geoid undulations were computed with the remove-restore technique. The computation involves a spherical approximation to evaluate the Stokes integral by two dimensional spherical Fast Fourier Transform with 100% zero-padding. The terrain corrections were computed by Residual Terrain Model method using prism numeric integration and taking into account the topographic anomalies relative to a mean height surface of 15'x15' resolution. This surface was obtained by a moving average of the digital terrain model. In marine areas the height anomalies were completed by mean sea level deviations of POCM, an oceanographic model of the ocean dynamic topography. Subsequently, the quasi-geoid was converted to geoid heights. The accuracy was evaluated by about 300 GPS/leveling stations and absolute differences to TOPEX/Poseidon (nine years) mean sea surface profiles. These show that the absolute agreement with respect to the national vertical datum is generally better than 30 cm RMS for most parts of Venezuela, 15 cm RMS in coastal areas and 5 cm RMS at sea.

  6. Bacteria, carbon dioxide and methane measurements in the Cariaco Basin on the continental shelf of Venezuela, April 2001 - January 2002 (NODC Accession 0001078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteria, carbon dioxide and methane measurements were collected using bottle casts in the Cariaco Basin on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 30 April 2001 to...

  7. [HLA DRB1*, DQB1*, DPA1*, and DPB1* and their association with the pathogenesis of leukemia in the population of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Pirela, Sergio E; Echeverría, Miriam; Salcedo, Pedro; Márquez, Georgina; Carrillo, Zuhey; Parra, Yennis; Cipriani, Ana María; Núñez, José R; Álvarez de Mon, Melchor

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: La presencia de HLA es un factor que influye en la patogénesis de las leucemias. Objetivos: Se evaluó la presencia de alelos HLA clase II DRB1*, DQB1*, DPA1* y DPB1* en 47 pacientes con leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA) y 48 con leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC), para compararlos con 48 voluntarios sanos de Zulia, Venezuela, y determinar las posibles asociaciones de HLA con las leucemias. Métodos: Se utilizó la técnica de PCR-SSP de baja y alta resolución para las regiones HLA clase II DRB1*, DQB1*, DPA1* y DPB1* conforme las instrucciones del KIT Olerup SSP Genovision. Resultados: Los alelos HLA-DRB1*14, especialmente DRB1*14:21, -DPA1*1:06, -DPA1*01:03,-DPA1*02:01, y los haplotipos HLA-DPA1*01:03-DPB1*04:01, DPA1*01:03-DPB1*02:01, DPA1*01:03-DPB1*99:01, -DRB1*14-DPA1*01:03, -DRB1*15-DPA1*01:03 tuvieron asociación con LMC (RR > 3); los alelos HLA-DRB1*13, -DQB1*02, -DPA1*01:05, -DPA1*01:09 y los haplotipos HLA-DPA1*01:09-DPB1*02:01, DPA1*01:09-DPB1*04:01 resultaron protectores (RR ausencia de asociaciones DRB1* con LLA y los otros patrones de asociación identificados sugieren marcadas diferencias en las patogénesis de las leucemias, lo que orienta hacia posibles deficiencias en la presentación antigénica para LLA o posibles efectos de mimetismo molecular en LMC.

  8. Epidemiologia de la leishmaniasis tegumentar en Mérida, Venezuela - II. Redescripcion de Lutzomya yencanensis (Ortiz, 1965 (Diptera: Psychodidae Epidemiology of the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mérida, Venezuela - II. Redescription of Lutzomya yencanensis (Ortiz, 1965 (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    D. Carzola

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe la hembra y el macho de Lutzomya Yencanensis OOrtiz, 1965 utilizando 11 topotipos. Se presentan las medidas e ilustraciones de las estructuras morfológicas. Se hace un análiseis comparativo con las especies afines y se registra la presencia de L. yencanensis en la región Andino-Venezolana.Based on 11 topotypes, the female and male of Lutzomyia yencanensis (Ortiz, 1965, are redescribed. The measurement and illustrations of morphological strctures, are presented. A comparative analysis with similar species, is remarked and the presence of L. yencanensis in Venezuelan Andean region, is recorded.

  9. 委内瑞拉提供石油工业零件和工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    委内瑞拉某公司提供石油工业零件和工具(PARTS AND TOOLS FOR THE OIL INDUSTRY),种类有:密封垫、阀门、护栏、粗麻布及运输原油产品的设备,可根据客户要求设计制造,价格及其它贸易条款面谈.详情请询: 联系人: SR. JHONNY SARTI 公司名称:MECANIZADOS SARTI C. A. 地址: ZONA IND. CARABOBO, 8 TRANSVERSAL, CENTRO COMERCIAL CARABOBO,VALENCIA, ESTADO CARABOBO,VENEZUELA 电话:(005841)328116,329806

  10. [Benthic fauna associated to a Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) bed in Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Villamizar, E

    2000-12-01

    The benthic fauna and diel variation in a shallow seagrass bed (Thalassia testudinum) were studied in Playa Mero, Venezuela. Samples of organisms and sediments were taken using PVC cylinders, 5cm in diameter, along a transect perpendicular to the coast. Seagrass cover, shoot density and biomass were estimated. The seagrass cover was homogeneous along the transect. The intermediate zone had the highest number of shoots and of above-ground and rhizome biomass. Composition and abundance of benthic organisms were related with seagrass and sediment characteristics. Sediment organic matter content and organism abundance were highest near the shore Molluscs, polychaetes, oligochaetes and nematodes were the most abundant groups. Species richness was higher in daytime (40 versus 28 at night). Gastropods were the most abundant organisms both at day and night while polychaetes and crustaceans increased during the day, and holoturids were more numerous at night.

  11. Bordes urbanos metropolitanos en Venezuela ante nuevas leyes y proyectos inmobiliarios

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    Nubis Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, a los tradicionales factores motivadores de la dinámica de expansión metropolitana, hoy se incorporan nuevas decisiones de políticas emanadas como leyes desde el gobierno central. La implementación de estas leyes contribuye a acelerar la ampliación de los bordes metropolitanos, reforzando, paradójicamente, un proceso improvisado y desarticulado de anexión de nuevos desarrollos populares, sin infraestructura, equipamiento y servicios necesarios para garantizar la calidad de vida urbana, y a expensas de espacios ecológicamente valiosos y vulnerables. Estas áreas constituyen emergencias territoriales que ameritan atención particular e inmediata, porque constituyen las formas territoriales de mayores y más recientes cambios y las más susceptibles a intervenciones con fines de ordenamiento territorial.

  12. Genetic diversity between and within the arenavirus species indigenous to western Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulhorst, Charles F.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Paredes, Hector; de Manzione, Nuris M. C.; Salas, Rosa A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    The results of analyses of Z, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein precursor, and nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data suggested that Guanarito virus was the most common cause of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever in a 7-year period in the 1990’s and that the evolution of Pirital virus in association with Sigmodon alstoni (Alston’s cotton rat) has occurred at a significantly higher rate than the evolution of Guanarito virus in association with Zygodontomys brevicauda (short-tailed cane mouse) on the plains of western Venezuela. The results of analyses of the primary structures of the glycoproteins of the 8 strains of Guanarito virus isolated from humans suggested that these strains would be highly cross-reactive in neutralization assays. Thus, passive antibody therapy may prove beneficial in the treatment of human disease caused by strains of Guanarito virus that are enzootic in the region in which Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever is endemic. PMID:18586298

  13. FIRST REPORT OF METALLO-β-LACTAMASES PRODUCING Enterobacter spp. STRAINS FROM VENEZUELA

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    Dianny Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21, E. aerogenes (7, E. intermedium (1, E. sakazakii (1 and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%, CRO (48.8%, CAZ (46.6%, PIP (46.4%, CIP (45.2% and ATM (43.3%. This is the first report for South America of blaVIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed blaTEM-1, but only one showed blaCTX-M-15 gene, while no blaSHV was detected.

  14. Nuevo Orden Constitucional, educación superior y responsabilidad social en Venezuela

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    Eduviges del Consuelo Morales Villalobos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La constitución venezolana de 1999 introduce cambios en cuanto a la concepción del Estado y a la adecuación de las instituciones creadas. De ello se desprende la necesidad de introducir modificaciones que viabilicen las relaciones entre el sector universitario y el entorno social. La investigación documental arroja que este marco normativo soporta bases para el reordenamiento educativo, especialmente en cuanto a la noción de responsabilidad, pues constituye el fundamento legitimador de la acción educativa vinculada al proyecto de Estado en Venezuela, convirtiéndose en instrumento de fortalecimiento del sistema democrático. Se describen las iniciativas legislativas dictadas en función de la Responsabilidad Social y se concluye que el desarrollo legislativo ha decantando este concepto.

  15. CULTURA ORGANIZACIONAL Y POSMODERNIDAD. UNA APROXIMACIÓN AL CASO VENEZUELA

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    Fredy R. Vallenilla Solórzano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to approach the study of the Organizational Culture and Postmodernism. Yes, we could talk about a post Modernistic Organizational Culture, and how these concepts could be interpreted in some Venezuelan organizations. Hence, a descriptive-documental research is in course. There bibliographic sources on this subject are studied. It is clear the Organizational Culture concept, but the Postmodernism concept is not, because of the contrast between theoretical positions resulting in contradictory and excluding issues. This makes difficult the characterization of a Post modernistic-Organizational Culture. Organizations like Procter & Gamble and the Electricity de Caracas have an Organizational Culture which is characteristic of private firms, centered basically to be accordingly to new eras and changing markets. Petroleos de Venezuela, traditionally dedicated to the oil business, since 1999, due to the new politic scenery, undertakes other responsibilities aimed to enhance Venezuelan Social Indicators.

  16. First report of metallo-β-lactamases producing Enterobacter spp. strains from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Rodulfo, Hectorina E; Rodríguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa E; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; Carreño, Numirin; Marcano, Daniel; De Donato, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21), E. aerogenes (7), E. intermedium (1), E. sakazakii (1) and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%), CRO (48.8%), CAZ (46.6%), PIP (46.4%), CIP (45.2%) and ATM (43.3%). This is the first report for South America of blaVIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed blaTEM-1, but only one showed blaCTX-M-15 gene, while no blaSHV was detected.

  17. Training Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System to Infer Permeability in Wells on Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Hurtado, Nuri; Torres, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The high accuracy on inferrring of rocks properties, such as permeability ($k$), is a very useful study in the analysis of wells. This has led to development and use of empirical equations like Tixier, Timur, among others. In order to improve the inference of permeability we used a hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System (NFS). The NFS allowed us to infer permeability of well, from data of porosity ($\\phi$) and water saturation ($Sw$). The work was performed with data from wells VCL-1021 (P21) and VCL-950 (P50), Block III, Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela. We evaluated the NFS equations ($k_{P50,i}(\\phi_i,Sw_i)$) with neighboring well data ($P21$), in order to verify the validity of the equations in the area. We have used ANFIS in MatLab.

  18. Imaginario político republicano de la provincia de Venezuela (1808-1812

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    Carole Leal Curiel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo recorre el precoz uso del concepto de república y republicano durante la Primera República de Venezuela a través de la prensa, impresos, cartas e intervenciones en el Congreso Constituyente de 1811, con el propósito de exponer cómo se expresan las tensiones durante el proceso de edificar las bases de ese primer intento de república federal. En el artículo se exploran los diversos usos del concepto república-republicano, evaluando las tramas argumentales que estuvieron en juego con miras a mostrar que, contra lo que se ha sostenido para este periodo, el republicanismo emergente no fue una copia servil de los angloamericanos del norte, sino que se trató de una reflexión local de los modelos y teorías de la época.

  19. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

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    Francisco Provenzano R.

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.

  20. Características espaciales de la población y el empleo en Venezuela

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    Exaú Navarro Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se adentra en el estudio del crecimiento y desarrollo a nivel regional. Para la generación de políticas de desarrollo es necesario contar con información en forma de datos ubicados en uxn contexto espacial. Al analizar datos regionales surge el problema de la dependencia espacial, una técnica desarrollada para tratar este problema es la denominada "Econometría Espacial". Se analiza el empleo y la población en Venezuela, caracterizando el comportamiento de estas variables en los 24 estados o regiones en que se divide el país. El modelo econométrico comprende dos ecuaciones y se estima mediante máxima verosimilitud, finalmente se analizan los estadísticos que permiten detectar dependencia y autocorrelación espacial.

  1. [Leaf anatomic studies in solanaceae of Venezuela. VI. Leaf anatomy of 10 species of Cestrum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, D; de Ríos, N R; Benítez de Rojas, C E

    2001-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Cestrum acuminatissimum Dunal, C. alternifolium (Jacq.) O.E. Schulz, C. glabrescens (C.V. Morton) Steyerm. et Maguire, C. imbricatum Rusby, C. Iatifolium Lam., C. neblinense D'Arcy et Benítez, C. ruizteranianum Benítez et D'Arcy, C. schulzianum Francey, C. tillettii Benítez et D'Arcy y C. tubulosum Sendtner, is described in order to value its diagnostic characters useful as source of data in the taxonomy of the Solanaceae. The material was obtained from specimens deposited in MY herbarium, coming from different geographical areas of Venezuela, and it was prepared according the classical methodology used in leaf anatomy studies. The results obtained have, besides the common features mentions for other species of the genus Cestrum, some differences in: types and density of trichomes, thickness and sinuousities of the cell wall, stomata position, as well as in the distribution of esclerenchymatous cells of the mesophyll, midvein petiole.

  2. Effects of weathering of organic matter in the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of weathering of organic matter in the La Luna Formation, the main source rock of Cretaceous oil in Western Venezuela was studied by means of organic petrography. Two outcrop samples from zero to about 10 cm depth were studied microscopically, both in whole rock and kerogen extract mode. This permitted recognizing some characteristics and consequences of weathering, such as: increased porosity of huminite and solid bitumens and the decrease of its reflectance (% anti Ro); disappearance of micrinite, presence of exudation substances and lower fluorescence emission of liptinite under blue light excitation. The mass reduction of the organic matter was determined by the difference of total organic carbon values, and by the weight reduction of the sample before and after extraction, in both weathered and unweathered samples. The loss of organic matter by weathering is considerable, as much as 87% in the first 0.5 cm of the weathering halo are lost.

  3. A brief history of a restless vision: seismological research in Venezuela

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    J. Grases

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismological research in Venezuela has managed to survive in the Twentieth century in spite of having produced only two catalogues for public consultation in a period of sixty years, the last of them being published in 1999. However, great investigators, national and foreign, gave their best years to scientific knowledge. Through their restlessness and attitudes, the perspective of the science of earthquakes was constructed. Watching through their eyes, and by means of the 1812 earthquakes, the most controversial and important in this country, the history of the Venezuelan seismology is revealed in this paper. Amidst discussions and ruins, opening footpaths on destructive earthquakes, Venezuelan seismology began to build its own vision.

  4. [Communicative approach of Situational Strategic Planning at the local level: health and equity in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Martínez, Henny Luz; Artmann, Elizabeth; Porto, Silvia Marta

    2010-06-01

    The article discusses the results of operationalizing Situational Strategic Planning adapted to the local level in health, considering the communicative approach and equity in a parish in Venezuela. Two innovative criteria were used: estimated health needs and analysis of the actors' potential for participation. The problems identified were compared to the corresponding article on rights in the Venezuelan Constitution. The study measured inequalities using health indicators associated with the selected problems; equity criteria were incorporated into the action proposals and communicative elements. Priority was assigned to the problem of "low case-resolving capacity in the health services network", and five critical points were selected for the action plan, which finally consisted of 6 operations and 21 actions. The article concludes that the combination of epidemiology and planning expands the situational explanation. Incorporation of the communicative approach and the equity dimension into Situational Strategic Planning allows empowering health management and helps decrease the gaps from inequality.

  5. El campamento @PlzaResistencia en el ciclo de protestas en Venezuela 2014

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    Iria Puyosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el caso del campamento estudiantil de protesta Plaza de la Resistencia, instalado en Caracas durante los meses de abril y mayo de 2014, en el contexto del ciclo de protestas registrado en Venezuela. Se revisan los factores contextuales antecedentes del ciclo de protestas y se explora la aplicabilidad en este caso de diez dinámicas identificadas como fundamentales en los movimientos sociales en red. Asimismo, se hace un análisis de redes del usuario Twitter @PlzaResistencia que sirvió para la comunicación política autónoma y para la propagación de las consignas de los campistas.

  6. ESTRATEGIAS DE FORMACION EN LA COMUNICACIÓN POPULAR, ALTERNATIVA Y COMUNITARIA EN VENEZUELA

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    Useche, María Cristina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is focused on analyzing the community training in the field of alternative communication, popular and of its own, from the perspective of the Ministry of Popular Power for Information and Communication in Venezuela in the period 2002-2008, under the foundations of democratic humanism, specifically from Freire (1998( and Prieto (1977. The methodology used is descriptive with non experimental-transectional design. The information was obtained from bibliography and documentary sources. The conclusions are that the above mentioned Ministry has taken some steps forward on forming and training personnel on popular communication, from communities and is this way alternative, in some regions throughout the country. However, this process lacks a strategic planning aiming a stable operation and checking procedures which ensure the participation of communities in communication facilities.

  7. Comparison of fish assemblages in two littoral habitats in a Neotropical morichal stream in Venezuela

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    Carmen G. Montaña

    Full Text Available Morichales are lowland streams in South American savannas with riparian forest dominated by the moriche palm (Mauritia flexuosa. We sampled littoral habitats from ten flooded vegetated patches (dominated by Mauritiella aculeate and six sand banks in two months of the dry season (Feb-Mar 2005 in a stream in the savannas of Apure State, Venezuela. We collected samples that compromised 12,407 individual fishes of 107 species. Small-bodied fishes (< 100 mm, representing diverse trophic and life history strategies, were abundant. The most abundant species were in the families Characidae and Cichlidae. Fish assemblages from flooded vegetated patches differed significantly from those on adjacent sand banks. High structural complexity along vegetated shoreline habitats of morichal streams likely contributes to species richness and affects assemblage composition.

  8. Unusual paired pattern of radiohaloes on a diamond crystal from Guaniamo (Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Daniel J.; Nasdala, Lutz

    2016-11-01

    An octahedral diamond crystal from Guaniamo, Venezuela shows a multitude of round radiocolouration spots that indicate a remarkable formation history. Spots always occur in pairs, with similar spacing and intensity ratio between the two spots of each pair. We interpret this pattern to be the result of long-term irradiation of the stone emanating from a multitude of radioactive point sources. At some point during the irradiation, the stone must have experienced a translational movement which shifted it ca. 50 μm relative to the adjacent material [i.e., the (111) crystal face was a fault plane], after which irradiation continued. The Neoproterozoic age of the Guaniamo kimberlites and the high degree of radiation damage suggest that both of the two irradiation periods lasted over hundreds of millions of years. This interpretation is supported by results of He-irradiation experiments.

  9. Las TIC, en la generación de contenidos periodísticos en Venezuela

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    Mgter. Carmen María Prieto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes to the technological capacity of the journalists in Venezuela in the generation of contents for paper and digital media. The work is based on the theoretical postulates on the Society of the Information and the Knowledge of Manuel Castell, in the theory of the technological innovation, from its category technological capacity, and in the studies made on the Publishing Systems and their application in social mass media. In this descriptive investigation a questionnaire was applied in line, using like interphase the electronic mail. The main findings indicate that most of the journalists whom the TIC uses it report a superficial knowledge of the technological tools due to the deficiency of formal processes of technological learning.

  10. Analysis of antenal sensilla patterns of Rhodnius prolixus from Colombia and Venezuela

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    Lyda Esteban

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Antennal sensilla patterns were used to analyze population variation of domestic Rhodnius prolixus from six departments and states representing three biogeographical regions of Colombia and Venezuela. Discriminant analysis of the patterns of mechanoreceptors and of three types of chemoreceptors on the pedicel and flagellar segments showed clear differentiation between R. prolixus populations east and west of the Andean Cordillera. The distribution of thick and thin-walled trichoids on the second flagellar segment also showed correlation with latitude, but this was not seen in the patterns of other sensilla. The results of the sensilla patterns appear to be reflecting biogeographic features or population isolation rather than characters associated with different habitats and lend support to the idea that domestic R. prolixus originated in the eastern region of the Andes.

  11. Synanthropic rodent reservoirs of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi in the valley of Caracas, Venezuela

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    HERRERA Leidi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct blood examination and xenodiagnosis of 47 synanthropic rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Mus musculus captured in the valley of Caracas, Venezuela, revealed trypanosomal infections in 12 R. rattus, 10 with T. lewisi and 2 with T. cruzi. Of the latter the course of parasitemia, the pleomorphism of the bloodstream trypomastigotes, tissue tropism in naturally and experimentally infected rats and mice, host mortality, morphology of fecal parasites in Rhodnius prolixus used for xenodiagnosis, and infectivity of the bug feces for NMRI mice, were all characteristic of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi. One rat, with a patent parasitemia, had numerous nests of amastigotes in cardiac muscle and moderate parasitism of the smooth muscle of the duodenum and of skeletal muscle. Mice inoculated with fecal flagellates from the bugs had moderate tissue tropism in the same organs and also in the colon and pancreas. The possible role of R. rattus in the establishment of foci of Chagas? disease in Caracas is discussed

  12. Legislación y medios comunitarios Análisis comparativo de Bolivia y Venezuela

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    Ava Mariana Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de esta investigación se centra en el análisis de la le - gislación y las políticas públicas concernientes a los medios comunitarios de Bolivia y Venezuela con el objeto de conocer las diferencias y similitu - des existentes en los dos marcos regulatorios, identificar las políticas que ha implementado cada país con vistas a cumplir la legislación vigente, cono - cer los resultados más relevantes de dichas políticas, conocer los derechos y deberes que constituyen ser denominados medios comunitarios en cada país e identificar disposiciones legales que puedan provocar resultados es - purios relacionados con la intervención gubernamental.

  13. Molecular identification of unusual Mycetoma agents isolated from patients in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Olga C; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Moreno-Treviño, Maria; González, Gloria M

    2017-02-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, subcutaneous disease endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. It is currently a health problem in rural areas of Africa, Asia and South America. Nine cases of mycetoma were analysed in a retrospective study. All isolates were identified by morphological features. The level of species identification was reached by molecular tools. Definitive identification of fungi was performed using sequence analysis of the ITS of the ribosomal DNA region and the ribosomal large-subunit D1/D2. Identification of actinomycetes was accomplished by the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Six unusual clinical isolates were identified: Aspergillus ustus, Cyphellophora oxyspora, Exophiala oligosperma, Madurella pseudomycetomatis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia wallacei. The prevalence of mycetoma in Venezuela remains unknown. This study represents the first report in the literature of mycetoma caused by unusual pathogens identified by molecular techniques.

  14. Ránking de anuncios y agencias de publicidad en Venezuela

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    Estela Núñez Barriopedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis de la posición actual de las agencias de publicidad venezolanas y de sus anuncios en el UNIR (Uni- versidad Internacional de la Rioja Ranking Iberoamericano de Publicidad. Asimismo, se estudia la tendencia de sus posiciones y se realiza una clasifica- ción de agencias y anuncios en cuartiles según su posición y puntuación en el ranking. Para el caso de Venezuela, se analiza el ranking de anuncios en 2012-2013 y el ranking de agencias en 2014-2015 para una muestra total de 2.130 y 2.175 anuncios, 775 y 538 agencias respectivamente en Iberoamérica.

  15. Phillips tests methods to improve drawdown and producing rates in Venezuela fire flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldau, R.F.; Lumpkin, W.B.

    1974-08-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co. conducted a 4-yr test of fire flooding in the Morichal field, Venezuela. The field, located at the N. edge of the Orinoco heavy-oil belt, produces 8' to 12' API crude at high rates from poorly consolidated sands below 3,000 ft. The pilot performed well with no channeling, corrosion, emulsion or sanding problems. However, combustion-gas production in some wells seriously reduced pump efficiency and drawdown. A number of field methods were tested to improve drawdown and production rates in pumping wells. A downhole gas separator made significant improvement; foam suppressants, pump speed, pump displacement, and reduction of casing pressure had little or no effect. Field data show that flowing rather than pumping, fire-flood producers can give better drawdown under some conditions.

  16. [Reproduction of the bird Mimus gilvus (Passeriformes: Mimidae) in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, M; Weir, E; Gil, K

    2001-01-01

    Four pairs of the poorly understood tropical mockingbird Mimus gilvus were captured and color banded at a grassland in Maracaibo, Venezuela in June 1997. Throughout the following 8 months, individuals were observed two days per week for 4 hours each. We recorded courtship behaviour, nest construction, incubation, parental care, territory defense and timing of reproductive cycle. Pairs lived in defined territories defended primarily by the male. Both sexes participated in nest building which began at the start of two rainy seasons: April and October. Between April and June, 80% of nests were parasited by the shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis). No parasitism was recorded in the later nesting season. Consequently, breeding success for the April and October seasons was 20% and 83% respectively. Only the female incubated and the mean clutch size was 2.2 eggs.

  17. Venezuela en la ruta comercial azucarera: Su impacto en la sociedad sucrense

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    Marisol Rodríguez Arrieta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de caña de azúcar se dieron en América Latina y en las islas antillanas como consecuencia de la demanda en los mercados europeos desde el XVI hasta el XIX. El escenario construido con financiamiento internacional y la participación activa de Holanda, Francia, Inglaterra, Estados Unidos, incluso Portugal y España, implicó la inversión de grandes capitales en las colonias para la instalación de los ingenios y la importación de la mano de obra. En el caso de Venezuela y en particular de la región sucrense, la producción y el comercio del azúcar y sus derivados marcó una singular diferencia con lo acontecido en otros países; por cuanto la metrópoli no invirtió capitales para la explotación a gran escala de este cultivo agrícola que tomó fuerza en este escenario, a partir del siglo XIX. En el distrito Sucre del estado Zulia el proceso económico generado por los cambios en la explotación tradicional de la caña de azúcar, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, aceleró la industrialización del azúcar y sus derivados, cuya referencia más significativa fueron las nuevas compañías azucareras que le dieron un impulso a una clase dominante que diversificó la economía nacional y expandió el desarrollo del capitalismo en Venezuela.

  18. Evidence of at least two introductions of HIV-1 in the Amerindian Warao population from Venezuela.

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    Héctor R Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Venezuelan Amerindians were, until recently, free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. However, in 2007, HIV-1 infection was detected for the first time in the Warao Amerindian population living in the Eastern part of Venezuela, in the delta of the Orinoco river. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 circulating in this population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pol genomic region was sequenced for 16 HIV-1 isolates and for some of them, sequences from env, vif and nef genomic regions were obtained. All HIV-1 isolates were classified as subtype B, with exception of one that was classified as subtype C. The 15 subtype B isolates exhibited a high degree of genetic similarity and formed a highly supported monophyletic cluster in each genomic region analyzed. Evolutionary analyses of the pol genomic region indicated that the date of the most recent common ancestor of the Waraos subtype B clade dates back to the late 1990s. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At least two independent introductions of HIV-1 have occurred in the Warao Amerindians from Venezuela. The HIV-1 subtype B was successfully established and got disseminated in the community, while no evidence of local dissemination of the HIV-1 subtype C was detected in this study. These results warrant further surveys to evaluate the burden of this disease, which can be particularly devastating in this Amerindian population, with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, among other infectious diseases, and with limited access to primary health care.

  19. Impacto económico de la legislación laboral en Venezuela

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    María Candelaria González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 7th of 2012, Organic Law on Work, male workers and female workers —Ley Orgánica del Trabajo, los Trabajadores y Trabajadores (LOTTT— was published in Official Gazette of the Degree with Rank, Value and Force in Venezuela. The aim of this law is “to protect the work as a social fact and guarantee the labor rights, creators of the produced social wealth and the leading subjects of the processes of education and work to achieve the aims of the democratic state and social rights and justice…”. To achieve these aims changes were established that apparently benefit the employees and place them in a better situation, in respect to the 1997 law, and on the benefits of the entrepreneur. In this sense, the aim of the present article is to analyze the economic impacts that this law has had on both the employee and the entrepreneur, using a review of the literature and journals. It was observed that the most significant changes were in the reduction of the workday, the calculation and the retroactivity of the social benefits, the elimination of outsourcing, and other less significant changes such as, pre and postnatal period extension, the calculation of the overtime, the elimination of the outstanding performance bonus, among others. It was shown, without any doubt, that this law is highly punitive for the entrepreneurs and very protective for the employees. All these came along with a decrease in the Economically Active Population (PEA, with a decrease in the gross domestic product and, thus, productivity. And now with the highest levels of inflation in Latin America, this is an unflattering landscape for companies in Venezuela.

  20. Estructura cambiaria alternativa en Venezuela (1960-2013: implicaciones y consecuencias

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    Héctor Romero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El tipo de cambio nominal es un elemento clave dentro de la economía, ya que sirve como referencia básica para el intercambio de bienes entre los países, así como para la asignación de recursos productivos entre los distintos sectores económicos que componen la economía del país. En términos generales, las naciones del mundo suelen tener una única referencia cambiaria, sin embargo, bajo condiciones particulares de tensión en la balanza de pagos o severas crisis internas, pueden establecer estructuras cambiarias híbridas o múltiples. El trabajo tiene como objetivo comprender la dinámica de las estructuras cambiarias alternativas, las razones que conllevan a su instauración, así como la experiencia de la historia económica de Venezuela (1960-2013. El establecimiento de referencias cambiarias múltiples en el país suele estar asociado con la merma en la disponibilidad de activos externos, producto de choques negativos en los términos de intercambio o desajustes macroeconómicos financiados a través de la emisión monetaria. El aumento de la prima cambiaria entre el tipo de cambio oficial y el paralelo, con las consiguientes distorsiones en el funcionamiento de la economía nacional, ha sido el detonante principal para unificar el tipo de cambio. En consonancia con la experiencia internacional, la tasa de inflación promedio en los años con tipo de cambio unificado en Venezuela fue significativamente menor (14,5% que en los períodos con dos o más tipos de cambio (28,4%.

  1. Admixture estimates for Caracas, Venezuela, based on autosomal, Y-chromosome, and mtDNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Helios; Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Izaguirre, Mary Helen; De Guerra, Dinorah Castro

    2007-04-01

    The present Venezuelan population is the product of admixture of Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans, a process that was not homogeneous throughout the country. Blood groups, short tandem repeats (STRs), mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers have been used successfully in admixture studies, but few such studies have been conducted in Venezuela. In this study we aim to estimate the admixture components of samples from two different socioeconomic levels from Caracas, Venezuela's capital city, compare their differences, and infer sexual asymmetry in the European Amerindian union patterns. Gene frequencies for blood groups ABO and Rh (CDE) and for the STRs VWA, F13A01, and FES/FPS and mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups were studied in a sample of 60 individuals living in Caracas, taken from a private clinic (high socioeconomic level), and 50 individuals, also living in Caracas, drawn from a public maternity clinic (low socioeconomic level). The admixture analysis for the five autosomal markers gives a high European component (0.78) and an almost negligible African sub-Saharan component (0.06) for the high socioeconomic level, whereas for the low socioeconomic level the sub-Saharan, European, and Amerindian components were 0.21, 0.42, and 0.36, respectively. Estimates of admixture based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers reveal that the Amerindian contribution to these Caracas samples is almost entirely through females, because the Y-chromosome Amerindian and African sub-Saharan chromosomes found in this study were scarce. Our study reveals that the identification of the grandparents' geographic origin is an important methodological aspect to take into account in genetic studies related to the reconstruction of historical events.

  2. LIBERALISMO Y DESCENTRALIZACIÓN: ALGUNAS APRECIACIONES EN TORNO A VENEZUELA

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    María Elena Romero Ríos

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La revisión de algunos supuestos que conforman el modelo liberal de sociedad, se trazan como inicio para inferir características presentes en el proceso de descentralización dentro de las reformas del Estado en el contexto venezolano. En las dos últimas décadas importantes cuestionamientos se realizan acerca de la estructura centralizada del Estado en América Latina y de los desiguales niveles de desarrollo que se hallan dentro de un mismo territorio nacional, asociándose el centralismo con la dinámica de la actividad económica capitalista. En la relación de estas variables político-económicas, se describen obstáculos para el desarrollo y agotamiento de las capacidades funcionales del Estado, surgiendo como alternativa la descentralización. Una definición que integra la descentralización política, administrativa y económica, según se dirija a incidir en la participación política, en la administración estatal o en el modelo económico, abre cauces para la discusión del modelo liberal de sociedad. ¿Puede señalarse que la conducción del proceso de descentralización en Venezuela ha seguido orientaciones liberales, con tan marcado predominio económico que ha afectado la institucionalidad política que el mismo proceso conlleva? La descentralización en Venezuela, orientada hacia el fortalecimiento político institucional, tomó el camino de las reformas neo-liberistas, lo cual se le ha convertido en freno para continuar avanzando hacia el fortalecimiento de la institucionalidad política democrática.

  3. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  4. Los médicos del exilio repúblicano en Venezuela

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    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La guerra civil española provocó el exilio de un importante número de científicos e intelectuales. Dentro de ellos numerosos médicos saldrían de España obligados por su defensa de la República o su ideología democrática. Una gran mayoría se establecieron en América Latina. Venezuela es el segundo país donde más facultativos acoge, tras México. En el presente trabajo se analiza cuales fueron las circunstancias históricas que permitieron esta acogida, y se hace referencia a alguna de las personalidades y sus campos de trabajo en su nuevo país de acogida. Dentro de la historia social de la medicina española existe un espacio vacío sobre el exilio médico y sobre la represión interior ejercida físicamente o simplemente como depurados de numerosos médicos que se vincularon de distinto modo con los ideales de modernidad de la República Española.______________ABSTRACT:The Spanish Civil War led to the exile of a large number of scientists and intellectuals. Among them, many doctors escaped from Spain because of their defense of the Republic or their democratic ideology. A large majority were established in Latin America. Venezuela is the second country of welcome, after Mexico. In this paper we analyze what were the historical circumstances that allowed this host, and it is made reference to some personalities and their fields of work in their new host country. Within the social history of Spanish medicine, there is an empty space on the exile of this category and their internal repression or the purged of many doctors linked to the ideals of modernity of the Spanish Republic.

  5. [High activity antiretroviral therapy change associated to adverse drug reactions in a specialized center in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, José D; Dapena, Elida

    2016-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent the first cause of change of the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, therefore, they constitute the main limiting factor in the long-term follow up of HIV patients in treatment. A retrospective study was carried out in a specialized center in Lara State, Venezuela, including 99 patients over 18 years of age who had change of first-line HAART regimen due to ADRs, between 2010 and 2013. The aims of this research were to describe the sociodemographic and clinical variables, frequency of ADRs related to change of HAART, duration of the first-line HAART regimen, to determine the drugs associated with ARVs and to identify the risk factors. The ADRs constituted 47.5% of all causes of change of first-line HAART regimen, the median duration was 1.08±0.28 years. The most frequent ADRs were anemia (34.3%), hypersensitivity reactions (20.2%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (13.1%). The most frequent ARV regimen type was the protease inhibitors-based regimen (59.6%), but zidovudine was the ARV most linked to ADRs (41.4%). The regression analysis showed increased risk of ADRs in singles and students in the univariate analysis and heterosexuals and homosexuals in multivariate analysis; and decreased risk in active workers. The present work shows the high prevalence of ADRs in the studied population and represents the first case-based study that describes the pharmacoepidemiology of a cohort of HIV-positive patients treated in Venezuela.

  6. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

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    Francisco Provenzano R.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.Harttia merevari, uma espécie nova de bagre loricarideo é descrita com base em oito exemplares capturados no alto rio Caura, bacia do rio Orinoco, Venezuela. A espécie nova se distingue pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: abdome nu; duas ou três placas preanais; presença de uma placa óssea anterior a cada abertura branquial; sete placas laterais entre as nadadeiras peitorais e pélvicas; barbilhão maxilar curto e unido ao disco oral por uma dobra carnosa; superfície dorsal da cabeça e região anterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com numerosos pontos negros arredondados, região dorsal e posterior do corpo amarelo escuro ou marrom claro com cinco bandas transversais negras, as duas bandas anteriores com a parte dorsocentral difusa. A descoberta desta espécie nova estende a distribuição do gênero ao noroeste incluindo a bacia do rio Orinoco na vertente norte do Escudo das Guianas.

  7. [Human fasciolosis in Mara municipality, Zulia state. Venezuela: prevalence and asociated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Cecilia; Alarcón-Noya, Belkisyolé; García, María Eugenia; Díaz-Suárez, Odelis

    2009-12-01

    In Venezuela, human Fasciolosis shows a low frequency. However, Mara Municipality is a highly endemic region for bovine fasciolosis and there are no reports of this parasite infection in humans. To determine the prevalence and associated factors to human fasciolosis in Mara municipality - Zulia state, a total of 51 blood and stool samples were collected. Serums were tested by ELISA and Western Blot (WB) assays, with excretion-secretion antigens of Fasciola hepatica (AFhES). The serum samples that resulted positive by these assays were tested by ELISA IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii and cysticerosis. Stool samples were concentrated by the Ritchie and rapid sedimentation techniques. Two serum samples were reactive to ELISA AFhES (3.9%) and these did not recognize the specific molecules of WB-AFhES detected by serum from patients with an absolutely demonstrated infection. Both participants were not positive to IgG anti Toxocara sp, Toxoplasma gondii, cysticerosis, and stool samples of these were negative to intestinal parasites. The general prevalence of intestinal parasites was 52.9% (27/51), being protozoa more frequent than helminthes. No Fasciola eggs were found. The two positives participants had in common that both had worked as fresh pasture cutters. These results suggest that the population had been in contact with F. hepatica, with no active infection because of the lack of specific molecules recognition and the absence of eggs in stool samples. Human fasciolosis has a low frequency in Venezuela and is underestimated and underrecognized by health workers and the general population.

  8. Effects of ultrasonic wave on viscosity reduction for Venezuela and Fengcheng ultra heavy oil%超重油降粘中超声波作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德龙; 邓京军; 李超; 白立新; 丁彬; 罗健辉

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic wave on viscosity reduction for Venezuela and Fengcheng ultra heavy oil are studied. Four types of ultra heavy oil examples are prepared for experiments:80%Venezuela ultra heavy oil with 20%0#diesel (Example I), 70%Venezuela ultra heavy oil with 30%0#diesel (Example II), the oil-in-water (O/W) for Ve-nezuela and Fengcheng ultra heavy oil (Examples III and IV) by using active macromolecule viscosity reducer. In the experiments, these four types of examples are irradiated by ultrasonic horn (18 kHz) and ultrasonic bath (24 kHz) re-spectively. Here are the results: (1) the viscosity of Example I irradiated by ultrasonic wave is 25% higher than that un-irradiated at 20 ℃, for Example II, 15%higher. (2) the obvious effects of ultrasonic wave on reducing viscosity can be observed for Example III whose viscosity irradiated by ultrasonic wave is 25%lower than that un-irradiated at 20 ℃ and 20%less quantity of active macromolecule viscosity reducer is needed. (3) For Example IV, no obvious effects are ob-served except at 14 ℃, where less than 25%viscosity reduction is observed for that irradiated by ultrasonic wave. The reason of the phenomenon observed in this paper is analyzed qualitatively.%以委内瑞拉超重油和新疆风城超重油为研究对象,进行了超声辅助降粘的研究。在实验中,制备了两类四种实验样品:分别掺入20%和30%柴油的两种委内瑞拉超重油样品、在O/W降粘体系下制备的委内瑞拉超重油样品和风城超重油样品。使用频率为18 kHz的超声变幅杆和24 kHz的超声清洗槽对上述四种实验样品进行超声处理,结果表明:1)对掺入20%和30%柴油的委内瑞拉超重油,经过超声处理的超重油样品在20℃时粘度分别增高了25%和15%以上;2)在O/W降粘体系超重油降粘中,风城超重油样品经过超声作用后,在20℃粘度降低了25%以上,而降粘剂的使用量可减少20%,超

  9. A pair of new sister species of Loneura from Nicaragua and Venezuela (Psocoptera: Ptiloneuridae Un par de especies hermanas nuevas del género Loneura, de Nicaragua y de Venezuela (Psocoptera: Ptiloneuridae

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    Alfonso N. García-Aldrete

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Loneura, one from Nicaragua and the other from Venezuela, are described and illustrated.They constitute a pair of sister species, based on characters of the compound eyes, forewing pterostigma and patternof pigmentation, and structure of male phallosome and hypandrium. Also, they constitute a unique species group in Loneura.Se describen e ilustran sendas especies de Loneura, de Nicaragua y de Venezuela. Constituyen un par de especies hermanas, con base en caracteres de los ojos compuestos, pterostigma y patrón de pigmentación del ala anterior, y estructura del falosoma e hipandrio del macho. Asimismo, constituyen un grupo de especies único en el género.

  10. Venezuela under Chávez: The Prospects and Limitations of Twenty-First Century Socialism, 1999-2009

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    Jeffery R Webber

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article takes stock of major developments in the political economy of contemporary Venezuela after ten years under Hugo Chávez. It is argued that the Bolivarian process has done a great deal to rejuvenate the international critique of neoliberalism and to bring discussion of socialism back on the agenda of the Left. At the same time, there has been no socialist revolution in Venezuela, and Chavismo is ridden with profound and abiding contradictions. This article considers the historical backdrop of the Bolivarian process, beginning with the end of authoritarianism and the Pact of Punto Fijo and the rise and fall of orthodox neoliberalism at the end of the twentieth-century. The article then describes Chavez’ gradual and partial radicalization between 1999 and 2009 and finally concludes that the global economic crisis poses a unique set of challenges and opportunities for the Bolivarian process in the midst of significantly reduced oil revenues.

  11. Evolución histórica de la función de recursos humanos en Venezuela

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    Miguel Rendueles Mata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La administración de los Recursos Humanos constituye el resultado de una serie de eventos a través del tiempo, sus inicios en Venezuela coinciden con la explotación del petróleo. Con la llegada al país de multinacionales petroleras arribaron nuevas técnicas y prácticas administrativas, entre ellas, aquellas relacionadas con el manejo del personal. A través del presente artículo conoceremos su evolución a través del tiempo desde el concepto del simple personal hasta llegar a nuestros días bajo el significado del capital humano, encontrándose en Venezuela unidades de recursos humanos que reconocen el valor del conocimiento de su personal para contribuir con la estrategia del negocio.

  12. [Diatoms from Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela. Subclass Bacillariophycidae D. G. Mann ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subero-Pino, Sonia S; Diaz-Ramos, José R; Sanchez-Suarez, Isaac G; Ferraz-Reyes, Elvira

    2002-01-01

    The diatom flora of Unare and Píritu Lagoons, Venezuela, comprises freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms. In this paper, 15 species of diatoms belonging to the subclass Bacillariophyceae D.G. Mann are described. Water samples from Unare and Píritu lagoons (Venezuela) were collected from November 1988 to July 1989. Samples were fixed with neutral formaldehyde (10%) and were examined under phase contrast microscopy. Species under study were Dictyoneis marginata (Lewis) Cleve, Cymbella affinis (Kützing) Cleve, Cymbella sp., Achnanthes brevipes var. intermedia (Kützing) Cleve, Lyrella irroratoides (Hustedt) Mann, Navicula carinifera (Grunow) Peragallo, Navicula liber (W. Smith) Peragallo, Navicula vacillans (Schmidt) Peragallo, Navicula sp, Amphora crassa var. campechiana Grunow, Amphora decussata Grunow, Caloneis powelli (Lewis) Cholnoky, Tryblionella acuta (Cleve) Mann in Round et al., Tryblionella apiculata Gregory, Surirella febigerii Lewis.

  13. HIV prevalence, sexual behaviors, and engagement in HIV medical care among an online sample of sexually active MSM in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Biello, Katie B.; Novak, David S.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In Venezuela, members of a social and sexual partner-networking site for MSM completed an online survey regarding sexual behaviors and HIV medical care. Among the 3,175 respondents, self-reported HIV prevalence was 7.8%. Of participants living with HIV, 73.2% reported taking antiretroviral medication and, 56.6% reported complete adherence within the past month. Participants living with HIV were more likely to be older (aOR=1.04 per one-year increase in age, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06) and diagnosed with an STI in the previous year (aOR=32.35,10.2). These data provide further understanding of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Venezuela, and potential targets for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26378188

  14. HIV prevalence, sexual behaviours and engagement in HIV medical care among an online sample of sexually active MSM in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Biello, Katie B; Novak, David S; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    In Venezuela, members of a social and sexual partner networking site for men who have sex with men (MSM) completed an online survey regarding sexual behaviours and HIV medical care. Among the 2851 respondents, self-reported HIV prevalence was 6.6%. Of participants living with HIV, 73.2% reported taking antiretroviral medication and 56.6% reported complete adherence within the past month. Participants living with HIV were more likely to be older (aOR = 1.04 per one-year increase in age, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06) and diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection in the previous year (aOR 3.26, 95% CI: 2.11, 5.04). These data provide further understanding of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Venezuela, and potential targets for HIV prevention interventions.

  15. Source investigation of two outbreaks of skin and soft tissue infection by Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Coy, J A; Rodríguez-Castillo, B A; Pérez-Alfonzo, R; DE Waard, J H

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks of soft tissue or skin infection due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria are reported frequently in scientific journals but in general the infection source in these outbreaks remains unknown. In Venezuela, in two distinct outbreaks, one after breast augmentation surgery and another after hydrolipoclasy therapy, 16 patients contracted a soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus. Searching for the possible environmental infection sources in these outbreaks, initially the tap water (in the hydrolipoclasy therapy outbreak) and a surgical skin marker (in the breast implant surgery outbreak), were identified as the infection sources. Molecular typing of the strains with a variable number tandem repeat typing assay confirmed the tap water as the infection source but the molecular typing technique excluded the skin marker. We discuss the results and make a call for the implementation of stringent hygiene and disinfection guidelines for cosmetic procedures in Venezuela.

  16. New own design an application of electric heating cable for the Orinoco oil belt wells in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada, A; Jorge, L [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery processes are common methods to reduce oil viscosity and the oil steaking factor. One of these methods consists of using a heating element to increase the well's temperature.. A new heating system, the down hole electric heating system (CEF), has been developed where the hold cable for the horizontal section is heated and used as a resistive heating element; the aim of this paper is to present this new technology system and its application. The system was installed one of PDVSA's wells in the Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and has now been in use for 8 months. Results showed a production increase of 20% with the use of the down hole electric heating system. Through successful application in a well in Venezuela, this paper showed that the down hole electric heating system can be a good alternative to produce oil from heavy oil reservoirs.

  17. Cement, concrete, construction and quality discussed by lETCC scientists in Venezuela and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, José

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa Asociación Venezolana de Ingeniería de Inspección, Dirección y Supervisión de Obras (AVIDISO, como parte del Colegio de Ingenieros de Venezuela, organizó, para celebrar en los días 1 al 6 de septiembre de 1975, un ''Curso sobre Tecnología y Control de Calidad en la Construcción de Obras de Concreto".

  18. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

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    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  19. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi and L. gomezi (Diptera:Psychodidae), Vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northcentral Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciangeli, M D

    1997-03-01

    The comparative hourly activity of Lutzomyia ovallesi (Ortiz) and L. gomezi (Nitzulescu), vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Miranda State, Venezuela, was studied between November and March during 1991-1994 using a Shannon trap with a fluorescent light. Female abundance of L. ovallesi increased from 1800 to 2000 hours, plateaued from 2000 to 2400 hours, then decreased progressively. L. gomezi always exhibited maximum activity between 1900 and 2000 hours, then declined abruptly. The importance of these activity patterns in Leishmania transmission is discussed.

  20. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Joaquin [Estacion de Investigaciones Marinas de Margarita, Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Apartado 144, Porlamar, Isla Margarita (Venezuela)], E-mail: jbuitrago@edimar.org; Guada, Hedelvy J. [Centro de Investigacion y Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas CICTMAR, Red de Conservacion de Tortugas Marinas en el Gran Caribe, WIDECAST, Apdo. 50.789, Caracas 1050-A (Venezuela); Doyle, Emma [5 Woodvale Close, St. Ives, N.S.W. 2075 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts.

  1. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Simón E. Morales-Soto; Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2016-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela) church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The ...

  2. Gobernabilidad y calidad de la democracia. Limitaciones y posibilidades de las políticas públicas en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Argenis Araque Calderón

    2004-01-01

    Nos proponemos en el presente artículo abordar la importancia que tienen las políticas públicas dentro de la gestión pública y la gobernabilidad democrática. En este sentido, precisamos el tratamiento que han tenido las políticas públicas por parte de la ciencia política. Finalmente abordamos la realidad de Venezuela.

  3. Molecular epidemiology suggests Venezuela as the origin of the dengue outbreak in Madeira, Portugal in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, L; Pagan, I; Serre Del Cor, N; Schunk, M; Neumayr, A; Molero, F; Potente, A; Hatz, C; Wilder-Smith, A; Sánchez-Seco, M P; Tenorio, A

    2015-07-01

    An explosive epidemic occurred in Madeira Island (Portugal) from October 2012 to February 2013. Published data showed that dengue virus type 1 introduced from South America was the incriminated virus. We aim to determine the origin of the strain introduced to Madeira by travellers returning to Europe. Using phylogeographic analysis and complete envelope sequences we have demonstrated that the most probable origin of the strain is Venezuela.

  4. Summary on the Beginning of Press in Venezuela. Recopilation of Some Secondary Sources in México

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study of editorial and typographic production of the 19th Century in Latin America hasn’t been taken on by designers themselves, but by art historians or bibliophiles, a fact that has determined the approach and biases present in their analysis, as well as the working out of conclusions about the repercussion of these products in the graphic design discipline. The author studies the beginning of press in Venezuela, analyzing secondary sources accessible in Mexican libraries and collection...

  5. A new species and new records of Pseudocephennium Reitter in Venezuela, with notes on movable endophallic structures (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-03-11

    Pseudocephennium auriculatum sp. n. is described, based on a male specimen collected in north-western Venezuela. New findings of Pseudocephennium maximum Jałoszyński and P. araguanum Jałoszyński, so far known only from holotypes, are reported. The aedeagi of newly found specimens have the endophallic structures extruded to various extent which makes it possible to identify movable components of the internal aedeagal armature.

  6. [Graduate Program on Physiological Sciences of the School of Medicine of the Central University of Venezuela: XXV years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte-Sucre, A; Torrealba, A T; González, E

    1999-01-01

    The Graduate Program of Physiological Sciences, the first Master's and Doctor degrees of the Faculty of Medicine from the Central University of Venezuela reached its XXV anniversary in 1998. These pages are devoted to describe and analyze the main subjects related to its growth and its pioneer role on the development of the 4th level studies in the Faculty of Medicine. Also, we discuss in these pages the plans for the future of this program.

  7. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  8. Información económica de Agencias Internacionales de Noticias: Impacto en la imagen de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la influencia de las informaciones económicas generadas por las agencias internacionales de noticias sobre la imagen de Venezuela. Para lograr este propósito, se planteó un cuerpo teórico basado en diversos autores y se desarrolló una investigación descriptiva, cuya población estuvo integrada por periódicos de América Latina inscritos en la Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa (SIP, en especial los que mantienen suscripción con las agencias internacionales de noticias; siendo las unidades de información los editores y directores de la fuente de economía de dichos diarios. Los resultados arrojaron que las informaciones que difunden las agencias internacionales de noticias en Latinoamérica influyen en la formación de la imagen de Venezuela, partiendo de que el 70% de la muestra nunca ha visitado el país y que su opinión está basada en las informaciones económicas y políticas que recibe a diario de estas empresas noticiosas.Apartir de estas reseñas se generan opiniones sobre Venezuela con un matiz político, económico y social negativo, contrario a la percepción hacia sus habitantes basada en calidez y hospitalidad y en paisajes hermosos.

  9. Refugiados colombianos en Venezuela: Quince años en búsqueda de protección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Carreño Malaver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca comprender la situación de los refugiados colombianos en Venezuela. A este país han llegado cerca de 200.000 refugiados durante los últimos 15 años, de los cuales más del 95% son colombianos3. De acuerdo con su Constitución la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 se “reconoce y garantiza el derecho de asilo y refugio”, sin embargo solo el 3% (5.210 de las personas con necesidad de protección internacional son reconocidas como refugiados. Este artículo explora las causas de este fenómeno y plantea recomendaciones a los gobiernos involucrados para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los refugiados. La metodología implementada es cualitativa y se realizó a partir de fuentes documentales por medio de una revisión de las políticas públicas enfocadas en atender a esta población e investigaciones de caracterización de la misma. El estudio aborda el contexto colombiano, la historia de la movilidad de colombianos a Venezuela, las condiciones de refugio en este país, la situación jurídica, el proceso de refugio, la alternativa de la naturalización, la discriminación y el acceso de los refugiados a servicios básicos.

  10. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr.

  11. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  12. Venezuela 2007: los motores del socialismo se alimentan con petróleo

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    Ángel E Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela vive actualmente una coyuntura crítica en la que combinan cambios políticos radicales y abundancia de recursos provenientes de los altos precios internacionales del crudo. Desde la campaña electoral presidencial del año 2006, el presidente Hugo Chávez anunció la implantación de un nuevo modelo económico y político al cual bautizó como "socialismo del siglo XXI". Ahora que fue reelegido, ha anunciado el arranque de los así llamados "cinco motores" del nuevo régimen. Puede que estos "motores" sean nuevos, pero el socialismo de Chávez se está alimentando del viejo rentismo petrolero. No cabe duda que los cambios en la actual coyuntura serán radicalmente profundos. Con la nueva reforma constitucional se pretende acabar con las "desviaciones capitalistas" de la Constitución de 1999. Mientras ella se produce, el gobierno adelanta políticas "antiimperialistas", de nacionalización y regulación económica. Los "chavistas" se agrupan en el Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela (aunque no sin cierta resistencia interna. La oposición política, dividida en dos partidos, ensaya una nueva estrategia pacífica, electoral y de largo plazo para enfrentar al gobierno. Todo parece indicar que el nuevo esquema de cambio radical en lo económico y lo político será adoptado a marcha forzada y con poca o ninguna resistencia efectiva por parte de los partidos políticos y de la sociedad civilVenezuela is currently facing a new critical juncture that combines radical political changes with an economic boom driven by high oil prices in the international market. Since the 2006 electoral campaign, President Hugo Chavez announced a new program of radical economic and instructional change: the "XXI century socialism". Once reelected, Chávez has "started" the so-called "five engines" of the new regime. These engines may be brand new ones, but they still fuelled by the old oil-based rentistic model. Nonetheless, the new wave of political and

  13. Possession et pouvoir dans le culte de María Lionza au Venezuela

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    Anabel Fernández Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article constitue une approche préliminaire des changements et réaménagements subis par le culte de María Lionza de 1930 à nos jours. La description de la conformation progressive du panthéon des esprits et, surtout, de l’apparition de nouvelles modalités de transe, offre un excellent point de départ pour l’analyse du lien étroit entre ce culte et l’histoire contemporaine du Venezuela. Les difficultés rencontrées par un projet de standardisation rituelle en cours feront l’objet d’une discussion détaillée. Ce projet, basé sur une conception de la pratique « traditionnelle » du spiritisme — qui propose, entre autres, un modèle spécifique de possession et rejette l’intégration récente de certains esprits — contredit clairement la plasticité et la pluralité qui ont caractérisé le culte depuis presque un siècle.This article constitutes a first reflection on the religion of Maria Lionza’s changes and transformations since the 1930’s. The formation of a pantheon of spirits as well as the appearance of new techniques of trance and possession are chosen as a starting point to analyse the link between this religion and the contemporary history of Venezuela. The attempt of standardizing the religion will also be discussed. While trying to impose a « traditional » practice of spiritism based on a specific technique of possession and rejecting the recent integration of new spirits in the pantheon, this effort of standardization goes against the nature of a religion that has always been funded on diversity and inclusiveness.El presente artículo constituye una aproximación preliminar a los cambios y reconfiguraciones sufridas por el culto a María Lionza desde 1930 hasta nuestros días. En este sentido, la descripción de la progresiva conformación del panteón de espíritus y, sobre todo, de la aparición de nuevas modalidades de trance, ofrece un excelente punto de partida para el análisis de la

  14. Prevalencia de hepatitis B, hepatitis C y sífilis en trabajadoras sexuales de Venezuela

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    Camejo María I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En Venezuela las trabajadoras sexuales reciben un control sanitario para la sífilis y el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Sin embargo, otras importantes infecciones de transmisión sexual no son evaluadas. Así, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el nivel socio-cultural de un grupo de trabajadores sexuales y su relación con la sero-presencia de marcadores de Hepatitis C y Hepatitis B, en adición a la evaluación de rutina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 212 trabajadoras sexuales, que acudieron al control sanitario en el servicio de infecciones de transmisión sexual, de la ciudad de Los Teques, Venezuela. Fueron entrevistadas en cuanto a edad, nivel educativo, uso de anticonceptivos y del condón. Se les tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar sífilis, antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el core de hepatitis B (anti-HBc, virus de hepatitis C (anti-HC y VIH. Los datos fueron evaluados estadísticamente por Chi-cuadrado y correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia fue de 2,4% para sífilis, 0,5% para anti-HC, 3,8% para HBsAg y 13,8% para anti-HBc. Un aumento en la prevalencia de marcadores de hepatitis B se correlacionó con un bajo nivel educativo (p<0,05 e incremento en la edad (p<0,05. No se encontró ningún caso positivo de VIH. La encuesta reveló que el 38,5% de las trabajadoras sexuales nunca utilizan el condón y un 25,6% de ellas no utiliza ningún tipo de método anticonceptivo. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario implementar planes de inmunización de hepatitis B en este grupo de mujeres, así como campañas de educación sobre la importancia del uso del condón para disminuir la probabilidad de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual.

  15. Prevalencia de hepatitis B, hepatitis C y sífilis en trabajadoras sexuales de Venezuela

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    María I Camejo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En Venezuela las trabajadoras sexuales reciben un control sanitario para la sífilis y el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Sin embargo, otras importantes infecciones de transmisión sexual no son evaluadas. Así, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el nivel socio-cultural de un grupo de trabajadores sexuales y su relación con la sero-presencia de marcadores de Hepatitis C y Hepatitis B, en adición a la evaluación de rutina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 212 trabajadoras sexuales, que acudieron al control sanitario en el servicio de infecciones de transmisión sexual, de la ciudad de Los Teques, Venezuela. Fueron entrevistadas en cuanto a edad, nivel educativo, uso de anticonceptivos y del condón. Se les tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar sífilis, antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el core de hepatitis B (anti-HBc, virus de hepatitis C (anti-HC y VIH. Los datos fueron evaluados estadísticamente por Chi-cuadrado y correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia fue de 2,4% para sífilis, 0,5% para anti-HC, 3,8% para HBsAg y 13,8% para anti-HBc. Un aumento en la prevalencia de marcadores de hepatitis B se correlacionó con un bajo nivel educativo (p<0,05 e incremento en la edad (p<0,05. No se encontró ningún caso positivo de VIH. La encuesta reveló que el 38,5% de las trabajadoras sexuales nunca utilizan el condón y un 25,6% de ellas no utiliza ningún tipo de método anticonceptivo. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario implementar planes de inmunización de hepatitis B en este grupo de mujeres, así como campañas de educación sobre la importancia del uso del condón para disminuir la probabilidad de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual.

  16. Criterios de nuliparidad y de paridad en Lutzomyia townsendi (Ortiz, 1959 del occidente de Venezuela

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    Margarita Márquez

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia townsendi (Ortiz, 1959 es un flebótomo antropofílico con concordancia gonadotrófica, en las zonas endémicas de Leishmania brasiliensis y L. garnhami en el occidente de Venezuela. Mediante el estudio de hembras colonizadas en el laboratorio, nuliparas o paridas, de hembras silvestres alimentadas sobre voluntarios y de hembras silvestres mantenidas con sacarosa, se establecen criterios de nuliparidad con un 56,6% de confianza. En cambio, signos de paridad aparecen en un 82% de las hembras consideradas como tales. La digestión de un ingesta sanguínea inicia un ciclo gonadotrófico con oogénesis abortiva y acumulación de fosfolípidos en las células epiteliales del estómago y en las glândulas accesorias. La ovoposición completa produce un calix ovárico grueso e irregular con restos de oocitos abortivos y acumulación de pigmentos. Estos caracteres son suficientes para precisar un criterio de paridad. La presencia de fosfolípidos en el estómago y en las glândulas accesorias de hembras nulíparas es una indicación de ingesta incompleta de sangre.Lutzomyia townsendi (Ortiz, 1959 is the main anthropophilic sandfly in endemic places for Leishmania braziliensis and L. garnhami in Western Venezuela. The study of laboratory bred females, nulliparous or parous and, wild females fed on man as well as wild females maintained with sucrose, allowed to establish a criterion of nulliparity with 56.6% of confidence for those captured in field conditions. In the same wild females, parity can be assessed with 81.5% of confidence. After blood digestion of full-engorged females a gonotrophic cycle is completed. Abortive oogenesis and accumulation of phospholipids in midgut epitelial cells and into accessory glands are observed. The ovoposition produces a thick and irregular ovaric calix with rests of abortive oocytes and accumulation of a melanin-like black pigment. All these changes are enough for identification of a parous fly. The presence

  17. La producción informal de viviendas: caso Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Oteiza San José, Ignacio

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In housing production in Venezuela and particularly in Maracaibo, we can recognize two main sectors: the "formal" sector production carried out by private and national enterprises, and the "informal" sector, which produces houses in marginal areas and uncontrolled suburbs in town. The production in this sector has become larger than the formal one. In act, in Maracaibo more than 60% of population is living in these types of suburbs. These people have resolved their housing need accordingly to their low income and outside of offer sector of formal production. This paper analyses the house from a physical point of view by studying the constructives components in relation to the socioeconomical aspects of the families and their direct participation in building and financing their house. Four stages of the physical consolidation of housing in suburbs were distinguish. This contribution as an analytic description of the physical situation of housing in studied areas, concluded giving some recommendations for the improvement of the informal process of housing production in Maracaibo.

    En la producción de viviendas en Maracaibo (Venezuela existen dos sectores: el SECTOR FORMAL se refiere a la producción de la empresa privada más la producción estatal y el SECTOR INFORMAL que es la producción de viviendas en las áreas de barrios; la producción de este sector es mayor que la formal, llegando a ser el 60% de la población de Maracaibo. En Latinoamérica este fenómeno se presenta en la mayoría de las grandes ciudades. Este trabajo analiza la vivienda desde el punto de vista físico, relacionando los aspectos constructivos con los socioeconómicos, de participación en la construcción y del financiamiento. Se establecieron 4 etapas de consolidación de la vivienda de producción informal, caracterizando cada una de las etapas de acuerdo a los promedios y porcentajes obtenidos. Es un trabajo analítico-descriptivo cuya finalidad es

  18. Estudio comparativo de salarios entre trabajadores públicos y privados en Venezuela

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    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El creciente interés por entender cómo los sueldos y salarios son fijados en el sector público obedece a la creciente participación del Estado como empleador y la subsiguiente preocupación acerca de la eficiencia con que los recursos públicos son manejados. Criterios de eficiencia y equidad sugieren que trabajadores similares deben recibir remuneraciones similares. Una sobrecompensación a trabajadores publicos indicaría un uso ineficiente de los recursos del Estado; una subcompensación indicaría la incapacidad del Estado para captar personal calificado. La literatura general tiende a indicar que los trabajadores públicos están sobrecompensados en términos de su capital humano, comparado con el sector privado. Sin embargo, existen razones para sospechar que en Venezuela ocurre todo lo contrario. A partir de enfoques más reciente que buscan detectar y resolver posibles sesgos, este estudio se plantea cuantificar, de ser posible, el diferencial salarial entre ambos sectores de la forma más precisa posible. Los resultados corroboran la existencia de una subcompensación de los trabajadores públicos en términos de su capital humano, aún cuando el diferencial se reduce a medida que aumenta el nivel de educación. English: The growing interest in understanding how wages are determined in the public sector can be explained by the increasing public sector employment and the subsequent interest in the proper use of tax funds. Efficiency and equity criteria suggest that similar workers, performing similar jobs, should be paid similar wages regardless of the sector of employment. Overcompensation in the public sector would suggest inefficiency in the allocation of resources; undercompensation would indicate the Government is unable to attract and keep labor force of high quality. Empirical evidence suggests that public sector workers tend to be over-compensated in terms of their human capital, compared to their private sector counterparts

  19. La firmeza del personal cubano de la salud en Venezuela. Nuestra opinión

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    José Suárez Lezcano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La situación política y social en la hermana República Bolivariana de Venezuela en estos días es tensa. La oposición, encabezada por Henrique Capriles, se niega a reconocer el triunfo en las urnas del candidato socialista Nicolás Maduro. Capriles ha llamado a sus seguidores, de forma solapada, a no reconocer la victoria de Maduro, y ha estimulado actos de violencia en todo el país. Algunos centros médicos donde trabajan colaboradores cubanos no han escapado de esa violencia. Nuestros colaboradores, sin embargo, han seguido cumpliendo con su deber, por la razón que los llevó a la tierra de Bolívar: “atender a cada ciudadano venezolano que requiera de sus servicios, independientemente de la filiación política, clase social, u otras consideraciones,” como dijo al periódico Granma el viceministro cubano de Salud, Dr. Roberto González Martín. Pero nuestros hermanos cubanos no han estado solos. Se ha desarrollado un movimiento voluntario, espontáneo de protección entre los venezolanos, como muestra del cariño y respeto que se han ganado los profesionales cubanos entre los pobladores de los barrios populares. Se sabe, los venezolanos saben, que la presencia de los médicos, enfermeras y técnicos cubanos se debe únicamente  a dos nobles objetivos, el de brindar atención médica a todo el que lo necesite y el contribuir a la formación de médicos venezolanos, que ya en cifra de cerca de 15 mil se han graduado con la ayuda de los profesionales cubanos. Actualmente Cuba mantiene en Venezuela cerca de  45 mil colaboradores que brindan asistencia en las áreas de medicina, deportes, cultura, construcción, agricultura y otras, como parte de los programas de colaboración, impulsados por el fallecido Comandante presidente Hugo Chávez. Somos cubanos y conocemos bien el espíritu de nuestros compatriotas. El pueblo venezolano puede tener la certeza que nuestros profesionales de la salud estarán firmes, junto a ellos, mientras el

  20. Democracia y dilema eficiencia-equidad en la descentralización local en Venezuela

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    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La descentralización es uno de los mecanismos mediante el cual el Estado central transfiere competencias políticas y administrativas a las localidades, ya sea con la finalidad de fortalecer la participación política, lograr eficiencia estatal o para buscar la gobernabilidad. En algunos países latinoamericanos como Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica se han impulado procesos de descentralización con el fin de racionalizar la actividad estatal y, precisamente, contribuir a la gobernabilidad.En Venezuela la Comisión para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE implementó la descentralización en 1988 como una forma de superar el modelo estado céntrico, caracterísitico de las últimas décadas en el país. El proceso no estuvo acompañado por cambios constitucionales, lo que condujo a conflictos entre diversas normas y al consiguiente retraso en la implementación de las nuevas políticas. El ejercicio descentralizador se está desarrollando principalmente a nivel político, por ejemplo, en los municipios de Chacao, Baruta, El Hatillo y Libertador, que pertenecen al Area Metropolitana Interna de Caracas. Así, el proceso descentralizador se vive con diferencias marcadas resultantes del tipo de administración implementada desde la alcaldía, la mayor o menor disponibilidad de resursos económicos y humanos, la población y la pobreza.ABSTRACT: Decentralization is one of the mechanisms by which the central State transfers political and administrative competences to the localities, sometimes with the purpose of strenghtening political participation, to achieve state efficiency of to look for gobernability. In some Latín American countries such as Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica have been decentralization processes impulsed to rationalize the public activity and, precisely, to contribute to gobernability.In Venezuela the Comission for the State Reform (COPRE implemented the decentralization in 1988 as a way of

  1. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  2. Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: the role of domestic animals

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, venezuela previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus had lesions with paraites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The Authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease.Durante um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar em Las Rosas, localidade previamente não endêmica do Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, 12,9% dos habitantes, 7% dos cães e 21,4% dos asnos (Equus asinus apresentavam lesões com parasitos. O agente etiológico nos tres hospedeiros foi identificado como Leishmania braziliensis, sendo da subespécie braziliensis pelo menos em pessoas e asnos. O transmissor provável foi Lutzomyia panamensis. Não comprovamos a infecção numa pequena amostra de mamíferos silvestres examinados. O surto esteve aparentemente relacionado com a importação de asnos com úlceras de áreas endêmicas. Chamamos a atenção para o fato de que não é apenas nos fócos de "uta", mas também nos de outras formas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana que os cães estão freqüentemente parasitados. Enfatizamos a necessidade de se procurar a infecção em asnos e de se proceder a hemoculturas e a xenodiagnósticos com

  3. Régimen climático y patrón espacial de las lluvias en la cuenca del Lago de Valencia, Venezuela

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    Edilberto Guevara Pérez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es diagnosticar el régimen climático de la cuenca del lago de Valencia y determinar la densidad de la red pluviométrica mediante el análisis de distribución espacial de las lluvias, utilizando la información disponible en la región central (Aragua, Carabobo y Cojedes. La precipitación mensual muestra una distribución unimodal, con el máximo en agosto y el mínimo en marzo. En marzo la humedad relativa disminuye y la velocidad del viento aumenta, ocasionando mayor evaporación. La red pluviométrica debe estar constituida por no más de 18 estaciones pluviométricas, espaciadas a unos 14 km; sin embargo, para mejorar la confiabilidad de los datos, se recomienda prestar atención a la ubicación, instalación y operaciones de las estaciones.

  4. Intereses y rivalidades regionales en la Venezuela Caribeña

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    Arlene Urdaneta Quintero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante su primer gobierno (1870-1877, el Presidente Antonio Guzmán Blanco desarrolló un programa que aspiraba a centralizar política y económicamente a Venezuela. Una de las disposiciones aprobadas fue el cierre de los puertos de Maracaibo y La Vela, para las operaciones de importación y exportación realizadas desde los Andes venezolanos y colombianos, a través del Caribe. Estas funciones fueron transferidas al distante Puerto Cabello. Gran parte del occidente del país fue afectado por esta medida que no consideraba la larga tradición histórica de centros económicos que por centurias habían liderado las actividades agroexportadoras de sus respectivosámbitos comerciales. La medida no sólo perjudicó los intereses de la región histórica del Lago y de Coro, favoreció a grupos económicos rivales establecidos en la región norcentral, asociados con el presidente de la república. En el caso particular del Zulia, el cierre del puerto de Maracaibo afectó a financistas, pequeños y grandes comerciantes, transportistas, navegantes, marineros, productores y diferentes colectivos del estado; otros sectores perjudicados fueron los comerciantes vinculados con esta actividad en Colombia y Curazao.

  5. Comparative study of the chemical composition of essential oils of five Tagetes species collected in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Kaylin; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The leaves and inflorescences of five species of Tagetes, family Asteraceae, were collected from different locations in Mérida state, Venezuela, and their essential oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Several differences were observed in the composition of these oils, mainly regarding the major components, which for T. caracasana were trans-ocimenone (64.3%) and cis-tagetone (13.7%), and for T. erecta, piperitone (35.9%) and terpinolene (22.2%). High amounts of trans-anethole (87.5%) and estragole (10.7%) were observed in T. filifolia, while T. subulata essential oil contained terpinolene (26.0%), piperitenone (13.1%) and limonene (10.8%). For T. patula, two different oil samples were analyzed, leaves (TPL) and inflorescences (TPI). The TPL oil showed terpinolene (20.9%) and piperitenone (14.0%) as main components, while the TPI sample was composed mainly of beta-caryophyllene (23.7%), terpinolene (15.6%) and cis-beta-ocimene (15.5%).

  6. Modelos determinísticos de inventarios para demanda independiente. Un estudio en Venezuela

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    Carlos Enrique Bustos Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los siguientes modelos determinísticos de inventarios para demanda independiente: un solo lote, lote por lote, cantidad económica de pedido (EOQ, algoritmo Silver-Meal (SM, costo unitario mínimo (CUM, balanceo de periodo fragmentado (BPF y algoritmo de Wagner-Whitin (WW. Estos modelos surgen del supuesto clave de que la demanda conocida con cierto grado de certidumbre de un artículo que se lleva en inventario es independiente de la demanda de cualquier otro artículo que también se lleve en dicho inventario. Con la intención de lograr el objetivo planteado, los modelos mencionados son aplicados para el cálculo de los tamaños de lotes óptimos de resmas de papel carta y oficio de acuerdo con los registros de demanda real e independiente suministrados por el departamento de Publicaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales (FACES en la Universidad de Los Andes (ULA, en Mérida, Venezuela. La principal conclusión que se deriva de los resultados obtenidos es que el método de un solo lote, utilizado por la administración de la FACES, comparado con los modelos de lote por lote, EOQ, SM, CUM, BPF y WW, es el más costoso y, en consecuencia, el menos indicado.

  7. Epidemiological Characterization of Caseous Lymphadenitis in Goat Herds in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela

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    Alexander Delgado Duno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caseous lymphadenitis (CL is a chronic infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; it affects small ruminants and generates economic loss due to a reduction in weight, reproductive performance, milk and wool production forfeiture, and depreciation of skins. Given the socio-economic importance of goat production in the Falcón state (Venezuela, this research aimed to epidemiologically characterize the disease in herds in the Paraguaná peninsula. The research is descriptive. Field work lasted six weeks, during which superficial lymph nodes were inspected, and 71 samples of purulent discharge were obtained from animals suspected to suffer from CL, according to their clinical manifestations. Back in the laboratory, specimens were bacteriologically analyzed; C. pseudotuberculosis isolates were compared with the reference strain ATCC 19410. The only risk factor detected for CL (p < 0.05 was the origin of goats by production units; those with the highest prevalence were located in the municipality of Falcón. Injuries in subscapular lymph nodes were the most frequent (p < 0.05 among the diagnosed animals. Penicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and novobiocin-resistant strains were identified. These results are important to raise awareness among producers, given that this activity is of vital importance for the region and in many cases ignorance on the subject was evidenced.

  8. Epidemiologic characterization of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of eastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E; De Sousa, L; Garcia, A; Sanchez, J; Zerpa, J; Gonzalez, R; O'Daly, J A

    1998-05-01

    The status of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated from 1985 to 1991 to provide an epidemiologic characterization of the disease in Bergantin, a rural community in the northeastern part of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. The study revealed the presence of the infection during the period analyzed, with an average incidence of 50.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants and this number has increased 1.5 times during the last two years. Three villages where clinical cases had been recorded were selected for a comparison of their prevalence data. These villages comprise the human population in the high and low altitude limits of Bergantin. Immunologic assessment of the inhabitants used two different antigen preparations to examine responses to parasites associated with the cutaneous and visceral forms of the disease. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was used in a sample of 276 individuals (46.3% of the inhabitants) and resulted in an overall positivity of 16.7%. The percentage of LST positivity varied with age and sex, yet analysis of this response and the prevalence for each village reflected the specific characteristics of these localities. La Montaña, situated at 800 meters above sea level, had the highest prevalence (800 cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and the most positive LST response (21.2%) in comparison with the two other villages situated at a lower altitude (300 meters above sea level).

  9. [Biochemical composition of oral rehydration solutions and their combinations suggested for use in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyo-Rivas, J J; Rendón, F

    1989-03-01

    We studied the electrolyte composition, pH and osmolality of six solutions for oral rehydration available in drug stores in Venezuela, and also their combinations with whole milk in a dilution of 6.6%. The solutions such as Pedialyte, Hidramilac and Hidramines showed an acid pH (4.30-5.10) in direct relationship to the concentration of carbohydrates (5% or more). Also, Pedialyte and Hidramilac had greater osmolalities (360-365 mOsm/kg) than plasma. Some of the levels of sodium and potassium in the solutions were found to be under the concentrations given by the producers. The combination of whole milk with oral solutions diminishes the concentrations of sodium and potassium in the mixture, changing the sodium-glucose relationship, pH and osmolality. The therapeutic implications for the use of oral rehydration solutions with low concentrations of sodium, acid pH, large content of glucose and elevated osmolality are discussed. It is concluded that the combination of whole milk with Sueroral (WHO) is not adequate for the optimum absorption of sodium and therefore to prevent dehydration. Therefore, except for the WHO solution and Oralite, other solutions are not adequate for the correction of the electrolytic and acid-base alterations present in infants with dehydration secondary to acute diarrhea.

  10. Militares y democracia. ¿El dilema de la Venezuela de principios del siglo XXI?

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    Irwin G., Domingo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available After an historiographical review, this article seeks to shed light on a somewhat forgotten question of the Venezuelan recent history: the civil-military relations in the context of the peculiar symbiosis that stretched from the fall of the Dictatorship in 1958 through the 1992 crisis, as well as the dilemma that nowadays confronts a military sector that is protagonizing the political debate due to the radicalization of Hugo Chávez’s Bolivarian Revolution.

    Partiendo de un balance historiográfico, este estudio intenta aclarar un aspecto algo olvidado de la historia reciente de Venezuela: las relaciones civiles-militares, desde la peculiar simbiosis que se da desde la caída de la dictadura en 1958 hasta la crisis de 1992 y el dilema que enfrenta, hoy en día, un sector militar convertido en protagonista del debate político ante la radicalización de la Revolución Bolivariana del Presidente Hugo Chávez.

  11. EMPLEO JUVENIL Y ACTIVIDAD TURÍSTICA EN LA ISLA DE MARGARITA (VENEZUELA

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    Margaret Y. Camacho Verastegui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el empleo juvenil en las agencias de viajes y turismo de los Municipios Mariño y Maneiro de la Isla de Margarita, Estado Nueva Esparta; el perfil socio-económico, académico, el cargo, la temporalidad, y el marco legal. El nivel es descriptivo y de campo. Se concluye que los empleados jóvenes tienen poca participación debido a la falta de experiencia a nivel laboral, los puestos ocupados por éstos son de niveles bajos y medio debido a que no cuentan con tanta preparación académica en el área, el ingreso mensual en bolívares que reciben no sobrepasa el fijado por la ley. Se comprobó que en materia de empleo juvenil en turismo es casi nula la normativa legal en Venezuela que lo regule, por lo que se considera importante la inclusión de este tema en el marco legal venezolano.

  12. 3D seismic interpretation-Norte de Paria, offshore Eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez de Arellano, R.; Bommel, L. van; Riart, F.; Gil, J. (Exxon, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    During 1991 a 1600 km[sup 2] 3D seismic survey was acquired for the Cristobal Colon Project, a joint venture of Lagoven (33%), Shell (30%), Exxon (29%) and Mitsubishi (8%). The objective is to evaluate the volumes of gas in the Mejillones, Patao, Dragon, and Rio Caribe gas fields, located north of the Paria Peninsula in offshore eastern Venezuela, in order to establish the viability of an LNG project. This paper summarizes the methodology and results of the interpretation of the 3D survey and its implications for understanding the regional geology and the hydrocarbon accumulations. The depositional geometry and continuity of the reservoir units has been analyzed using the amplitude response of the gas-bearing reservoirs. In combination with sequence stratigraphic concepts, the depositional environment of specific reservoir units can be interpreted and placed within the contect of a geological basin model. The value of this approach for development planning will be discussed. In addition, the paper will summarize the use of various geophysical techniques to delineate reservoirs and to determine petrophysical properties within these complex fields. Seismic inversion, forward modeling, and AVO studies have been evaluated. The relative merits of each will be discussed.

  13. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

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    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km², 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment yield models: LangbeinSchumm, Universal Soil Loss Equation-USLE and Poesen, are compared with observed data from five sub basins with records of twenty to thirty years. Men values of sediment yield for low, middle and upper Caroní are of 27, 76, 17 t/km²-year, respectively; and 46 and 78 t/km²-year for low and upper Paragua sub basins are. Standard errors of estimates vary between 13 and 29 for Langbein-Schumm model; between 8 and 32 for USLE procedure; and between 9 and 79, for Poesen model. Sediment yield predictions by Langbein-Schumm model seem to the best in Caroní basin.

  14. COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS TO PREDICT ANNUAL SEDIMENT YIELD IN CARONI RIVER BASIN, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Guevara-Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Caroní River Basin is located in the south-eastern part of Venezuela; with an area of 92.000 km2, 40% of which belongs to the main affluent, the Paragua River. Caroní basin is the source of 66% of energy of the country. About 85% of the hydro electrical energy is generated in Guri reservoir located in the lower part of the watershed. To take provisions to avoid the reservoir silting it is very important the study of sediment yield of the basin. In this paper result of three empirical sediment yield models: Langbein- Schumm, Universal Soil Loss Equation-USLE and Poesen, are compared with observed data from five sub basins with records of twenty to thirty years. Men values of sediment yield for low, middle and upper Caroní are of 27, 76, 17 t/km2-year, respectively; and 46 and 78 t/km2-year for low and upper Paragua sub basins are. Standard errors of estimates vary between 13 and 29 for Langbein-Schumm model; between 8 and 32 for USLE procedure; and between 9 and 79, for Poesen model. Sediment yield predictions by Langbein-Schumm model seem to the best in Caroní basin.

  15. Hugo Chavéz y la representación de la historia de Venezuela.

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    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo recoge los estudios realizados en el marco del proyecto de investigación denominado Espacio público, participación y militarismo en Venezuela (1998-2002, bajo los auspicios de la Universidad del Zulia a través del Consejo Científico y Humanístico (CONDES. Se parte de elementos teóricos derivados del análisis del discurso y la filosofía política, para aproximarnos a la reconstrucción de la naturaleza del pensamiento político de Hugo Chávez Frías. Particularmente se considera la idea de la historia manejada en relación con los actores y procesos del pasado, tanto en una noción de larga como de corta duración. Se establece que el manejo de la historia y los procesos históricos se hacen en tres planos esenciales: a como reconstrucción del pasado cercano y lejano; b como estrategia de deslegitimación de los actores políticos opositores y c como dinámica justificativa del desenvolvimiento político del llamado Proyecto Bolivariano. Se concluye estableciendo que las estrategias discursivas del chavismo, forman parte del intento de establecer una hegemonía política en el sentido gramsciano del término.

  16. Enciclopedia mínima de Arqueología General y de Venezuela

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    RAFAEL GASSON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo reflexiono muy brevemente sobre una serie de conceptos elementales relativos a , métodos, ciencia, humanidades y filosofía en arqueología. Estas  son ,  sólo pretenden reflejar mis puntos de vista sobre algunos problemas relativos a la práctica de la  profesional en Venezuela en este momento. De manera general, observo una creciente  de la profesión que aunque ha servido para ampliar los intereses y perspectivas  y prácticas, también ha contribuido al creciente estado de división e incomunicación entre  arqueólogos profesionales venezolanos. En mi opinión esto es una limitación para el avance de la  en nuestro país. Una posición más comparativa y crítica en la enseñanza tal vez produzca  futuro colegas más abiertos y críticos hacia otras perspectivas teóricas.

  17. Economics vis-à-vis Politics of Venezuela under the Chavez Regime 1998-2012

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    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.

  18. Ideas para un desarrollo sostenible con referencia a América Tropical y a Venezuela

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    Antonio R. Boadas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de desarrollo sostenible, que deviene de proposiciones realizadas por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas y se analiza e intenta poner en práctica en todos los países, ha recibido algunas objeciones, por cuanto da cabida a algunas contradicciones en su ejecución. Sin embargo, esto no lo desmerece y su aceptación ha sido general. Se debe destacar, eso sí, que se demandan precisiones en cuanto a factores del mismo, como son los recursos naturales y humanos y el ámbito en el cual se le ejecutará. Se tienen exigencias que deben ser satisfechas, tales como evaluar y valorar los recursos disponibles, determinar los requerimientos y analizar el territorio con fines de ordenamiento. La propuesta de un proyecto de desarrollo sostenible debe señalar las precauciones que se deben tomar, producto de estudios de impacto ambiental, los instrumentos y medios que se utilizarán y los beneficios que se percibirán. En lo referente a América tropical y a Venezuela es imprescindible valorar cabalmente las características geográficas de sus territorios, para luego proponer acciones acordes, que sirvan para lograr un desarrollo sostenible y no sean generadoras de problemas ambientales irreversibles.

  19. Los ferrocarriles de servicio público en Venezuela (1870-1990

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    Santamaría García, Antonio

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Este artículo es un estado de la cuestión sobre la historia de los ferrocarriles de servicio público en Venezuela. El trabajo formó parte del proyecto financiado por la Fundación de los Ferrocarriles Españoles, “Los Ferrocarriles Latinoamericanos Ayer, Hoy y Mañana” (1990-92, cuyo objetivo fue construir una base de datos con la bibliografía y las fuentes, fundamentalmente estadísticas, existentes para el estudio del tema. A continuación presentamos los resultados para el caso venezolano, manteniendo como hipótesis que el desarrollo ferroviario en ese país estuvo más determinado que en el resto de América Latina por las necesidades de la construcción del Estado y de integración de la economía nacional en el mercado mundial como productora primario-exportadora. Tal fue la dependencia que aquél tuvo de estos elementos, que tras la finalización del ciclo alcista primario- exportador en las décadas de 1920-30, la explotación ferroviaria sufrió una crisis cuya solución fue el cierre de las líneas.

  20. Estimation of the intrinsic absorption and scattering attenuation in Northeastern Venezuela (Southeastern Caribbean) using coda waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L.G.; Canas, J.A.; Villasenor, A.

    1998-01-01

    Northeastern Venezuela has been studied in terms of coda wave attenuation using seismograms from local earthquakes recorded by a temporary short-period seismic network. The studied area has been separated into two subregions in order to investigate lateral variations in the attenuation parameters. Coda-Q-1 (Q(c)-1) has been obtained using the single-scattering theory. The contribution of the intrinsic absorption (Q(i)-1) and scattering (Q(s)-1) to total attenuation (Q(t)-1) has been estimated by means of a multiple lapse time window method, based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation: the estimates for intermediate depth events and for shallow events present major differences. This fact may be related to different tectonic characteristics that may be due to the presence of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, because the intermediate depth seismic zone may be coincident with the southern continuation of the subducting slab under the arc.

  1. La Independencia de Venezuela, una historia mitificada y un paradigma heroico

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    Langue, Frédérique

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essays aims to analyze the use of bolivarian myths in Venezuelan history from point of view of the history of ideas and representations. So its focuses on long term interpretation in order to emphasize the political imaginary of Bolivarian Republic. It points out to the fact that, along with Independence consecrated chronology and homeland centered historiography, come up matters and passions frequently forgotten by academic history but recovered by the new official history.

    Desde la perspectiva de la historia de las ideas y de la historia de las representaciones, este trabajo intenta analizar el uso del mito bolivariano en la historia de Venezuela, ubicándolo en el tiempo largo, hasta llegar al imaginario político de la “República Bolivariana”. Muestra cómo, más allá de la consagrada cronología independentista y de la historiografía patria, asoman temas y pasiones muy a menudo olvidados de la historia académica, aunque si rescatados por une nueva historia oficial. De ahí la necesidad de llegar a un boceto “oportuno” del héroe, dejando de lado hechos petrificados y hasta santificados.

  2. ALOE EN VENEZUELA: DE LA CADENA DE VALOR AL DISTRITO INDUSTRIAL

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    Henri Jesús Piña Zambrano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la perspectiva del estudio de los conglomerados, se contrastaron las aportaciones teóricas acerca de los conglomerados y el funcionamiento y desempeño de la cadena del aloe en el Estado Falcón (Venezuela, partiendo de la hipótesis de que esta cadena ha seguido un patrón evolutivo sustentado en el legado histórico de recursos que han favorecido la siembra y explotación del aloe en el estado. Sin embargo, se considera un escaso aprovechamiento de este patrimonio como estrategia para conformar un eficiente y competitivo conglomerado agroindustrial. La investigación se sustenta en estudios realizados entre 2003 y 2007 en las zonas productoras del aloe. Se identifican en la cadena los elementos típicos de un conglomerado (proximidad geográfica, redes, innovación e institucionalidad bajo un patrón organizativo que no promueve la consolidación del conglomerado. En la cadena del aloe no termina de crearse la atmósfera industrial necesaria para iniciar la districtualización de esta actividad productiva.

  3. VARIABILIDAD CLIMÁTICA Y MALARIA ESTUDIO REGIONAL: MUNICIPIO SIFONTES, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA

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    Vidal Sáez-Sáez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis comparativo de la incidencia mensual de malaria con los índices de oscilación del sur (IOS, en el sureste de Venezuela, en el municipio Sifontes del estado Bolívar, durante el período 1995-2006. Se emplearon los registros mensuales del IOS (caracteriza El Niño/Oscilación del Sur: ENOS e incidencia de casos de malaria para el área de estudio, luego se compararon a partir de representaciones graficas. Los registros IOS fueron categorizados según su intensidad siguiendo la clasificación de Cárdenas (2003 (0,64 neutro a >1,5 fuerte. Se realizaron análisis de correlación simple entre las series hasta con 12 rezagos o desplazamientos temporales y se evidencian que los primeros rezagos son los más significativos; finalmente, los resultados de autocorrelación señalan una mayor dependencia de la serie de la incidencia de malaria (26 períodos y análisis de correlación cruzada sugieren que la periodicidad de las series es de 10 meses. Se concluye que las intensidades neutras a moderadas del IOS tienen un efecto (tiempo de respuesta de 4 a 10 meses sobre la incidencia de malaria en el área de estudio.

  4. Consideraciones en torno a la seguridad y la política criminal en Venezuela

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    Luisa Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea las implicaciones que el tema de la seguridad tiene en el desarrollo de modelos de control social exclusionista, tomando en cuenta que la seguridad, concebida como gestión de riesgos, constituye una racionalidad que se ha implantado en el eje central de la política criminal de la sociedad globalizada. Igualmente, se identifican algunos aspectos problemáticos de las políticas públicas sobre seguridad en Venezuela. Se presentan algunas reflexiones que pueden contribuir a la delimitación de modelos alternativos en concordancia con valores democráticos para la convivencia social, cuyo punto de partida sea una interpretación de no criminalizar los conflictos, en el marco de los principios y garantías constitucionales. El diseño de investigación responde a una metodología basada en la observación documental. Para la revisión y análisis de los indicadores que reflejan el contexto sociopolítico venezolano, se tomaron datos de fuentes secundarias.

  5. El añil en la Venezuela ilustrada. Una historia inconclusa

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    Langue, Fédérique

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles intends to offer a synthetical view of a not much studied topic within the late colonial economic studies, from a double viewpoint: economical (growth conditions, crop profitability, export and market shares, etc. and social (performance of the indigo haciendas and patterns of ownership. The shattering course of development of the indigoferea tintorea is followed, from its early import in the Capitanía General by Antonio de Arbide to de decline of its incipient market tendencies on the eve of the Independence.

    Este trabajo intenta ofrecer una síntesis acerca de un ramo poco estudiado de la economía colonial tardía, especialmente en el caso de Venezuela, tanto desde el punto de vista económico (condiciones de la producción, rentabilidad del cultivo, cantidades destinadas a la exportación y mercados como social (funcionamiento de las haciendas añileras y tipos de propiedades. Se contempla la fulgurante trayectoria de indigoferea tintórea desde su introducción en la Capitanía General por el vasco Antonio de Arbide hasta el ocaso de su incipiente vocación comercial en vísperas de la Independencia.

  6. [Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids of Lepidopteran eggs in Lara State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Vásquez, Carlos; Pérez B, Nieves L; Valera, Neicy; Ríos, Yolmar; Arrieche, Norayda; Querino, Ranyse B

    2007-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the occurrence of Trichogramma wasp species in Lara State, Venezuela. Lepidopteran egg samples collected from various crop leaves were observed daily under laboratory conditions for emergence of Trichogramma species adult wasps. Trichogramma were also obtained from traps containing eggs from the hosts Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In the laboratory, specimens of Trichogramma species were mounted on microscope slides to show male genitalia and other morphological characters used for its identification. Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto and at El Parchal, Humocaro Bajo, Municipio Morán. T. atopovirilia also emerged from S. frugiperda eggs collected in a cornfield at Sabana Grande and from S. cerealella eggs used as traps in a pepper culture at Tintinal, Municipio Andrés Eloy Blanco. T. exiguum Pinto y Platner emerged from S. frugiperda eggs used as traps or collected in cornfield at Totumito and at La Palomera, Humocaro Alto. T. pretiosum Riley emerged from Phthorimaea operculella Zeller eggs collected on stored potatoes at Monte Carmelo, Sanare. The identification of Trichogramma species in Lara State would be useful in the development of biological control programs for lepidopteran pests.

  7. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Determination of antibodies in the human population of Municipio Mirand, Estado Zulia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, S; Núñez-Camargo, J; Rangel, P; Añez, F

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of determining antibodies prevalence against Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in the population of Puertos de Altagracia and Sabaneta de Palmas of Miranda county, Zulia State, Venezuela, 199 subjects were studied: 57 from Puertos de Altagracia and 142 from Sabaneta de Palmas. They were classified in older (42.78%) and younger (57.2%) than 15 years. The blood specimens were processed for Hemagglutination Inhibition Test using EEV antigen Goajira strain at pH 6.5. We found that all 57 specimens from Puertos de Altagracia were negative, whereas of 142 specimens from Sabaneta de Palmas 17 were positive (11.97%). Of these, one was from a subject less than 15 years-old (5.85%) and 16 from individuals more than 15 years-old (94.15%). Positive titers were higher than 1:160 in 80% of cases. Being Sabaneta de Palmas one of the most affected areas in the 1962 epidemic in the Miranda county and keeping the affected ones high positivity with elevated titers, we conclude that this population could represent an enzootic zone similar to Paez county where a similar situation, of high positivity and elevated titers, many years after the last epidemic occurred in that area, has been described.

  8. [Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the mine area of Las Claritas, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-O, N; Rodríguez-Acosta, A

    2000-06-01

    The primordial objective of this study was to carry out an epidemiological analysis of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in terms of sensed morbidity and real morbidity in the mining region of "Las Claritas", Bolivar State, Venezuela, during the third trimester of 1998. The epidemiological characteristics of time, people and place are interlaced, giving a relationship included within the Epidemiological Triad, that represents this work's conceptual framework; defining both, the determinant and the conditioning factors of the presence of STDs in the zone. The clinical interrogatory was partially steered towards the participant's sensed morbidity. A mostly feminine population is described (65%), with a low scholarly level in the general population and a high index of foreigners among the evaluated patients; with 48.72% of stable unions in the interviewees. From 166 evaluated patients, 27.70% referred to have had some STD episode, being syphilis and blenorrhagia the most frequently reported. In the survey, there was a general hush concerning the presence of STDs; but, key informants such as the medicine retailers, revealed a higher presence of these diseases, which are wrongly treated by automedication. These are important results, since they let opened a space for the epidemiological evaluation in the zone, in the various health, sanitary, environmental and social aspects and mainly, by the individual's quality of life expectations.

  9. Large Scale Variability Surveys from Venezuela: Orion OB1 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, C.; Calvet, N.; Vivas, A. K.; Hartmann, L.

    We present our scheme and initial results for variability surveys spanning hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, carried out with an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning, installed on the 1m Schmidt telescope at the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory. In the Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation, we are conducting a 120 sqr.deg. VRIHalpha survey to map the low mass young stellar population in this region. The absence of dust and gas around the young stars in the ˜ 10 Myr Ori OB 1a sub-association suggests that star formation is a rapid process, and that molecular clouds do not last more than a few million years after the first stars are born. The lack of accretion indicators or near IR emission from inner dusty disks among stars in Ori OB 1a suggests that significant disk dissipation has occurred in a few Myr, possibly due to the coagulation/agglomeration of dust particles into larger bodies like planetesimals or planets. The results of our variability surveys will be made available through a massive database equipped with web-based data mining tools, as part of the effort leading to the International Virtual Observatory.

  10. Chronology of mercury enrichment factors in reef corals from western Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ruth; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; García, Elia

    2009-02-01

    Mining and deforestation in the early 20th century, the development of petrochemical industries during the 1950s, and the constant weathering of natural deposits of cinabrium (HgS) have made Golfo Triste, Venezuela, a region impacted by mercury (Hg). We studied the chronology of Hg in coral skeletons of Siderastrea siderea (1 colony, 1900-1996) and Montastraea faveolata (2 colonies, 1930-1999) from Parque Nacional San Esteban. Maximum values of Hg/Ca ratios and standard deviations of Hg enrichment factors occurred in the 1940s, 1960s, and 1980s, and matched maxima of decadal rainfall. Values from the 1950s and 1970s matched periods of abundant but constantly decreasing rainfall and hence were best explained by the combination of runoff and the sudden bioavailability of Hg in the region. This sudden availability likely was associated with activities of the chlorine-caustic soda and fertilizer plants of Morón petrochemical complex, industries that started producing large amounts of Hg in 1958.

  11. Optical characterization of dissolved organic matter in tropical rivers of the Guayana Shield, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Youhei; Maie, Nagamitsu; BriceñO, Henry; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    Tropical rivers are an important source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to coastal oceans. However, temporal and spatial variability of DOM composition and thus its quality in such rivers, on landscape and basin scales, have not been well documented. In this study, we present data on the spatial distribution of DOM quantity and quality based on source, molecular weight, and composition using optical properties including excitation emission matrix fluorescence with parallel factor analysis. We compared such DOM quantity and quality determinations in main river channels and their tributaries for three river systems of the Guayana Shield, Venezuela. Spatial variabilities of DOM parameters were strongly related to differences in the geological settings of the drainage basins and presumably their associated vegetation cover. Linear relationships between quantitative and qualitative DOM parameters were also evident, suggesting that high DOC concentration correlated with chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics of higher molecular weight associated with terrestrial sources, while low DOC concentrations correlated with CDOM characteristics of lower molecular weight associated primarily with microbial sources. Such relationships seem to imply that DOM concentrations and their sources/characteristics may be coupled in the studied fluvial systems. In addition, shifts in DOM compositions between terrestrial and microbial signals were observed with changes in water discharge and in watersheds disturbed by gold mining activities. The observed linkages between, and the changes among DOM quantity and quality, suggest that the biogeochemistry of DOM in tropical rivers may be quite sensitive to climatic and land use change.

  12. Contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments from Lake Valencia, Venezuela

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    González A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the Lake Valencia, Venezuela, was performed by determining the Enrichment Factor (EF, the Geoaccumulation Factor (Igeo, the availability of metals and the Risk Index Code (RAC. The sediments were anthropogenic ally enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr and classified as uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, with a medium risk of Zn, Co, Ni and Cr, and low risk of Cu, Pb and Cd. Analysis of correlations and PCA showed temporal variations in the concentration of metals in the sediments during the rainy season, and spatial variations, where the depth and anthropogenic inputs are the main variables. The contamination of sediments was located on the axis connecting the mouths of the river Guayos, which crosses the city of Valencia, and the river Güey which crosses the city of Maracay, both highly industrialized. Although the concentration of dissolved heavy metals into the waters was within the regulations, important concentrations of Pb and Hg and the bioaccumulation of Hg and Cr, determined by the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF, were found in the fish tissues which indicate that the metal enrichment of the lake sediments is affecting the biota.

  13. CARIOTIPO DEL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus (SAURIA: TROPIDURIDAE EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA

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    LUIS ALEJANDRO GONZÁLEZ S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por seis pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa 13% de longitud relativa total (LRT, siendo el cromosoma de mayor tamaño con respecto a la población peninsular con un 9,4 % y a la población insular con 7,1 %, conteniendo esta última población los cromosomas más pequeños. Considerando las diferencias cromosómicas y el aislamiento geográfico existente, estos lagartos podrían presentar un proceso de especiación alopátrica de tipo vicariante.

  14. CARIOTIPO Y BANDEO C EN EL LAGARTO Tropidurus hispidus (Sauria: Tropiduridae EN EL ORIENTE DE VENEZUELA

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    Velasquez Jenniffer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio citogenético mediante tinción con Giemsa, en tres regiones xerofíticas (continental, peninsular e insular del oriente de Venezuela, demostró un número diploide 2n=36, compuesto por 6 pares de macrocromosomas metacéntricos y submetacéntricos y 12 pares de microcromosomas acrocéntricos manteniéndose, esta característica en machos y hembras en las tres poblaciones estudiadas. Se determinó que el primer par de macrocromosomas es metacéntrico y en la región continental representa un 13% de longitud relativa total (LRT siendo el cromosoma de mayor tamaño, con respecto a la población peninsular con un 9,4 % y a la población insular con 7,1 %, conteniendo esta última población los cromosomas más pequeños. El bandeo C, siguiendo los protocolos propuestos por Sumner (1972, evidencio en términos generales poca cantidad de bandas de heterocromatina, localizada en las regiones teloméricas, teloméricas con intersticiales y centroméricas con intersticiales. Considerando las diferencias cromosómicas y el aislamiento geográfico existente, estos lagartos presentan un proceso de especiación vicariante.

  15. Malaria Control in Amerindian Communities of Venezuela : Strengthening Ecohealth Practice Throughout Conservation Science and Capability Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Medina, Domingo A; Cárdenas, Lya

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive management and ecohealth frameworks were developed for malaria elimination in Amerindian riparian communities of Venezuela. These frameworks were developed as a strategy to capture, organize, and communicate connections among key factors related to local malaria complex systems. Important causal relationships between social, economic, and environmental stressors which are determinant of malaria were identified at different levels and assumptions that guide interventions are offered, based on available scientific knowledge and input from stakeholders. Drawing on our experience of action research committed to the health of Amerindian populations and conservation of areas with biodiversity value, the authors provide lessons to strengthen the practice of an ecohealth approach. First, conservation targets were considered as a way to achieve sustainable human well-being rather than as a consequence of well-being. Second, the effectiveness and sustainability of technical solutions generally proposed for malaria control depend largely on individual knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Hence, it is necessary to look at the real opportunities of choices that Amerindian people have for attaining a life without malaria, and therefore pay attention to local capabilities, needs, and freedom to choose. The ecohealth approach can benefit from the capability approach, and we explain why.

  16. Nueva partidización y consolidación partidista en Venezuela

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    Valia Pereira Almao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora la nueva partidización en Venezuela para los años 2000 dentro de una perspectiva teórico-metodológico que vincula las explicaciones que los estudios venían ofreciendo sobre las actitudes políticas en el país, basados en el enfoque psicosociológico del comportamiento político y electoral, con las nuevas simpatías partidistas de la actualidad. Para observar el potencial de arraigo de esas simpatías, se indagan algunos factores que, en el enfoque señalado, indican solidez en las lealtades partidistas, como es la socialización política familiar. La comparación histórica de las simpatías partidistas en el país y su relación con la socialización permiten discutir las posibilidades de implantación social del nuevo esquema de partidos y los retos que enfrentan para dar estabilidad al sistema político.

  17. Measles outbreak in Venezuela: a new challenge to postelimination surveillance and control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Héctor; Cobo, Oswaldo Barrezueta; Morice, Ana; Zapata, Roger; Benitez, María Victoria; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The circulation of wild measles virus was interrupted in Venezuela in February 2007 after the catch-up vaccination (1994) and monitoring (1998) and in response to the measles outbreak in 2001. Traditionally, the routine coverage with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine does not exceed 85%. In February 2006, a measles outbreak started by importation in the State Miranda; this extended to 7 states and lasted 50 weeks with an intermediate period of 17 weeks without reported cases. New cases were reported in the States Guarico and Amazon. The pattern of circulation of the silent period was determined through the use of retrospective search for measles; this showed that 57% of suspected cases did not enter the surveillance system. Molecular epidemiology made it possible to identify B3 as only genotype, which also circulated in Spain. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles have been modified; these determine outbreaks identified late, of slow expansion, silent, and with limited case-fatality, compared with classical outbreaks. The outbreak spread by that behavior was not recognized and the classical control measures did not result. The beginning of a broader and intense vaccination was delayed, partly by weaknesses in the sensitivity of the system. It is crucial to recognize the new behavior of measles and the effectiveness of the classical control measures, and especially to establish criteria for interruption of the circulation to control an outbreak in this stage of elimination.

  18. La mujer en las publicaciones institucionales de las empresas petroleras extranjeras en Venezuela

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    Luis J. González Oquendo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante las décadas de 1940 y 1950 las empresas petroleras extranjeras que operaban en Venezuela editaron publicaciones institucionales como herramientas clave para el manejo de las relaciones públicas y laborales tanto con sus empleados como con la comunidad. Entre otras secciones, éstas prestaron un interés significativo a la mujer. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar cómo se dio la construcción discursiva de ella y de su rol en el seno tanto de la comunidad como de la empresa. Para ello, la muestra consideró diversos números de las dos publicaciones más importantes –Tópicos Shell, El Farol– y se les aplicaron los esquemas analíticos de lexicalidad y actancialidad propuestos por Molero de Cabeza (1985, 1998 y Franco (1998. El análisis permitió ver como las empresas petroleras extranjeras –en el contexto de la modernización del país– contribuyeron a la socialización sexual mediante el reforzamiento de valores asociados a determinada mitología sexual que enfatiza imágenes de esposa-amante y madre en el marco del hembrismo de las décadas consideradas.

  19. Subnacionalismo en la frontera. Caso de Táchira (Venezuela- Norte de Santander (Colombia

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    Ana Marleny Bustamante

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo persigue mostrar que en la zona fronteriza del estado Táchira (Venezuela con el Departamento Norte de Santander (Colombia han aparecido manifestaciones de subnacionalismo que pudieran considerarse indicios o bases para construir ideas de autonomía o “regionalismo”, a pesar que el Estado ha mantenido su poder de cohesión y de integración territorial. Se trata de sentimientos compartidos de exclusión de los respectivos centros de poder, lo que ha permitido la formación de bloques de poder regional que utilizan la “particularidad” regional o fronteriza para obtener objetivos políticos y económicos difíciles de lograr de no destacar tal diferenciación. Se parte de la apreciación general del papel del Estado como garante de la integridad territorial y poblacional, para ejemplificar con esta región fronteriza los problemas que enfrentan los Estados de la subregión andina para mantener su población y territorio cohesionados e integrados con instrumentos básicamente ideológicos, antes que con instrumentos económicos y sociales.

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

    1992-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis.