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Sample records for carabobo venezuela ii

  1. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

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    A. Sarmiento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  2. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

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    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  3. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela

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    Sarmiento A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 con respecto a la concentración máxima permisible establecida por la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de los EE.UU. (80 μg/l para el total de los cuatro THM. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran que en la zona de estudio existe un riesgo de efectos adversos para la salud por la presencia de THM en agua de consumo humano, especialmente en la Red Baja y Red San Diego del SRC-I.

  4. Distribución de esponjas (Porifera a lo largo de un gradiente de profundidad en un arrecife coralino, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela

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    Mónica Núñez Flores

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Las esponjas son uno de los grupos de animales sésiles más abundantes y diversos de los fondos marinos tropicales, siendo un componente importante en los arrecifes coralinos, aunque poco estudiado a nivel de especies. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la comunidad de esponjas en el gradiente de profundidad de un arrecife coralino en Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela. Se trabajaron siete profundidades (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 y 18m donde se midió la sedimentación neta y bruta, el índice de rugosidad, y se evaluó la riqueza, densidad y cobertura de las esponjas. Se identificaron 17 especies en 10 familias. La mayor densidad y cobertura se encontró a los 6m (6.03ind/m2, 11%, coincidiendo con la mínima sedimentación neta y la máxima rugosidad del sustrato. Las especies más abundantes fueron Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina y Scopalina rueztleri. El análisis de componentes principales arrojó una separación de esta comunidad en 3 zonas, la somera (1 y 3m, donde las esponjas están sometidas a una tensión producida por el oleaje y alta iluminación, y las zonas media (6, 9 y 12m y profunda (15 y 18m, con características más favorables, dada una menor iluminación y sedimentación.Sponges (Porifera distribution along a depth gradient in a coral reef, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela. Sponges constitute one of the most diverse and abundant animal groups in the marine tropical benthos especially in coral reefs, though poorly studied to species level. The aim of this study is to characterize the sponge community along a depth gradient at Isla Larga (Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela fringe reef. Net and total sedimentation, roughness index, sponge species richness, density and proportion of the bottom covered by sponges, were evaluated at seven depths (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18m, 17 species were identified grouped in 10 demosponges families. The highest densities and coverage corresponded to

  5. El burnout en la profesión docente: un estudio en la escuela de bioanálisis de la Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Venezuela

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    Ekaterina Bustamante

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome de Burnout se ha definido como una respuesta al estrés laboral crónico. Debido a la importancia de la labor realizada por los docentes, y los altos niveles de estrés que esta profesión genera, con los agravantes de la presencia de factores externos personales y organizacionales que puedan estar presentes, se hace evidente la necesidad de estudiar en los docentes el síndrome de burnout. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles del síndrome de burnout existentes en el personal docente de la Escuela de Bioanálisis de la Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Venezuela. Material y métodos: Estudio de campo de tipo descriptivo y documental. La población estuvo constituida por un total de 96 docentes (ordinarios y contratados. Para la selección de la muestra se empleó un muestreo de tipo no probabilístico de carácter intencional, y quedó representada por un total de 78 docentes. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de un cuestionario, la versión en español del Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Los datos, fueron analizados usando el programa estadístico Minitab 16 y siguiendo los criterios del Manual de EEUU de Maslach y Jackson en cuanto a los puntos de corte para las dimensiones que mide el cuestionario. Resultados: Se obtuvo un 57,69% de respuesta. Se encontró que el 16% de los docentes bajo estudio presenta el síndrome de burnout; mientras que en el resto de los docentes hubo un predominio de niveles medios en las dimensiones Agotamiento Emocional (53%, Despersonalización (33% y Realización Personal (55%. Conclusión: Se concluye que la población bajo estudio, solo presentan el síndrome el 16% de los docentes. Sin embargo en la mayoría de los docentes, hubo un predominio de niveles medios para las dimensiones Agotamiento Emocional, Despersonalización y Realización personal. Según esta combinación de niveles, si no se toman las medidas preventivas para su afrontamiento estos docentes pueden llegar a

  6. Desarrollo sustentable y sostenible a partir del proceso de descentralización en Venezuela: El caso de la Gobernación del Estado Carabobo

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Fuenmayor; Johnny Paz

    2006-01-01

    Al iniciarse el proceso de descentralización político-territorial a finales de los ochenta, las gobernaciones de Venezuela deben redefinir sus directrices debido al traspaso de funciones y competencias que les son otorgadas desde el gobierno central, e insertarse en una dinámica orientada hacia una economía de mercado impulsada por la globalización, y enmarcada en el discurso del desarrollo sustentable. El propósito de este artículo es explorar las acciones desplegadas por la Gobe...

  7. Distribución de esponjas (Porifera a lo largo de un gradiente de profundidad en un arrecife coralino, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Carabobo, Venezuela

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    Mónica Núñez Flores

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Las esponjas son uno de los grupos de animales sésiles más abundantes y diversos de los fondos marinos tropicales, siendo un componente importante en los arrecifes coralinos, aunque poco estudiado a nivel de especies. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la comunidad de esponjas en el gradiente de profundidad de un arrecife coralino en Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Venezuela. Se trabajaron siete profundidades (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 y 18m donde se midió la sedimentación neta y bruta, el índice de rugosidad, y se evaluó la riqueza, densidad y cobertura de las esponjas. Se identificaron 17 especies en 10 familias. La mayor densidad y cobertura se encontró a los 6m (6.03ind/m2, 11%, coincidiendo con la mínima sedimentación neta y la máxima rugosidad del sustrato. Las especies más abundantes fueron Desmapsamma anchorata, Amphimedon erina y Scopalina rueztleri. El análisis de componentes principales arrojó una separación de esta comunidad en 3 zonas, la somera (1 y 3m, donde las esponjas están sometidas a una tensión producida por el oleaje y alta iluminación, y las zonas media (6, 9 y 12m y profunda (15 y 18m, con características más favorables, dada una menor iluminación y sedimentación.

  8. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y perfil apolipoprotéico en un grupo de adultos atendidos en un centro público de salud del estado Carabobo, Venezuela Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoproteic profile in a group of adults treated in a public health center in Carabobo state, Venezuela

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    Nelina Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    individuals (44.0 ± 15.5 years of both genders blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile and apolipoproteins A-I and B; body mass index (BMI was calculated from weight and height; smoking habit, alcohol intake and consumption pattern were established. Results. 27.5% of individuals had low levels of Apo A-I, 45.2% high Apo B and 60.6% high Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Serum levels of apolipoproteins and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio did not vary with age or gender, while the ratio HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I decreased with the age. Obese individuals, smokers, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemics, hypertriglyceridemics or with low HDL cholesterol showed higher Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Older individuals, smokers or individuals with increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed lower HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I ratio. Consumption of three or more alcoholic drinks/day was associated with decreased Apo B. Conclusions. These results show high prevalence of altered apolipoprotein profile, which is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. The results support the inclusion of the evaluated apolipoproteins in laboratory determinations made in public health centers in Venezuela.

  9. Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The background notes by the U.S. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela, located on the north coast of South America, has 17,791,000 people, growing at a rate of 2.7%. Infant mortality is 2.7/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast. 80% of the population is urban. Literacy is a priority at 88.4%; Technical and university education is increasing; emigration from other countries is common because of relatively good working conditions. Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in 1921. Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries. Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating.

  10. Non-Formal education in astronomy: The experience of the University the Carabobo

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    Falcón, Nelson

    2011-06-01

    Since 1995, the University the Carabobo, in Venezuela, has come developing a program of astronomical popularization and learning Astronomy using the Non formal education methods. A synopsis of the activities is presented. We will also discuss some conceptual aspects about the extension of the knowledge like supplementary function of the investigation and the university teaching. We illustrate the characteristics of the communication with an example of lectures and printed material. The efficiency of the heuristic arguments could be evaluated through a ethnology study. In that order of ideas, we show some images of the activities of astronomical popularization. We can see the population and great concurrence with chronological (and cultural) heterogeneity. We conclude that the Non formal education, structured with characteristic different to the usual educational instruction, constitutes a successful strategy in the diffusion and the communicating astronomy.

  11. Nave de montaje Volkswagen, Venezuela

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    Bornhorst, D.

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available To assemble Volkswagen cars for the Venezuela market, a large hall has been built, which is fitted with full facilities for its purpose, such as painting and greasing installations, and large parking area for the finished vehicles. The siting of this hall was carefully studied, and such factors as nearness to industrial zones, climate, and ease of access were decisive aspects that were taken into account. The final choice was a site near Morón, in the Carabobo Department, close to the sea. The main constructional item is the roof of the large hall. It is made of a series of hyperbolic-parabolic reinforced concrete thin shells, of rectangular planform, and slightly inclined towards the north, to produce a saw edge profile. Each of these shells is supported by a central column. The hollow spaces along the saw edge profile have been used for ventilation. The enclosing walls consist of trellice material, which also provide ample facility for additional ventilation.Para el montaje de los coches Volkswagen destinados al mercado venezolano, se ha construido una gran nave dotada de todos los servicios necesarios: pintura, engrases, aparcamiento de los vehículos terminados, etc. La elección del lugar más apropiado para la situación de la nave y edificios anexos fue motivo de un detenido estudio, en el que la proximidad a zonas industriales, clima, fácil entrada de materiales procedentes de ultramar y salida para los acabados, fueron los factores decisivos. Definitivamente se eligió un solar en las cercanías de Morón, del departamento de Carabobo, y próximo al mar. Lo más notable es la cubierta de la gran nave, formada por una serie de láminas parabólico-hiperbólicas de hormigón armado, de planta rectangular, inclinadas ligeramente hacia el norte para formar un perfil en diente de sierra. Cada una de estas láminas se soporta por un montante central. Los huecos que dichos dientes de sierra dejan se han aprovechado para la ventilación. Los

  12. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  13. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  14. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

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    Amada Mogollón de González

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: Nueva Esparta, Distrito Federal, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas y Delta Amacuro. El instrumento arrojó resultados que evidenciaron deficiencias, omisiones y ausencias durante el hecho supervisorio y su validación condujo a garantizar el éxito y calidad en la supervisión educativa venezolana.

  15. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  16. Funciones de la supervición escolar en Venezuela. Aproximación a un modelo

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    Mogollón de González, Amada

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Esta investigación tiene como propósito presentar la aproximación a un Modelo para las funciones de la supervisión escolar en Venezuela sustentado en los ámbitos, acción supervisora y funciones denominadas: Técnicas, Administrativas, Sociales, de Asistencia y Mediación. El modelo se fundamentó teóricamente en Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Teoría de Sistemas de Bertalanffy, enfoque humanista y jerarquía de las necesidades de Maslow. Es una investigación de campo realizada en Venezuela en los estados: Nueva Esparta, Distrito Federal, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas y Delta Amacuro. El instrumento arrojó resultados que evidenciaron deficiencias, omisiones y ausencias durante el hecho supervisorio y su validación condujo a garantizar el éxito y calidad en la supervisión educativa venezolana.Abastract: This investigation must like intention present/display the approach to a Model for the functions of the scholastic supervision in Venezuela sustained in the scopes, supervisora action and denominated functions: Techniques, Administrative, Social, of Attendance and Mediation. The model was based theoretically on Kaufman, Stufflebeam, Theory of Systems of Bertalanffy, focuses humanist and hierarchy of the necessities of Maslow. It is an investigation of field made in Venezuela in the states: Nueva Esparta, Federal District, Carabobo, Lara, Táchira, Barinas and Delta Amacuro. The instrument threw results that demonstrated deficiencies, omissions and absences during the fact supervisorio and its validation lead to ensure the success and quality in the Venezuelan educative supervision.

  17. Art in Venezuela during the Centenary of its Independence, 1910-1911

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    Roldán Esteva-Grillet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The commemoration of the centenary of Venezuela's independence strengthened in the people the idea of finally having reached an environment of peace and harmony, and of reunion with past glories. Official initiatives favoring the arts necessarily chose the path of exalting patriotic values through public monuments following classical standards.  The Centennial was probably the highest point in this academic tradition rejected by youths,  but useful to official institutions, so the success of two artists is not casual: sculptor  Eloy Palacios with his Monument to Carabobo in 1911, and painter Tito Salas with his Bolivarian Triptych in the same year. Most of the public artistic heritage commissioned for the centennial still adorns the capital, but the artists’ contribu- tion has not yet been fully assessed.

  18. Seroprevalencia de HTLV-I/II en hombres gays y trabajadoras sexuales de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela HTLV-I/II seroprevalence among gay men and female sex workers from Margarita Island, Venezuela

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    E. Castro de Batänjer

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Sabida la importante seroprevalencia en la Isla de Margarita para el HIV-1 nos propusimos conocer la seroprevalencia de HTLV-I/II en muestras de grupos epidemiologicamente importantes en su transmisión. El estudio se desarrolló con 141 trabajadoras sexuales y 40 hombres gays entre 1994 y 1997. Nuestros resultados permitieron establecer infección por HTLV-I en un hombre. Este es el primer reporte conocido sobre pesquisa epidemiológica de la infección por HTLV-I/II en la Isla de Margarita.In attention to the important HIV-1 seroprevalence observed in Margarita Island, we carried out this study to establish HTLV-I/II seroprevalence into target groups for sexual transmission. Therefore the survey was done with 141 female sex workers and 40 gay men between 1994 and 1997. We found HTLV-I infection in one man. This is the first known report to describe epidemiological features of HTLV-I/II infection in Margarita Island.

  19. Environmental evaluation near to a fuel vendor inside of the Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: water quality, sediments and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rada, M.; Losada, F.

    2000-01-01

    A base line study was conducted reference in the coastal area near a Estacion de Servicio Nautica, located in Parque Nacional Morrrocoy, Venezuela, this is the second part of the investigation. Results from a physical and chemical characterization of the water and sediments of four sites located around the service station are presented. The physical and chemical factors measured in water included: temperature, salinity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen, pH, total suspended solids, transparency, oil and grease, total residual petroleum hydrocarbon, vanadium and lead, total coliform bacteria, and the presence of coliform bacteria. The factors measured in sediments included: granulometry, organic material, total carbonates, vanadium, lead, oil and grease, and total hydrocarbons. In addition, the amount of vanadium and lead in sample tissue from three species which are abundant and widely distributed in each site was measured in order to evaluate the potential of these species as bio-indicators. The water in the area where this study was conducted is shallow, warm, and thermally homogeneous, with high salinity and normal pH and dissolved oxygen. The supersaturation with oxygen in certain hours in sites adjacent to abundant underwater vegetation. The water is moderately turbid with a tendency towards less dissolved oxygen with increased depth. The estimated values of NMP/100 ml of the coliform fecal organisms is within legal limits even though the total number of water coliforms measured in Site 2 was ten times higher than in Site 1. This increase is associated with the proximity of Site 2 to an outflow of pre-treated sewage. The values of TRPH in the water collected from each site were low and very close to the detection limit (0.8 mg/l). Vanadium was not found, while lead was detected in 11 of the 12 samples. One sample had a concentration of three times the maximum baseline compared to the values measured for Site 1

  20. LA SALUD EN EL PROCESO DE DESCENTRALIZACION TERRITORIAL EN VENEZUELA

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    Maritza Avila Urdaneta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia de la descentralización del Estado se inicia con la aprobación de la Ley de Descentralización, Delimitación y Transferencia de Competencias del Poder Público (LOD en diciembre de 1989. El propósito de la descentralización es aumentar la capacidad de respuesta eficiente del sistema de servicios a los problemas de salud a la población entre los diferentes niveles de poder central, estadal y municipal, así como brindarle una mayor participación a las comunidades en su solución. En Venezuela las instituciones que prestan servicios de salud son numerosas, en su mayoría independientes y ausentes de una coordinación efectiva por parte del Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social (MSAS, ente creado en 1936 con mayor injerencia en los asuntos relativos a la salud. El MSAS se orienta hacia una política de centralización normativa – procedimental y desconcentración programática que consiste en la transferencia de las funciones administrativas, requeridas para el desarrollo de los programas, a los órganos regionales del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Destaca que el MSAS delimitará a las comunidades territorial, demográfica y técnicamente, en función del establecimiento de atención integral a la salud que le preste sus servicios. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el proceso de descentralización de la salud, tomando en cuenta la actual coyuntura sociopolítica y económica en el marco de la nueva Constitución Bolivariana (1999. La muestra está constituida por los Estados Monagas, Carabobo, Aragua, Falcón y Zulia. Los resultados se concretan en el aumento de la productividad y calidad de los servicios de atención médica; simplificación de los procesos administrativos y el fortalecimiento de la democracia, al contar con una comunidad involucrada y satisfecha con el servicio de salud. Se concluye que el proceso de descentralización municipal ha sido frenado por el Gobierno central en los Estados Monagas y

  1. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  2. [Immigration to Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

    1986-11-01

    Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  3. LDC nuclear power: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1982-01-01

    Venezuela had an aggressive nuclear program when it was under a dictatorship in the 1950s, but it is currently assuming a wait-and-see stance. The country has one small research reactor, but it may have a reactor on-line in the mid-1990s. CONADIN, Venezuela's nuclear energy planning agency, has commissioned feasibility studies and requested proposals for a reactor-siting survey. A recent study for the Venezuelan state oil company suggests tha a natural-uranium, gas-cooled reactor could provide process steam to extract oil from the bituminous tar sands of the Orinoco Basin. Venezuela is also exploring for uranium reserves. 23 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  4. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...

  5. Venezuela - energy situation 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The energy situation of Venezuela is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

  6. Occupational Safety and Health in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, Yohama

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela has pioneered a preventive-focused and comprehensive movement for Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in Latin America. However, despite being an oil-rich country, it has some of the lowest salaries for their workers and highest levels of hyperinflation, devaluation, crime, and violence of the world. Review the current status and challenges on relevant aspects of OSH in Venezuela. Review of literature and documents from national governments, UN agencies, NGOs, and the Venezuelan government concerning OSH and related topics since 1986. Reformed in 2005, the Organic Law on Prevention, Conditions and Environment (LOPCYMAT) was a fundamental moment of change for OSH. Factors which have impacted OSH the strongest are (i) the creation of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (INPSASEL) and (ii) the socioeconomic crisis Venezuela is going through. Venezuela's laws are innovative and yet non-compliance is enormous. Almost half of the population works in the informal sector. Following the International Labor Office projections, 5 people die per day in Venezuela due to occupational accidents or diseases, making health and safety at work a luxury rather than a right. The quality of life for the average worker has deteriorated, affecting not only health but the overall well-being of all Venezuelans. The political and socio-economic situation has led to a mass exodus of more than 1.6 million highly qualified and talented professionals. Many statistics concerning OSH are not updated and are unreliable regarding occupational accidents and diseases. There is a substantial difference between what is written to protect individual Venezuelans in the workplace and the reality of workplace conditions. Substantial governmental actions are needed in the immediate future to improve occupational safety and health of Venezuelan workers. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolución del e-gobierno en la Alcaldía del Municipio Naguanagua, estado Carabobo: período 2004-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Lubiza Osio; Pedro Luis Pineda

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo, tiene como objetivo realizar una comparación evolutiva, sobre los avances del gobierno electrónico en el área específica de los servicios disponibles a través de la página Web de la Alcaldía de Naguanagua, estado Carabobo, durante el periodo comprendido entre el año 2004 y el año 2014. Su fundamentación se basó en el análisis de datos provenientes de dos investigaciones de las cuales, se precisó el avance sobre el e-gobierno en dos momentos: año 2004 y 2007, en el contex...

  8. Venezuela takes responsabilidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    No federal government officials showed up at the Oct. 29 ceremony to lauch the Responsabilidad Integral program of Asoquim, the Venezuelan chemical industry association. But that did not discourage industry representatives. Industry has tried to keep the Ministry of Environment Affairs involved as much as possible, says Danay Zoppi de Perez, corporate v.p. with Grupo Quimico. But industry was proud to be doing it anyway, despite the absence of government. It's a private, proactive initiative. Asoquim's program is based on the six Responsible Care codes. At the ceremony, 56 companies from Asoquim's membership of 150, which represents 90% of chemicals production in the country, signed on. Signatories include stateowned Petroquimica de Venezuela (Pequiven), domestic private-sector firms, and most of the multinationls operating in Venezuela. The ceremony drew officials from the fire service and civil defense authorities who have to deal with spills and accidents

  9. Venezuela ups the ante

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collitt, Raymond.

    1997-01-01

    Strong performances by small and medium sized oil companies in Venezuela have contributed to the success of its oil industry. This paper considers the historical progress of the industry since its nationalisation twenty-one years ago, charting its attractiveness to investors and plans for expansion. Its very success has brought the Venezuelan oil industry into conflict with OPEC's quota system, which it argues, needs to be charged. (UK)

  10. Estimating Venezuelas Latent Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Bencomo; Hugo J. Montesinos; Hugo M. Montesinos; Jose Roberto Rondo

    2011-01-01

    Percent variation of the consumer price index (CPI) is the inflation indicator most widely used. This indicator, however, has some drawbacks. In addition to measurement errors of the CPI, there is a problem of incongruence between the definition of inflation as a sustained and generalized increase of prices and the traditional measure associated with the CPI. We use data from 1991 to 2005 to estimate a complementary indicator for Venezuela, the highest inflation country in Latin America. Late...

  11. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  12. Country watch: Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R

    1996-01-01

    Since 1990, ACCSI has worked to safeguard the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS in Venezuela. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) had recognized ACCSI's program by 1992, enabling the nongovernmental organization (NGO) to establish fixed office hours during which it can receive clients. ACCSI does not distinguish between people living with HIV/AIDS and others, but considers it important to regulate AIDS as a public health issue within the context of human rights and ethics. Almost all of the Legal Office's initial cases were related to discrimination in the workplace, health centers, and educational institutions, but the ACCSI now also addresses family problems related to adoption, insurance, and inheritance, among others. To cope with the increase in service caseload, services have been extended through collaboration with specialized organizations concerned with human rights, women, children, prisons, and indigenous people. ACCSI influences governmental policy-making through its participation in the National AIDS Program. Moreover, ACCSI's networking activities ensure that the topic of HIV/AIDS and human rights is now always included in seminars and conferences in Venezuela, even when they are concerned with sexually transmitted diseases or other medical issues. Almost every time the press report upon AIDS, they consult the NGO. Everyday more people in Venezuela are standing up for their rights and denouncing discrimination against people infected with HIV.

  13. The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers, in particular rock phosphate, in Venezuela: II. Monitoring mycorrhizas and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, E.; Salas, A.M.; Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to quantify and isolate P solubilizing microorganisms (fungus and bacteria) from corn, sorghum and beans rhizosphere from El Sombrero soil, located in Guarico state, a very important agricultural area in Venezuela. Rhizospheric soil samples were taken from the crops in the field and taken to the laboratory to conduct a serial dilution procedure in specific medium culture to obtain pure cultures and isolate microorganisms according to their function. The spores of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) from the soils were reproduced using trap pots in the greenhouse and after 4-6 months a dilute soil sample was wet-sieved and decanted for isolation of AM spores which were used for classification and for obtaining native pure cultures. Finally, the infective potential of AM was determined by setting pots with test crops and determining the AM colonization and efficiency to produce potential infection in the root system. There were no differences in the total microflora in both crop rhizospheres but there was a tendency of higher values in the corn rhizosphere due to the root exudates. Two solubilizing fungi identified were Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger. (author)

  14. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  15. Venezuela: Un perfil general.

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Rafael Isidro

    2003-01-01

    1.- Artículos Cartay, Rafael. "Los productos típicos y su reglamentación. Una tentativa de aplicación de la denominación de origen al cacao venezolano" Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin. "Theobroma Cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud" Anido, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Alejandro. "La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995: Algunas evidencias empíricas" Molina, Luisa Elena. "Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Ven...

  16. Diabetes Care in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; González-Rivas, Juan P; Lima-Martínez, Marcos; Stepenka, Victoria; Rísquez, Alejandro; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its economic burden have increased in Venezuela, posing difficult challenges in a country already in great turmoil. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence, causes, prevention, management, health policies, and challenges for successful management of diabetes and its complications in Venezuela. A comprehensive literature review spanning 1960 to 2015 was performed. Literature not indexed also was reviewed. The weighted prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was estimated from published regional and subnational population-based studies. Diabetes care strategies were analyzed. In Venezuela, the weighted prevalence of diabetes was 7.7% and prediabetes was 11.2%. Diabetes was the fifth leading cause of death (7.1%) in 2012 with the mortality rate increasing 7% per year from 1990 to 2012. In 2012, cardiovascular disease and diabetes together were the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years.T2D drivers are genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle, including unhealthy dietary patterns and physical inactivity. Obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome are present at lower cutoffs for body mass index, homeostatic model assessment, and visceral or ectopic fat, respectively. Institutional programs for early detection and/or prevention of T2D have not been established. Most patients with diabetes (∼87%) are cared for in public facilities in a fragmented health system. Local clinical practice guidelines are available, but implementation is suboptimal and supporting information is limited. Strategies to improve diabetes care in Venezuela include enhancing resources, reducing costs, improving education, implementing screening (using Latin America Finnish Diabetes Risk Score), promoting diabetes care units, avoiding insulin levels as diagnostic tool, correct use of oral glucose tolerance testing and metformin as first-line T2D treatment, and reducing health system fragmentation. Use of the Venezuelan adaptation of

  17. Undocumented migration to Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, R

    1984-01-01

    "In 1980 Venezuela took...steps to regularize the undocumented migrant population. While the number responding to the amnesty was small relative to expectations, the majority of illegals appeared to have regularized their status. For the first time it was possible to assess objectively the characteristics of the undocumented population. Moreover, the problem of illegal migrants seems to have been temporarily solved, a result of both the amnesty and the country's declining economic activity." Topics covered in the present article include the nationality, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, educational status, and occupations of undocumented migrants. excerpt

  18. Petrochemical development in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkenborn, A.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation highlighted the evolution of the petrochemical industry in Venezuela. Comparative advantages for the industry such as (1) abundant low cost energy, (2) attractive geographical position, (3) good infrastructure, (4) skilled, low cost labour force, and (5) regional integration, were reviewed. A summary of national production, refining, and marketing facts for petrochemicals, coal, orimulsion, and marine transportation were presented, along with financial information concerning revenues from sales, and profits and investments. Future plans to maximize the creation of value for the nation through increased oil production and partial privatization of state petroleum enterprises, were reviewed. The current state and future plans for focused development of fertilizers, olefins and olefin derivatives, and methanol products were outlined. Production statistics for three large petrochemical complexes, - El Tablazo, Moron and Jose - were also presented. 9 figs

  19. Mochima, estado Sucre (Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elisa Requena Mago

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En tiempos de recesión, los expertos nos bombardean con cifras relacionadas a la caída del producto interno bruto, al desempleo, entre otras. Dada la situación que presenta hoy en día Venezuela, aunado a la alta inflación y la devaluación de la moneda; el escenario resulta bastante complicado para el consumidor y las empresas proveedoras de bienes y servicios. En este sentido, las PyMES turísticas de Mochima, ubicadas en el Estado Sucre, Venezuela, se presentan como una alternativa para de alguna manera ayudar a disipar ese triste escenario, mediante sus bondades y en combinación con Internet. De allí que el presente artículo aborde desde los aspectos teóricos del turismo hasta las bondades naturales y culturales que ofrece esta zona oriental del país. Se utilizó una metodología de carácter descriptiva y una combinación de estrategia documental y de campo. Se aplicó un muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional, seleccionando los elementos con base en criterios de los investigadores. De acuerdo al estudio, se diseñó la página web y se concluyó, que la implementación de la misma ayudaría en gran medida a mejorar los ingresos de la región y darse a conocer tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

  20. Venezuela paneb kokku regionaalset energeetikaliitu / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela pealinnas toimus organisatsiooni Petrocaribe kolmas tippkohtumine. Petrocaribe, mis liidab peamiselt Kariibi mere riike ja tegeleb energeetikaküsimustega, algatas 2 aastat tagasi Venezuela president Hugo Chavez. Organisatsiooni kuulub 16 riiki

  1. Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu juht kuulutas sõja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Venezuela Rahvusraamatukogu direktor Fernando Baez kuulutas, et tema juhtimisel püüab Venezuela rahvusraamatukogu saavutada juhirolli Ladina-Ameerikas, kuna USA Kongressi Raamatukogust on saanud raamatukogude suurimaid vaenlasi ajaloos

  2. Venezuela: A Full-Year Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higdon, Melody

    2006-01-01

    This Country Climatology Digest is a climatological study of Venezuela. After describing the geography and major meteorological features of the entire region, the study discusses in detail the climatic controls of Venezuela's weather...

  3. Kaos. Venezuelas top flirter med Hizbollah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked.......Terrororganisationen Hizbollah har længe brugt Venezuela som base i det ekstremt lukrative narkotikamarked....

  4. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal content in fuel oil and oil-ashes in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Abril, J.M.; Greaves, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years an intensive national program was developed to determine the environmental radioactivity levels in Venezuela. Gamma dose and the radon concentrations indoors, in drinking water, in caves and in artificial cavities including the effect of radon transported to the surface with the earth gas have been studied. To continue this project the oil and other natural energy resource should be considered. It is expected that the environmental radiation level is modified in regions where the oil industrial activity is more aggressive such as in the Zulia State and the Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, (Central Region). In these regions Venezuela is producing 1.750 thousand barrels of oil from the near-to-the- surface or deep oil drilling. Petroleum constitutes an important source of energy and as the majority of natural source contains radionuclides and their disintegration products, being U, Ra, Pb, Bi, Po and K the most often encountered. The combustion of petroleum concentrate in the ashes those radioelements, and later enter the environment by different ways producing adverse effects on the quality of man life. The concentration of radioelements varies greatly between oil fields, then we still requiring local survey studies in this area. Moreover due to the recent national interest in recycling processes, it becomes important to take precaution in the selection of materials that may contain by-products of industrial origin, including oil. In fact the oil ashes, oil slurry and other mining by-products are thought to be employable in the building industry. The concentration of radioactivity in the ash from thermoelectric power plants that use petroleum as a primary energy source was determined. The analysis include the two major thermoelectric power plants in Venezuela, Ricardo Zuluaga on the northern sea side of Caracas and Planta Centro on the littoral of Carabobo State. The study cover different samples: fuel oil No 6, ashes, heavy and medium petroleum

  5. Venezuela nationalises oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, Peter Howard; Abrantes, Dayse

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela President Hugo Chavez has stated he will nationalise the Orinoco belt's extra-heavy oil operations and ask for 'special powers' to rule the country. Since last year, the government has been negotiating with international consortia currently operating in the Orinoco area, so that Venezuela state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) attains a majority stake in each project (ml)

  6. Venezuela natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the natural gas outlook for Venezuela. First of all, it is very important to remember that in the last few years we have had frequent and unforeseen changes in the energy, ecological, geopolitical and economical fields which explain why all the projections of demand and prices for hydrocarbons and their products have failed to predict what later would happen in the market. Natural gas, with its recognized advantages over other traditional competitors such as oil, coal and nuclear energy, is identified as the component that is acquiring more weight in the energy equation, with a strengthening projection, not only as a resource that covers demand but as a key element in the international energy business. In fact, natural gas satisfies 21% of overall worldwide energy consumption, with an annual increase of 2.7% over the last few years, which is higher than the global energy growth of other fossil fuels. This tendency, which dates from the beginning of the 1980's, will continue with a possibility of increasing over the coming years. Under a foreseeable scenario, it is estimated that worldwide use of natural gas will increase 40% over the next 10 years and 75% on a longer term. Specifically for liquid methane (LNG), use should increase 60% during this last decade. The LPG increase should be moderate due to the limited demand until 1995 and to the stable trends that will continue its use until the end of this century

  7. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI (A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION MODEL FOR VENEZUELA IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SOCIALISM OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Miguel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo se basa en un análisis de la educación universitaria en el contexto socio-político de la realidad venezolana, en el período referencial es 2007-2013, centrado a partir de la promulgación de la Ley Orgánica de Educación (2009. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Unidad de Investigación de Análisis de Políticas Públicas y Desarrollo Socio-educativo de la Universidad de Carabobo. Tomando como referencias teóricas a E. Morin y J. Habermas, se desarrollan tres categorías presentes en la realidad de Venezuela: el Socialismo del Siglo XXI, el Estado Docente y la Autonomía Universitaria. El tratamiento metodológico parte del planteamiento de la premisa: el Nuevo Modelo de Educación Universitaria que está por construirse, se debe a la crisis del modelo cognitivo instrumental instituido en la Constitución de la República de Venezuela (1961, sus Leyes y Reglamentos. Al triangular las tres categorías se plantea, como valor agregado, concebir la educación a través de un proceso transdisciplinario, sustentado en una primera instancia por el ordenamiento jurídico que le dé concreción y sincronización en el tiempo y el movimiento. En el caso de la educación venezolana, se concluye que no se han producidos cambios significativos que nos indiquen que estamos en presencia de un nuevo modelo de educación. La educación universitaria sigue atada al modelo cognitivo instrumental, impidiendo cualquier cambio que desde su seno se pretenda impulsar, de manera que la nueva Ley de Educación Universitaria y el nuevo modelo de educación siguen diferido.Abstract: This essay is based on an analysis of the higher education in the context socio-political of the Venezuelan reality, in the reference period is 2007-2013, focused the promulgation of the organic law of education (2009. This study was developed in the research unit of analysis of public policies and development partner-education of the University of Carabobo. On

  8. Oil Prices and Venezuela's Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Rebecca Ray

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at Venezuela’s export revenue, imports, and trade and current account balances under a range of oil price outcomes for the next two years. It finds that Venezuela would run large current account surpluses for prices between $60-90 per barrel, and would even run a small surplus with prices at $50 per barrel. (Most oil industry estimates for the next two years are in the range of $80-90 per barrel). The authors conclude that Venezuela is unlikely to run into foreign exchange co...

  9. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  10. Prevalencia de infeccion humana por Trypanosoma cruzi en bancos de sangre en Venezuela Prevalence of human infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Venezuelan blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Aché

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Las primeras investigaciones realizadas a nivel de bancos de sangre, durante la década 50, indican que la seroprevalencia por infecciones a T. cruzi entre hemodadores fue de 12%. Un estudio posterior, entre 1963-64, efectuado en varios bancos de sangre, así como otros centros, registró una seroprevalencia global de 6.0% (1.1-10.1%. La donación de sangre en Venezuela es gratuita. El control de los bancos de sangre recae en el Departamento de Transfusiones y Bancos de Sangre del Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social. A partir de 1988, se emplea uniformemente la técnica de ELISA para el diagnóstico de infecciones a T. cruzi en los Bancos de Sangre. La seropositividad promedio interanual, entre 1984-1992, fue de 1.20% (1.09-1.94%. Existen variaciones geográficas entre las localidades de varias entidades federales. Los estados con mayor prevalencia se ubican en las regiones del occidente y centro del país, a saber: Portuguesa, Barinas, Lara, Trujillo, Cojedes y Carabobo. Por las dificultades en obtener tasas de incidencia para el Mal de Chagas, resulta adecuado emplear tasas de prevalencia para uso en salud pública, en función de su mayor estabilidad; y en el caso de Venezuela, dada la severidad menor y una sobrevivencia mayor por esta patologia hoy día. La especificidad, como parámetro de las pruebas serológicas, debería considerarse en función de la baja seroprevalencia detectada a nivel nacional. Convendría emplear varias pruebas diagnósticas en paralelo para buscar un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad.Primary investigations carried out in blood banks in Venezuela during the 1950s, indicated that overall seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 12% amongst blood donors. In Venezuela, blood donation is free. All public and private blood banks are controlled by the Ministry of Health. As from 1988 the ELISA technique was uniformly used in blood banks for the detection of T. cruzi infections. Annual median

  11. Health Physics Education in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanas, J.

    1979-01-01

    Training courses on health physics have been organized regularly in Venezuela since 1962. The basic course consists of 20 hours for theoretical tuition and 10 hours for laboratory practice. Post-graduate courses have been organized by the Central University since 1965. Radiological technicians receive their training through the courses organized by the Ministry of Health. (author)

  12. World status: Petroleos de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the petroleum industry in Venezuela. The industry was nationalized in 1975 and by 1990 was the world's fifth largest oil company. They have ambitious plans to expand production capacity and are looking to the major oil companies to assist. The prospects for sales of Orimulsion are also discussed. (UK)

  13. Energy sector developments in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, R.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future development of the oil, gas and coal sector in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has oil reserves of 73 billion barrels, gas reserves of 143 TCF and coal reserves of 6 billion BOE. The country has a refining capacity of 2.9 million barrels per day, a petrochemical capacity of 7.7 million tons per year, and a coal capacity of 4.6 million tons per year. The largest refiners in Venezuela are Shell, Exxon, PDVSA, Mobil, BP, Chevron and Texaco. In 1996 the total oil and derivatives exports for Venezuela were 2.8 million barrels per day. Fifty-eight companies from 14 countries participate in the Venezuelan upstream market. Fifteen operating agreements have been awarded to 27 companies from nine countries. Third round operating agreements have been awarded to 26 companies and profit sharing agreements are in force involving 14 companies. Four vertically integrated projects (Maraven-Conoco, Maraven-Total, Corpoven-Arco-Texaco-Phillips, and Lagoven-Mobil-Veba) are currently underway. The Orimulsion(R) project, the refining system, the natural gas production, marketing and transmission system, associated future projects for the 1997-2006 time frame, and developments in the field of petrochemicals also have been reviewed. 21 figs

  14. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Venezuela discusses the status of English in society and in the educational system. It also gives an account of Venezuelan political, economic, and social life. A description is given of the education system and reforms that have been proposed for nursery school through higher education.…

  15. International Commercial Arbitration in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the above article author describes evolution of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Venezuela. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Venezuela activities. In past two decades many Latin American countries have reformed their arbitration law. In an effort to modernize its arbitral institutions several Latin American countries adopted Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration of the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL. In addition, many Latin American countries have adopted the monistic system. Author pays detailed attention to this issue, discusses concept of a monistic system - a system in which a unique set of rules governs both domestic and international arbitration. Author argues that legal system of Venezuela fits this definition. Venezuelan law on arbitration in 1998 makes no distinction between domestic and international arbitration. Arbitration was included in judicial system under the Constitution of Venezuela of the 1999. Art. 258 of the Venezuelan Constitution states that arbitration, conciliation and mediation are alternative ways of resolving disputes.

  16. [Gastroenterology in the new century in Venezuela. A first five years situational diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarzábal de Belloso, Maribel

    2007-09-01

    Once the elaboration of CIE-10 Gastroenterology we used two indicators (Health and Management) as quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors in the specialty. HEALTH INDICATORS: 13,21% of main medical complains in primary care concern to Gastroenterology. Four of them rank among the first 25 ("Diarrhea", "Abdominal pain", "Helmintiasis" and "Other Esophagus, Stomach and Bowel diseases"). At the specialty care, Acid-peptic disease ranked as the first main complain according with 56-73.3% of the gastroenterologist consulted (Public and Private care) followed by Gastrointestinal reflux, Irritable bowel, Constipation, Lithiasis, Diverticular disease, Hemorrhages, Jaundice, Cirrhosis, Amibiasis, Pancreatitis, Colon cancer, Polyps, Hepatitis and Colopathy. 11,4% of the total deaths among Venezuelans are by gastrointestinal causes and five of them count among the first 25, with wide regional variability. Trujillo reports major mortality by liver disease (3%) followed by Vargas, District Federal, Tachira (2.8%). Cirrhosis and Fibrosis are more frequent in Táchira (2.3%) Trujillo, Vargas (2,1%) Some regions report mainly infections and diarrheas. Major cancer mortality is in Táchira (6,73% of deaths in the State) followed by Merida and Trujillo. MANAGEMENT INDICATORS: Services Demand. 2,86 consult/habitant/year in internal medicine and 0.77 en specialties. Services Offer. 793 Gastroenterologists (3.4/10.000 habitants). 44.5% concentrated in D.Federal, followed by Táchira (3.9%) Carabobo, Zulia y Mérida. Human Resources Formation. 16 Post-graduated Programs graduate 70 gastroenterologists annually. The Gastroenterology Education Agreement 2006 unified the Venezuelan Gastroenterologist profile and the graduation requirements. The Venezuelan Gastroenterology Society, age 60, has extraordinary national and international projection through its scientific publication (GEN Magazine). This analysis of the present of Gastroenterology in Venezuela allows

  17. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Cadenas, María Sonsiré; Hasmy, Anwar; Vessuri, Hebe

    2011-08-01

    Nanoscale research in Venezuela is briefly reviewed, with emphasis on research groups, research lines, and institutions involved. A summary exploration is made of international collaboration through scientific co-authorship, as well of the efforts to build nano capacities, available infrastructure, relationships to the productive sector and a weak presence in Venezuelan public policies, although there is some expectation that the situation may soon begin to change.

  18. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Venezuela opens up to explorers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1995-01-01

    The opening of Venezuela's first exploration bidding round since oil nationalisation in 1976 was a turning-point in the country's energy policy. The state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA), has said that the bidding round could generate investment of some $11 billion eventually in development investment and that over the next 10 years, nearly 20 percent of a planned $55 billion, 10-year state oil company investment programme could also come from foreign or private sector oil investment. Should this optimistic prediction materialise, Venezuela, whose 2.75 million b/d oil production in October was some 400,000 b/d over its Opec quota, will remain both the dominant oil producer in Latin America and the top-ranking oil exporter to the US market. In May this year, Venezuelan oil exports topped 1.43 million b/d, or some 16.8 percent of the US market, compared with Saudi Arabia's 15.7 percent. (author)

  20. Venezuela: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    supported the 30 Amnesty International, “Venezuela, Los Derechos Humanos en Riesgo en Medio de Protestas...iachr/docs/annual/2015/doc-en/ InformeAnual2015-cap4-Venezuela-EN.pdf Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos (PROVEA) http

  1. Lepra en Venezuela 1978 - 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Merkl A., Federico

    2002-01-01

    El programa de lepra en Venezuela describe a 8 859 pacientes diagnosticados y tratados entre 1978 y 1997. Debido a características propias de la patología se presume que no todos los enfermos son captados y se aplica una metodología para estimar la "prevalencia real" de la enfermedad. Encontramos que su distribución es desigual en el país y que a pesar de haberse alcanzado el criterio de eliminación a nivel nacional, el problema persiste en un grupo de sus estados. The program of leprosy i...

  2. Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Noya, O; Mondolfi, A; Peceño, C; Botto, C

    1988-07-01

    A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey seeking hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly was carried out in isolated Yanomami hamlets in Amazonas Territory in Venezuela. All 110 inhabitants greater than 1 year of age were evaluated clinically and 98 were studied immunologically. The spleen index for individuals greater than 10 years of age was 44%. Only 3 patients had Plasmodium spp. on thick blood smears. All had serological evidence of infection with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty-three patients were considered to show hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly. Clinical manifestations of the syndrome did not differ from those described in other parts of the world.

  3. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

  4. Importance of energy efficiency in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrie, R.

    1991-01-01

    Venezuela's economic development relies heavily on oil. The nation's energy production equals 3.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe) per day. Oil comprises 71% of the energy Venezuela produces, natural gas 20%, hydro 9% and coal 1%. Of the energy produced, Venezuela exports three quarters and consumes the remainder. Over 99% of Venezuela's energy exports are crude oil and oil products. Economic problems have constrained Venezuela's development in recent years. Saddled with an external debt of $US 32 billion, Venezuela will continue to encounter barriers for years to come. The nation is, however, in the process of restructuring its economy. As part of this process, the Venezuelan government has begun to integrate opportunities for improving the efficiency of its energy use. As a major oil producer and exporter, Venezuela is conscious of its responsibility to the international community to limit its emissions of energy-related CO 2 into the atmosphere. For this reason, the Venezuelan government is in the process of creating a program to conserve and ration the use of energy. This effort incorporates a number of measures including the substitution of natural gas for liquid fuels for all end uses (including transportation activities), the increased reliance on hydropower in the generation of electricity and the reduction of waste in the production of natural gas to 2% of the economically recollectable volume

  5. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  6. Pediatric multiple sclerosis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín A. Peña

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Venezuelan pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. METHODS: Database records from the National Program for MS were searched for patients with an established diagnosis of MS whose first symptoms appeared before age 18. RESULTS: The national database held records of 1.710 patients; 3.8% had onset of the first symptoms before age 18. 46.7% were boys, yielding an F:M ratio of 1.13:1. Many children had a disease onset characterized by motor impairment (30.7%, brainstem/cerebellum and spinal cord affectation (27.6%, headache (26%. Less frequent symptoms were sensory symptoms (8% and optic neuritis (7%. DISCUSSION: Pediatric MS patients in Venezuela represent a significant proportion of all MS cases. The clinical pattern is characterized by motor symptoms at onset, and predominantly monosymptomatic presentation with a relapsing-remitting pattern. This is the first systematic attempt to estimate the prevalence of pediatric MS in Venezuela.

  7. Venezuela: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela's expansion by state oil company PDVSA has gone from a mere concept a year ago to a well-defined plan. The five-year project that began this year and runs through 1995 received a $4-billion upgrading last fall to $25 billion. Money will be spent in increments of $5 billion/year, and all sectors are involved. Largest share, about $10.5 billion, will go to upstream projects, with $6 billion to be invested in refining, $6 billion in petrochemicals, $1.5 billion in coal and $800 million in domestic marketing. PDVSA intends to finance most of the spending directly from its cash flow. The upstream spending will go toward boosting oil production to more than 3.6 MMbpd by the beginning of 1996, with capacity topping at 4.2 MMbopd. Such heavy spending should prove a boon to the Venezuelan economy. The oil industry constitutes 23% of Venezuela's GNP, accounts for 75% of governmental revenues and produces 70% of the nation's annual foreign exchange earnings. The Ministry of Planning already is forecasting a 7% leap in real growth of the GNP this year

  8. Pterocladiella caerulescens (Kützin Santelices & Hommersand (RHODOPHYTA, UNA NUEVA ADICIÓN PARA LA FLORA FICOLÓGICA DEL ESTADO NUEVA ESPARTA (VENEZUELA | Pterocladiella caerulescens (Kützin Santelices & Hommersand (RHODOPHYTA, A NEW ADDITION TO THE PHYCOLOGICAL FLORA OF NUEVA ESPARTA STATE (VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Rodríguez Reyes,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El alga rodofita, Pterocladiella caerulescens, ha sido poco estudiada en Venezuela, a pesar de que a nivel mundial se ha determinado su alto rendimiento en la producción de agar. En este trabajo, se describen las estructuras vegetativa y reproductiva (cistocarpo, tetrasporangio y espermatangio de una población de P. caerulescens ubicada en los sustratos rocosos de la zona intermareal de la bahía de Boca de Río, Isla de Margarita, durante el mes de noviembre 2013 a mayo de 2014. Doscientos ejemplares, formando agrupaciones cespitosas, fueron recolectados con estructuras de fijación, realizándose el desprendimiento con la ayuda de cuchillo y espátulas, preservándolas en solución de formaldehido al 4% v/v con agua de mar y almacenadas en frascos de vidrio. El análisis mediante microscopía óptica reveló en los ejemplares femeninos, la presencia de un cistocarpo solitario con una placenta unilocular en cuyo centro de la cavidad se dispone el carpogonio, lo que permitió la identificación de la especie como Pterocladiella caerulescens (Kützin Santelices & Hommersand, perteneciente a la familia Pterocladiaceae. Esta especie no había sido registrada en la zona marino-costera del estado Nueva Esparta, siendo identificado por primera vez en los estados Falcón y Carabobo, posteriormente en el estado Sucre, por lo que con este registro se amplía el área de distribución de la misma en Venezuela.

  9. Heavy water. A production alternative for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of heavy water production methods is made. Main facts about isotopic and distillation methods, reforming and coupling to a Hydrogen distillation plant are presented. A feasibility study on heavy water production in Venezuela is suggested

  10. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  11. [Experiences of the urbanization process in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Tirado, N

    1985-01-01

    The process of urbanization and urban growth in relation to economic development in Venezuela is analyzed. Four periods are considered: the period prior to the discovery of oil in Venezuela, which ended in the early 1940s; from the 1940s to the early 1970s; from the 1970s to 1983; and the present. Information is provided for the period 1936-1981 on total and urban population growth and on the size and number of urban centers.

  12. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed

  13. Radioactive wastes handling problems in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.; Venegas, R.

    1984-07-01

    A brief description of the radioactive wastes problem in Venezuela is presented. The origins of the problem are shown in a squematic form. The requirements for its solution are divided into three parts: information system, control system, radioactive wastes hadling system. A questionnaire summarizing factors to be considered when looking for a solution to the problem in Venezuela is included, as well as conclusions and recomendations for further discussion

  14. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo León Ganatios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reforma constitucional en Venezuela, en el año 1999 se introdujeron mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo o el plebiscito. A pesar de que este proceso amplió las vías de participación ciudadana en la vida política, hubo importantes retrocesos en libertades y derechos civiles y políticos básicos. La finalidad de este artículo consiste en medir la calidad de la democracia en Venezuela con base en una serie de indicadores derivados de la concepción de poliarquía de Robert Dahl (1993.Palabras Clave: Calidad de la democracia; Venezuela; Indicadores; estudio comparado; poliarquía.Quality of Democracy in VenezuelaAbstractSince 1999 a constitutional reform in Venezuela introduced some mechanisms of direct democracy such as the referendum and the plebiscite. Although this process broadened the means for citizens’ participation in the political system, there were important setbacks in political and civil liberties. The goal of this paper is to measure the quality of democracy according to a series of indicators that draw upon Robert Dahl’s conception of polyarchy.Keywords: Quality of democracy; Venezuela; indicators; comparative studies; polyarchy.

  15. UN MODELO DE EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSITARIA PARA VENEZUELA EN EL MARCO DEL SOCIALISMO DEL SIGLO XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo se basa en un análisis de la educación universitaria en el contexto socio-político de la realidad venezolana, en el período referencial es 2007-2013, centrado a partir de la promulgación de la Ley Orgánica de Educación (2009. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Unidad de Investigación de Análisis de Políticas Públicas y Desarrollo Socio-educativo de la Universidad de Carabobo. Tomando como referencias teóricas a E. Morin y J. Habermas, se desarrollan tres categorías presentes en la realidad de Venezuela: el Socialismo del Siglo XXI, el Estado Docente y la Autonomía Universitaria. El tratamiento metodológico parte del planteamiento de la premisa: el Nuevo Modelo de Educación Universitaria que está por construirse, se debe a la crisis del modelo cognitivo instrumental instituido en la Constitución de la República de Venezuela (1961, sus Leyes y Reglamentos. Al triangular las tres categorías se plantea, como valor agregado, concebir la educación a través de un proceso transdisciplinario, sustentado en una primera instancia por el ordenamiento jurídico que le dé concreción y sincronización en el tiempo y el movimiento. En el caso de la educación venezolana, se concluye que no se han producidos cambios significativos que nos indiquen que estamos en presencia de un nuevo modelo de educación. La educación universitaria sigue atada al modelo cognitivo instrumental, impidiendo cualquier cambio que desde su seno se pretenda impulsar, de manera que la nueva Ley de Educación Universitaria y el nuevo modelo de educación siguen diferido.

  16. Muuga joodab Venezuela naftaga Valgevene tehaseid / Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Anne, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Venezuela toornaftat veetakse Valgevenesse Muuga sadama kaudu. Riia sadam loodab suurema osa Venezuela nafta transiidist endale saada, samas peaks sadam selleks tegema mitmeid töid, nt. süvendama akvatooriumi

  17. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    ... who was first elected in 1998. Under Ch vez, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new constitution in place, a new unicameral legislature, and even a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela...

  18. Can Venezuela's oil sector endure Chavez' ambitions any longer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkoop, J.

    2009-07-01

    The author describes the decline of Venezuela's oil industry as well as President Chavez' reaction to Venezuela's budgetary crisis. Politicization, falling investment and the obligation to take upon itself a plethora of social spending have left national oil company Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. unable to produce efficiently and maintain production levels. Falling oil production and lower oil prices have in turn left president Hugo Chavez unable to spread the wealth to Venezuela's poor and he is searching desperately for ways to extract yet more from Venezuela's dysfunctional economy. As funds run out, Venezuela's expensive foreign policy, supporting regional allies, in particular Cuba, and seeking to export anywhere but the United States, proves overly expensive. Venezuela's impoverished masses, still supportive of Chavez during February's elections, may become less so as funds for social programmes run out. For Chavez it is a time for making choices... otherwise the people of Venezuela will choose for him. [nl

  19. Espacios culturales comunitarios en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, José Adolfo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The community centre programme in Venezuela (ECC,Spanish initials for Espacios Culturales Comunitarios wasundertaken in 2001 on the initiative of the Deputy Ministry ofCulture’s Department of Cultural Buildings. The idea was todesign an extremely simple, flexible and inexpensive system,readily applicable all across the country and suitable for atropical climate. The programme was headed by ProfessorJuan Pedro Posani, who created the architectural design forthese centres. Engineer José Adolfo Peña and architectCarmen Yáñez authored the structural and buildingengineering. The solutions devised to meet constructionrequirements were based on two principles: the choice of alightweight prefabricated building system and the definition ofthe extreme climatic conditions characteristic of the tropics asthe core issue to be addressed.In terms of architectural and humanist policy, the project is anarchitectural commitment to the environment, buildingtechnology and the conditions and demands of a clearlydisadvantaged social community.El programa de los Espacios Culturales Comunitarios (ECCen Venezuela surge de la dirección de EdificacionesCulturales del ViceMinisterio de Cultura en el año 2001. Laidea consiste en diseñar un sistema extremadamente sencillo,flexible y económico que pueda multiplicarse rápidamentepor todo el país y que sea capaz de responderadecuadamente a las condiciones contextuales del trópico. Elprograma ha sido dirigido por el profesor Juan PedroPosani, quien concibió la arquitectura de los mismos. Laconcepción estructural y constructiva es obra del ingenieroJose Adolfo Peña y de la arquitecta Carmen Yáñez. Larespuesta a las condiciones de partida se basó en dosprincipios: la elección de un sistema de prefabricación ligeray la consideración en primer plano de las condicionesclimáticas extremas propias del trópico.El proyecto, en términos de arquitectura y de política humanista,es un compromiso arquitect

  20. El Fenomeno Chavez: Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Venezuela’s state owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela. Ever seeking opportunities to provoke the giant United States, Chavez agreed to provide...controlled joint “El Fenomeno Chavez” . . . 9 venture, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). Exxon Mobil Corporation decided to sell their stakes among...exploited. 9. Major oil companies in Venezuela: 1. Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) – government-owned; generates 1/3 of national GDP; monopolized the

  1. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75, 7202.21.90, and... with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly...

  2. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and...

  3. Democracia y conflicto en Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda el tema de la democracia en Venezuela desde una perspectiva múltiple y variada. Parte de la consideración de un conjunto de variables (papel del Estado en la sociedad globalizada, la política y el ejercicio del poder, la economía, la política social, los movimientos sociales y las protestas colectivas, medio ambiente y grupos étnicos para realizar una ponderación del curso y los retos de la sociedad democrática venezolana en el período 1988-2008. El trabajo maneja el análisis desde la óptica de la comparación histórica, la historia crítica, la sociología histórica y el pensamiento político para establecer las principales tendencias que ha adquirido la democracia venezolana en cada una de esas variables en el período estudiado, así como la prospectiva que pueden adquirir en los próximos años.

  4. Toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Varela Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to contribute information on toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela. Information on taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was compiled from articles, books, catalogs, herbarium collections. A botanical analysis (taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was performed. The information about plant poisoning cases was requested to SIMET (Pharmacy faculty -UCV. Seventy-eight species were found in 34 families, the most important were: Apocynaceae (10 genera/12 species, Araceae (9/9, Euphorbiaceae (4/10 and Solanaceae (5/6. Genus Euphorbia was the most species rich. Most species were exotic species (79.5% and shrubs (32.1%. The entire plant (35 and latex (19 were the most toxic parts and the most frequent accidental ingestion (61.5%. Twenty cases were reported between 2009-2013, of which 80% were minors, female and urban areas. There is very little information published in Hispanic American countries

  5. Venezuela electoral 2012: escenarios y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Trak Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de estas líneas es reflexionar sobre los posibles escenarios que se pueden dar en Venezuela a partir de las elecciones presidenciales del 7 de octubre, en donde se juega la reelección de Hugo Chávez Frías (HCF. Para ello es necesario hacer un breve recorrido por la historia política reciente de Venezuela, cómo llega HCF al poder y los hitos más importantes que han marcado sus mandatos desde 1998.

  6. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  7. Venezuela: moving from abundance to moderation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, E

    1984-06-01

    Venezuela is Latin America's second greatest oil producer and its dependence on oil production is extreme. Hydrocarbons account for over 90% of its foreign currency earnings, and oil revenue represents the bulk of the state's resources. Statistics on petroleum exploration, production, refining, consumption, and exports are given and related to the status quo and predicted development in Venezuela. The potential contribution of the Orinoco heavy crude oil reservoir is assessed. A decreased independence on oil production as an income market for the country is being sought.

  8. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week

  9. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  10. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF THE VENEZUELA ROUND STINGRAY UROTRYGON VENEZUELAE SCHULTZ FROM THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY ACEVEDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As for most batoid species, little is known about the basic biology of the Venezuela round stingray Urotrygon venezuelae (Urotrygonidae. This study presents information about the reproductive biology of the species, including fecundity, embryonic development stage, relationship between maternal size and fecundity, gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices, sex ratios, maturity size and size at birth. With all this information, a preliminary reproductive cycle is proposed. A total of 269 specimens were caught with beach seine in Salguero beach, Colombian Caribbean Sea, between August 2005 and October 2006. We propose for U. venezuelae a biological cycle with three reproductive peaks: November-December, March-April and August. Size at sexual maturity was calculated in 176 mm (total length for females and 227 mm for males; fecundity ranged between one and six embryos per female. We found that cloacal diameter and liver weight were better predictors for fecundity than total length for U. venezuelae.

  11. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela. Estudio de planificacion nucleoelectrica para Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed.

  12. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Venezuela, RB

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Venezuela RB. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain ...

  13. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people…

  14. Venezuela: Issues in the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Congressional Research Service 12 telecommunications, electricity, and steel companies, as well as cement, coffee , sugar, flour, and milk...poppy, and cannabis cultivation in the common Sierra de Perijá mountain area bordering the two countries. In 2008 and 2009, Venezuela installed 10

  15. Venezuela: Higher education, neoliberalism and socialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhr, T.; Verger, A.; Hill, David; Rosskam, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we analyse the Higher Education For All (HEFA) policies and practices in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. In the construction of a 21st Century Socialism, universal access to higher education has not only become a constitutional right but assumes a pivotal role in both the

  16. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    minor production source of opium and cocoa , Venezuela is important in the transit of narcotics between Columbia and the US. 60 61 Mindful of this, a...took over.91 To highlight the significance of oil to Venezuela , in 2006, oil represented 91% of its exports compared to 80% five years earlier.92...methodology to examine the last ten years of Venezuelas Hugo Chavez presidency and the significant aspects in terms of US security. The paper contents

  17. Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Daría; Reyes, Jesús; Negredo, Ana; Hernández, Lourdes; Sánchez-Seco, María; Comach, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976

  19. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  20. National Oil Companies: the view from Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    1994-01-01

    National oil companies were key elements in the initial OPEC strategy and they brought a de-integration of oil industry. These companies have tried to move from crude marketing to product marketing through new investments at home and abroad in order to get higher value added and more secure markets for crude. Low prices bring new challenges. Venezuela's answers are strategic associations, operating contract for marginal fields and profit sharing agreements. (Author)

  1. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  2. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

  3. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  4. Language Planning for Venezuela: The Role of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose

    A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…

  5. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  6. Trends in fatal snakebites in Venezuela, 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Jesús A; Rifakis, Pedro M; Vargas, Jair A; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2007-01-01

    There have been few studies evaluating snakebite mortality in Venezuela and South America. In this study we evaluate trends in fatal snakebites occurring in Venezuela between 1995 and 2002. Epidemiological data for this study were retrieved from the records of the Ministry of Health of Venezuela. Using these data, we analyzed the impact of snakebites in Venezuela during the study period. During the study period, there were 266 reports of death due to snakebite; 79.7% were males, and 20.3% were females (P Mortality rate by age showed an age-dependent rate, with higher rates in older ages (P = .038). Snake envenomations are an important cause of injury and deaths in Venezuela as in many American countries. Surveillance of envenomations is essential for establishing guidelines, planning therapeutic supplies, and training medical staff on snakebite treatment, as well as assessing risk zones for travelers.

  7. Ampharetidae Malmgren, 1867 (Annelida: Polychaeta from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Liñero-Arana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred nineteen specimens of the family Ampharetidae Malmgren, collected in soft bottoms from 26 stations of the Venezuelan coast using PVC corer (0.018 m2, trawl and dredge van Veen (0.013 m3, were analyzed taxonomically. Five species were identified: Auchenoplax crinita Ehlers, 1887, Isolda pulchella F. Müller, 1858, Melinna maculata Webster, 1879, Amphicteis cf. scaphobranchiata Moore, 1906, and Hobsonia florida Banse, 1979; all are new records for Venezuela and extend the geographic distribution of these species.

  8. La calidad de vida urbana en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Mora, María Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    En las últimas décadas Venezuela se ha caracterizado por un crecimiento alto que supera el 3% interanual, el cual al ser extrapolado al año 2005, refleja una tendencia a situarse alrededor del 2%, catalogado como crecimiento moderado, que de seguir a este ritmo de crecimiento la población tiende a quintuplicarse en la segunda mitad del siglo XX (Camargo, M., 1996). Dicho crecimiento poblacional ha estado acompañado de cambios en la distribución de la población, como resulta ser la concentraci...

  9. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  10. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  11. Nuevos significados de la democracia en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Karina Núñez Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es interpretar los nuevos significados de la demo- cracia en Venezuela, construidos a partir de los cambios y transformaciones iniciados en 1999 (proceso constituyente-reforma política, teniendo como centro los discursos y prácticas de una ciudadanía que debe participar de forma activa y organizada en los asuntos públicos con miras a la búsqueda de la solución de sus problemas más apremiantes. La aproximación metodológica (cualitativa-hermenéutica se realizó con- siderando que esta redefinición es una construcción intersubjetiva de los valores, acciones y normas en el ámbito político que intenta explicar cómo se construye la ciudadanía, fundamentalmente en el nivel local, a través de formas asociativas (como los consejos comunales en su interrelación con el Estado. Se concluye que a partir del nuevo orden constitucional de 1999 se comien- za a construir en Venezuela un nuevo sujeto que intenta viabilizar sus de- mandas a través de las organizaciones sociales.

  12. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease?

  13. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo.

  14. [Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Venezuela was considered one of the least violent countries in Latin America, however by 2010 it was among the countries with the highest homicide rate. This article analyzes the evolution of homicides in Venezuela between 1985 and 2010 and proposes the existence of three stages which correspond to trends in social and political institutions of the country. The first from 1985 to 1993, characterized by the looting of 1989 and the coups d'état of 1992, when for the first time the homicide rate rose from 8 to 20. The second phase from 1994 to 1998 was a recovery period of the institutional and political stability when the homicide rate remained constant at around 20. The third phase began in 1999 with the H Chavez government and the institutional destruction that comes with the Bolivarian revolution and caused an increase in the rate of 20 to 57 homicides per 100 thousand inhabitants. This article argues that the explanation for the changes in the phases is to be found in the transformation of social and political institutions.

  15. Higiene bucal deficiente, hábito de fumar y gingivitis crónica en adolescentes venezolanos de 15-18 años Poor oral hygiene, smoking habit, and chronic gingivitis in teenagers aged 15-18 years from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ricardo Pérez Barrero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en el consultorio Adaca, del área de salud integral comunitaria El Socorro en el municipio de Valencia, estado venezolano de Carabobo, para valorar los principales factores de riesgo que influyeron en la aparición de gingivitis crónica en 75 adolescentes de 15-18 años durante el período comprendido desde agosto de 2009 hasta enero de 2010. La selección para ambos grupos se efectuó a través del muestreo no probabilístico intencional (por orden de llegada a la consulta: el primero estuvo integrado por 25 con gingivitis crónica (diagnosticados mediante el índice gingival de Loë y Silness y el segundo por 50 (2 sanos por cada paciente. En la casuística se obtuvo que los varones fueron los más afectados por esa inflamación en las encías, directamente relacionada con la higiene bucal deficiente y el hábito de fumar.A case-control study was carried out at Adaca doctor's office, belonging to Socorro, a comprehensive community health area, from Valencia municipality in Carabobo state, Venezuela, in order to assess the primary risk factors which influenced on the chronic gingivitis occurrence in 75 teenagers aged 15-18 years from August, 2009 to January, 2010. The selection of both groups was made through the intentional non-probability sampling (that is to say, according to the arrival order. The first group was composed of 25 patients with chronic gingivitis (diagnosed through Loë and Silness´ gingival index, while the second group consisted of 50 patients (2 healthy teenagers per each patient. In the case material, male teenagers were the most affected by the aforementioned gum inflammation, directly related to poor oral hygiene and smoking habit.

  16. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  17. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  18. Military nurses in Venezuela and training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Izquierdo-Martínez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nursing career professionals with solid-humanistic way scientific, ethical and basis in order that they can properly integrate the multidisciplinary team to creatively solve health problems through nursing care. This article analyzes the formation of the military nurse in Venezuela, with the help of logical historical method to uncover trends and regularities that characterize this process. The nurse is a professional attitudes, values, knowledge and skills to assume their social responsibility, applying theories and models of discipline in the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of health. Similarly, military nurse career provides to the military institution and especially health institutions of the country leadership training in the management of custodial care, management and research on health and committed to education continues in his practice.

  19. e-Science initiatives in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, J. L.; Diaz, G.; Hamar, V.; Isea, R.; Rojas, F.; Ruiz, N.; Torrens, R.; Uzcategui, M.; Florez-Lopez, J.; Hoeger, H.; Mendoza, C.; Nunez, L. A.

    2007-07-01

    Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several webbased scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria. (Author)

  20. Nostalgic Venezuela. Reelection, rupture and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Dámaso Luis León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Venezuela was an oasis in Latin America, a stable, democratic and prosperous country for several decades until the coming of the 1980s’ crisis. The new context and the erosion of traditional actors forced profound political changes. The crisis, the adjustments made during the 1990s and the population’s hopes of one day returning to the path of prosperity generated increasingly radical policy responses. This article seeks to analyse the political responses of the Venezuelan people to the challenges posed by their new socioeconomic reality and how these connect with visions derived from past experience and the approach to the roles of state and leader. It also explores the frustration caused by failure to meet their expectations, leading to the election of increasingly radical options.

  1. Visual pollution in public spaces in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Velandia, Carmen Arelys

    2013-01-01

    Each day cities inhabitants are exposed to visual pollution. This work assess the environmental impact caused by visual pollution in public spaces, using as a case of study a mixed-use neighborhood in San Cristobal, the capital of Tachira state, Venezuela. Such assessment was made using a qualitative approach, where special emphasis was paid to the perception of these impacts by a purposive sample of users of this area. The compilation and analysis of information reveal the main visual pollutants existing in these public spaces where, in addition to outdoor advertising, overhead wires, rubbish, graffiti, vacant land, among others, cars and outdoor kiosks. Neighborhood users are sensitive to the presence of visual pollutants, which affects them physically and psychologically, as well as for the visual quality of their environment. Such signs were used to guide a qualitative appraisal of environmental impacts generated by these circumstances and to propose policies to mitigate them.

  2. Information Sciences: training, challenges and new proposal from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar José Montilla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It reflects on the training of information professionals in Venezuela and the potential contributions that these professionals can provide to society and its projection to it. The content is divided into three parts: the first deals with issues related to professional training in Information Sciences in Venezuela, the second project the training Venezuelan Information Sciences in the future and the third reflects on the prospects for professionals in Information Science

  3. Reactor, radioactive isotopes and nuclear energy: their avatars in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of nuclear affairs in Venezuela, since the decision to bring a research reactor (3MW) to Venezuela (1954) to current situation, is presented. Since the establishment of the National Council for Nuclear Affairs (CONAN) and then of the National Council for the Development of Nuclear Industry (CONADIN), steps are being taken to train nuclear engineers, since most studies thus far indicate the last few years of the Century as the time when nuclear energy will have to supplement other sources

  4. Calidad de la democracia en Venezuela Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los debates sobre la democracia en la Venezuela de hoy carecen de una definición común sobre el tema, sobre cómo estudiarlo, e incluso respecto a qué es democracia. El régimen ha sido descrito de muchas formas: democracia participativa, híbrido, mixto, personalista, populista, iliberal, autoritarismo competitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el nivel de calidad de la democracia en Venezuela, en el marco de una concepción procedimental de la democracia. La evaluación empírica de cinco dimensiones de calidad de la democracia (decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, rendición de cuentas y soberanía revela un nivel bajo en conjunto, con escasa variación entre 2005 y 2010. Los escenarios posibles luego de las elecciones de 2012 incluyen: reforzamiento de las tendencias autoritarias, militarización abierta, liberalización política con fortalecimiento institucional, o volatilidad duradera con conflicto polarizado y debilidad institucional. La salud del presidente Chávez afectará estos escenarios, dado su carácter de factor central unificador de su movimiento y del régimen.Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the

  5. PDV [Petroleos de Venezuela] ditches past to play leading role in Venezuela's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, L.

    1994-01-01

    The president of Petroleos de Venezuela (PDV) describes the transformation of Venezuelan society and economics which has come about between 1989 and 1992 and the effect of these political changes on the oil industry in this country. While political and social unrest has been widespread before and during these changes PDV, at least, considers that a more robust economy and a better and fairer society will result than would have been possible under the oil rent system which held sway prior to 1989. (author)

  6. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... on subject imports from Venezuela was adequate, and [[Page 4438

  7. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  8. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in... orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...

  9. 78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the... India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela. The Department finds that revocation of these antidumping duty orders... INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela...

  10. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-10-07

    Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10-12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001-2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. From 2007-2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children Venezuela.

  11. Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-10-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  12. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  13. Responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lescher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad social universitaria en Maracaibo, Venezuela. El trabajo se sustenta en los postulados de Rodríguez (2010, De la Cuesta (2011, el Ministerio de Educación de España (2011, entre otros. El estudio fue descriptivo, de campo. La población estuvo conformada por autoridades de cinco (5 universidades, una (1 pública y cuatro (4 privadas ubicadas en Maracaibo, a las cuales se accedió mediante un cuestionario compuesto por treinta y dos (32 ítems cerrados. El instrumento fue validado por expertos en el ámbito de la gerencia universitaria. Para determinar la confiabilidad del cuestionario se aplicó el método test-retest, obteniéndose un coeficiente de 0,94. Para analizar los datos se utilizó el promedio aritmético o media. Los resultados indican que las universidades estudiadas exhiben un modelo de responsabilidad social de tendencia empresarial instrumental, donde el conocimiento se perfila como el principal activo disponible para su uso por la sociedad, pero se requiere una mayor integración de las instituciones de educación superior con sus stakeholders.

  14. Las decisiones de los hogares en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakah Mancini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza quién toma las decisiones en los hogares y los factores que afectan la decisión. Esta investigación se condujo en Venezuela, donde se preguntó a las mujeres sobre las decisiones de los hogares en cuatro áreas. Los resultados indican que la mayoría de los hogares toman decisiones conjuntamente. Excluyendo esta categoría, la mayoría de las mujeres toman decisiones concernientes a la compra de bienes y la educación de los hijos, mientras que los hombres dominan las decisiones acerca de las finanzas del hogar y el cambio de residencia. También se encontró que la mayoría de las parejas que trabajan comparten los gastos del hogar. Además, se identifican factores que afectan el poder de decisión de las mujeres como la participación femenina en el mercado laboral y la edad, no obstante, el nivel de educación no afecta su poder decisión.

  15. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.

  16. Zulia rich coal seams to fuel Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-16

    In March, 1982, Carbozulia awarded a contract to Fluor Corp. to provide basic engineering services, including mine planning and geology, for the two-phase project. The open pit mine and ancillary facilities, valued at more than $200 million, will provide steam and metallurgical coal for domestic use. The site, Mina Paso Diablo, is located about 60 miles northwest of Maracaibo. Upon phase one completion sometime in 1987, the mill will start production, gradually increasing to 4 million metric-tons-per-year. This will increase to 6.4 million metric tons when phase two is completed. In addition to the mine, the Venezuelan government plans to build an industrial complex along Lake Maracaibo. Corpozulia will build a steel-rolling mill and add a 350,000 metric tons-per-year coking oven, which will consume about 7% of the mine's metallurgical-coal production. Another government-owned firm, Electric Energy of Venezuela, plans to build a thermo-electric plant nearby. Two 250-megawatt units are planned initially, with potential to add another six units. At full capacity, the plant will burn more than 90% of the coal produced from the mine. Mina Paso Diablo contains one of Latin America's largest proven coal reserves - about 350 million metric tons - with guesstimates running as high as 4 billion metric tons for the Zulia coal basin. The coal is of superior quality, running about 12,000 to 13,000 Btu's per lb. with a low ash and sulphur content.

  17. Social Change and Health Policy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuramy J. Gutiérrez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews social changes occurring in Venezuela during the last two decades, examining how they led to the development of a new health policy. Initially, the political context of the nineties is examined; this was a time when the neoliberal politics of the 1980’s had a demonstrable impact on the living conditions and health status of the population. By 1999 social and political events led to a new Constitution which provided the juridical and legal framework for a new health policy. The conceptualization of health and the model of health care which arose from the constitutional process are considered, as well as the reaction of the dominant economic and political sectors to the new policies imposed by constitutional mandate. The emergence of Barrio Adentro and other social missions is analyzed as an essential factor in the initiation of structural changes within the country and its health institutions. The Barrio Adentro program is described in detail, along with key steps in the development of the Venezuelan National Public Health System. Finally, the impact of these new health policies on the quality of life of the Venezuelan population is delineated.

  18. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Carlos F Linares1 Freddy Ocanto1 Pablo Bretto1 Maricela Monsalve1. Unidad de Síntesis de Materiales y Metales de Transición, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnología, Departamento de Química, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336, Venezuela ...

  19. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  20. Misery Index Corrected by Informality: Applicable to Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Ramoni Perazzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index, adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector to the unemployment level. This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated. Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, compared to the deterioration of the indicator in Venezuela. In general terms, the IMO is controlled by unemployment, except in Venezuela. However, preponderance of inflation over unemployment in this country seems to occur by the underestimate that the unemployment rate has on the Venezuelan labor market situation.

  1. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  2. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Ventura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs. We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I; ii the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV; and those south to the river (OBU II. Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii species exclusively from the Andes; and iii species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  3. Tres nuevas especies de Sterculia L. (Sterculiaceae) de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    MONDRAGÓN, Alcides

    2005-01-01

    Como resultado del estudio taxonómico del género Sterculia L. (Sterculiaceae) en Venezuela, se describen tres nuevas especies: Sterculia abbreviata, procedente de los estados Amazonas, Aragua, Delta Amacuro, Mérida y Miranda; S. amazonica, a lo largo del Río Ocamo del estado Amazonas, y estado Bolívar; S. steyermarkii, en bosques siempreverdes en las costas del estado Miranda y en el estado Mérida. As a result of a taxonomical study of the genus Sterculia L. (Sterculiaceae) in Venezuela, t...

  4. Proteste in Venezuela und die Krise des Chavismus

    OpenAIRE

    Mijares, Víctor M.

    2014-01-01

    Seit Wochen demonstrieren in Venezuela Gegner der Regierung von Nicolás Maduro gegen Gewaltkriminalität, Inflation und die Einschränkung bürgerlicher Grundrechte. Die Regierung antwortet mit Repression und lässt einen führenden Oppositionspolitiker verhaften. Venezuela steht vor einem neuen Zyklus der Instabilität. Das während der Präsidentschaft von Hugo Chávez (1999-2013) etablierte sozioökonomische Modell stößt schon im ersten Amtsjahr seines Nachfolgers Nicolás Maduro an seine Grenzen: Ve...

  5. Beneficios fiscales de las sociedades cooperativas en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez A., Héctor M.

    2013-01-01

    En la última década (período 2000-2010) en Venezuela, el número de sociedades cooperativas ha aumentado notablemente. Esto debido al énfasis por parte del Estado en promover la creación de estas asociaciones inmersas en la economía social, otorgando a las mismas diversos beneficios fiscales. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo, analizar los beneficios fiscales de las sociedades cooperativas en Venezuela. Se concluye, que las cooperativas poseen varios beneficios fi...

  6. Growth in an oil abundant economy: The case of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Bety Agnany; Amaia Iza

    2008-01-01

    This paper has been presented at DEGIT-X held in México 2005.-- Revised: 2008-08. Venezuela's growth experience over the past fifty years is characterized by a high economic growth rate from 1950 to 1970 and a low economic growth rate in the last thirty years. Although Venezuela is an oil abundant economy, this growth experience is largely accounted for by the evolution of its real non-oil GDP. We use growth accounting to quantify the extent to which the growth experience in non-oil sector...

  7. INFORME DE COYUNTURA EXPORTACIONES DE COLOMBIA A VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni E. Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad fundamental de este informe es presentar la situación de exportaciones que originadas en Colombia han tenido como destino Venezuela. Este intercambio comercial es muy importante en términos de la región latinoamericana. En particular, durante los años de mayor intercambio entre los dos países, lo que ha ocurrido en especial en la primera década del Siglo XXI, este comercio llegó a representar casi un 80 por ciento del total de intercambio de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN –Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela.

  8. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  9. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, C. (I.V.I.C., Caracas (Venezuela)); Estevez, R. (Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)); Henneberg, H.G. (Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  10. pobres y nuevas coaliciones en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Briggs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, los gobiernos locales junto con el gobierno nacional, crearon un sistema nacional de salud paralelo, Misión Barrio Adentro (MBA, ubicando a unos 33.000 profesionales de la salud, inicialmente cubanos, en vecindarios de bajos ingresos. A través de la etnografía y entrevistas, se concluye que MBA proporcionó acceso a la atención médica y logró obtener apoyo popular a consecuencia de: movimientos sociales de los pobres; cooperación entre trabajadores comunitarios, residentes, profesionales de salud y funcionarios públicos; la integración de la atención médica con programas sociales y económicos; la ubicación de médicos como residentes en barrios pobres; interacciones positivas y equitativas médico-paciente; el papel clave de los Comités de Salud; y el impacto de la hostilidad de la prensa, un segmento grande de los médicos venezolanos y la oposición en transformar a la salud en un tema político esencial. Todo esto nos sugiere que el Estado puede confrontar las inequidades de salud cuando se unen perspectivas teóricas de la medicina social y la epidemiología crítica con los saberes populares dentro de las comunidades afectadas. Estructuras institucionales flexibles, no burocráticas y creativas aumentan la efectividad de las intervenciones.

  11. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  12. Study of renewable energies in Venezuela; Estudio del desarrollo de las energias alternativas en Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posso, F. R.

    2004-07-01

    It is study the feasibility of development of the alternative energies, AE, in Venezuela based on its potential of exploitation, the analysis of its energetic system, and the attitude of the State before the AE. The results indicate that the country has a high potential of AE, that the hidroenergy in great scale is the unique one with an important participation in the energy system, and that the solar energy and the eolic are those of greater possibility of development. However, an assembly of factors impede the development in firm of the AE, fundamentally related to its historic condition of producer and consumer of fuel fossil in great scale at low cost. It is concluded that only with a change of attitude of the State and the concourse of all the actors involved in the sector, the {sup c}lean energies{sup w}ould be able to have an important weight in the national energetic balance. (Author)

  13. Taska teeb Venezuela seebi eesti moodi / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska ostis ära Venezuela seebiooperi "Lorenzo naine", et valmistada Kanal Spordis näitamiseks Eesti oludele mugandatud "Kalevi naised" (lavastaja Ingomar Vihmar, osades Maria Avdjuško, Andrus Vaarik, Jan Uuspõld, Anne Reemann)

  14. Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de las Apendicularias de la región oriental de Venezuela. Presenta los resultados taxonómicos y de distribución de las especies recolectadas durante los años 1960 a 1962. Las muestras de plancton analizadas indicaron la presencia de 18 especies

  15. Snakes from the Leeward Group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the study of the snakes, which he collected during his trips to the islands off the north coast of Venezuela, to the Venezuelan mainland, and to eastern Colombia. In the present paper the species collected by Dr. Hummelinck are listed with data on scale

  16. Frogs from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1948-01-01

    The present notes deal with a small collection of frogs that was made by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK during his visits to the islands of the Leeward Group, Venezuela and Eastern Colombia. I have included in this study the specimens of Pleurodema brachyops (Cope) already present in the Rijksmuseum van

  17. [Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela.

  18. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  19. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  20. [An explanation of recent trends in infant mortality in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, M R

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of recent trends in infant mortality in Venezuela is presented using official data. The results show a strong decline up to 1968, followed by a period of fluctuation due to sporadic outbreaks of epidemics. However, the most recent data reveal a continuing decline in mortality, indicating that the problems posed by epidemics have been resolved. (summary in ENG, SPA)

  1. Use of nuclear techniques in agriculture in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez C, R.

    1984-01-01

    The agricultural activites being carried out so far in Venezuela are described. Failures and lessons learned from the induced mutation programme (sorghum and ajonjoli) are emphasized. Some of the results obtained with the use of isotopes in biological investigations with dairy and beef cattle and sheep are related. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Reorganization and redimensioning of nuclear activities in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This paper is of a self-critical nature, beginning with a retrospective look at nuclear activities in Venezuela. An inventory of human resources, materials and existing techniques is also made. National nuclear policies and developments are examined pointing out failures and successes. Finally, conclusions are presented about the technical assistance received from international organizations in research, nuclear safety and technological development

  3. Diversity of avian haemosporidians in arid zones of northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Rodríguez-Ferraro, Adriana; Braga, Erika M; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-07-01

    Arid zones of northern Venezuela are represented by isolated areas, important from an ornithological and ecological perspective due to the occurrence of restricted-range species of birds. We analysed the prevalence and molecular diversity of haemosporidian parasites of wild birds in this region by screening 527 individuals (11 families and 20 species) for parasite mitochondrial DNA. The overall prevalence of parasites was 41%, representing 17 mitochondrial lineages: 7 of Plasmodium and 10 of Haemoproteus. Two parasite lineages occurred in both the eastern and western regions infecting a single host species, Mimus gilvus. These lineages are also present throughout northern and central Venezuela in a variety of arid and mesic habitats. Some lineages found in this study in northern Venezuela have also been observed in different localities in the Americas, including the West Indies. In spite of the widespread distributions of some of the parasite lineages found in northern Venezuela, several, including some that are relatively common (e.g. Ven05 and Ven06), have not been reported from elsewhere. Additional studies are needed to characterize the host and geographical distribution of avian malaria parasite lineages, which will provide a better understanding of the influence of landscape, vector abundance and diversity, and host identity on haemosporidian parasite diversity and prevalence.

  4. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    constitution and unicameral legislature, and a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. U.S. officials and human rights...revamped political institutions, eliminating the Senate and establishing a unicameral National Assembly, and expanded the presidential term of office from

  5. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Venezuela a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in a 32 year old man is presented. The clinical picture included a rapid progressive dementia associated with ataxia, global aphasia, myoclonus and pyramidal signs, death ocurred after 13 months. The diagnosis of CJD was confirmed by CT and neuropathological studies. This is the first report of CJD occurring in Venezuela.

  6. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  7. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  8. More oil sand cooperation between Canada and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    Venezuela has pioneered the production of heavy oil, according to Dr. A. Guzman-Reyes, director general of hydrocarbons for the Venezuelan government. The first heavy oil production began in Venezuela 60 yr ago and the oil industry has steadily improved methods of producing and handling heavy oil. The country's producing fields are capable of yielding almost one million barrels of heavy oil daily, although actual production, largely because of market limitations, is about 650,000 bpd. Canada's daily heavy oil production, including the 60,000 bbl of synthetic crude produced daily by the Great Canadian Oil Sands plant, is about 200,000 bbl. Dr. Guzman-Reyes stated that Venezuela intends to rapidly develop heavy oil production and upgrade facilities to maintain its export markets. The national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela, plans to invest 4 times the amount spent on oil development over the last 60 yr during the next 10 yr, a total of $3 billion by 1980.

  9. Escuela de psicología en Venezuela: estructura curricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Vicentelli

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning to the academic formation of the psycho1ogist at Venezuela, studing the curriculum structure, taking in consideration the recommendations, suggestions and reflections presented in events that had influenced the teaching of Psychology and the action of the professional.

  10. Las cárceles y población reclusa en Venezuela Prisos and inmates population in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Posada

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de los asuntos penitenciarios, en América Latina existen pocos estudios comprensivos y recomendaciones regionales con relación a este contexto. En este trabajo se describen las características de las cárceles y los reclusos en Venezuela, información recopilada a través de revisión documental y en visitas realizadas desde 1998-2006 a diferentes penales venezolanos, en el marco de las Jornadas de Salud insertas en el Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, con el propósito de realizar un aporte que sirva como antecedente nacional y regional para la investigación en el ámbito penitenciario, que permita avanzar en el estudio de sus problemas y en la promoción e implementación de posibles soluciones.Despite the importance of prison issues in Latin America, there is little in the way of detailed local studies or recommendations on the subject. This article sets out to describe the situation concerning prisons and inmates in Venezuela. Data for this study was compiled from documentary sources and visits to a number of Venezuelan prisons from 1998 to 2006 as part of the Health Conference of the Programa Penitenciario de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, (Central University of Venezuela Prison Program. The program’s aim was to make contributions towards research on the prison environment at national and regional levels that might serve as a precedent for further study of the problems and issues that exist, and promote and implement possible solutions.

  11. Factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela / Factors of School Effectiveness in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Martínez-Garrido

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La línea de investigación sobre Eficacia Escolar aporta información sobre los factores de aula y escuela que promueven de forma duradera el desarrollo global de todos y cada uno de sus estudiantes más allá de lo que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta sus condiciones previas, al mismo tiempo que fomentan el desarrollo de la comunidad educativa (Murillo, 2007. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar cuáles son los factores de Eficacia Escolar en Venezuela. Para dar respuesta a este objetivo, se lleva a cabo un estudio multinivel siguiendo el planteamiento de valor añadido, esto es, se considera cuál es la aportación de cada factor de eficacia descontando el efecto que generan las características personales, sociales previas del estudiante (nivel socioeconómico y cultural de la familia del estudiante, rendimiento previo, género…. El estudio se lleva a cabo con la información aportada por 362 estudiantes de 23 aulas de tercer curso de Primaria de 10 escuelas venezolanas. El análisis se realiza sobre 4 variables de producto (Rendimiento en Matemáticas y Lectura, Autoconcepto y Satisfacción hacia la escuela, 5 variables de ajuste y 37 variables explicativas. Para la recogida de la información se utilizaron pruebas de rendimiento, test de autoconcepto y cuestionarios a los profesores de la escuela y los estudiantes. Como método de análisis se utilizaron Modelos Multinivel con dos niveles de análisis (estudiante, escuela. Los resultados encontrados indican la existencia de 6 factores de eficacia escolar en Venezuela que demuestran hacer una aportación significativa al desarrollo cognitivo y socioafectivo de los estudiantes: Sentido de Comunidad, Clima de aula y escuela, Currículum de calidad, Dirección escolar, Participación de la comunidad escolar y Recursos. Los resultados de esta investigación han de considerarse como un insumo esencial en cualquier debate informado que busque mejorar la calidad y la equidad de

  12. A new minute Andean Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pristimantis is described from the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is the smallest in its genus known in Venezuela and belongs to the Pristimantis unistrigatus Group. It differs from the rest of Venezuelan Andean congeners in body size (mean male SVL < 21.3 mm, female SVL < 26.3 mm, expanded discs on fingers and toes, absence of dorsolateral folds, and a distinctivecall consisting in 2–5 cricket-like short notes. The new species inhabits the southwestern part of the Cordillera de Mérida in Venezuela and the Venezuelan side of the Cordillera Oriental deColombia, and could be present on the Colombian portion of the cordillera as well.

  13. US energy security plans threatened by militant Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the need to import increasing volumes of crude oil and the desire to avoid over-dependence on the Middle East, the United States is looking to its own hemisphere for more oil. Unfortunately for Washington, the continent's largest oil exporter does not appear to want to co-operate. Venezuela's President, Hugo Chavez, wants to reduce his country's political and economic ties with the US and is seeking other markets for its oil. He has also picked a fight with US oil companies operating in Venezuela, disputing their taxes and refusing to approve their upstream investment programmes, giving rise to fears that oil and gas production will not grow as planned, thereby reducing future export levels. (author)

  14. Metamorfosis del delito de secuestro en el Estado Zulia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Añez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El delito de secuestro es un flagelo social que ha experimentado mutaciones en el tiempo. El año 2009 terminó con una cifra sin precedentes en cuanto a los secuestros reportados en Venezuela. Los datos aportados por los organismos oficiales revelan que durante el 2008 hubo 537 secuestros, lo cual representa un aumento de 52% respecto al total del 2007, mientras que en el 2009 la cifra se incrementó en un 62,82%, en relación con el año anterior. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo describir el delito de secuestro en Venezuela, con especial referencia al Estado Zulia, población fronteriza limítrofe con Colombia. Para ello se emplea una metodología de tipo documental- descriptiva. Se revela que no existen esquemas predefinidos que permitan caracterizar este tipo penal, pues, tal y como ha venido sucediendo, es susceptible de llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento y circunstancia, no de modo exclusivo en sujetos de alto estatus socioeconómico, sino con mínimos medios para responder a las exigencias de los plagiarios; de aquí la proliferación de la modalidad del llamado secuestro exprés. El delito de secuestro en Venezuela ha cambiado en forma notable sus patrones: de ser un delito predominantemente político, fronterizo y ejecutado por grupos organizados, ha pasado a ser uno de objetivos sobre todo económicos, urbano, y ejecutado con un fin de lucro por la delincuencia común. En verdad, el Estado Zulia sigue repuntando en la lista de los estados con mayor incidencia de este delito en Venezuela, pero no es el principal, pues ha sido desplazado en posicionamiento por otras urbes del país, encabezadas en la actualidad por la ciudad capital de Caracas.

  15. The New Phase of Constitutional Struggle in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-21

    the context of the November 22 election of conservative Mauricio Macri to the presidency of Argentina , the announcement by Ecuadorian President Rafael...Correa that he will not run for a fourth term, the economic crisis in Brazil with the looming impeachment of its president Dilma Rousseff, and the...and its neighbors. Anatomy of the Coming Crisis The potential for catastrophe in Venezuela within the coming months arises from a potentially

  16. Isotopic evidence for prehistoric subsistence change at Parmana, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwe, N.J. van der; Roosevelt, A.C.; Vogel, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Results of 13 C/ 12 C ratio measurements on human skeletons from Parmana, Venezuela are reported which show that there was a dramatic shift in the prehistoric diet from dependence on C 3 plants, in which carbon dioxide is initially fixed as phosphoglyceric acid, to C 4 plants, which include maize, in which the carbon dioxide is fixed as a C 4 carboxylic acid. (U.K.)

  17. Estimating the equilibrium real exchange rate in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde Bjørnland

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether the real exchange rate is misaligned with respect to its long-run equilibrium is an important issue for policy makers. This paper clarifies and calculates the concept of the equilibrium real exchange rate, using a structural vector autoregression (VAR) model. By imposing long-run restrictions on a VAR model for Venezuela, four structural shocks are identified: Nominal demand, real demand, supply and oil price shocks. The identified shocks and their impulse responses are c...

  18. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Bolivarian Socialism, and Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Francisco Rojas Aravena, “Nuevo contexto de seguridad internacional: nuevos desafios, nuevas oportunidades?” in La seguridad en America Latina pos 11...Institute, 2005; and Andres Benavente Urbina and Julio Alberto Cirino, “El populismo Chavista en Venezuela,” in La democracia defraudada, Buenos Aires... seguridad en Las Américas: Una mirada a la Conferencia Especial de Seguridad ,” Foro, Noviembre 2003, pp. 10–15. 20. Alvaro Vargas Llosa, “The

  19. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-01-01

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  20. Misery Index corrected by informality: applicable to Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoni Perazzi, Josefa; Orlandoni Merli, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests a variation of the IMO index (Okun's Misery Index), adapting it to markets with these characteristics, adding the ESI level (Employment in the Informal Sector) to the unemployment level -- This research compares the evolution of several standard misery indexes in several zones during the last decades, with emphasis on the case of Venezuela, for which the new proposed index is also estimated -- Results show improvement in the well-being of groups of countries under study, c...

  1. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women's breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women's breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela.

  2. Proyectos educativos: estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineira Finol

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Educativo Integral Comunitario (PEIC y el Proyecto Educativo Institucional constituyen la categoría de comparación entre Venezuela y Colombia; a tal fin, este estudio de tipo comparativo-documental se centró en determinar congruencias y discrepancias entre PEIC y PEI, utilizando el método comparativo estructurado en cuatro fases: descripción, interpretación, yuxtaposición y comparación, propuesto por Hilker y Bereday (1972 Entre los resultados se tienen: congruencias en cuanto surgen sobre las bases de diagnóstico externos efectuados por organismos internacionales UNESCO, CEPAL ante la inefectividad y baja productividad de ambos países; a nivel interno responden a políticas educativas reformadoras de currículum y leyes,. Discrepancias referidas al tiempo de implementación; en Venezuela a partir de 1996; Colombia en 1992; este último, consolidó las bases para la participación a través del gobierno escolar y de un sistema de evaluación institucional, muy incipiente en Venezuela.

  3. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  4. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  5. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at

  6. Venezuela loodab tüürida Kuuba saatust / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez soovib üle võtte Fidel Castro rolli võitluses USA ülemvõimu vastu. Venezuela odava nafta tähtsus Kuuba majandusele. Vt. samas: Kuuba nafta õõnestab USA embargot

  7. The Crisis of Civil-Military Relations in Venezuela: Testing Rational Choice, Cultural, and Institutional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    universal.com. [10 October 1998], 1. El Universal Digital, " Pobreza Critica in Venezuela," 01 January 1998. Available [Online]:HYPERLINK "http:/www.eud.com...Digital, " Pobreza Critica in Venezuela," 01 January 1998. Available [Online] :HYPERLINK "http:/www.eud.com/Elecciones98" http:/www.el- universal.com

  8. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Ryan M.; Sachs, Daniel; Petkiewicz, Shayne J.

    2017-01-01

    precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor...... expression system. These tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts....

  9. Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

    Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

  10. Dengue in Venezuela : A study on viral transmission, risk factors and clinical disease presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is wereldwijd de belangrijkste door muggen overgedragen ziekte. In Venezuela komen regelmatig epidemieën van toenemende omvang voor. In het onderzoek beschreven in dit proefschrift werden ongeveer 2000 personen uit drie wijken in Maracay, Venezuela, bestudeerd middels een prospectieve

  11. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela Escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae na Ilha de Margarita, Nordeste da Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo De Sousa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school, in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.Descrevem se os dois primeiros casos de escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente antrópico (um no domicilio e outro na escola na aldeia de La Sierra, Ilha de Margarita, Estado de Nueva Esparta, nordeste da Venezuela. Os dois acidentes, moderadamente graves, cursaram com acometimento pancreático e alterações eletrocardiografias. Este reporte permite incluir à Ilha de Margarita entre as áreas endêmicas de escorpionismo na Venezuela.

  12. Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products

  13. White plague disease outbreak in a coral reef at Los Roques National Park, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croquer, Aldo; Pauls, Sheila M; Zubillaga, Ainhoa L

    2003-06-01

    Coral diseases have been reported as a major problem affecting Caribbean coral reefs. During August 2000, a coral mortality event of White Plague Disease-II (WPD-II) was observed at Madrizqui Reef in Los Roques National Park, Venezuela. This disease was identified as the major cause of coral mortality, affecting 24% of all colonies surveyed (n = 1 439). Other diseases such as Black Band Disease (BBD), Yellow Blotch Disease (YBD), Dark Spots Disease (DSD) and White Band Disease (WBD) were also recorded, but showed a lower incidence (0.14-0.97%). Two depth intervals, D1 (5.5-6.5 m) and D2 (9-9.5 m) were surveyed with two sets of three band transects 50 x 2 m long, placed parallel to the long axis of the reef. All healthy and injured corals, along each band transect, were counted and identified to species level. Additionally, all diseases and recent mortality that were still identifiable on each colony also were recorded. The incidence of colonies affected by WPD-II ranged from 12.8 to 33% among transects, where thirteen species of scleractinian corals showed several degrees of mortality. The species most affected were Montastraea annularis (39.13%), M. faveolata (26.67%), M. franksi (9.86%), Stephanocoenia intersepta (7.25%), Colpophyllia natans (6.96%), Diploria labyrinthiformis (2.99%), Mycetophyllia aliciae (2.03%), M. cavernosa (1.74%), and D. strigosa (1.45%). WPD-II was more common in the deeper strata (9-9.5 m), where 63% of the surveyed colonies were affected, although the disease was present along the entire reef. Presently, it is imperative to determine how fast the disease is spreading across the reef, how the disease spreads across the affected colonies and what the long-term effects on the reef will be.

  14. The Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: An Analysis of the Reasons Behind Venezuela’s Continuing Demands for Abrogation of the 1899 Anglo-Venezuelan Arbitral Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Universidad de los Andes. 1989. "Beice Ingreso a la OEA." Prensa Libre (Ciudad Guatemala,I Guatemala). January 9. 1991: 4. "Felize in... de las "Nuevas Tribus". Pue rto Ayvamcho). Territorlo Federal de Amazonias , Venozuela: Edicion del Comite Regaional del PartidoICerunista, de ...Suministro de Crudo a Republica Dominicana." E1 Universal (Caracas, Venezuela). August 17, 1990: 12. "Venezuela Propone Defensa de la Amazonia ."

  15. [Need and demand of kidneys for transplantation in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés, C L; Bellorín-Font, E; Weisinger, J; Pernalete, N; Urbina, D; Paz-Martínez, V

    1993-01-01

    The number of cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation has become insufficient around the world. Despite concerted efforts, we have been unsuccessful in greatly improve the supply of organ donors, and consequently the number of end stage renal failure patients awaiting for kidney transplantation continues to increase. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify the need and supply of kidneys for transplant in Venezuela. An overview of the current level of kidney transplant activity in Venezuela is presented, observing that the activity with cadaveric donors had been predominant since 1983, although not to an optimal level. The annual activity in kidney transplant between 1989-1991 remained stable in 6 transplants/million people, but went sharply down to 4.6 in 1992. An estimate of the current need is around 10 donors/million people. This is in contrast with an effective donation rate of only 2.01 and 1.92 donors/million achieved in 1990 and 1991 respectively. The most frequent cause for no donation was the lack of familiar consent. Based on an analysis of the factors involved in the shortage of donor supply in Venezuela, we present some recommendations to increase the availability of cadaveric organ donors in the country. These measures include an improvement of education and legal regulation in the field of organ donation and transplantation, and following the Spanish model, the creation of a program of hospital transplant coordinators that can detect and evaluate potential organ donors as well as coordinate the logistical aspects of transplantation.

  16. El sistema educativo y el trabajo en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Moreno, Marysela C.

    2009-01-01

    El sistema educativo y en el mercado laboral se trabaja con el más importante y valioso recurso: el humano, el cual presenta unas características muy peculiares que merecen ser estudiadas como una rama de la economía como lo es la economía de la educación y la economía laboral. En Venezuela, ambas ramas han sido poco abordadas, pues otros temas económicos han ocupado las reflexiones; sin embargo, las cifras de desempleo y los problemas sociales son cada vez más alarmantes, convirtiéndose en l...

  17. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  18. Venezuela: un caso de inflación mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Risquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el fenómeno inflacionario venezolano reciente, caracterizado como un caso de “inflación moderada”. En él se relaciona esta situación con el problema de la debilidad institucional, el déficit de credibilidad de las autoridades, lo cual ha llevado a un importante uso del impuesto inflacionario como mecanismo de financiamiento del gasto público. Así mismo se señala el papel desempeñado por la inercia en la permanencia de la inestabilidad de los precios en Venezuela.

  19. Prevalence of human toxoplasmosis in san carlos island, venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor; Sánchez-Chávez, Yulaicy; Estévez, Jesús; Larreal, Yraima; Molero, Emelyn

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 335 individuals, 1-65 years of age (mean ±SD of 20.8 ±15.7), in 6 communities from the San Carlos Island, Western Venezuela, was conducted to study the prevalence of serum antibody to Toxoplasma gondii. The indirect hemagglutination test showed an overall infection rate of 49.8% (167 of 335) that ranged 23-64.8% according to the locality. No association between antibody status and age or risk factors was detected. Higher antibody rates were found in a windward coast community, and...

  20. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Herrera, O.; Salazar, V.; Smith, A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql -1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql -1 . Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year -1 . (author)

  1. Soil gas radon concentration across faults near Caracas, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Flores, N.; Urbani, F.; Carreno, R.

    2001-01-01

    SSNTD were used across tectonic features of different degree of activity and lithology in four localities north of Caracas, Venezuela. The homemade dosimeters with LR115 film were buried 20-30 cm in the ground. This cheap and low- tech method proved very useful to understand the tectonic features involved, measuring higher Radon concentration above traces of active faults while in old and sealed faults the results only show the effect of the surrounding lithology. Radon concentration range is 4.3 - 27.2 kB/m 3 . (Author)

  2. Uranium exploration in Venezuela: Situation at the end of 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium exploration started in Venezuela in 1951. The activities began with enthusiasm but interest waned because of the unfavourable economic conditions of the uranium market. In 1975, with the establishment of the National Council for the Development of the Nuclear Industry, emphasis was once again placed on exploration for radioactive minerals. Systematic exploration began 18 months ago, and so far exploratory targets have been found in phosphate rocks in Tachira state and in Palaeozoic granites at El Baul (Cojedes state); very favourable occurrences have been encountered in the Precambrian in Merida and Bolivar states, and in continental Tertiary rocks in Trujillo state. (author)

  3. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010

  4. Desarrollo de la Misión Milagro en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Agüin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    La Misión Milagro, iniciativa Cubana apoyada por Venezuela, es una campaña de contenido social y humanitario, cuyo propósito es devolver la visión o curar diversos padecimientos oftalmológicos en los pueblos latinoamericanos. Debido a la deuda con las personas excluidas de la atención de salud y apartadas de la vida social y productiva por padecer problemas solucionables de salud visual, se considera necesario evaluar el desarrollo de la Misión Milagro en el territorio Venezolano. Se realizó ...

  5. Challenging the norm? International election accompaniment in Nicaragua and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley MCCONNEL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available International election monitoring has been touted as a regional norm in the Western hemisphere, but recent reforms in Venezuela and Nicaragua substituted a diminished international role of electoral accompaniment. This article traces the initial acceptance and later limitation of international election monitoring in those countries to explore whether the change constitutes norm localization or norm defection. It concludes that the norm is not as well institutionalized in the hemisphere as conventionally thought, and that models need to assess together national and international monitoring capacities.

  6. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Torres; María Cristina Useche; Gerardo Castellano

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993), Coleman (1988), Bourdieu (2001) y Lin (2001). La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue...

  7. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Oduber; Endira Mora; Juan Antonio Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. ...

  8. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Oduber, Jesús; Mora, Endira

    2017-01-01

    El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. ...

  9. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  10. Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae y su importancia en Venezuela | The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae And their importance in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Fátima Agrela Da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of various diseases that affect the health of the Venezuelan population. The increase in the incidence of malaria and the emergence of diseases such as chikungunya and Zika make it necessary to implement control measures to reduce the impact of these diseases in Venezuela. To do this, it is essential to know the aspects related to their morphology, bioecology and the characteristics that make possible the participation of mosquitoes in the transmission of these diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe these aspects.

  11. Mitos fundantes en la fuerza espiritual de los warao de Venezuela / Mitos de origem na espiritualidade dos warao da Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-MUÑOZ, Jenny; Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez - Universidad Latinoamericana y del Caribe.

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es parte del producto de una exhaustiva investigación realizada por la autora y un grupo de colegas, concretamente con el pueblo warao de comunidades ubicadas en el municipio Antonio Díaz, estado Delta Amacuro, Venezuela, con el objetivo de recopilar una serie de mitos de origen desde los propios actores sociales para intentar conocer si para el momento, es decir, finales de la primera década del siglo XXI, aún se contaban ante los miembros del pueblo...

  12. REVISIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LOASACEAE EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera Eliana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Loasaceae no ha sido estudiada taxonómicamente en Venezuela, por tal razón se realizó una revisión taxonómica que permitió reconocer las especies presentes en el país y los principales caracteres de importancia taxonómica para su reconocimiento. Se examinaron 102 especímenes de Loasaceae depositados en herbarios nacionales e internacionales. En Venezuela, Loasaceae está representada por tres subfamilias (Gronovioideae, Loasoideae y Mentzelioideae, cuatros géneros (Gronovia, Klaprothia, Nasa y Mentzelia y nueve especies (Gronovia scandens L., Klaprothia fasciculata (C. Presl Poston, K. mentzelioides Kunth, Nasa lindeniana (Urb. & Gilg Weigend, N. venezuelensis (Steyerm. Weigend, N. perijensis (Weigend Weigend, N. triphylla (Juss. Weigend subsp. papaverifolia (Kunth Weigend, Mentzelia aspera L., M scabra subsp. chilensis (Gay Weigend. Se proporcionan claves para las especies presentes en el país, descripciones, ejemplares examinados, sinónimos, ilustraciones, datos de distribución geográfica y ecología, y breves comentarios morfológicos. El indumento y la ornamentación de la cubierta seminal son los principales caracteres de valor taxonómico para distinguir las especies de Loasaceae venezolanas.

  13. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  15. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  16. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bertinellys; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Carreño, Numirin; Guzmán, Militza; Salazar, Elsa; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC), aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD), and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH), is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA) were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137) were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), mainly from discharges (96/137). The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively). Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49), followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49). The aac(6´)-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´)-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  17. End-stage renal disease and its treatment in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellorin-Font, Ezequiel; Milanés, Carmen Luisa; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2002-09-01

    In Venezuela there are 3234 new cases (132 per million population [pmp]) requiring renal replacement therapy each year, and only 40% of these are admitted to the different modalities of dialysis. In the year 2000, there were 195 patients pmp in chronic hemodialysis (4700 patients). Diabetes, glomerular diseases, and hypertension account for more than 60% of the patients in chronic dialysis. Gross mortality in hemodialysis is around 20%, and cardiovascular causes are the primary cause of death (39.5%). Hospital admission in the dialysis patients amounts to 4.6 days/patient/year. Rehabilitation is inadequate. Only 45% of the dialysis patients report normal home or work activities. Transplantation in Venezuela has a general graft survival rate of 83% at 1 year (90% for living related grafts) and 50% (64% for living related grafts) at 10 years. Future tendencies include emphasis in preventive strategies, including early detection and treatment of diabetes and hypertension, as well as efforts to increase the rate of renal transplantation.

  18. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representation

  19. Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguillos, C.; Deng, H.

    2018-04-01

    The integration and use of different space technology applications for disasters management, play an important role at the time of prevents the causes and mitigates the effects of the natural disasters. Nevertheless, the space technology counts with the appropriate technological resources to provide the accurate and timely information required to support in the decision making in case of disasters. Considering the aforementioned aspects, in this research is presented the design and implementation of an Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela. Network based on the design of a topology that integrates the satellites platforms in orbit operation under administration of Venezuelan state, such as: the communications satellite VENESAT-1 and the remote sensing satellites VRSS-1 and VRSS-2; as well as their ground stations with the aim to implement an emergency communications network to be activated in case of disasters which affect the public and private communications infrastructures in Venezuela. In this regard, to design the network several technical and operational specifications were formulated, between them: Emergency Strategies to Maneuver the VRSS-1 and VRSS-2 satellites for optimal images capture and processing, characterization of the VENESAT-1 transponders and radiofrequencies for emergency communications services, technologies solutions formulation and communications links design for disaster management. As result, the emergency network designed allows to put in practice diverse communications technologies solutions and different scheme or media for images exchange between the areas affected for disasters and the entities involved in the disasters management tasks, providing useful data for emergency response and infrastructures recovery.

  20. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  1. Obligaciones legales de las asociaciones cooperativas bancos comunales en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coromoto Aguilar González, Herleny

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available n Venezuela se promulga la Ley Especial de Los Consejos Comunales en el año 2006. El Consejo Comunal está constituido por tres órganos: Órgano Ejecutivo, Unidad de Gestión Financiera, y Unidad de Contraloría Social. La Unidad de Gestión Financiera o Banco Comunal adquirirá la figura jurídica de cooperativa, por consiguiente el presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar los deberes formales que debe cumplir el Banco Comunal: 1. Inscribirse en los registros correspondientes; 2. Llevar Libros Legales; 3. Presentar Declaración Informativa de ISLR; 4. Practicar retención de ISLR; 5. Emitir factura de conformidad con lo establecido en la regulación venezolana.Venezuela promulgated the Special Law of the Communal Councils in 2006. The Communal Council is constituted by three agencies: Executive agency, Financial Management Unit, and Social comptroller Unit. The Financial Management Unit or Communal Bank will acquire the legal figure of a cooperative, therefore the present paper intends to analyze the formal duties established in the Venezuelan tax laws, that the Communal Bank must fulfil: 1. To register in the corresponding registration system; 2. Keep the accountancy Books required by tax laws; 3. To file an informative income tax return; 4. To practice income tax withholding; 5. To emit invoice in accordance with Venezuelan tax regulations.

  2. Relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es describir las relaciones interorganizacionales en el entorno territorial de Maracaibo - Venezuela, para lo cual se caracterizaron los elementos interconectores del capital social como soporte de la innovación y el emprendimiento. Desde el capital social se trabajaron con las perspectivas de Putnam et al (1993, Coleman (1988, Bourdieu (2001 y Lin (2001. La población la conformaron 475 empresas de siete sectores económicos. La técnica muestral empleada fue el muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional aplicado a 85 empresas. Se recolectaron los datos mediante un cuestionario estructurado a cada agente informante de las empresas, el cual fue validado por expertos y la confiabilidad de acuerdo a Alpha de Cronbach arrojó un 0.96, por lo que el instrumento demuestra alta confiabilidad. Las respuestas del cuestionario tuvieron un tratamiento estadístico descriptivo mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciencies (SPSS. Se concluye que hay una debil interconectividad de los elementos del capital social, incidiendo en el bajo nivel de innovación y emprendimiento, precarizando las fuerzas sustentadoras del desarrollo territorial de Maracaibo-Venezuela.

  3. Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country's aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela's physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America's (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region's total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country

  4. O referendo na Venezuela: um ato em um drama inacabado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McCoy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca o referendo revogatório realizado na Venezuela em agosto de 2004, que confirmou a permanência de Hugo Chávez na Presidência do país até o fim de seu mandato. Apontam-se o contexto político que nele culminou, no qual o governo Chávez foi alvo de intensas contestações por parte de seus opositores, e seus conturbados desdobramentos, com acusações de fraude e de atuação imparcial da autoridade eleitoral. A autora destaca a rígida polarização que permeou o processo, dividindo a sociedade venezuelana e impondo ao governo e à própria oposição o desafio de reconstituir o consenso nacional em torno dos interesses coletivos.The article focuses on the recall referendum that took place in Venezuela in August 2004, which confirmed the permanence of President Hugo Chávez. It points out the political context that culminated in the referendum, in which oppositionists fiercely criticized Chávez and his administration. The author shows the sharp polarization that characterized this process, dividing Venezuelan society and affecting the notion of collective interest.

  5. Urban invation of sandflies transmition of leishmania in merida venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Nieves Blanco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development together with uncontrolled construction in endemic areas of leishmaniasis has resulted in a series of environmental transformations that have promoted the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with the adaptation sandflies transmitters to these urban environments. This study aims to determine the presence of sandflies and the epidemiological factors associated with the transmission of leishmaniasis in an urban area of Zea, Venezuela. Five methods of catching sandflies were used indoors in two urbanizations in Zea, Venezuela. Through a survey-type instrument, the epidemiological variables associated with the transmission of leishmaniasis in the housing estates were determined. The presence in the urban dwellings of Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia spinicrassa, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia ovallesi, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia atroclavata and Lutzomyia lichyi were demonstrated. 62.5% of the species caught in urbanized areas have antropohematophagy habits. A 67% and 80% of infestation was determined in the dwellings of the studied urbanizations. It was evidenced a low level of knowledge in the inhabitants mainly on the sandflies, which increases the risk of domiciliation and transmission of leishmaniasis, the control entities are warned to implement preventive and educational measures.

  6. A new species of Cryptonympha Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) from Cerro Duida (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derka, TomÁŠ; Nieto, Carolina

    2018-02-05

    The genus Cryptonympha includes three species: C. copiosa Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty, 1998; C. dasilvai Salles Francischetti, 2004 and C. genevievae Thomas, Manchon Glémet, 2013, known only from the nymphal stage. A description of the nymph of a fourth representative, Cryptonympha tracheata sp. n. is provided here, based on material collected in a blackwater stream on the slopes of the Cerro Duida mountain in south-western Venezuela. The nymph of the new species can be easily distinguished from the other species of the genus by very long tracheal gills II-VII, 2.5 times the length of each tergum, gill I small, nearly half length of gill IV and by posterior margin of terga with rounded spines. A complete description of the new species and a key for nymphs of all known Cryptonympha species are provided.

  7. Estructura del sistema legal del turismo en Venezuela | Structure of the legal system of tourism in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Navas Graterol

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that the social dynamic of human life, in its constant evolution promotes special and particular circumstances that the law must regulate, such as tourism. The latter, as multifaceted activity, develops into different scopes of human activities: economic, social, cultural, environmental, political and obviously, in the judicial, and requires to be regulated, supervised, encouraged and coordinated by the law. This compendium of rules integrates what is known as the Legal System Structure of the Tourism in Venezuela and they are organized in a hierarchical way, into a legal level that gives a determinate rank, which can be the same or different, and could be seen in the pyramidal model created by Hans Kelsen. The understanding of this legal system that regulates tourism through the compressive hermeneutics of its rules, allowed to find out that the legal structure is well defined within the Venezuelan touristic context. The analysis of results allowed to conclude that the norm that regulates the tourism activity in Venezuela responds to the Kelsen pyramidal model and there is a diverse number of legal instruments which contain rules that regulates it in direct way and others indirectly.

  8. The Crustal Structure and Seismicity of Eastern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Martins, A.; Sobiesiak, M.; Alvarado, L.; Vasquez, R.

    2001-12-01

    Eastern Venezuela is characterized by a moderate to high seismicity, evidenced recently by the 1997 Cariaco earthquake located on the El Pilar Fault, a right lateral strike slip fault which marks the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South-American plates in this region. Recently, the seismic activity seems to migrate towards the zone of subduction of the Lesser Antilles in the northeast, where a mb 6.0 earthquake occurred in October 2000 at 120 km of depth. Periodical changes in the seismic activity are related to the interaction of the stress fields of the strike-slip and the subduction regimes. The seismic activity decreases rapidly towards to the south with some disperse events on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield, related to the Guri fault system. The crustal models used in the region are derived from the information generated by the national seismological network since 1982 and by microseismicity studies in northeastern Venezuela, coinciding in a crustal thickness of about 35 km in depth. Results of seismic refraction measurements for the region were obtained during field campains in 1998 (ECOGUAY) for the Guayana Shield and the Cariaco sedimentary basin and in 2001 (ECCO) for the Oriental Basin. The total crustal thickness decreases from about 45 km on the northern edge of the Guayana Shield to some 36 km close to El Tigre in the center of the Oriental Basin. The average crustal velocity decreases in the same sense from 6.5 to 5.8 km/s. In the Cariaco sedimentary basin a young sedimentary cover of 1 km thickness with a seismic velocity of 2 km/s was derived. Towards the northern limit of the South-American plate, no deep seismic refraction data are available up to now. The improvement of the crustal models used in that region would constitute a step forward in the analysis of the seismic hazard. Seismic refraction studies funded by CONICIT S1-97002996 and S1-2000000685 projects and PDVSA (additional drilling and blasting), recording equipment

  9. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  10. Valgevenest Iraanini : Venezuela liider koob USA-vastas ühisrinnet / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela president Hugo Chavez külastab mitmeid Ameerika Ühendriikidele probleemseid riike. Kohtumine Valgevene presidendi Aleksandr Lukashenkoga, eelseisvast visiidist Venemaale. Lisa: Chavez tahab julgeolekunõukogusse

  11. Venezuela tõusis presidendi sotsialismikursi vastu üles / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelas toimunud rahvahääletusel lükati tagasi president Hugo Chavezi ettepanekud, mis puudutasid põhiseaduse muutmist. President peab seda vaid ajutiseks tagasilöögiks. Lisa: Tudengid ja meedia riigipea vastu

  12. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  13. Democracy in Hugo Chavez's Venezuela: Developing or Faltering Due to His Politics, Activities, and Rhetoric?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David, R. N

    2008-01-01

    .... During his reign, Chavez, a member of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, has made many dramatic changes to the nearly 50-year-old democracy, including nationalizing several key industries...

  14. An Analysis of the Contracting Process Used by the National Armed Force of Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Yovany

    2000-01-01

    ... to the new Bolivarian Venezuelan National Constitution The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the military contracting process for goods and services in Venezuela as well as to identify policies...

  15. Knowledge Management and Analysis of Scientific Biotechnology Trends in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Ebole Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on knowledge management and analysis of scientific Biotechnology trends in Venezuela, providing an overview of the science profile as well as regional development and its relation to issues of topics covered by Biotechnology based on the analysis of scientific publications for the period of 1995 to 2010. The survey was accomplished in database ISI/Web of Science using 60 terms selected by experts in Biotechnology and 803 register has been organized. Scientific indicators were produced using data/ text mining tools. It was possible to find a greater number of scientific publications in areas such as Ecology and Health, showing a greater frequency in these terms: DNA, PCR and Biodiversity. Results pointed out The United States of America as the main foreign partner-country of scientific publications followed by Spain and France. It was possible to verify cooperation network with others Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia and Chile.

  16. Fatal yellow fever in a traveler returning from Venezuela, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-14

    On September 28, 1999, a previously healthy 48-year-old man from California sought care at a local emergency department (ED) and was hospitalized with a 2-day history of fever (102 F [38.9 C]), chills, headache, photophobia, diffuse myalgias, joint pains, nausea, vomiting, constipation, upper abdominal discomfort, and general weakness. On September 26, he had returned from a 10-day trip to Venezuela. On September 29, an infectious disease physician from the ED contacted the Marin County Health Department (MCHD) about the patient's symptoms; MCHD reported his illness to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) as a suspected case of viral hemorrhagic fever. This report describes the investigation of the case.

  17. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia La Barbera-Sánchez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 µg STX/100 g meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2 548 and 115 µg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1 422 and 86 µg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization. A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX, but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3 toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSPUn severo brote de intoxicación paralizante por moluscos (PSP en inglés ocurrió en Manzanillo y Guayacán en la costa noroeste de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela entre agosto y octubre de 1991. Una proliferación de Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum y Alexandrium tamarense causó el brote. Los niveles de PSP en mejillón (Perna perna superaron los niveles máximos permisibles de saxitoxina, 80 µg STX/100g carne. Los niveles de toxinas variaron entre 2 548 y 115

  18. Mineral content of the honey produced in Zulia state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbarán de Ferrer, Betzabé; Ojeda de Rodríguez, Graciela; Peña, Jorge; Martínez, Janeth; Morán, María

    2004-09-01

    The mineral content of the honey produced in five zones of the Zulia state, Venezuela, during dry and rainy seasons was determined. The analyzed elements were: sodium, potassium (by emission spectroscopy), calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese (by atomic absorption spectroscopy), phosphorus (phosphate ions, by colorimetric method), and ash content of raw honey samples directly collected from different beekeepers. The mean values for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and P were 353+84; 1774+138; 237+66; 52+24; 0.76+0.43; 13.5+10.23; 0.92+0.42 and 1642+323 mg/kg respectively. The mean ash content was 0.431+0.15%. Potassium was the most abundant of the elements determined. This results confirm that Zulian honey can be considered a good source of minerals.

  19. Gamma environmental dosimetry and radon concentration in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Greaves E, D.

    1996-01-01

    The environmental radiation levels have been determined in Venezuela by means of different techniques including the passive dosimeters and the alpha and gamma dosimetry besides the gross alpha/beta counting. The most important conclusion is that the presence of artificial radionuclides (Cesium-137, Beryllium-7 and Cadmium-109) was observed in different environmental samples and in food considered contaminant. The values of gamma levels are between 28 and 40 mGy/day and the mean value of radon concentration in closed environment is 36 Bq/m 3 ; the higher values of a factor 10 have been measured in the Andes region. The 20% of analysed drinking water has a concentration of alpha radionuclides emitters less than 0.005 Bq/l and only the 8% is greater than 0.450 Bq/l. (authors). 6 refs., 1 fig

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years, from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III, both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080 in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit.

  1. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  2. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  3. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image.

  4. Estados Unidos y Venezuela: Una relación necesaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies Hugo Chavez's electoral victory and the implementation of a new type of democracy as two factors that transformed Venezuelan foreign policy, and in particular, the bilateral relationship with the United States. Chavez's international activism, in addition to his Bolivarian policy signaled a shift from "safe partner" to "partner with reservations" in the country's relations with Washington. Although Venezuela considered itself a Latin American showcase in previous years, the text argues that Chavez's populist tendencies, his critical posture towards the promotion of democracy and human rights, and his supposed links with Colombian guerrillas has led to a "wait-and-see" policy characterized by high levels of caution on the part of the United States.

  5. Ootaxonomic investigation of five Lutzomyia species (Diptera, Psychodidae from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Fausto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The eggshell fine structure of five sand fly species from Venezuela belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta, L. gomezi and L. panamensis was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The chorionic sculpturing of L. migonei, L. ovallesi, L. absonodonta and L. gomezi was characterized by series of columns arranged in palisade to form sinuous ridges. In inter-ridge areas, the basal layer was covered with fibrous material. The outer chorion of L. panamensis had a pattern known as "mountain- or volcano-like". The morphology of the posterior pole and aeropyle had a common structure in the five species, with some species-specific characters. The eggshell features of the five species are compared with those of other phlebotomine sand flies.

  6. What does the failure to reduce homicides in Venezuela teach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the paradox of increased homicides in Venezuela in a period of wealth and redistribution. To do so, theories that explain criminality through poverty and inequality are reviewed and refuted and weighed against theories of institutionalism. Thus, the article analyses the situation of homicides between 1985 and 2010 and establishes three periods in which the rules regulating access to a goods, b political power, and c social and penal control were broken. The theories are discussed with statistical information and interpreted within the economic and political context of the time. It is concluded that the reduction in homicides requires institutionalism based on sensitivity and certain formal and informal rules that allow the construction of legitimacy around social difference and punishment, and a citizens’ culture that favours social control by peers over penal control by the State.

  7. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    sold to buyers in Western Europe and the United States. The most important Venezuelan exports in the 19th century were cocoa and coffee. In the 20th...confusion in the U.S. Congress over the difference between the Organiza- tion of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), of which Venezuela was not a...member, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), to which Venezuela belonged, the action remained in force even though Caracas had

  8. Strategi Venezuela Menyepakati ALBA dalam Menghadapi Ekspansi Perdagangan Amerika Serikat Dikawasan Amerika Latin

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlawan, Indra; Wahyu, Septian

    2014-01-01

    In 2004 Venezuela and Cuba have agreed on a regional collaboration in latin america called Alternative Bolivarian Para las Americas an abbreviated ALBA. This collaboration is formed as a resistance facing U.S. trade expansion to bring a mission neoliberalism. With the formation of ALBA, Venezuela is the regional co-operation leaders make strategic measures to face Neoliberalism. In 2010 ALBA has had a total of 10 member countries. As counter hegemony, ALBA also worked in three space. In the s...

  9. Characterization of antigenetic serotypes from the dengue virus in Venezuela by means of Grid Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, Raúl; Montes, Esther; Rubio-Montero, Antonio J; Rosales, José D; Rodríguez-Pascual, Manuel A; Mayo, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This work determines the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus in Venezuela by means of phylogenetic calculations performed on the EELA-2 Grid infrastructure with the PhyloGrid application, an open source tool that allows users performing phylogeny reconstruction in their research. In this study, a total of 132 E nucleotide gene sequences of dengue virus from Venezuela recorded in GenBank(R) have been processed in order to reproduce and validate the topology described in the literature.

  10. Guidelines to elaborate a migration plan for digital terrestrial television in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Rafael Uzcátegui; José Francisco Torres; Nelson Pérez García; Luís Duque; Zeldívar Bruzual

    2011-01-01

    In October 2009, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela adopted the ISDB-Tb (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Terrestrial Built On), released by Japan, with some improvement made by Brazil, as Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) to be deployment in Venezuela. After standard choice, has been start the route towards the solution of transcendental aspects of legal and technical nature to enable the provision of digital terrestrial television service harmonized with the goals of true soc...

  11. AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE GENES IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATES FROM CUMANA, VENEZUELA

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    Bertinellys TEIXEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic modification of aminoglycosides by aminoglycoside-acetyltransferases (AAC, aminoglycoside-adenyltransferases (AAD, and aminoglycoside-phosphotransferases (APH, is the most common resistance mechanism in P. aeruginosa and these enzymes can be coded on mobile genetic elements that contribute to their dispersion. One hundred and thirty seven P. aeruginosa isolates from the University Hospital, Cumana, Venezuela (HUAPA were evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method and theaac, aadB and aph genes were detected by PCR. Most of the P. aeruginosa isolates (33/137 were identified from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, mainly from discharges (96/137. The frequency of resistant P. aeruginosaisolates was found to be higher for the aminoglycosides tobramycin and amikacin (30.7 and 29.9%, respectively. Phenotype VI, resistant to these antibiotics, was the most frequent (14/49, followed by phenotype I, resistant to all the aminoglycosides tested (12/49. The aac(6´-Ib,aphA1 and aadB genes were the most frequently detected, and the simultaneous presence of several resistance genes in the same isolate was demonstrated. Aminoglycoside resistance in isolates ofP. aeruginosa at the HUAPA is partly due to the presence of the aac(6´-Ib, aphA1 andaadB genes, but the high rates of antimicrobial resistance suggest the existence of several mechanisms acting together. This is the first report of aminoglycoside resistance genes in Venezuela and one of the few in Latin America.

  12. Los movimientos estudiantiles en Venezuela, 1958-1990

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    Roberto López Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está centrado en los aportes del movimiento estudiantil al proceso político venezolano, en dos momentos clave: la renovación universitaria de 1969, y las protestas estudiantiles de 1987. Hemos identificado las particularidades de los diferentes grupos estudiantiles, y a sus principales dirigentes; sus mecanismos de intervención y de conflicto, su relación con los programas de partidos y movimientos políticos, y su incidencia en la situación política local y nacional. Recurriendo a fuentes biblio-hemerográficas, documentales y orales, el estudio consideró los aportes teórico-metodológicos de investigaciones relacionadas con los movimientos sociales en general y con el movimiento estudiantil en particular. Se concluye estableciendo que los movimientos estudiantiles fueron durante los primeros treinta años de la democracia puntofijista los principales protagonistas del conflicto social en Venezuela.____________________ABSTRACT:The present work describes the contributions of the student movement to the Venezuelan political process, in two focal moments: the university’s renovation of 1969, and the students’ protests of 1987. We have identified the peculiarities of the different students’ groups and their main leaders; their political mechanisms of intervention and conflict, their relation with programs of parties and movements, and their incidence in the local and national political situation. Referring to biblio-hemerographic, documentary and oral sources, the study has considered the theoretical-methodological contributions of researches related both to social movements in general and to student movements in particular. It is established that, during the first thirty years of the puntofijista democracy, student movements were the main protagonists of the social conflict in Venezuela.  

  13. Reactor, radioactive isotopes and nuclear energy: their avatars in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, M

    1981-03-01

    The decision to bring a fair sized (3MW) research reactor to Venezuela, made in 1954 by a single, ambitious and prestige seeking individual working with a dictatorial government, is a clear case of cargo cult, an implicit desire to import industralized countries' science and technology by purchasing key in hand their expensive machine. The reactor has never ceased to experience difficulties since then, not so much of a physical or mechanical, but rather of a human nature and due to the almost grotesque distance between the machine's potentialities and the quantity and quality of personnel available. Demand and motivation have been scarce, because fossil and hydro energy have been so far plentiful. Military motivation was in theory absent. Perspectives have apparently improved, not that a scientific community has been trained and an infrastructure exists. Radioactive isotopes have been widely used in Venezuela, beginning in 1953, for medical practice and biological research. At present about 2.5 million bolivars worth of radioisotopes are imported annually, mostly from the US and to a lesser extent, from UK. Steps are being taken to train nuclear engineers, since most studies thus far indicate the last few years of the century as the time when nuclear energy will begin to enter the picture, and since a period of at least ten years is needed between the decision to build an atomic power plant and the time it goes into operation. Choice of technique has not been made, but an active, although still small, uranium prospecting program has been initiated. It seems as if, by the end of the century, either nuclear energy will have to supplement other sources, or standard of living of Venezuelans - at least that relative minority who can afford to live well - will drop. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Applicability and optimization of SAGD in eastern Venezuela reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina R, J.A.; Bashbush, J.L.; Fernandez, E.A. [Schlumberger, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-10-15

    Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is one of the most effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. In Venezuela, a significant amount of heavy oil in place has been mapped, but limited areas have been developed. Suitable EOR methods need to be applied to extend the productive life of these reservoirs and increase their recovery factors. This paper presented and described an evaluation and stepwise optimization process for a steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project using a representative sector model from a field with fluid and reservoir characteristics from an eastern Venezuela formation. The purpose of the study was to understand the impact of key parameters in the process specific to the selected area and to understand the effects on the recovery factor in these reservoirs, which have previously produced with primary recovery mechanisms. The paper discussed a sensitivity analysis that was performed using thermal simulation. Thermal simulation and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis were described. Parameters that were analyzed included vertical well spacing, injection steam rate, well flowing pressure, and horizontal length of the well pair. The paper also presented a brief analysis of the effect on oil recovery from the angle of dip in the reservoir and the orientation of the well pair with regard to the direction of dip. A comparison between two- and three- pseudocomponent model results was also provided. The authors recommended that economic analyses should accompany the final optimization sequence, to incorporate financial and technical considerations for the selection design of the SAGD pilot. 7 refs., 12 tabs., 18 figs.

  15. [Reproductive effort, fattening index and yield of Arca zebra (Filibranchia: Arcidae) by length and its association with environmental variables, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, María; Velásquez, Carlos; Prieto, Antulio; Longart, Yelipza

    2016-06-01

    Arca zebra is a mollusk of commercial value and a major socioeconomic fishery in Northeastern Venezuela. The present study aimed to evaluate the reproductive effort (RE), fattening index (FI) and yield (Y) in different size groups of A. zebra from the morro Chacopata, Venezuela. For this, monthly samplings from June 2008 and June 2009, were undertaken, and the bivalves obtained were distributed in three length groups: I (30.1 to 50.0 mm), II (50.1 to 70.0 mm) and III (> 70.0 mm). Monthly RE, FI and Y were determined based on bivalve changes in volume of fresh meat (VFM), intervalvar volume (IV), dry gonad biomass (DW), dry biomass of the organism without gonad (DWs), fresh biomass of meat (FBM) and total biomass including shell (TBIS). Besides, environmental variables such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total organic and inorganic seston and chlorophyll a were measured monthly. There was great variation in the DW between length groups (relevant for II and III): increased from June until late September 2008, was followed by a marked decrease in October 2008, recovered in the following months, and decreased in January 2009, with a slight increase until May 2009; these changes were associated with variations in sea temperature. The weight of the gonad (DW) influenced the RE, FI and Y, as these reached their peaks in the months where there was higher gonadal production, indicating the influence of temperature on A. zebra reproduction.

  16. Analisis Penerapan Kebijakan Ekonomi Sosialis Venezuela Pada Masa Pemerintahan Hugo Chavez Menghadapi Imperialisme Ekonomi Amerika Serikat Tahun 1998-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Razali, Rino

    2014-01-01

    This describes through analysis of the literature study on the application of the socialist economy in Venezuela when leadership of Hugo Chavvez. This Research intended to analyse the application of Venezuela socialist economic policies when the leadreship of Hugo Chavez to face the Economic imperialism by United States of America in 1998-2013. It is because the US economic imperialism was very detrimental to the people of Venezuela.Keywords: policy, bolivarianisme, economics.

  17. Urban movements and disempowerment in Perú and Venezuela Movimientos urbanos y desempoderamiento en Perú y Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a core puzzle: why is continued citizen mobilization accompanied by growing disempowerment of those same citizens? Why do movements fail, leaders burn out and members disperse, and what are the implications of this organizational failure for demo¬cratic representation? Our consideration of the issues is rooted in a close examination of urban movements, mobilization, empowerment and disempowerment in the recent experience of Venezuela and Perú. The puzzle that concerns us is of course not limited to these two countries: it is common to all the Andean republics, and in different ways, to much recent experience of urban mobilization in Latin America and beyond. After a brief account of urban citizen move¬ments and politics in our two cases, we outline general reflections on the nature of empowerment and disempowerment, on the peculiar combination of strengths and weaknesses that mark many contemporary movements. A close examination of types of movements and their links with poli¬tical parties and protest follows. The character of city life is important here. We close with analysis of recent waves of urban mobilization in Perú (that sparked the ouster of president Alberto Fujimori and in Venezuela (both for and against president Hugo Chávez Frías, and with reflections on the likely future of empowerment and disempowerment for urban citizens and the implications of this perspective for democratic representationEste artículo plantea un puzzle principal: ¿por qué la movilización ciudadana continuada viene acompañada de un crecimiento del desempoderamiento de estos mismos ciudadanos? ¿Por qué los movimientos fracasan, los líderes se desgastan y los miembros se dispersan, y cuáles son las implicaciones del fracaso organizativo para la representación democrática? Nuestra consideración del asunto encuentra sus raíces en un profundo análisis de los movimientos urbanos, de la movilización, del empoderamiento y del

  18. [Taxonomy of some microteids (Squamata) from Venezuela, I: variation and geographic distribution of Euspondylus acutirostris and description of a new Euspondylus from northeast Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares-Urrutia, A; Celsa Señaris, J; Arends, A

    2000-01-01

    Only two species of the microteiid lizard genus Euspondylus (E. acutirostris and E. phelpsorum) had been reported from Venezuela. New records of the poorly known gymnophthalmid lizard Euspondylus acutirostris are reported extending its known range along the Coastal Range and Sierra de Aroa (north-central Venezuela) and Sierra de San Luis (northwestern Venezuela), all records occurring at the cloud forest above 1000 m. Seven body measurements were included and morphological variation is described based on at least 17 new specimens. Sexual dimorphism is determined in, at least, eight characteristics of size and squamation. Specimens were found in epiphytic bromeliads and the ground. The populations from Sierra de Aroa and Sierra de San Luis (only one specimen known from each locality), differ from those of the Coastal Range (supposedly the nominal population) in some morphological and coloration features, suggesting that the former two could represent different taxonomical entities. A new species of Euspondylus is described based on a female (taken within a bromeliad) from Cerro El Humo, Sucre, northeastern Venezuela. It differs from congeners mainly by having keeled scales on the limbs and a very acute snout.

  19. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  20. Venezuela: calidad de las elecciones y calidad de la democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam KORNBLITH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de la afirmación de Levine y Molina (2006, según la cual la calidad de la democracia depende del funcionamiento de los procesos mediante los cuales la población selecciona y controla sus gobernantes, en este trabajo se examina el caso venezolano, haciendo especial énfasis en el análisis de la dinámica electoral del período marcado por la presidencia de Chávez (1999-2006. Dicho examen nos lleva a concluir que el régimen sociopolítico venezolano actual puede ser caracterizado más adecuadamente como un «régimen autoritario electoral», más que como una democracia representativa convencional. Los rasgos autoritarios del gobierno venezolano actual explicarían la baja puntuación obtenida por Venezuela en los índices de Freedom House. Sin embargo, este examen también nos lleva a considerar la pertinencia de los supuestos de la calidad de la democracia en el contexto de un cambio de régimen que explícitamente se aleja de las aspiraciones e ideales que sustentan el concepto, dimensiones e indicadores de la calidad de la democracia propuestos.ABSTRACT: Taking off from the affirmation by Levine and Molina that «the quality of democracy depends on the operation of procedures whereby the population selects and controls its government», this article examines the dynamics of elections during the Presidency of Chávez, (1999-2006. This examination leads to the conclusion that the current regime is better characterized as «an autoritarian electoral regime» than as a conventional representative democracy. This re-definition explains the low scores obtained by Venezuela both in Freedom House. At the same time, this study throws light on the bases of democracy and of definitions of quality of democracy in a regime that explicitly rejects the very ideals and aspirations that underlie the definitions, dimensions and indicators of democracy itself.

  1. A new species of Microphallus (Trematoda: Microphallidae from Venezuela

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    M.T Díaz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available During 1997-1999, a total of 94 crabs, Uca rapax were collected from La Sabana, La Ceiba and El Paujil, Sucre State, Venezuela. Of these 36 were infected with metacercariae. Two parasites were located in the abdominal muscles and one under the tissue of carapace and gonad. These metacercariae grew to adults in the following genera: Levinseniella, Microphallus and Maritrema, in the period of 2-5 days after feeding experimentally to the rat Rattus norvegicus, mice Mus musculus and duck Cairinia moschata. Specimens of the genus Microphallus were described herein as a new species M. sabanensis. The life cycle of M. sabanensis sp.nov. were studied experimentally using rat, mice and duck. All developmental stages and the adult are described. In addition, M. sabanensis was collected from wild birds Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea and Nycticorax violaceus from the same localitiesDurante 1997-1999, se recolectaron en La Sabana, La Ceiba y El Paujil del Distrito Cajigal, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, un total de 94 cangrejos Uca rapax, 36 de ellos estaban parasitados con tres especies de metacercarias de digéneos. Dos de ellos localizados en la musculatura del abdomen y una en el tejido que recubre internamente el caparazón y las gónadas. Estas metacercarias fueron dadas como alimento a ratones Mus musculus, ratas Rattus norvegicus, y patos Cairina moschata y tres genéros de microfálidos, Levinseniella, Microphallus y Maritrema fueron recuperados del intestino delgado de estos animales después de 2-5 días de la infección. Especimenes del genero Microphallus de este estudio se describen como Microphallus sabanensis sp.n. Se estudió experimentalmente los aspectos de ciclo vida de la especie, utilizando ratas, ratones y patos. Se describen todas las estapas larvales y los adultos. Además, M. sabanensis se encuentra naturalmente en las aves: Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea

  2. Aspectos Musicales del Joropo de Venezuela y Colombia

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    Claudia Calderón Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Joropo es una expresión de arte popular en permanente evolución, originalmente una fiesta campesina o pueblerina que integra poesía, canto, música y danza en un sistema de creatividad improvisatoria sobre estructuras establecidas y parámetros definidos de estilo. El Joropo se caracteriza por un sistema de estructuras cristalizadas a lo largo de la historia a partir de canciones y danzas tradicionales que se erigieron en formas musicales, sirviendo como base para a variantes en la letra, o convirtiéndose en formas puramente instrumentales. El Joropo es una tradición que abarca casi la totalidad del territorio venezolano y al menos la cuarta parte del territorio colombiano. En Venezuela el Joropo es considerado el baile nacional por excelencia y existen tres tipos de Joropo clasificados por regiones con importantes variantes de instrumentación y estilo: el Joropo Oriental, el Joropo Central y el Joropo Llanero. Solamente el Joropo Llanero, extendido alrededor de la cuenca central del Orinoco, es común a Colombia y Venezuela, siendo el más difundido de todos, tanto por la amplia discografía y radiodifusión como por la abundancia de festivales, concursos y torneos que involucran a ambos países. Además es notable el auge y desarrollo urbano que ha tenido esta música en los últimos años en las respectivas capitales. Sus orígenes se remontan a las músicas ibéricas del Siglo XVII y XVIII, tales como el múltiple Fandango, las Folías, Peteneras, Jotas y Malagueñas andaluzas, sazonadas con la influencia de ocho siglos de dominación árabe y posteriormente transformadas en América con el mestizaje de elementos africanos e indígenas, bajo el sol abrasador de la Cuenca del Orinoco y la vastedad infinita de sus horizontes y llanuras. Los antecesores del Joropo incluyen la música de marineros y trovadores que llega en los galeones provenientes de España, transformándose en música arraigada en el suelo americano y dando lugar a

  3. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas

  4. Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in children with acute diarrheic syndrome from Sucre State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelli, Elvia; Millán, Adriana; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Michelli, Mirian; Luiggi, Jesús; Carreño, Numirin; De Donato, Marcos

    2016-03-28

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is an important causative agent of acute diarrheic syndrome.  To identify clonal groups of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), in 485 children with acute diarrhea aged 0 to 10 years attending health care centers in Arismendi, Benítez and Sucre municipalities, Sucre state, Venezuela, from March to December, 2011.  After obtaining the informed consent, stool samples were collected. Escherichia coli was identified using standard coproculture methods and serology with polyvalent and monovalent antisera. DNA was isolated, and eae (intimin) and bfpA (bundlin) genes were amplified through two multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR).  The presence of bacterial infection was determined in 39.6% of coprocultures. The prevalence of E. coli was 54.7%; 82.9% of these isolates were positive by serology for the evaluated serogroups and serotypes, which were mostly identified in children between 0 and 2 years (37.9%); 48.6% of E. coli strains amplified the eae gene; of these, 58.8% were classified as typical EPEC (eae+ y bfp+). EPEC II was the most common serogroup (38.7%), with predominance of typical EPEC (60%). In positive strains for eae gene, the β intimin allele was the most frequently identified (74.5%). Only four strains with O157:H7 serotype were identified, which showed no PCR amplification of the eae and bfpA genes.  This study showed the importance of molecular tests to identify diarrheagenic E. coli strains causing clinical conditions of varying severity.

  5. Prevalence of Dyslipidemias in Three Regions in Venezuela: The VEMSOLS Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivas, Juan P.; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; Brajkovich, Imperia; Ugel, Eunice; Rísquez, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevalence of dyslipidemia in multiple regions of Venezuela is unknown. The Venezuelan Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (VEMSOLS) was undertaken to evaluate cardiometabolic risk factors in Venezuela. Objective To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in five populations from three regions of Venezuela. Methods During the years 2006 to 2010, 1320 subjects aged 20 years or older were selected by multistage stratified random sampling from all households in five municipalities from 3 regions of Venezuela: Lara State (Western region), Merida State (Andean region), and Capital District (Capital region). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analysis were obtained from each participant. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the NCEP/ATPIII definitions. Results Mean age was 44.8 ± 0.39 years and 68.5% were females. The prevalence of lipids abnormalities related to the metabolic syndrome (low HDL-c [58.6%; 95% CI 54.9 - 62.1] and elevated triglycerides [39.7%; 36.1 - 43.2]) were the most prevalent lipid alterations, followed by atherogenic dyslipidemia (25.9%; 22.7 - 29.1), elevated LDL-c (23.3%; 20.2 - 26.4), hypercholesterolemia (22.2%; 19.2 - 25.2), and mix dyslipidemia (8.9%; 6.8 - 11.0). Dyslipidemia was more prevalent with increasing body mass index. Conclusion Dyslipidemias are prevalent cardiometabolic risk factors in Venezuela. Among these, a higher prevalence of low HDL is a condition also consistently reported in Latin America. PMID:29538522

  6. [Dog (Canis familiaris) infectivity to Lutzomyia youngi in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dalila; Rojas, Elina; Scorza, José Vicente; Jorquera, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    In Trujillo, Venezuela the prevalence for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is 38 per 100,000 inhabitants. In a periurban, rural settlement of the capital city Trujillo, we studied the potential capability of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as a source of infection for Lutzomyia youngi, a phlebotomine sand fly species abundant in the study area and whose domestic vectorial activity has been proven. Dogs with dermal lesions suggestive of ATL and parasitological confirmation of infection, were selected for xenodiagnosis by allowing sylvatic phlebotomines from a ATL free area, to feed ad libitum over each animal's entire body surface. The insects' intestinal tracts were dissected 5 days after the blood meal in order to look for flagellate forms. When these were found, parasitological identification was performed by the multiplex-PCR technique. Four hundred and fifty five sand flies engorged over two dogs in three different assays; promastigotes were found in 4 (0.88%) of the specimens on only one occasion. PCR identified DNA of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. The household dog has the potential of being a domestic risk factor in the ATL transmission cycle.

  7. Origin of ultramafic-hosted magnesite on Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jaber, N. S.; Kimberley, M. M.

    1992-06-01

    Ultramafic-hosted deposits of magnesite (MgCO3) have been studied on Margarita Island, Venezuela, to elucidate the source of carbon and conditions of formation for this type of ore. Petrographic, mineralogic, and δ18O data indicate that magnesite precipitated on Margarita in near-surface environments at low P and T. δ13C ranges from -9 to -16‰ PDB within the magnesite and -8 to -10‰ PDB within some calcite and dolomite elsewhere on the island. The isotopically light dolomite fills karst and the calcite occurs as stock-work veins which resemble the magnesite deposits. These carbon isotopic ratios are consistent with a deep-seated source rather than an overlying source from a zone of surficial weathering. However, there is not much enrichment of precious metals and no enrichment of heavy rare-earth elements, as would be expected if the carbon had migrated upward as aqueous carbonate ions. The carbon probably has risen as a gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4 which partially dissolved in near-surface water before leaching cations and precipitating as magnesite and other carbonates. The process probably is ongoing, given regional exhalation of carbonaceous gases.

  8. Actividades rutinarias y cibervictimización en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Oduber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El ciberdelito ha aumentado significativamente a nivel mundial en estas últimas décadas. En tal sentido, la investigación sobre este fenómeno en Venezuela ha sido escasa, específicamente en lo que respecta a los factores asociados con la victimización en línea. En consecuencia, este estudio busca promover el análisis de los condicionantes del delito y la victimización en línea en la región. Para ello, se investiga un conjunto de variables derivadas de la Teoría de las actividades rutinarias. El propósito es observar su relación con la victimización por hackeo y acoso online en una muestra de 308 sujetos. Este estudio halló un grupo de variables que pueden estar relacionadas con la probabilidad de victimización cibernética, las cuales serán discutidas en términos

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  10. International migration data: their problems and usefulness in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrealba, R

    1987-01-01

    During the 1940s and 1950s Venezuela was an important destination for migrants from Southern Europe, a flow that disappeared almost entirely during the 1960s, to be replaced by border movements and the largely illegal migration of Colombians. The oil boom of the 1970s saw an increase of the latter, which may have subsided during the 1980s due to the more difficult economic conditions that have also led to significant emigration levels of Venezuelans and former immigrants. Methods of data collection systems that provide information on migrants include the National Population and Housing Census, the National Household Survey, migration surveys, arrival and departure statistics, registration systems operated by the Direccion General Sectorial de identificacion y Control de Extranjeros, the 1980 regularization drive, statistics gathered by the Ministry of Labor, and vital and civil registration statistics. The lack of effective coordination among the different government agencies gathering information and the administrative nature of the data collected give rise to problems of comparability. Mechanisms to publish and disseminate the data available are not well developed, so that researchers often have no access to potentially useful sources of information. Problems of timeliness in the publication of the most widely used information are also present, as is the large gap existing in data pertaining to emigration, be it of Venezuelan nationals or of immigrants leaving the country.

  11. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  12. en la Venezuela de Chávez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramos Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el liderazgo carismático y plebiscitario, el experimento bolivariano de Chávez y del chavismo en el poder se mueve entre el desgobierno y el autoritarismo. La relevancia de esta fórmula política, en la experiencia de Venezuela en los años recientes, ha sido observada, si no adoptada, en otras experiencias recientes en las democracias andinas, como una alternativa exitosa frente al denunciado fracaso de la democracia representativa. Con las banderas y símbolos de un bolivarianismo retórico, que se combina con un indeterminado “socialismo del siglo xxi”, se ha pretendido impulsar lo que se ha convenido en llamar “revolución bolivariana”. En este artículo me propongo como objetivo interpretar tal fenómeno a partir de los resultados de las elecciones y referendos después de la reelección de Chávez en diciembre de 2006.

  13. SOFTWARE LIBRE: OPORTUNIDADES Y RETOS CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Rodríguez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan algunas consideraciones en torno al software libre, sus oportunidades pero también sus desafíos, a la vez que se expone el marco legal de esta figura a partir de su implementación en Venezuela. Se ha empleado una metodología descriptivo-explicativa, partiendo de la revisión bibliográfica conjuntamente con la legislación nacional sobre el tema. Asimismo, se consultó a FUNDACITE ZULIA, a través de la Misión Ciencia, y se concluye que el software libre es una oportunidad para desarrollar programas que atiendan necesidades particulares, y hay quienes consideran que resulta una herramienta especialmente útil para democratizar el acceso a la información en países en desarrollo; sin embargo, planteamos la realidad de una brecha digital entre países en desarrollo y desarrollados

  14. Geochemical record of anthropogenic impacts on Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yunping; Jaffe, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Bulk geochemical parameters and organic matter biomarkers in a short, high resolution gravity core (Lake Valencia, Venezuela) were examined to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts on the lake's conditions. During the period of ca. 1840-1990, sedimentary organic matter was characterized by high contents of total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN), low TOC/TN values as well as relatively enriched δ 13 C and δ 15 N signals, suggesting a primary autochthonous (algae and macrophytes) organic matter origin. The occurrence of large amounts of C 23 and C 25 relative to C 29 and C 31 n-alkanes indicated substantial inputs from submerged/floating macrophytes. The variations of C 32 15-keto-ol, tetrahymanol, diploptene, C 32 bishomohopanol, 2-methylhopane, dinosterol and isoarborinol concentrations over the investigated period record changes in the planktonic community structure, including Botryococcus braunii, bacteriavore ciliates, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophytes and dinoflagellates. A principal shift occurred in the 1910s when cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates became more abundant at the expense and decline of B. braunii and Eustigmatophytes, likely related to increasing anthropogenic activity around the lake. A second shift (less obvious) occurred in the 1960s when cyanobacteria became the sole predominant planktonic class, coinciding with further deterioration of lake conditions

  15. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  16. Histological and microbiological aspects of actinomycetoma cases in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available A ten year (1976-1986 review study of cases of Actinomycetoma in Venezuela was made through personal interview and clinical examinations, analysis of medical records of patients with actinomycetoma, histological studies of biopsy samples, as well as microbiological studies of isolates strain, also through out personal interviews with researchers and dermatologists who were sources of information on mycetoma cases. A total of 47 cases were recorded. As etiologic agent Actinomadura madurae was found in 20 cases - (42.5%, Nocardia brasiliensis in 13 cases (27.6%, Nocardia spp 7 cases (14.8%, Streptomyces somaliensis in 4 cases (8.5%, N. asteroides in 2 cases (4.2% and N. otitidis caviarum, (N. caviae in 1 case (2.1%. Most of the reported cases involved individuals living and working in rural areas, mostly males who outnumber females 4:1. The patients were 18 to 80 years old. A. madurae was reported as the most frequent etiologic agent. Most of the clinical cases were seen when the disease was well established. Twenty four of the forty seven cases reported were observed in Lara State, which represents a 51.0% of all the cases studied.

  17. Chavism and Criminal Policy in Venezuela, 1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lia Grajales

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the Venezuelan democracy was an exception in South America due to a party system that was based on what was known as the ‘Punto Fijo Pact’. At the start of the 1980s a series of economic, social and political events began to occur, which caused this ‘exceptionalism’ to stagger and disrupt the institutionality of the traditional Venezuelan democratic State. The events led to a deep national crisis and the birth of a new political era. By the end of the 1990s, there had been a significant shift towards left-wing governance. Hugo Chávez Frías subsequently won the presidential elections in 1998. This paper analyzes some aspects of the criminal policies that were implemented during the reign of left-wing leader Chávez till his death in 2013 and thereafter by Chavist party president elect, Nicolás Maduro during 2013-2014. Four stages can be identified in the behavior of incarceration rates. The first stage, from 1999 to 2000, was characterized by the lowest recordings of incarceration rates and the lowest measured percentage of preventive detention in Venezuela in thirty years. The second stage, from 2001 to 2005, saw a slight increase in the incarceration rate which then remained stable. The third stage, from 2006 to 2012, and the fourth stage, from 2013 to 2014, are characterized by sustained increases in preventive detention, incarceration and murder rates.

  18. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  19. Integrality in Brazil and Venezuela: similarities and complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Targino Bruno Dos; Barros, Ione Silva; Amorim, Anne Caroline Coelho Leal Árias; Rocha, Dais Gonçalves; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado; Sousa, Maria Fátima de

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare Primary Health Care (PHC) in Brazil and Venezuela, considering its characteristics as to integrality. It has a qualitative approach, using documental analysis, semi-structured interviews with key informants and field diary notes. We observed the three realms of integrality inherent to the health work process: comprehensive and holistic care, the individual viewed as a complex being with multiple needs, requiring the connection of various health knowledge; continuity of care in institutional micro-policy with interprofessional articulation, in order to consider individual care; continuity of care in macro-policy, when a shift to other levels of care is needed; intersectoriality was also included, when the needs of an individual and community require a cross-sectoral coordination, with action on determinants and conditionants of the health-disease process. It is worth highlighting the natural tendency to include a comprehensive community medical training. We conclude that those countries strengthened by democracy draw their integrality practices closer, as well as the construction of social and health policies for underprivileged populations to achieve equity.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in tropical Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Eddy, K; Hodgen, A N; Lopez, R I; Turner, K J

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in different socio-economic groups of the tropical population of Venezuela. The lack of definitive independent diagnostic criteria for toxocariasis required the establishment of operational upper limits of normality for Toxocara ELISA values, based upon their log-normalized distribution in a presumptive "non-toxocariasis" sub-population. Only 1.8% of urban subjects of medium-high socio-economic level were considered to be clearly positive in Toxocara ELISA, compared to 20.0% of urban slum dwellers, 25.6% rural subsistence farmers and 34.9% Amazon Indians. As the test was performed using excretory-secretory antigen, and under conditions of competitive inhibition by soluble extracts of non-homologous parasites, co-infection by common intestinal helminths, protozoa or other organisms did not give rise to false positive results. However, strong cross-reactivity with Onchocerca volvulus may have influenced the prevalence figure obtained for the Amazon Indians. These results indicate that T. canis is yet another parasite that is widely distributed in economically underprivileged tropical populations.

  1. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  2. Dengue Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Past and Recent Viral Transmission in Venezuela : A Comprehensive Community-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Sierra, Gloria M.; Guzman, Diamelis M.; Zambrano, Julio; Vivas, Daniel; Comach, Guillermo; Wilschut, Jan C.; Tami, Adriana

    Dengue transmission in Venezuela has become perennial and a major public health problem. The increase in frequency and magnitude of recent epidemics prompted a comprehensive community-based cross-sectional study of 2,014 individuals in high-incidence neighborhoods of Maracay, Venezuela. We found a

  3. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C

    2015-10-09

    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided.

  4. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a

  5. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artigas Patricio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean

  6. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, M Dolores; González, L Carolina; Artigas, Patricio; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2011-10-14

    Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a differing highland/lowland impact on

  7. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Oviedo, Milagros; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-08-01

    Temephos is an insecticide widely used in Venezuela to control the proliferation of the larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), the principal vector of dengue virus. The aim of this study was to identify the susceptibility to temephos of Ae. aegypti in four locations in western Venezuela: Lara, Tres Esquinas, Ureña and Pampanito. Larval bioassays were conducted on samples collected in 2008 and 2010, and the levels of α- and β-esterases, mixed-function oxidases, glutathione-S-transferase and insensitive acethyl cholinesterase were determined. Larval populations from western Venezuela obtained during 2008 and 2010 were found to be susceptible to temephos, with low resistance ratios and without overexpression of enzymes. The low RR values reveal the effectiveness of temephos in controlling the larval populations of Ae. aegypti. Control strategies must be vigorously monitored to maintain the susceptibility to temephos of these populations of Ae. aegypti. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Venezuela. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Venezuela estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range 2,000 to 42,000 tonnes uranium.- The majority of this potential is expected to be located in the Precambrian crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the Guayana Shield. Other potentially favorable geologic environments include Cretaceous phosphorite beds, continental sandstone and granitic rocks. The mission recommends that approximately US $18 million be spent on exploration in Venezuela over the next five years. The majority of this expenditure would be for surface surveys utilizing geologic studies, radiometric and geochemical surveys and some drilling for geologic information. Additional drilling would be required later to substantiate preliminary findings. (author)

  9. As questões habitacional e urbana na Venezuela contemporânea

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Higuchi Hirao

    2015-01-01

    Essa dissertação aborda a questão urbana e habitacional na Venezuela. Realiza-se investigação histórica sobre os principais períodos da política habitacional na Venezuela a partir de 1928 (fundação do Banco Obrero), seguida pela caracterização do programa Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela (sob a gestão de Hugo Chávez) e dos movimentos sociais urbanos reunido em torno da plataforma do Movimiento de Pobladoras y Pobladores. Investiga-se a importância da formação das favelas e a subsequente luta pe...

  10. Caracterización del mercado laboral del sector hotelero del estado Mérida, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villasmil R., María A.; Andrade, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Esta investigación trata sobre modelos que permiten caracterizar Mercados Laborales Locales (MLL), ya que en Venezuela el manejo de los mismos es casi inexistente. En este sentido, se plantea como objetivo caracterizar al mercado laboral del sector hotelero del estado Mérida-Venezuela en función del conocimiento de las particularidades económicas, institucionales, políticas, sociales, educativas y culturales de la zona así como las condiciones que se tengan en materia de empleo, oferta de for...

  11. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Ramos, José Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas), los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 ...

  12. Migração transfronteiriça na Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available AS ZONAS fronteiriças são zonas de empréstimos e apropriações culturais e, por isso, um lugar privilegiado para a compreensão do fenômeno migratório internacional. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns aspectos do processo de deslocamentos transfronteiriços no norte do Brasil, no município de Pacaraima (Estado de Roraima e na fronteira sul da Venezuela, no município de Gran Sabana (Estado Bolívar, e, ao mesmo tempo, apontar as tendências e reflexos nas configurações socioculturais nessas zonas de contato. Nessa fronteira Brasil-Venezuela, podemos afirmar que o trânsito maior é de brasileiros para a Venezuela e para a Guiana, em decorrência das possibilidades de atuarem nas atividades de mineração, no comércio local e no setor de transportes, além das atividades ilegais, como tráfico de mulheres, contrabando de combustível e câmbio ilegal de moeda. Apresenta-se, no entanto, uma nova tendência que é a imigração de estrangeiros de outros países do continente, tais como peruanos e colombianos. Esses migrantes transfronteiriços percorrem os países fronteiriços em itinerários cuja porta de entrada é a Venezuela e a Guiana, mas também o Estado do Amazonas.BORDER zones are zones of cultural lending, borrowing and appropriation, and, therefore, a privileged vantage point for understanding the phenomenon of international migration. This essay attempts to examine certain aspects of the transborder dislocation process in northern Brazil (the city of Pacaraima, state of Roraima and in southern Venezuela (the city of Gran Sabana, state of Bolívar, and point out its trends and reflections on the sociocultural makeup of those contact zones. In this Brazil-Venezuela border, the largest movement is clearly that of Brazilians going into Venezuela and Guyana in search of job opportunities in mining, local business and transportation, not to mention illegal activities such as the traffic of women, fuel smuggling and

  13. Complete genome sequence of jacquemontia yellow vein virus, a novel begomovirus infecting Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2017-08-01

    Wild plants of the family Convolvulaceae are hosts for a few New World begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus infecting the wild convolvulaceous plant Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Venezuela. The cloned bipartite genome showed the organization of typical New World begomoviruses and was found to be phylogenetically related to those of begomoviruses from Venezuela and other Caribbean countries. Several recombination events have been shown to have occurred involving genome fragment exchange with related begomoviruses infecting crops such as tomato and cucurbits and wild plants, including Jacquemontia sp. We propose the name jacquemontia yellow vein virus (JacYVV) for this new begomovirus.

  14. Urban outbreak of acute orally acquired Chagas disease in Táchira, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, Jesús A.; Araujo, Benjamín; Contreras, Krisell; Rivas, Marianela; Ramírez, Pedro; Guerra, Watermo; Calderón, Noél; Terren, Carlo Ascaso; Barrera, Reggie; Rodríguez Morales, Alfonso Javier

    2013-01-01

    Aguda por vía oral adquirió la enfermedad de Chagas (AOACD) se ha convertido en una amenaza importante en algunos países de América del Sur [1,2]. Hasta marzo de 2013, al menos cuatro han reportado brotes de la enfermedad de Chagas aguda adquirida por vía oral, en concreto Brasil [3], Venezuela [4], Colombia [5] y Bolivia [6]. Los brotes también se están produciendo probablemente en Argentina y Ecuador, según algunos informes antiguos [2]. En Venezuela, ha habido por lo menos tres informes ep...

  15. El rostro más especial de Venezuela. Jacqueline Saburido.

    OpenAIRE

    González, Silvia Lidia

    2006-01-01

    : Editorial: El emblemático número tres. Por: Ruiz Calderón, Humberto Especial Jóvenes, alcohol y ¿salud?. Venezuela, penoso liderazgo: consumo de licor y muertes en percances viales. Por: González, Silvia Lidia ¡Cuidado! ebrio al volante. Artículo Bebiendo el futuro. Por: Morales, Nelson Guía Web Sitios sobre alcoholismo en Internet. Historias El rostro más especial de Venezuela. Jacqueline Saburido. Por: González, Silvia Lidia Hora libre...

  16. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  17. Perspectivas del MERCOSUR ante la incorporación de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Iris Mabel; Cignacco, Gloria; Díaz, Corina; Angelone, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    El trabajo analiza críticamente las principales experiencias de integración regional existentes en un contexto de creciente globalización asimétrica. Una caracterización del bolivarianismo permite revisar la política exterior de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. De allí, se examinan las posibles consecuencias de la admisión de Venezuela al MERCOSUR, no sólo para ese país, sino para toda América Latina. This paper analyzes critically the mayor experiences of regional integration that e...

  18. Phlebotominae de Venezuela: Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. del estado Lara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Arredondo Cardona

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el macho de Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. capturado en el Parque Nacional de Yacambú, Distrito Andrés Eloy Blanco, Estado Lara, Venezuela. La especie puede ser identificada por la forma característica del parámetro. Pertenece al grupo Verrucarum, serie Verrucarum de Theodor (1965.A description is given of the male of Lutzomyia amilcari sp.n. who was collected in the National Park of Yacambú, State of Lara, Venezuela. This species is identified by the characteristic form of the paramere. It belongs to the Verrucarum Group, Verrucarum Series of Theodor (1965.

  19. Natural gas as an integrating element for Latin America - An opportunity for Venezuela?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Diego

    2010-09-15

    Summary This paper offers an analysis of the natural gas situation in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina, including countries of the Caribbean; analyzes the attitude of potential buyers of this energy source and the possibilities of each country receiving natural gas from Venezuela based on its reserves and production, highlighting the most outstanding projects being undertaken in some of those countries; makes recommendations in the area of energy, with emphasis on natural gas; and, lastly, presents an epilog describing Venezuela's role in an integration process in Latin America.

  20. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics

  1. [Changes in lipid availability in Venezuela, 1970-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Olivo, E A; Ablan de Flórez, E

    1994-12-01

    The authors carry out a research focused on the quantification and analysis of the main changes in feeding and nutrition in Venezuela between 1970 and 1992. Such research started with the review and adjustment of the Food Balance Sheets (Hojas de Balance de Alimentos) elaborated by the Instituto Nacional de Nutrición (National Nutrition Institute) between 1970 and 1979 in order to homogenize them in a methodological way to make them similar to those elaborated by that institution and the Fundación Polar for the 1980-90 period. Estimates were made about the daily and per person availability of food for human consumption (DCH) for 1991 and 1992. This report, a partial product of that research, characterizes the evolution of the lipidic DCH in Venezuela for the 1970-1992 period. This period has been divided in seven stages of the evolution of the total energetic DCH, as this reflects well the course of the daily and per person Food Purchasing Power (PCA); there is a direct and strong functional relationship between these two variables. Along those stages the behaviour of the lipidic DCH is studied and we try to view possible relationships between the evolution of the Venezeluans economical situation and the absolute and relative variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH. This structure is analyzed from several points of view: groups of food sources, origin, "visibility", and place of origin. One purpose is to determine also which food groups are mainly responsible for the venezuelan's external lipidic dependence. A general picture of the evolution of the DCH for saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is made, as well as of the variations experienced by the P/S and M/S relationships. It was found that the most dynamic elements, those that can explain a very high percentage of the variations observed in the level and the structure of the lipidic DCH were: the groups of foods of Visible Fats, Milk and dairy products, and Meats; vegetal lipids

  2. Morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Núñez Gómez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la morbilidad oculta por parasitismo intestinal en Lagunita, municipio Girardot, Venezuela; en el período de enero a octubre de 2009. El universo fue de 286 niños, lo que se corresponde con la población total del grupo de edad de menores de 15 años. De estos se seleccionaron por muestreo aleatorio simple 43 pacientes, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario y se confeccionó una guía de observación, para describir los factores epidemiológicos que influyen en la infestación por parasitismo intestinal. Además, se les realizaron análisis de las heces fecales seriadas para el diagnóstico del parasitismo. El método estadístico fue el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. A través del estudio de las heces fecales seriadas se obtuvo que 27 pacientes tenían parasitosis intestinal, para una morbilidad de 62,79%, con una mayor incidencia en los niños de cinco a nueve años de edad. El sexo femenino fue el más afectado. Los factores epidemiológicos que más influyeron fueron: los malos hábitos higiénicos personales, el entorno desfavorable y el consumo de agua no potable; existió relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, los factores epidemiológicos y la morbilidad por parasitismo intestinal. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba Histolytica, con 11 casos, para un 40,74%. La diarrea, las molestias abdominales y la pérdida de apetito constituyeron los principales síntomas

  3. Cambios institucionales: La descentralización en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramírez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un esbozo de un conjunto de hechos históricos ocurridos en el transcurrir de los siglos XIX y XX, concebidos como antecedentes de la descentralización en Venezuela. Esos acontecimientos son interpretados y analizados dentro del amplio contexto político de la organización y consolidación del Estado desde los inicios de la República en el siglo XIX hasta la creación de la Comisión Presidencial para la Reforma del Estado (COPRE en 1984. Se parte de una noción sobre las bases teóricas de esas estrategias del desarrollo, se busca el vínculo a lo largo del proceso histórico republicano desde los tiempos del federalismo en adelante, se hace un diagnóstico e interpretación de la regionalización, y se aborda el origen de la descentralización y sus objetivos. A modo de conclusión se reafirma la apreciación teórica y metodológica de esas propuestas para el desarrollo, se insiste en su indisoluble unión a lo histórico, se deslinda el momento de inicio de la aceleración del crecimiento económico a partir de la regionalización, y se ratifica la descentralización como propuesta política para la modernización de la democracia partidista de finales del siglo XX.

  4. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  5. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    34Petroleo e industrializacion," Comercio Exterior , Vol. 32, (Nov 1982), p. 1213. 52. Blutstein, p. 158. 53. Ministerio de Energia y Minas, Petroleo y...tion of Guyana), and the Empresa Nacional de Pesca (National Fishing Enterprise). As will be analyzed in the next chapter, Venezuela’s develop- ment...economia venezolana en los ultimos 35 anos, p. 273. Comercio Exterior , (Nov 1982), p. 1220. Rollins, Raw Materials Development and Economic Growth: A Study

  6. 78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary... of an industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Russia and... United States at less than fair value. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation...

  7. LESIONES CUTANEAS PARASITARIAS EN EL ASNO EQUUS ASINUS DE CHORONI, ESTADO ARAGUA, VENEZUELA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Abelardo; Garcia, Francisco; Rossini, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Three donkeys (Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758), two males and a female sex, between 5-8 years of old, in athletic shape, in Choroni, Aragua, Venezuela were examined. Clinical examination evidenced hirsute hair and moderate body condition. Nodular dermatitis like skin lesions showed crusted erythemat...

  8. Streptomyces venezuelae TX-TL - a next generation cell-free synthetic biology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Needham, Hannah; Polizzi, Karen M; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-04-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae is a promising chassis in synthetic biology for fine chemical and secondary metabolite pathway engineering. The potential of S. venezuelae could be further realized by expanding its capability with the introduction of its own in vitro transcription-translation (TX-TL) system. TX-TL is a fast and expanding technology for bottom-up design of complex gene expression tools, biosensors and protein manufacturing. Herein, we introduce a S. venezuelae TX-TL platform by reporting a streamlined protocol for cell-extract preparation, demonstrating high-yield synthesis of a codon-optimized sfGFP reporter and the prototyping of a synthetic tetracycline-inducible promoter in S. venezuelae TX-TL based on the tetO-TetR repressor system. The aim of this system is to provide a host for the homologous production of exotic enzymes from Actinobacteria secondary metabolism in vitro. As an example, the authors demonstrate the soluble synthesis of a selection of enzymes (12-70 kDa) from the Streptomyces rimosus oxytetracycline pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Venezuela's African Agenda in a South–South: Context The Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venezuela's African Agenda, an intention to diversify its oil partners as well as a search for a land where to export the 'Bolivarian Revolution', is a sign of the growing interest on the part of Latin America to strengthen ties with the African continent, and constitutes an alternative to the option represented by the BRICS ...

  10. Rural Development in Venezuela and the Guianas: A Bibliography. Training and Methods Series Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography cites 930 materials dealing with Venezuela and the Guianas. Published between 1949 and 1972, the materials are found in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin. Topics covered are: agriculture, agrarian reform, economic affairs, economic cooperation, human resources, American Indians, industry, law, money,…

  11. 78 FR 49471 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... the gross weight, terms of delivery, and whether the price was inclusive of Russian value-added tax... Russia and Venezuela are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value... subject merchandise sold at less than normal value (``NV''). In addition, Petitioners allege that subject...

  12. The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

  13. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  14. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  15. High Precision Optical Observations of Space Debris in the Geo Ring from Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.; Downes, J. J.; Casanova, D.; Tresaco, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results to demonstrate that our method for detection and location of Space Debris (SD) in the geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) ring, based on observations at the OAN of Venezuela is of high astrometric precision. A detailed explanation of the method, its validation and first results is available in (Lacruz et al. 2017).

  16. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  17. The paramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 1. Zonal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, A.N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonal paramo vegetation communities present on top of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo state, Venezuela, have been studied with the aim to provide a syntaxonomic scheme or classification, based oil analysis of the physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological relations and spatial distribution of the

  18. Guidelines For Implementation of Industrial Programs For Proposed Community Colleges in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Pablo Maria

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected industrial education departments and programs of the community colleges in the United States, and to draw some beneficial implications for the establishment of the proposed community colleges in Venezuela. The procedure involved a review of the literature, the construction of a questionnaire, and…

  19. [Cities and oil. Historical and prospective aspects of the urban population of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papail, J; Picquet, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a historical overview of urbanization in Venezuela. The impact of the oil economy on population change and spatial distribution is emphasized. A typology of cities based on socioeconomic function and on a demographic classification of urban centers is devised. Future trends in urbanization are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  1. Universities, Public Policy and Economic Development in Latin America: The Cases of Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorey, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Since establishment of national university systems in Mexico and Venezuela, three principal demands have dominated policy formation: government ideological demand; economic demand for expertise; and political and social demand for upward mobility through education. Tensions between these demands have stemmed from economic inability to sustain…

  2. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  3. Venezuela - energy situation 1981. BfAI-Marktinformation. Reihe MI-BS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy situation of Venezuela is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and the balance of payment.

  4. Adapting EVIAVE methodology as a planning and decision-making tool in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorano, M.; Paolini, A.; Ramos, A.; Rodriguez, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Landfills in Venezuela have serious problems regarding their location, design and operation. In fact, basic waste disposal is one of the main weaknesses of the municipal waste management in this country. The Venezuelan Ministry of Environment and Renewable Resources has studied and identified the negative impacts of operating landfills, but no program has been implemented to determine the cause-effect relation of these impacts or to design strategies to counteract with the serious environmental and health risks generated. This paper describes how EVIAVE methodology can be successfully used for landfill diagnosis, and shows how this type of landfill diagnosis was applied in Venezuela. For our research study, we carried out both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the environmental problems generated by 22 landfills in Venezuela. Our study was based on the following environmental indexes: Landfill Environment, Environmental Risk, Environmental Value, and Probability of Contamination. For the purposes of our study, it was first necessary to adapt EVIAVE to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The results obtained confirmed the applicability of this methodology to Venezuelan landfills. EVIAVE was found to be an effective planning tool that provided crucial information for the development of action plans, which would improve landfill operation, and help make decisions pertaining to their closure, sealing and eventual recovery.

  5. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18 F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18 FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis

  6. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  7. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. LA CAPACITACIÓN PROFESIONAL DE FUNCIONARIOS POLICIALES EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Sofía Rodríguez Ugueto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacitación del funcionario policial en la actualidad, en cuanto a la práctica policial, presupone la delimitación de contradicciones que resultan necesarias en la sociedad y que no se corresponde con la pertinencia del momento histórico. Esta realidad está presente en la sociedad venezolana, que de manera particular la están viviendo los cuerpos policiales del país, los cuales en el marco de las transformaciones sociales que se llevan a cabo, requiere también cambios de su rol como funcionario a nivel nacional en la orientación del proyecto social, exigencia que conlleva a un Nuevo Modelo Policial alejado de lo tradicional y poco funcional como cuerpo represivo capaz de orientarse hacia una nueva disposición como funcionario inserto en la comunidad cuya función de represión se ha de ajustar a un plano primario de prevención y formación ciudadana. Los autores reflexionan en estas problemáticas.PALABRAS CLAVE: capacitación profesional; capacitación continua; modelo policial.THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF POLICE OFFICIALS IN VENEZUELA ABSTRACTThe police official's training at the present time, as for the police practice, it presupposes the delimitation of contradictions that are necessary in the society and that doesn't belong together with the relevancy of the historical moment. This reality is present in the Venezuelan society that are living her the police bodies of the country in a particular way, which also requires changes of its list like official at national level in the orientation of the social project in the mark of the social transformations that are carried out, demand that bears a New Police Model far from the traditional and not very functional as repressive body able to be guided toward a new disposition like official inserts in the community whose function of repression must be adjusted to a primary plane of prevention and civic formation. The authors meditate in these problems.KEYWORDS: professional training

  9. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk

  10. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport

  11. Acid phosphatase patterns in microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus s.l. from the Upper Orinoco Basin, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarzàbal, L; Petralanda, I; Arango, M; Lobo, L; Botto, C

    1983-06-01

    The patterns of acid phosphatase in strains of Onchocerca volvulus s.l. which parasitize an Amerindian population (Yanomami) in Venezuela's Upper Orinoco Basin were examined by using the naphthol AS-TR phosphate method. The study sample consisted of 40 Yanomami inhabiting a savannah area at 950 m above sea level and 21 Yanomami residents of a tropical rainforest area at an altitude of 250 m. Stained intrauterine microfilariae, still within the egg case, exhibited a diffuse distribution of the enzyme in the early stages of embryonic development and a negative reaction at a more developed stage. Four of the five enzyme staining patterns described by Omar (1978) were found in the 3157 microfilariae examined from skin snips. Their distribution was: Type I--17.2%, Type III--0.5%, Type IV--75.6% and Type V--6.6%. No examples of Type II were observed. The results indicate that acid phosphatase patterns of the Upper Orinoco Onchocerca strain most resemble those of strains from Guatemala and Yemen, and are different from the African strains found in Upper Volta and Liberia. The relative frequency of acid phosphatase patterns was modified by cryopreservation of microfilariae.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors.

  13. [Mycoses in Venezuela: Working Groups in Mycology reported cases (1984-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Méndez, Dilia; Hernández Valles, Rosaura; Alvarado, Primavera; Mendoza, Mireya

    2013-01-03

    In 1984 the Venezuelan Work Groups in Mycology (VWGM) were created introducing an innovative approach to the study of the mycoses in Venezuela. To study the occurrence of the mycoses in Venezuela. Review the reported cases of mycoses by the newsletter Boletín Informativo Las Micosis en Venezuela (VWGM) from 1984 to 2010. The data collected showed 36,968 reported cases of superficial mycoses, 1,989 of deep systemic cases, and 822 of localized mycoses. Pityriasis dermatophytosis was the most common superficial infection, and paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis the most frequent deep systemic infection. Chromoblastomycosis was the most frequently diagnosed subcutaneous infection. The data provided showed the distribution by geographical area for each of the fungal infections studied, which may help to establish the endemic areas. Superficial mycosis is a public health problem due to its high morbidity and is probably responsible for some of the outbreaks in high-risk groups. Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis were reported more often, which agrees with earlier reports prior to the formation of the VWGM. Cases of sporotrichosis and chromoblastomycosis in Venezuela can be considered unique due to the high number of cases. This study highlights the contribution of the VWGM to the behavior of the mycoses in Venezuela, its incidence, prevalence, and the recognition of these infections as a problem of public health importance. The VWGM should keep working in this endeavor, not only reporting new cases, but also unifying the clinical and epidemiological criteria, in order to properly monitor the evolving epidemiological changes reported in these types of infections. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. A new species of Bachia (Teiidae, Sauria) from Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, with notes on the zoogeography of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bachia guianensis nov. spec, is described from Guri, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, on the basis of a single specimen. The species is closely related to Bachia heteropa (Lichtenstein), but differs from this species in lacking the interparietal scale.

  15. Short biography of Louis Daniel Beauperthuy (1807-71): pioneer of microbiology and medical science in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Gerardo A; Tarradath, Ewart

    2010-02-01

    Louis Daniel Beauperthuy was a pioneer of microbiology in Venezuela where he developed microscopic and clinical research together with academic and scientific observation related to leprosy and the role of insects in the transmission of febrile illnesses.

  16. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  17. APORTE PATRIMONIAL A PARTIR DEL PROCESO INMIGRATORIO CANARIO EN VENEZUELA Y EL ESTADO LARA ENTRE 1961 Y 1981

    OpenAIRE

    Pastrán Calles, Félix Reinaldo

    2017-01-01

    FULL TITLE PATRIMONIAL CONTRIBUTION FROM THE CANARY IMMIGRATION PROCESS IN VENEZUELA AND THE LARA STATE FROM 1961 TO 1981 RESUMEN El presente articulo tiene como objetivo reconocer el aporte patrimonial a partir del proceso inmigratorio canario en Venezuela y el Estado Lara, durante el periodo 1961 hasta 1981, periodo que abarca una amplitud de beneficios y desarrollo como resultado de acciones de canarios dentro del espacio geográfico venezolano. Metodológicamente se aplican los funda...

  18. The Texts of the Instruments Concerning the Agency's Assistance to Venezuela for the Continuation of a Research Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The texts of the Title Transfer Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of the United States of America and Venezuela, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Venezuela concerning the Agency's assistance to that Government for the continuation of a research reactor project, are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 7 November 1975, pursuant to Articles IV and X respectively.

  19. Estado actual de la Colección de Palmas (Arecaceae) del Herbario Nacional de Venezuela (VEN)

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza Flores, Yaroslavi

    2014-01-01

    The National Herbarium of Venezuela (VEN) has the largest collection of botanical specimens in the country,thus being the main source of reference for the flora of Venezuela. It also hosts a large number of specimensfrom other countries in the Neotropical region. The VEN contains approximately 400 000 specimens currentlyregistered in the herbarium’s database, of which 2192 form the palm (Arecaceae) collection that encompasses35 genera (including 5 foreign genera) and 127 specific and infraspe...

  20. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  1. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  2. A Study of Venezuela’s Internal and External Threat and the United States Security Assistance Program in the Build-Up and Modernization of Her Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    percent of the popula- tion, leaving six percent of the population to other denominations; and (3) a literacy rate of 77 percent. The national language is...has focused on the improve- ment of Venezuela’s educational system. In 1958, the adult literarcy rate was 63 percent (20:320). Today the adult literacy ...hasta Marzo 1969. Oficina Central de Informacion . Caracas, Venezuela, 1969. 28. Penniman, Howard R. Venezuela at the Polls: The National Elections of

  3. Review of the genus Bythonia Oman 1936 with description of a new species and new record from Venezuela (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Iassinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiani, Marco A

    2017-06-06

    Bythonia freytagi sp. nov. is diagnosed and described from northern Venezuela. Bythonia rugosa is recorded for the first time in Venezuela from the southern state of Amazonas. The presence of both species of Bythonia in Venezuela represent the first occurrences of this genus north of the Equator. Comments on the relationships of the described species are made and two species groups are proposed. A checklist and key to the known species of the genus are provided.

  4. Parasitosis intestinales y factores de riesgo en niños: Ambulatorio urbano tipo II Dr. Agustín Zubillaga, Barquisimeto-Lara

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro C, Mariana I; Salcedo G, Darling J; Uris G, Marianny K; Valero B, Karen N; Vergara A, Mariany T; Cárdenas, Elsys; Vidal, Angel C; Sánchez Ch, Julia A

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La posible asociación de las parasitosis intestinales con la pobreza y el saneamiento ambiental insuficiente, hacen necesario estudiar la prevalencia de este hecho en un barrio pobre de la ciudad de Barquisimeto, Venezuela. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales y factores de riesgo en niños de 1 a 12 años, de una zona pobre de Barquisimeto, Venezuela, área de influencia del Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II “Dr. Agustín Zubillaga”. Método: Se realizó un estudio...

  5. Caso de miiasis orbitaria severa humana por Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae asociada con carcinoma espinocelular en el estado Falcón, Venezuela | A case of human severe orbital myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae associated with spinocellular carcinoma in Falcón state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tortolero Low

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the parasitism of organs and tissues due to fly larvae of the order Diptera. A report is made of a case in a 70 years old man from La Vela, Falcon State, Venezuela, with severe orbital myiasis associated to a spinocellular carcinoma. The patient attended the emergency room of the Universitary Hospital of Coro, Falcon State, with a cavitary tumor with perforations in the right eyeball with suppurative and foul-smelly discharge. 160 larvae instars II and III were collected, and identified as Cochliomyia hominivorax (“screwworm” (Diptera: Calliphoridae. The patient was treated with debridement and intravenous antibiotic therapy (Ampicillin/Sulbactam; Clindamycin. Myiasis should be considered potentially when the patient has open extensive lesions such as malignant wounds.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela Aspectos epidemiológicos de la leishmaniasis visceral humana y canina en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zerpa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report recent data on the distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Venezuela, and to highlight problems associated with effective control measures. METHODS: We report the number of cases, incidence rate, age and sex distribution, and mortality rates for human VL (HVL for the period of 1995 through 2000, based on National Registry of Leishmaniasis data. We carried out serological studies on a total of 3 025 domestic dogs from the 12 states in Venezuela reporting cases of human VL in this 1995-2000 period and also from the state of Yaracuy, where cases were reported earlier during the decade of the 1990s. RESULTS: From 1995 through 2000, 242 cases of HVL were reported from 12 states, in various sections of Venezuela. There was a relatively stable national incidence rate of 0.2 cases per 100 000 persons per year. Of the 242 cases, 26.0% were from Margarita Island, one of the three islands that make up the state of Nueva Esparta (Margarita Island was the only one of the Nueva Esparta islands that had HVL cases. Over the 1995-2000 period, the annual incidence rates for Nueva Esparta ranged from 1.7 to 3.8 cases per 100000 population. Males in Venezuela were more frequently affected (59.5% than were females (40.5%. In terms of age, 67.7% of the VL patients were OBJETIVOS: Dar a conocer datos recientes acerca de la distribución de la leishmaniasis visceral (LV humana y canina en Venezuela y resaltar los problemas que se asocian con la aplicación de buenas medidas de control. MÉTODOS: Damos a conocer el número de casos, la tasa de incidencia, la distribución por edad y sexo y las tasas de mortalidad de la LV humana (LVH durante el período de 1995 a 2000, según datos obtenidos del Registro Nacional de Leishmaniasis. Llevamos a cabo pruebas serológicas en un total de 3 025 perros domésticos de los 12 estados de Venezuela que notificaron casos de LV en este período, y también de Yaracuy, donde se notificaron

  7. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  8. Barrio Adentro and the reduction of health inequalities in Venezuela: an appraisal of the first years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Francisco; Muntaner, Caries; Chung, Haejoo; Williams-Brennan, Leslie; Benach, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an update on the characteristics and performance of Venezuela's Bolivarian health care system, Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). During its first five years of existence, Barrio Adentro has improved access and utilization of health services by reaching approximately 17 million impoverished and middle-class citizens all over Venezuela. This was achieved in approximately two years and provides an example of an immense "South-South" cooperation and participatory democracy in health care. Popular participation was achieved with the Comités de Salud (health committees) and more recently with the Consejos Comunales (community councils), while mostly Cuban physicians provided medical care. Examination of a few epidemiological indicators for the years 2004 and 2005 of Barrio Adentro reveals the positive impact of this health care program, in particular its primary care component, Barrio Adentro I. Continued political commitment and realistic evaluations are needed to sustain and improve Barrio Adentro, especially its primary care services.

  9. La violencia como mecanismo del debate público en Venezuela durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Guardia Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente ensayo es describir los mecanismos por medio de los cuales la violencia política se presenta como uno de los elementos fundamentales del debate público en dos coyunturas históricas en Venezuela: en la Revolución de Octubre y en la Revolución Bolivariana. El trabajo se desarrolla en torno a dos ideas: primero se abordará el problema de la violencia y el miedo desde una perspectiva teórica, luego se describirá cada una de estas coyunturas históricas; finalmente se revisa comparativamente este fenómeno que se repite a lo largo del tiempo en Venezuela.

  10. SIMULACIÓN DE UN MODELO DE EQUILIBRIO GENERAL COMPUTABLE PARA VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Pedauga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de la simulación de un modelo de equilibrio general computable construido para Venezuela. El uso de este modelo se ejempli-fica mediante la calibración y simulación de una economía abierta con tres agentes institucionales (hogares, empresas y gobierno y tres sectores productivos (petró-leo, manufactura y resto, para una economía abierta. Se considera diferentes re-glas de política. En cada caso se muestra el proceso de calibración y los resultados de las simulaciones utilizando información proveniente de la serie de matrices de contabilidad social para Venezuela entre 1997 y 2005. Se aporta simulaciones de la economía hasta 2009, tanto en los parámetros pertinentes y como algunos ejerci-cios de sensibilidad

  11. ANÁLISIS DEL COMERCIO DE GAS ENTRE COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN OSORIO RUIZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las oportunidades de intercambio de gas natural de Colombia con otros mercados regionales. Para dicho análisis, se propone un modelo del mercado de gas natural en Colombia, el cual incluye la oferta, la demanda, y las restricciones de transporte, así como las importaciones y exportaciones. El modelo se basa en la representación del comportamiento de los productores y su efecto en el mercado. Ya en este mercado la oferta es un oligopolio y el modelo es un modelo de equilibrio espacial con competencia a la Cournot. Los fl ujos resultantes del modelo indican que el impacto inicial de las exportaciones a Venezuela sobre el mercado Colombiano es bajo, y que las importaciones desde Venezuela mejoran la seguridad del suministro de gas al mercado y aumentan la competencia entre los productores.

  12. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. [Morphological abnormalities in the cibarium of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) caught in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-de Daboín, Yolanda; Oviedo-Araújo, Milagros; González-Pérez, Adalberto; Suárez-Hernández, Jorge; Sandoval, Claudia M; Cazorla, Dalmiro

    2015-01-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is a recognized vector of Leishmania infantum in Colombia and Venezuela. To describe and illustrate the morphological abnormalities in Lu. evansi females captured in a rural focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Trujillo, Venezuela. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, Shannon traps and aspiration in resting places. The identification was performed according to Young & Duncan (1994) and drawings were made using a microscope with camara lucida . Abnormalities in the cibarium of Lu. evansi were detected in 4 (0.12%) females of the 3,477 adults that were studied. Lutzomyia evansi can have uncommon morphological variants associated with an increase in the number of teeth in the cibarium and their arrangement, which may lead to errors in the taxonomic identification of anomalous specimens. The study of such deformities can serve to avoid taxonomic identification errors.

  14. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE SUB-NATIONAL DECENTRALIZATION OF THE HEALTH IN VENEZUELA INFANTILE MATERNAL PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Ávila Urdaneta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work approaches the evaluation of the decentralization of the health at sub-national level in Venezuela, maternal program Infantile (PROMIN, period 1998-2004: Case of study, Estado Zulia. With the samples of ten Municipalities and Coordinators of Health (CH. Of the results and conclusions, it is appraised that in Venezuela with the Model of Integral Attention with respect to the PROMIN (1998-2004, the reason of Maternal Mortality RMM average for the country ascends to 60 by 100,000 NVR (OPS, 2003, whereas in Zulia was in 79,9; they emphasize the Municipalities: Cañada de Urdaneta with but the high one of 214.13, followed of Mara 149.44 by 100,000 NVR. Key words: Sub-national decentralization of the Health, Infantile Maternal Program, Indicating of Morbidity and Mortality, Coordination of the Municipal Health.

  16. The hope of the universe: Bolivarianism in the era of Gran Venezuela (1974-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Straka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews Venezuelan Bolivarianism and its relationship with the political discourses and projects during what has been called “Gran Venezuela” (Great Venezuela, 1974- 1983. During this period, Venezuela enjoyed a combination of two decades of democratic stability and high oil prices, becoming an exceptionally prosperous, free and peaceful country in Latin-America. In this context, democratic governments used political Bolivarian historicism in order to legitimize their apparent success as proof that they were complying with the vision set out by Simón Bolívar, traditionally associated with conservative thought and dictatorship. It also used Bolivarianism to project its status as an emerging power in the Third World.

  17. Lutzomyia Lewisi, a new Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae from Cojedes State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dora Feliciangeli

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The female of a new species, Lutzomyia lewisi is described. Reasons are stated on which the classification proposed by Lewis et al. (1977 is adopted for sandflies recorded in Venezuela. The current controversy over the generic names of phlebotomine sandflies are also discussed.A fêmea da uma nova espécie, Lutzomyia lewisi é descrita. A argumentação pela qual se adota a classificação de Lewis et al. (1977 para os flebótomos da venezuela é apresentada, assim como se discute a controvérsia atual sobre a nomenclatura genérica dos flebótomos.

  18. Venezuela: confrontación social y polarización política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bracamonte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medófilo Medina y Margarita López Maya. Venezuela: Confrontación social y polarización política. Bogotá: Ediciones Aurora, 2003. La intensidad del debate público y del enfrentamiento político al que asiste el país desde 1998, ha logrado penetrar los espacios ociales más diversos, incluso aquellos en los que se creía que estaban vedados asuntos tan terrenales como los políticos, tenidos hasta la víspera como banales y de poca monta. Tal es uno de los saldos más trascendentales del proceso de transformación en curso hoy en Venezuela. Esto último es tan innegable, que constituye una verdad compartida por los dos bandos en que fatalmente está dividido el país

  19. Development of Next Generation Synthetic Biology Tools for Use in Streptomyces venezuelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Ryan M. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Sachs, Daniel [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Petkiewicz, Shayne J. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Barajas, Jesus F. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Blake-Hedges, Jacquelyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Thompson, Mitchell G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant & Microbial Biology; Reider Apel, Amanda [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Rasor, Blake J. [Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio (United States). Dept. of Biology; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Department of Bioengineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kogle Alle (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability

    2016-09-07

    Streptomyces have a rich history as producers of important natural products and this genus of bacteria has recently garnered attention for its potential applications in the broader context of synthetic biology. However, the dearth of genetic tools available to control and monitor protein production precludes rapid and predictable metabolic engineering that is possible in hosts such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to improve genetic tools for Streptomyces venezuelae, we developed a suite of standardized, orthogonal integration vectors and an improved method to monitor protein production in this host. These tools were applied to characterize heterologous promoters and various attB chromosomal integration sites. A final study leveraged the characterized toolset to demonstrate its use in producing the biofuel precursor bisabolene using a chromosomally integrated expression system. In conclusion, these tools advance S. venezuelae to be a practical host for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  20. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini with description of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: B. aragua sp. n., B. asymmetricus sp. n., B. capanaparo sp. n., B. castaneus sp. n., B. corozo sp. n., B. ebeninus sp. n., B. garciai sp. n., B. humeralis sp. n., B. jolyi sp. n., B. llanensis sp. n., B. megaphallus sp. n., B. ornaticollis sp. n., B. repertus sp. n., and B. tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: B. ambogynus Mouchamps, B. consobrinus Knisch, B. elegans Knisch, B. geayi d’Orchymont, B. ghanicus d’Orchymont, B. guyanensis Queney, B. holdhausi Knisch, B. marquardti Knisch, B. olivae Queney, B. reticulatus Knisch, B. wintersteineri Knisch, and B. zimmermanni Knisch.

  1. Perú y Venezuela: desempeño económico e instituciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martínez C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1989 Venezuela implementó un programa de reformas para fortalecer el papel del mercado en la asignación de los recursos y disminuir la intervención del Estado y un año después Perú hizo otro tanto. Sin embargo, Perú creció a una tasa de 6,3 por ciento en las siguientes dos décadas, mientras que Venezuela lo hizo al 3,1 por ciento. El objetivo de este trabajo es indagar, mediante una investigación documental, las causas que explican ese resultado. La principal conclusión es que el marco institucional es un elemento fundamental para explicar el desempeño económico de estos dos países

  2. Algunas Características de los Cacaos Criollos de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciferri R.

    1949-03-01

    Full Text Available Se indican algunas características morfológicas y biométricas de los cacaos "Criollo de cáscara morada" y "Criollo de cáscara decolorada", observadas en un cacaotal de Venezuela y las cuales se comparan con las de algunos de sus cruces, así más afines, como más alejados, que en conjunto forman el Forastero Venezolano. Se llama la atención sobre unos tipos de cacao muy valiosos, derivados de los cruzamientos entre estos dos tipos de Criollo, mencionados. Se indica, además, la distribución de dichos Criollos en Venezuela.

  3. Occupational medicine in a developing society: a case study of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Goldsmith, D F

    1980-01-01

    Recent activities of the World Health Organization and other international agencies have placed new emphasis on occupational health in developing nations. Venezuela is a nation in transition from a developing society dominated economically by petroleum and agriculture to an economically-diversified industrialized urban society. It provides a case study which illuminates the problems of extending occupational health services in developing economies and questions of public policy regarding utilization of medical resources and the priority that occupational health should hold in such a society. Occupational health has become a serious problem in the developing world as new industries and accelerating ecnomic development occur without adequate resources for worker protection. The study of cases such as that of Venezuela may provide guidance for anticipating and preventing problems in other nations. This paper should be considered a pilot study to explore a social aspect of occupational health that has not received adequate attention.

  4. Do heavy-handed tactics reduce homicides? The case of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Antillano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effectiveness of mano dura (heavy-handed policies in reducing homicides by studying the case of Venezuela in the period 2012-2015 and gives particular attention to policies involving police violence. Although firm hand policies involve a set of strategies and discourses that revolve around the crime and the institutional response to it, this paper exclusively addresses police interventions that involve increased coercion and violence as a formula for tackling criminality. Over these years, policies have been tested out in Venezuela that involve greater police violence on the pretext of defeating the high levels of criminal violence. But rather than the expected effects of reducing violence and homicides, both have grown significantly.

  5. Los efectos de las elecciones de 1993 y 1995 sobre el sistema de partidos en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa RAMOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La autora analiza los cambios ocurridos en las dos últimas convocatorias electorales en Venezuela. Sus observaciones muestran cómo un sistema de partidos tradicionalmente fuerte, bipartidista, se recompone a partir de la crisis política derivada de la dificultades económicas que vive este país. Emergencia de nuevas fuerzas, altas tasas de volatilidad y de desidentificación política son algunos de los nuevos procesos que aparecen en la vida política venezolana.ABSTRACT: The author analyzes the changes which have happened in the last two elections in Venezuela. Her observations show how a strong traditionally party system, bipartidist, it's recomponed from the political crisis provoked by economic problems in the country. The emergency of new political forces, high rates of volatility and political desafection are some of the new processes which appeared in the Venezuelan political life.

  6. Discurso y comunicación en Venezuela: del determinismo al nacionalismo tecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el desarrollo de las tecnologías de información en Venezuela y cómo el elemento discursivo legitima su uso; para ello, se identifican tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico. Se parte del supuesto de que la hegemonía es un proceso ideológico en constante búsqueda de poder, que usa el discurso para su legitimación. Se analiza cómo en Venezuela, junto con las políticas estatales que buscan la construcción de un modelo comunicacional basado en tecnologías de información, el discurso técnico "permea" los ambientes donde las tic puedan legitimar su existencia, con el fin de establecer una hegemonía ideológica en la sociedad.

  7. KPC and VIM producing Enterobacter cloacae strain from a hospital in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Marcano, Daniel; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Salgado, Nurys; Cuaical, Nirvia; Rodriguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; De Donato, Marcos

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old male patient is admitted to the central hospital in Cumana, Venezuela with severe urinary infection, history of hospitalizaions and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated showing resistance to multiple types of antibiotics (only sensitive to gentamicin), with phenotype of serine- and metallo-carbapenemases. Both, bla(VIM-2) and bla(KPC) genes were detected in the isolate. This is the first report of an Enterobacteriaceae species producing both KPC carbapenemase and VIM metallo carbapenemase in Venezuela. This finding has a great clinical and epidemiological impact in the region, because of the feasibility of transferring these genes, through mobile elements to other strains of Enterobacter and to other infection-causing species of bacteria.

  8. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizales, L.; Leandro, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  9. A new species of Piaroa (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Venezuela, with taxonomic notes on the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Osvaldo Villarreal; De Armas, Luis F; García, Luis Fernando

    2014-02-19

    A new species belonging to the schizomid genus Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi and Tourinho, 2008 is described from north-western Venezuela. A complementary description of Piaroa guipongai Villarreal and Garcia, 2012 is provided including SEM pictures of relevant structures of both sexes. A key for males of Piaroa and Colombiazomus Armas and Delgado-Santa, 2012 is included. The presence of Dm3 setae on Hubbardiidae is discussed.

  10. The Institutional Vision of the Geopolitics of Water Resources in Venezuela (State, Nation and Government)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Javier Lizcano Chapeta

    2017-01-01

    In the global, regional and local context, water resources are a strategic element from the geopolitical point of view, given the scarcity of water and the management that must be given to this problem from States, governments and nations. In this sense, the purpose is to analyze the strategic importance that has been given to water resources in Venezuela, taking into account the vision of the State, government and nation. A documentary design is used, of descriptive type, and as a data colle...

  11. New record and new species of Cerambycinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ubirajara R.; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2010-01-01

    Novas espécies descritas de Trinidad and Tobago: Plocaederus dozieri sp. nov. (Cerambycini, Cerambycina), Anelaphus trinidadensis sp. nov. (Elaphidionini), Piezocera rufula sp. nov. (Piezocerini), Assycuera marcelae sp. nov. and Ceralocyna venusta sp. nov. (Trachyderini, Ancylocerina). Neocompsa pallida sp. nov. (Ibidionin) é descrita de Trinidad and Tobago e da Venezuela. Ommata (O.) gallardi Peñaherrera & Tavakilian, 2004 (Rhinotragini), descrita originalmente da Guiana Francesa, é registra...

  12. Indice de la microflora marina de Venezuela: diatomeas, dinoflagelados y cocolitofóridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Díaz-Ramos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el fitoplancton marino de Venezuela han sido realizados de manera regular desde mediados del siglo XX. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha realizado un compendio de las especies encontradas que sirva como marco de referencia a los trabajos taxonómicos. En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un índice de la microflora marina de Venezuela. El índice incluye sólo las diatomeas (89 especies céntricas y 186 especies pennadas, los dinoflagelados (ocho especies atecadas y 154 especies tecadas y los cocolitóforidos (24 especies a los cuales se les realizado una diagnosis formal e ilustraciones (dibujos y/o fotografias y que han sido reportados en la literatura científica (revistas y/o tesis de licenciatura o maestría. Esta ordenado según la clase, orden, familia y especie. Además, en el se cita al autor (es de cada taxón.ha.The marine phytoplankton of Venezuela has been studied on a regular basis since the mid 20th century. However, a species checklist that can be used as a framework for taxonomic studies is lacking. In this paper, an index of the marine microflora of Venezuela is presented for the first time. The index includes only those diatoms (89 centric and 186 pennate species, dinoflagellates (eight naked and 154 thecate species and coccolithophores (24 especies for which formal diagnosis and illustrations (drawings and/or photographs have been reported in the scientific literature (journals and/or first degree or master's theses. It is ordered alphabetically according to class, order, family, and species. It includes the author (s of the taxa.

  13. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L; Leandro, G [Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Unidad de Tecnologia Nuclear, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  14. [Seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in Canis familiaris, state of Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Concepción, Juan Luis; Carzola, Valentina; Rodríguez, Jéssicca; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans has been extensively studied in Venezuela; however, in reservoirs it has been less investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiology of T. cruzi in the state of Sucre, Venezuela. A cross-sectional and prospective study conducted in 95 towns and 577 dwellings in the 15 municipalies of the state of Sucre, Venezuela, from August to November, 2008. The evaluation of serum samples was performed with the CruziELISA kit and the multiple antigens binding assays (MABA). Furthermore, epidemiological surveys were applied to evaluate the risk factors. A total of dogs (average age of 2, 6 + 2.2 years, 226 males and 137 females) was evaluated. The combination of the ELISA / MABA tests detected 78 positive sera, sixty-nine negative and 10 of inconclusive results. The seroprevalence of the T. cruzi infection in dogs in the state of Sucre, was 22.1% (CI 95%: 20.58-22.4%). No significant statistic association was found between the T. cruzi infection in dogs and the evaluated epidemiological variables: hunting dogs that slept oudoors roaming freely in the populated center, sex of the animal and eating habits. The T. cruzi infection was associated to the age of canines, being significantly higher in the group of 0 to 3 years, when compared with older dogs. The high T. cruzi seroprevalence dected in dogs shows that in this región of Venezuela there prevails an important risk factor of transmissibility of this parasite to human populations.

  15. Venezuela 1999–2014: Macro-Policy, Oil Governance and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Vera

    2015-01-01

    During the administration of President Chavez, Venezuela registered some celebrated and encouraging socio-economic achievements, however; in the macroeconomic realm the country underperformed compared with other countries in Latin America of a similar size. The country, for instance, did not manage to avoid recurrent external crisis, suffered from unprecedented net transfers of financial resources abroad and, despite the oil windfall, has not accumulated a strong level of defensive internatio...

  16. A stable demand for money despite financial crisis: The case of Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for broad money in Venezuela, over a period of financial crisis and substantial exchange rate fluctuations. The analysis shows that there exist a long run relationship between real money, real income, inflation, the exchange rate and the domestic interest rate, that remains stable over major policy changes and large shocks. The long run properties emphasize that both inflation and exchange rate depreciations have negative effects on real money demand. The lo...

  17. Hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela: Reproduction in Pelibuey and West African Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, J.; Lopez Barbella, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    The literature review is largely limited to recent research conducted on hair sheep in Mexico and Venezuela. Whereas reproduction is the general topic reviewed, much of the research quoted deals with the influence of nutrition, management, climate and disease on various indices of reproduction in the ewe and ram. Areas where information is minimal are also identified, as are research topics which need to be addressed. (author). 90 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Del Puntofijisimo a la Quinta Republica: elecciones y democracia en Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kornblith.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that political stability in Venezuela depends upon the relationship between collective political preferences and the decisions made by elected officials. The author analyzes electoral patterns in the country between 1989 and 2000, in order to evaluate the effects of the Punto Fijo Pact, created in 1958, the reasons for President Hugo Chávez’s political strengthening, and his efforts to “recreate the republic”.

  19. The political role of national oil companies in the large exporting countries : the Venezuela case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommer, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper starts by defining the role of mining companies vis-a vis the landlords in a modern economy. Then it examines the role international oil companies played in exporting countries. Finally the role of national oil companies is analyzed following the same scheme : what is their contribution to the development of a new landlord-tenant relationship, nationally and internationally ? ''Petroleos de Venezuela'' is taken as an example. (Author). 27 refs

  20. Losing Influence: Regional Effects of U.S. Foreign Policy with Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the Americas ICE Immigrations and Customs Enforcement ICSID International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes MAS Movement for...American states. As of 2012, countries such as Brazil, Venezuela, and Chile all export more goods to China than they do to the United States.7 In the...Iraq in 2003, it approached the UN Security Council seeking an approved UN resolution for military action. Latin America’s representatives, Chile

  1. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month--86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second--higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza

  2. [Control, elimination and eradication of viral immuno preventable diseases in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida; Maldonado, Mery

    2005-09-01

    Vaccination has demonstrated the capacity for the drastic decrease of the prevalence and incidence of several diseases of viral etiology and it has allowed their eradication. Among these human immuno preventable diseases are included poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, hepatitis A and B, influenza A and yellow fever. In residents, travelers to endemic areas and personal at risk, the vaccines to Japanese and equine encephalitis, rabies and adenovirus can be applied. Venezuela has not escaped from the positive impact in the epidemiology of these illnesses as a consequence of the organization and implementation of big national vaccination campaigns; however, and in spite of these efforts, important outbreaks of measles, yellow fever, chicken pox and hepatitis have occurred in the last few years. The tools to eliminate the majority of these viral diseases exist in Venezuela as well as in other countries, and are readily available, effective and relatively not expensive, but require on the whole of an effort of authorities and communities. The implementation of these strategies should have the support of the World Health Organization and the Panamerican Health Organization. This is a priority for the next few years if our aim is the eradication of these illnesses from Venezuela, the continent and the world.

  3. Molecular characterization of hepatitis E virus in patients with acute hepatitis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina Gutiérrez; Sánchez, Doneyla; Villalba, Maria Caridad Montalvo; Pujol, Flor Helene; de Los Ángeles Rodríguez Lay, Licel; Pinto, Belquis; Chacón, Elsa Patricia; Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a common infection in developing countries. HEV infection occurs as outbreaks, as sporadic clinical cases and as large epidemics in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HEV infection in patients with clinical suspicion of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, referred to the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in Venezuela. Seventy-four sera were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies. HEV-RNA was amplified from anti-HEV IgM positive sera using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ORF1 (RNA dependent RNA polymerase region) and the amplicons sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The frequency of anti-HEV IgM was 22/74 (30%) in the samples tested. Dual infection with HAV and HEV was found in 31% (12/39) of anti-HAV IgM positive patients. Viremia was detected in 3/22 (14%) of sera positive for anti-HEV IgM. Two HEV strains were classified as genotype 1 and one as genotype 3, which were closely related to Yam 67 (north of India) and US1 isolates from the USA, respectively. These findings suggest that HEV is an important cause of acute viral hepatitis in Venezuela as a single infection or co-infection with HAV, with high morbidity in children and young adults suggesting that this infection is endemic in Venezuela. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A program on quality assurance and dose calibration for radiation therapy units in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, M.C. de; Carrizales, L.; Diaz, J.; Gutt, F.; Cozman, A.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a five year program (1988-90-91-92-93) on quality assurance and dose calibration for 12 Cobalt-60 units from public hospitals, which represents 30% of total radiation therapy units in Venezuela, are presented. The remarkable improvement in the general performance of these units can be seen in the IAEA/WHO Postal TLD Intercomparison results which gave 100% within ± 5% in 1990 and 1992, while 63% in 1990 and 44% in 1992, with errors up to 37% were obtained for the participants not included in the program. The difference between the two groups lead the government to decrete through the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela, Resolution G-1397 on March 3, 1993, the quality assurance and dose calibration programs shall be established for all radiation therapy installations in Venezuela. The project for the standards was developed by the SSDL physicists and it was already approbated by the Health Ministry. It is expected that the Norms will enter into effect by the end of 1994. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Risk, Activism, and Empowerment: Women’s Breast Cancer in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of breast cancer in Venezuela is particularly alarming, which is attributed to healthcare inequalities, low health literacy, and lagging compliance with prevention methods (i.e., screening and mammography). While the right to health is acknowledged by the Venezuelan constitution, activism beyond governmental confines is required to increase women’s breast cancer awareness and decrease mortality rates. Through the development of social support and strategic communicative methods enacted by healthcare providers, it may be possible to empower women with the tools necessary for breast cancer prevention. This paper discusses issues surrounding women’s breast cancer, such as awareness of the disease and its risks, self-advocacy, and the roles of activists, healthcare providers, and society. Specifically, it describes a four-year action-oriented research project developed in Venezuela, which was a collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include higher levels of awareness and interest among community members and organizations to learn and seek more information about women’s breast cancer, better understandings of the communicated messages, more media coverage and medical consultations, increasing positive patient treatments, expansion of networking of NGOs, as well as a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela. PMID:27868080

  7. Petróleo y cambio social como programa de investigación en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. González Oquendo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alo largo del siglo xx, el petróleo ha sido el elemento estructural que ha explicado la estructuración de la sociedad venezolana. Es una idea extendida que Venezuela es lo que la actividad petrolera le ha permitido ser. El presente trabajo se está interesado en estudiar cómo la construcción de la sociedad venezolana ha sido posible desde la óptica de productos intelectuales científico sociales. No interesa sólo una lectura teórica sino hacer una aproximación epistemológica que determine la existencia de un programa de investigación. Se utilizó el modelo VIE de José Padrón para analizar la obra de cinco científicos sociales clave que han estudiado el impacto social del petróleo en Venezuela: Rodolfo Quintero, Carmen Vallarino de Bracho, Roberto Briceño León, María Sol Pérez Schael y Fernando Coronil. Finalmente, se pudo demostrar que el único elemento en común entre estos estudios de investigación es el objeto, aunque cada uno de ellos tiene diferentes construcciones teóricas acerca de éste. De este modo, «petróleo y cambio social en Venezuela» no es todavía un programa de investigación

  8. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  9. A program on quality assurance and dose calibration for radiation therapy units in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.C. de; Carrizales, L; Diaz, J; Gutt, F; Cozman, A [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Calibracion Dosimetrica

    1996-08-01

    The results of a five year program (1988-90-91-92-93) on quality assurance and dose calibration for 12 Cobalt-60 units from public hospitals, which represents 30% of total radiation therapy units in Venezuela, are presented. The remarkable improvement in the general performance of these units can be seen in the IAEA/WHO Postal TLD Intercomparison results which gave 100% within {+-} 5% in 1990 and 1992, while 63% in 1990 and 44% in 1992, with errors up to 37% were obtained for the participants not included in the program. The difference between the two groups lead the government to decrete through the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela, Resolution G-1397 on March 3, 1993, the quality assurance and dose calibration programs shall be established for all radiation therapy installations in Venezuela. The project for the standards was developed by the SSDL physicists and it was already approbated by the Health Ministry. It is expected that the Norms will enter into effect by the end of 1994. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. El impacto fiscal de las reformas del IVA en Venezuela. 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka Quílez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el impacto fiscal de las reformas a la ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA en Venezuela, desde su creación en 1993 hasta el año 2012. Para ello, se utilizaron las Encuestas Nacionales de Presupuestos Familiares (ENPF de 1997 y 2005 que publica el Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV y las leyes del IVA, así como la data de consumo final de los hogares en el mercado interno que publica el BCV en sus Cuentas Nacionales. Los resultados del estudio arrojaron que en Venezuela el sacrifico fiscal de las exenciones del IVA es elevado, y para el período en estudio oscilan entre un mínimo de 2,17% del PIB en 2008 y un máximo de 4,51% del PIB en 1999. Esta pérdida fiscal se incrementa en la medida que aumenta la base exenta y la alícuota aplicada son mayores y los costos fiscales que asume el Estado son entre 9 y 11 veces superiores para el diez por ciento de la población de mayor ingreso comparado con el diez por ciento de menores ingresos.

  11. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  12. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise.

  13. Análisis de la política exterior de Venezuela en materia energética dirigida a Centro América. Estudio de Caso: Petrocaribe instrumento del ALBA. Periodo 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Castillo, Diana Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Análisis de la imfluencia de Petrocaribe en la política exterior de Venezuela, utilizando el petróleo como herramienta de acercamiento en las relaciones comerciales entre Venezuela y los paises del Caribe.

  14. Introduction of the gross motor function classification system in Venezuela--a model for knowledge dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwing, Kristina; Arredondo, Ynes C; Tedroff, Marika; Tedroff, Kristina

    2015-09-04

    A current worldwide common goal is to optimize the health and well-being of children with cerebral palsy (CP). In order to reach that goal, for this heterogeneous group, a common language and classification systems are required to predict development and offer evidence based interventions. In most countries in Africa, South America, Asia and Eastern Europe the classification systems for CP are unfamiliar and rarely used. Education and implementation are required. The specific aims of this study were to examine a model in order to introduce the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) in Venezuela, and to examine the validity and the reliability. Children with CP, registered at a National child rehabilitation centre in Venezuela, were invited to participate. The Spanish version of GMFCS-E&R was used. The Wilson mobility scale was translated and used to examine the concurrent validity. A structured questionnaire, comprising aspects of mobility and gross motor function, was constructed. In addition, each child was filmed. A paediatrician in Venezuela received supervised self-education in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale. A Swedish student was educated in GMFCS-E&R and the Wilson mobility scale prior to visiting Venezuela. In Venezuela, all children were classified and scored by the paediatrician and student independently. An experienced paediatric physiotherapist (PT) in Sweden made independent GMFCS-E&R classifications and Wilson mobility scale scorings, accomplished through merging data from the structured questionnaire with observations of the films. Descriptive statistics were used and reliability was presented with weighted Kappa (Kw). Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to explore the concurrent validity between GMFCS-E&R and Wilson mobility scale. Eighty-eight children (56 boys), mean age 10 years (3-18), with CP participated. The inter-rater reliability of GMFCS-E&R between; the paediatrician and the PT was Kw = 0.85 (95% CI

  15. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation

  16. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moratorio Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus (DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4 and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119 of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A→V was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a

  17. Heavy metals in sediments, mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Astudillo, L. de; Chang Yen, I.; Bekele, I.

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Paria is bordered by both Trinidad and Venezuela, from which various metallic pollutants and other contaminants can originate. The Gulf is still a significant source of fish, crabs and shellfish for human consumption to both countries, where concerns over the quality of this marine environment have been long expressed but never properly addressed. In addition, the circulatory current patterns in the Gulf ensure that contaminants originating from either country are likely to affect both countries eventually. Heavy metals were determined in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. virginica), green mussels (Perna viridis) and sediments from the Gulf of Paria. Samples were obtained at four sites in Trinidad and three sites in Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria, in addition to comparative samples collected from three sites on the north coast of Venezuela. Edible tissues of twelve shellfish from each location were blended and aliquots digested with concentrated nitric acid, for extraction of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. The solutions were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury was extracted with a mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and determined by cold vapour atomic absorption. Sediments were oven-dried at 60 0 C, before being similarly extracted. Results showed that mercury in sediments at all sites in Trinidad and Venezuela exceeded NOAA and Canadian sediment quality guidelines, while cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc also exceeded these guidelines at several sites. Heavy metal levels in oysters and green mussels varied widely with location. However, oysters from the Gulf of Paria contained significantly higher mean levels of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc than those from the north coast of Venezuela, but this difference was not apparent in mussels. Cadmium, mercury and zinc in sediments were significantly correlated with those of mussels, but not of oysters, in which copper and zinc at several

  18. Sincronía reproductiva interpoblacional de Agave cocui (Agavaceae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J Figueredo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available cocui (Agavaceae es una especie de amplia distribución en zonas áridas y semiáridas de Venezuela y Colombia. A pesar de su importancia ecológica como fuente de recursos para la fauna silvestre y de su potencial valor económico como materia prima para la producción del licor “Cocuy de Penca”, los estudios sobre su ecología reproductiva son muy escasos. En este estudio se evaluó la fenología de floración y fructificación de A. cocui en ocho localidades de Venezuela. La fase reproductiva se inició al finalizar el periodo de lluvias. Las flores se producen durante cinco meses. Para la Región Noroccidental del país y los Andes los máximos de floración ocurrieron en enero, mientras que las localidades en la costa central y oriental exhibieron un desface de cerca de dos meses, a principios de marzo. La mayor sincronía floral ocurrió entre todas las poblaciones censadas en el occidente del país, incluyendo las localidades andinas. Dicha sincronía reproductiva potenciaría la conformación de un corredor de néctar para aves y murciélagos, que se extendería desde el Norte de Falcón, en la Costa Occidental, hasta los bolsones andinos, en el Suroeste del país.Interpopulation reproductive synchrony of Agave cocui (Agavaceae in Venezuela. Agave cocui (Agavaceae is a species with broad distribution in arid and semiarid areas of Venezuela and Colombia. Despite of its ecological importance as a source of food for wildlife, and its economic value for production of a spirit drink, studies on the reproductive ecology of the species are relatively rare. In this study, we conducted a oneyear evaluation of the flowering and fruiting phenology of A. cocui in the eight representative localities of the species’ distribution in Venezuela. Within each study site, we chose an area with a minimum of 50 reproductive individuals and followed their reproductive phenophases with the help of binoculars, using six qualitative cathegories (emerging

  19. Crisis política y narrativas transmedia en las protestas de 2014 en Venezuela/ Political crisis and transmedia storytelling in the 2014 protests in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Orlando Pernía Peñalver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte de una investigación en curso sobre el surgimiento en Venezuela de los online espacios de autonomía que vienen alterando los regímenes de intercambio informativo. Las protestas civiles de 2014 sumaron evidencias a la disolución de las fronteras, cada vez más imprecisas, entre los medios clásicos de comunicación de masas y las plataformas digitales que han posibilitado el acceso directo de los usuarios a la mediasfera. Abordamos ejemplos que lo demuestran y aportamos elementos teóricos para una interpretación del fenómeno. El bloqueo informativo gubernamental es el eje que ha obligado a los nuevos infociudadanos a formar colectividades en red para construir las narraciones y modelos de lectura sobre el entorno crítico y sus fases de tensión. This work is part of an ongoing research on the rise in Venezuela of online autonomy spaces which are altering the information exchange regimes. Civil protests of 2014 brought into evidence the dissolution of borders, increasingly blurred, between traditional mass media and digital platforms which are enabling direct user access to the media sphere. In this article, we provide and analyze examples and also, theoretical elements contributing to an interpretation of the phenomenon. The government's information blockade is the axis that has forced communities to form new social info-network where to build stories and models of reading on critical environment and its phases of tension.

  20. Estudio seroepidemiologico de la amibiasis en una comunidad del estado Zulia, Venezuela A seroepidemiological study of amebiasis in a community of Zulia State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Chacin-Bonilla

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiologico de amibiasis en una comunidad de bajas condiciones socioeconómicas del Municipio Mara, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se estudiaron 283 individuos cuyas edades fluctuaron de 2 a 53 años. Se obtuvieron muestras de sueros, las cuales se examinaron con la prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta de KESSEL et al., según una modificación de MILGRAM et al. Se utilizó antígeno amibiano obtenido de cultivos axénicos de la raza HK9 de E. histolytica. La tasa de seropositividad obtenida fué de 46.6%; la mayoría de los reactores tenía títulos bajos y no presentaba signos de amibiasis. El porcentaje de seropositividad aumentó con la edad. Los resultados sugieren una alta endemicidad de la infección en esta comunidad, ocurriendo la transmisión con mucha mayor frecuencia que la amibiasis invasiva.In the present evaluation, a community of low socioeconomical conditions from Zulia State, Venezuela, was analyzed for the prevalence of antibodies to E. histolytica. Two hundred and eighty three serum samples were collected and examined by the indirect hemagglutination test according to a microtiter modification of the KESSEL and LEWIS method, as used by MILGRAM et al. Antigen prepared from axenically-grown. E. histolytica strain HK9 in Diamond's medium was used. The seropositivity rate obtained was 46.6% and the frequency of positive cases was dependent on age. The antibody profiles obtained suggest a high endemicity for this parasitic infection in the area studied, with a much higher level of transmission than invasive amebiasis.

  1. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  2. Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth

  3. Derechos de propiedad, compañías petroleras, Estado y renta en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús MORA CONTRERAS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo muestra que las compañías petroleras internacionales han estado haciendo negocios en Venezuela durante más de cuatro quintas partes de casi un siglo de historia de la industria petrolera en este país (1917-2009. Muestra también que lo que ha cambiado para ellas a lo largo del tiempo es la manera de hacer negocios en la industria petrolera venezolana, valga decir, los términos y condiciones de acceso a las actividades de exploración y producción que les ha impuesto el propietario del recurso natural, relacionados particularmente con el reparto de la renta petrolera internacional. El artículo, dividido en cuatro secciones, es una síntesis de la historia del derecho de propiedad del subsuelo, de las compañías petroleras, del Estado y de la renta petrolera internacional en Venezuela desde 1920 hasta el presente. ABSTRACT: This paper shows that in almost a century of history of the Venezuelan oil industry (1917-2009, International Oil Companies (IOCs have been doing business in this country for just more than fourth fifth of this period (74/92 years. It shows too that during that time, what has been changing in this country for the oil companies, IOCs or National Oil Companies (NOCs, is the way of doing business in the upstream of the oil industry: the terms and conditions of the owner of the underground property rights. Terms and conditions mean in this context how much of the oil generated rents in the underground public and national property rights goes to the pockets of the oil companies and government. This paper summarizes the history of the underground property rights, oil companies, the State, and rent in Venezuela from 1920 up to the present.

  4. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in Venezuela reveals high frequency of Sporothrix globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; León-Navarro, Isabel; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Mendoza, Mireya; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A

    2015-02-25

    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal disease of humans and other mammals, known to be caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, which comprises four species of clinical importance: S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, and S. schenckii sensu stricto. Of them, S. globosa and S. schenckii s. str. show global distribution and differences in global frequency as causal agents of the disease. In the Americas, only three species are present: S. schenckii s. str., S. brasiliensis (so far, only reported in Brazil), and S. globosa. In Venezuela, since the first case of sporotrichosis reported in 1935, S. schenckii have been considered its unique etiological agent. In the present work, the presence of more than one species in the country was evaluated. By phenotypic key features and molecular phylogeny analyses, we re-examined 30 isolates from diverse Venezuelan regions belonging to the fungi collection of Instituto de Biomedicina, Caracas, Venezuela, and national reference center for skin diseases. All isolates were collected between 1973 and 2013, and maintained in distilled water. Sporotrichosis in Venezuela is mainly caused by S. schenckii s. str. (70%). However, a significant proportion (30%) of sporotrichosis cases in the country can be attributable to S. globosa. A correlation between intraspecific genotypes and clinical presentation is proposed. Our data suggest that sporotrichosis various clinical forms might be related to genetic diversity of isolates, and possibly, to diverse virulence profiles previously reported in the S. schenckii species complex. Sporothrix globosa was found to be the causative agent of 30% of sporotrichosis for the Venezuelan cases re-examined, the highest frequency of this species so far reported in the Americas. The high genetic variability presented by S. schenckii s. str. indicates that species distinction based on phenotypic key features could be a challenging and uncertain task; molecular identification

  6. [Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Frechilla, J J

    1996-01-01

    The individuals and circumstances involved in the creation of the first graduate urban studies program in Venezuela are recalled, beginning with the odernization of Caracas under the impulse of President Antonio Guzman Blanco, elected in 1870. Guzman Blanco converted himself into Venezuela's first urbanist with the establishment of organizational frameworks and completion of massive public works projects, which were based largely on the urban models of the US and Europe. Engineering and public health were consolidated as the two most influential sources of professional competence for guiding urban development. By the mid-1930s, growth fueled by petroleum revenues was causing rapid urbanization, and it became apparent that trained professionals able to manage the increasingly complex tasks of urban planning were in short supply. A new surge of modernizing construction began in 1936 and led to a cooperative arrangement with a French firm, whose personnel were to be required to train Venezuelan engineers for future service in urban planning. An influx of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and the increasing influence of urban planning processes in the US were also observed. The National Commission on Urbanism was created in 1946 as a dependency of the Ministry of Planning to facilitate public administration of the development and control of cities. Throughout the period, a debate was underway on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to urban planning versus a primarily architectural or engineering approach. In 1957, some consensus was reached on the need for urban planning to be viewed as more than a speciality of architecture. A framework was developed for a graduate program in 1969 in the Central University of Venezuela. The National Commission on Urbanism was disbanded in 1957, largely because of its excessive focus on architecture to the exclusion of other disciplines relevant to the urbanization process.

  7. PCR deduction of invasive and colonizing pneumococcal serotypes from Venezuela: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Gonzalez, Teresita; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar Alejandra; Sisco, María Carolina; Spadola, Enza; Hermans, Peter W; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-04-15

    Serotype surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is indispensable for evaluating the potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotyping by the standard Quellung reaction is technically demanding, time consuming, and expensive. A simple and economical strategy is multiplex PCR-based serotyping. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of a modified serial multiplex PCR (mPCR), resolving 24 serotypes in four PCR reactions and optimally targeting the most prevalent invasive and colonizing pneumococcal serotypes found in Venezuela. A total of 223 pneumococcal isolates, 140 invasive and 83 carriage isolates, previously serotyped by the Quellung reaction and representing the 18 most common serotypes/groups identified in Venezuela, were serotyped with the adapted mPCR. The mPCR serotyped 76% of all the strains in the first two PCR reactions and 91% after four reactions, correctly identifying 17 serotypes/groups. An isolate could be serotyped with mPCR in less than 2 minutes versus 15 minutes for the Quellung reaction, considerably lowering labor costs. A restrictive weakness of mPCR was found for the detection of 19F strains. Most Venezuelan 19F strains were not typeable using the mPCR, and two 19F cps serotype variants were identified. The mPCR assay is an accurate, rapid, and economical method for the identification of the vast majority of the serotypes from Venezuela and can be used in place of the standard Quellung reaction. An exception is the identification of serotype 19F. In this setting, most 19F strains were not detectable with mPCR, demonstrating a need of serology-based quality control for PCR-based serotyping.

  8. [Cardiovascular risk: initial estimation in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viso, Miguel; Rodríguez, Zulma; Loreto, Neydys; Fernández, Yolima; Callegari, Carlos; Nicita, Graciela; González, Julio; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    In Venezuela as in the Canary Islands (Spain), cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research is to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the Canary Islands migrants living in Venezuela and participating in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela". 452 individuals, aged 18 to 93 years (54.9% women), were enrolled between June 2008 and August 2009. A data survey was performed and their weight, height, abdomen and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. After a 12-hour fasting period, a blood sample was obtained for glucose and lipid profile determinations. 40.5% of the subjects were over 65 years of age and 8% corresponded to the younger group (18-30 years). In men, the average age was 57.69 +/- 18.17 years and the body mass index 29.39 +/- 5.71 kg/m2, whereas women were 56.50 +/- 16.91 years and 28.20 +/- 5.57 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49.1%, overweight and obesity together 75,2%, abdominal obesity 85.4%, diabetes 17.4%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 12.2%, elevated blood pressure 52.9%, low HDL-cholesterol 53,8% and elevated serum triglycerides 31%. Among subjects without diabetes or IFG, a third showed a high triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio, indicating insulin resistance. We conclude that the Canarian-Venezuelan community suffers high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes). In relation to the current population of the Canary Islands, they show a lower frequency of IFG and a higher frequency of low HDL-cholesterol. In comparison to the Venezuelan population (Zulia), they showed to have lower prevalence of IFG, low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglycerides.

  9. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  10. Distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel FREIJE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El análisis de la distribución y redistribución del ingreso en Venezuela se puede resumir en tres conclusiones generales. En primer lugar, la distribución del ingreso en Venezuela es más desigual en el año 2000 que a finales de la década de 1970. En segundo lugar, esta situación se debe a un descenso en la acumulación de capital que está también asociado al colapso del producto y el ingreso. En tercer lugar, el descenso en la acumulación de capital no parece estar asociado a la desigualdad inicial de la economía o a mecanismos redistributivos por parte del gobierno. Puede decirse que la contracción del crecimiento económico es lo que ha causado el aumento de la pobreza y el aumento de la desigualdad en la economía venezolana.ABSTRACT: An analysis of distribution and redistribution of income in Venezuela leads to three general conclusions. In first place, the distribution of income is more unequal in 2000 than by the end of the seventies. In second place, this situation is due to a drop in the accumulation of capital, also linked to the collapse of the product and the income. In third place, the drop in the accumulation of capital does not seem to be associated to the initial inequality of the economy or to redistributive mechanisms of the government. It is possible to say that the reduction of the economic growth has caused an increase of the poverty and the raise of inequality in the Venezuelan economy.

  11. La alta gerencia corporativa, el marketing y la responsabilidad social empresarial: Caso Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Raspa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003 hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Venezuela y como se viene desarrollando durante las últimas décadas. Finalmente, al comparar las tendencias mundiales sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y la situación venezolana se destaca la propensión del empresariado venezolano a la puesta en práctica de la acción social de una manera eficiente y con orientación al Marketing.Palabras Clave: Responsabilidad social empresarial; marketing, estrategia; acción social; ciudadano corporativo.Corporate senior management, marketing and corporate social responsibility: Venezuela Case AbstractThe work presented below is an overview that draws the development of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and global marketing from the perspective of authors like Lindbaek (2003 to modern trends of this perspective, through regulations that control and encourage social action of the companies in the concert of nations. After an analysis of these trends, it goes deeper into the situation of the Social Responsibility and Marketing in Venezuela and how it has been developing itself over recent decades. Finally, and to compare global trend about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Venezuelan situation, it is highlighted the propensity of the Venezuelan entrepreneurial to the implementation of social action in an efficient way and marketing focused.Keywords: corporate social responsibility; marketing; strategy; social action; corporate citizen.

  12. LAS COMPLEJIDADES DE LA SEGURIDAD Y LA SOBERANÍA ALIMENTARIA EN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Domínguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and food sovereignty are usually closely linked, even more so in Venezuela, but due to the structural economic characteristics of its oil economy, and, since 1999, due to the transformations in which this nation embarked from the onset of the Bolivarian Revolution initiated by Hugo Chavez Frias. Social justice, especially poverty eradication, and all the consequences associated with this scourge so common in Latin America, such as labor informality, socio-political exclusion of large sections of the poor and destitute, and, above all, child mortality, malnutrition and undernourishment, have been priority objectives of the Bolivarian process. Because of that, food security has been proclaimed as a constitutional right, specifically Art.305 of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela enshrines the right to food as a fundamental state policy. The achievements in food security are noteworthy, leading Bolivarian Venezuela to merit two FAO official recognitions. However, the achievements in food sovereignty are more modest, the main obstacle being the century-old highly specialized structure around oil of this South American nation’s economy. A second obstacle, more contemporary but no less serious in achieving not only sovereignty but especially food security is the economic war that, as in the Chile of Salvador Allende, seeks to erode the base of political support for bolivarianism through hoarding, smuggling food staples and fuel, large-scale currency speculation, and the use of fracking to induce oil prices to collapse levels as a political weapon against governments and regimes that Washington detest. And, as in Chile, such destabilisation plans can be lethal.

  13. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-07-04

    In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.

  14. Case study in Venezuela : performance of multiphase meter in extra heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela); Bornia, O.; Pinguet, B. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The performance of a multiphase meter that combines Venturi and multi energy gamma rays was investigated during operation in an extra heavy oil field in Venezuela. The Orocual field in Monagas is one of the most diverse oilfields in Venezuela. It produces gas condensate, light and medium oil and has recently started to produce from a heavy and extra-heavy oil reservoir, with a gravity between 8.6 and 11 API and a viscosity range from 6 Pa.s to more than 20 Pa.s at line conditions. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently using cold production systems in this field. PDVSA attempted to estimate the liquid flow rate using conventional storage tanks but was unable to evaluate the gas production in such an environment of low GOR with emulsion, large amounts of foam and high viscosity. Since the density of heavy oil is close to the density of water, gravity separation cannot be applied. Also, since heavy oil is very viscous, proper separation requires a long retention time, which is not feasible in terms of space or economy. In addition, gas bubbles could not flow freely and remained as a gas phase trapped inside the liquid, resulting in an overestimation of some of the liquid flow rate. In order to measure the field's oil, water and gas flow rates, PDVSA tried several multiphase meters but found that a Venturi and multi energy gamma ray combination was the only solution able to accurately measure multiphase flow in its extra heavy oil. A test demonstrated that, compared to a tank system, the overall uncertainty of the Venturi combination was better than 2 per cent. This extended the operating envelope for PDVSA for using this multiphase metering technology, providing the capability to monitor and optimize in real-time the production in this extra heavy oil field. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  15. MONOPOLY AND OLIGOPOLY: CAUSES OF ENTERPRISES CLOSED IN VENEZUELA. A CASE STUDY IN THE ZULIA STATE.GROUP SIDEPRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Agostini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy has been impacted because of the monopoly and oligopoly Venezuela markets. This study analyzes the causes of the closure of the main company producing pipes for the oil industry in Zulia State.(Group SIDERPRO It is a research field, documentary and descriptive. The information was collected on experiences arising in the process of expropriation and recovery. As a result evidence of the need to propose a macroeconomic planning and control allowing to speed recovery of closed industrial parks and Venezuela recovery process model.

  16. Historia reciente y situación política actual de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista (en español Presentación Elisabeth Burgos es una antropóloga y escritora venezolana; coautora del libro Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia (Madrid, Editores Siglo XXI, 1998, sobre la vida de la dirigente indígena guatemalteca ganadora del Premio Nobel de la Paz en 1992. Actualmente reside en París donde realiza estudios de Historia. En esta entrevista, Elisabeth Burgos nos presenta su visión de la historia de Venezuela desde 1936, año en el que ella sitúa el i...

  17. Determinantes de la inflación en Venezuela: Enfoque de sobrecostos

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, José; Guarata, Nora

    2014-01-01

    El artículo presenta un modelo econométrico que permite considerar elementos de corto y largo plazo para analizar el comportamiento de la inflación en Venezuela con un enfoque sobre el costo unitario (o sobrecosto). En primer lugar, se encuentra una relación de largo plazo o cointegración entre la estructura de costos y el comportamiento del índice general de precios. En segundo lugar, se construye un modelo de corto plazo utilizando la técnica de corrección de errores con las siguientes vari...

  18. Reforma estructural, pobreza y exclusión. El caso de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Lacabana, Miguel; Jungemann, Beate; Ramírez, Ana María

    1997-01-01

    La reestructuración del mercado de trabajo y el impacto negativo sobre las condiciones de existencia de la población latinoamericana es una constante que se reproduce en los países de la región más allá de las particularidades que ha tomado en cada uno de ellos el proceso de reestructuración económica. El mayor impacto social que ha tenido el proceso de reestructuración económica en Venezuela son los cambios en: 1. el mercado de trabajo, que tiende hacia una mayor informalización y precarieda...

  19. Ultrastructural identification of Ehrlich ia sp in an experimentally infected dog in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, N.; Martinez, M.; Arraga Alvarado, C.; Bretana, A.; Pacheco, I.; Comach, G.

    1999-01-01

    This study is the first report made in Venezuela concerning the ultrastructural characteristics of Ehrlich ia sp in mononuclear blood cells from an experimentally infected dog. The animal developed clinical manifestations characteristic of the infection, and typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were clearly seen in blood smears stained with modified Giemsa examined by light microscopy. Microorganisms were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic inclusions, consisted of membrane-lined vacuole-containing elementary bodies. The organisms were extremely pleomorphic. Elementary bodies were surrounded by two distinct membranes and each was constituted by electro-dense granules. These findings corresponded to the described electron microscopy morphology which characterizes the Ehrlich ia genus

  20. Recepción de la radiactividad en la Venezuela (1896-1934)

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Lilibeth; Freites, Yajaira

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal del trabajo es reseñar la recepción de la radioactividad en Venezuela durante el periodo 1896-1934. A través de la exploración histórica, que incluyó desde artículos científicos y divulgativos, notas de prensa, tesis, informes, programas de estudio hasta fuentes secundarias (libros, artículos), fue posible establecer que los ingenieros y los médicos fueron los actores sociales claves dentro del proceso de recepción de la radioactividad en el país en el ...

  1. Represión y justicia en Venezuela en tiempos de protesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Pérez Perdomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between February and May 2014, wide public demonstrations erupted mayor cities in Venezuela, when young people protested against violent criminality, scarcity of goods, inflation and a general perception of an uncertain future. They were violently repressed by the military police, the police and armed thugs. Fifty people died, many were injured or arrested, and about 2.500 were submitted to criminal procedure. A number of opposition leaders and mayors are still in prison. Prosecutors and judges have collaborated in the repression and have paid no attention to the massive violation of human rights. The article analyzes the meaning of such massive repression for the judicial system and the state.

  2. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Sánchez, Ana; Zerpa López, Leiniz; Martínez Ramírez, Marle

    2008-01-01

    En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, se muestra la aplicabilidad de dicho modelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal...

  3. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  4. Heavy metals in sediments,mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rojas de Astudillo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Paria is bordered by both Trinidad and Venezuela,from which various metallic pollutants and other contaminants can originate.The Gulf is still a significant source of fish,crabs and shellfish for human consumption to both countries,where concerns over the quality of this marine environment have been long expressed but never properly addressed.In addition,the circulatory current patterns in the Gulf ensure that contaminants originating from either country are likely to affect both countries eventually.Heavy metals were determined in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae and C.virginica ,green mussels (Perna viridis and sediments from the Gulf of Paria.Samples were obtained at four sites in Trinidad and three sites in Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria,in addition to comparative samples collected from three sites on the north coast of Venezuela.Edible tissues of twelve shellfish from each location were blended and aliquots digested with concentrated nitric acid, for extraction of cadmium,chromium,copper,lead,nickel and zinc.The solutions were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.Mercury was extracted with a mixture of nitric,hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and determined by cold vapour atomic absorption.Sediments were oven-dried at 60°C, before being similarly extracted.Results showed that mercury in sediments at all sites in Trinidad and Venezuela exceeded NOAA and Canadian sediment quality guidelines,while cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc also exceeded these guidelines at several sites.Heavy metal levels in oysters and green mussels varied widely with location. However,oysters from the Gulf of Paria contained significantly higher mean levels of cadmium,copper,nickel and zinc than those from the north coast of Venezuela, but this difference was not apparent in mussels.Cadmium, mercury and zinc in sediments were significantly correlated with those of mussels,but not of oysters,in which copper and zinc at several sites in the

  5. Diccionario de alimentación y gastronomía en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Otaiza, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    1.- Artículos Cartay, Rafael. "Los productos típicos y su reglamentación. Una tentativa de aplicación de la denominación de origen al cacao venezolano" Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin. "Theobroma Cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud" Anido, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Alejandro. "La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995: Algunas evidencias empíricas" Molina, Luisa Elena. "Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Ven...

  6. La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995:

    OpenAIRE

    Anido R., José Daniel; Gutiérrez S., Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    1.- Artículos Cartay, Rafael. "Los productos típicos y su reglamentación. Una tentativa de aplicación de la denominación de origen al cacao venezolano" Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin. "Theobroma Cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud" Anido, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Alejandro. "La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995: Algunas evidencias empíricas" Molina, Luisa Elena. "Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Ven...

  7. Coexistence of mcr-1 and blaNDM-1 in Escherichia coli from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Blas, Jose F; Ovejero, Cristina M; Abadia-Patiño, Lorena; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We studied the presence of the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in human, animal, and environmental Enterobacteriaceae samples from Cumana, Venezuela, that were collected in 2015. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 2/93 Escherichia coli isolates from swine (novel ST452) and human (ST19) samples that were resistant to colistin. Whole-genome sequencing and transformation experiments identified mcr-1 on an IncI2 plasmid. One of the isolates also bore the widely spread carbapenemase NDM-1. A One Health approach is necessary to further elucidate the flux of these high-risk genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  9. Application of the nuclear technology in the oil industry in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, P.M.; Parra, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1987 the Physics laboratory of the Condensed Matter of the Centre of Physics Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research, IVIC several diagnostic techniques that, make use of neutrons, gamma rays and radioactive tracers have been developed, they have been oriented mainly towards, the oil industry of Venezuela bout 100 applications have been carried out in the principal enterprises oil refineries and companies crude producing petrochemical in the country. In this presentation are exposed three applications of these techniques. Utilization of neutrons (sources Am241-Be). Utilization of gamma rays and study of radiotracers

  10. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  11. Situación político-laboral en Venezuela : la estabilidad perdida

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Héctor

    2003-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analizan las agudas transformaciones políticas ocurridas en Venezuela en las últimas décadas, que han llevado a una notable inestabilidad institucional. Se analizan los factores que contribuyeron a la pérdida de la estabilidad alcanzada, destacando la falta de representatividad de las organizaciones políticas y sociales que tradicionalmente habían representado a grandes contingentes de seguidores. De estas organizaciones, el análisis se centra en el papel del movimi...

  12. Low Child Survival Index in a Multi-Dimensionally Poor Amerindian Population in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Villalba, Julian A.; Liu, Yushi; Alvarez, Mauyuri K.; Calderon, Luisana; Canache, Merari; Cardenas, Gaudymar; Del Nogal, Berenice; Takiff, Howard E.; De Waard, Jacobus H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population. Objectives To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI) (ratio: still-living children/total-live births) in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demograph...

  13. Una mirada a la desigualdad social y la violencia delictiva en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy A. Crespo P.

    2017-01-01

    En los últimos años, en Venezuela se ha asistido a una reducción de la desigualdad social, pero los niveles de violencia delictiva se han incrementado en forma significativa. Con el objetivo de estudiar esta relación se propone la presente investigación, en la que, con base en una metodología complementaria, se correlacionaron los niveles de desigualdad social, medida a través del Índice Gini y la tasa de homicidio en una serie cronológica de más de diez años; de igual manera, se trabajó con ...

  14. Valoración económica ambiental del Parque Nacional Mochima de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Campero, Raul Iván

    2016-01-01

    El Parque Nacional Mochima de Venezuela cuenta con numerosas áreas recreativas con inmenso potencial turístico, y recreativo. Las áreas turísticas – recreativas del Parque Nacional Mochima consisten fundamentalmente en sus playas de gran belleza las cuales son visitadas por diversos tipos de turistas, quienes acceden a las mismas mediante transporte acuático en botes particulares, o contratados a empresas. A pesar de todo ese potencial turístico y sus bellezas naturales, el Parque Nacional...

  15. Las relaciones de comercio e inversión entre Colombia y Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Eglé Iturbe de Blanco

    1997-01-01

    Venezuela y Colombia cuentan con una larga trayectoria histórica en sus relaciones económicas. Comercian entre ellas y sus nacionales a lo largo de la frontera desde su nacimiento como naciones e interactúan entre ambos países como si fuera uno solo. Al norte, en la península de la Guajira, viven poblaciones indígenas comunes cuyo sustento es el comercio entre ambos lados de la frontera; y al sur, en los estados andinos venezolanos limítrofes con los llanos colombianos, tradicionalmente se ha...

  16. El tema de género en las convenciones colectivas en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Iranzo; Jacqueline Richter

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es evaluar la atención que le ha prestado la convención colectiva en Venezuela a la regulación de los problemas que derivan de la condición de género y, en particular los relativos al trabajo femenino, partiendo de considerar que dicho instrumento es el más idóneo para confrontar la desigualdad de oportunidades presentes en el mercado de trabajo. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico del contexto actual de la negociación colectiva en nuestro país y los avan...

  17. Spatio-Temporal modelling of Dengue Fever in Zulia state, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the world's population are at risk of infection from dengue fever (Guha-Sapir2005). This viral disease is transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti mosquito and is the major source of human death in the world when compared with any other vector borne disease (Gubler1998a). The first important epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in America was reported in Cuba in 1981 and subsequently in Venezuela during 1989 and 1990 (Oletta2006, Brightmer1998). There has been a trend of in...

  18. ACTORS AND IDEAS OF SOCIAL POLICY IN VENEZUELA (1989-2007

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    Thais Gutiérrez Briceño

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the ideas that underpin social policy agendas and public social practices implemented in Venezuela during 1989-2007, as well as those actors involved in its design and execution. Two periods are defined: 1989-1998 y 1999-2007, which correspond to overrides in the themes considered. This paper is bibliographic and hemerographic, with emphasis on those relating official discourse on the subject. The conclusion of this paper indicates the presence of substantive changes in the periods mentionated, both in the representations of social policies that guide social actions, and those involved in the process.

  19. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

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    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  20. The Third World as an International Political Doctrine in Iran’s Approach to Venezuela

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    Pablo Álvarez Cabello

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the association between Iran led by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Venezuela led by Hugo Chavez under the logic of the third-world discourse. The main argument is that the developing world vindication discourse allowed the Iranian regime to approach countries that share its criticism of the international system and of United States power. However, these approaches did not achieve an enhancement of their internal social cohesion that could justify such association. Although the third-world discourse has therefore worked out as an international policy instrument, it is still conservative in the internal level of the regimes.

  1. Las telecomunicaciones en Venezuela: el caso de Internet y los nuevos mapas de consumo

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Migdalia Pineda de Alcázar

    1999-01-01

    El trabajo hace referencia a las tendencias de crecimiento de las telecomunicaciones venezolanas en la década de los noventa, especialmente en los servicios de telefonía celular, televisión por suscripción y conexiones a Internet, para detenerse en el comportamiento de los usuarios del país frente a la red de redes. Se demuestra con el análisis de datos y cifras, cómo es la inserción de Venezuela en el entorno mundial y cómo los "mapas" de usos nacionales están acentuando los desequilibrios s...

  2. Arístides Bastidas: Pionero del Periodismo Científico en Venezuela

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    Círculo de Periodismo Científico de Venezuela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganador del premio KALINGA de la UNESCO 1980 definió el papel del hombre en la sociedad, señalando que donde quiera que un hombre resida tiene deberes con la humanidad y debe cumplirlos sirviendo a la comunidad. Pese a la penumbra de sus ojos, él fue la luz del Periodismo Científico iberoamericano, desde Venezuela proyectó no solo su pasión por esta especialización periodística, sino también su tenaz lucha por la vida.

  3. Political control on the Internet in the context of a hybrid regime. Venezuela 2007-2015

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    Iria Puyosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study on control policies on the field of the internet and the social web, developed by the Venezuelan government, between 2007 and 2015. The case study includes examination of key documents of public policy for internet by Venezuelan State, industry statistics and data provided by previous research, as well as systematization of empirical events that reflect the characteristics of the practices of political control on the web that were implemented by the Venezuelan State. The study examines whether the data substantiate the hypotheses of the "dictator's dilemma" (Kerr, 2014 in a hybrid political regime as Venezuela.

  4. oas electoral observations vs. unasur accompaniment in the last elections in Venezuela

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    Víctor Carlos PASCUAL PLANCHUELO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral observation has become an essential exercise for the development of electoral democracy. The proliferation of organizations monitoring elections makes necessary to distinguish real «election observation activities», from other similar activities, such as «electoral accompaniment». Independence is an essential element that must be respected by true electoral observation organizations. Accordingly, the lack of independence in some of these organizations transforms them into «intervened electoral observation» actors, dowgrading its credibility and reliability. Hence, the last electoral processes that have taken place in Venezuela, provide the necessary factual basis to distinguish oas election observation missions, from unasur accompaniment missions.

  5. Four new species and new records of Atopsyche Banks (Trichoptera: Hydrobiosidae) from Pantepui biogeographical region (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Derka, Tomáš; Múrria, Cesc

    2017-05-29

    Four new species of the genus Atopsyche Banks (Hydrobiosidae) from Pantepui biogeographical region (Venezuela) are described and illustrated: Atopsyche (Atopsaura) inmae n. sp., Atopsyche (Atopsaura) cristinae n. sp., Atopsyche (Atopsaura) svitoki n. sp., and Atopsyche (Atopsaura) carmenae n. sp. Molecular analyses (cox1 sequences) allowed larva-adult associations and the morphological description of larvae of two of the new species (A. inmae and A. cristinae). A phylogenetic tree is performed to assess the molecular validity of the species, establish evolutionary relation among them and interpret historical biogeography of tepuis. Finally, two new distributional records for A. (Atopsaura) atahuallpa are included, which up to now was known only from the type locality.

  6. Significado del consumo de drogas para las adolescentes de la calle, en la ciudad de Valencia, Venezuela Significado do uso de drogas para adolescentes de rua, Valencia, Venezuela Meaning of drugs use for adolescents living in the streets, Valencia, Venezuela

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    Roberto Alvarado-Chacón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo con el objetivo de revelar el significado del consumo de drogas en las adolescentes de la calle, condición que las convierte en problema social, por lo que se busca obtener una aproximación teórica para comprender este fenómeno. Siete (7 adolescentes femeninas del paseo Cabriales en la ciudad de Valencia, en Venezuela fueron entrevistadas. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el recurso metodológico de la Teoría fundamentada (Grand Theory y la visión del Interaccionismo simbólico y de ahí surgieron las siguientes categorías: la búsqueda de no ser la buena, la reafirmación del rol femenino, el consumo como experiencia, la mirada de los otros a la adolescente que consume drogas, y la adicta como cuidadora. Finalmente, concluimos que el uso de drogas en la calle para las adolescentes del sexo femenino es una forma de protección, sobrevivencia e inclusión en los grupos.Trata-se de estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, cujo objetivo foi revelar o significado do uso de drogas entre adolescentes que vivem nas ruas, condição que se torna um problema social, de modo que a abordagem teórica busca compreender esse fenômeno. Sete (7 adolescentes do sexo feminino, em Valência, Venezuela, foram entrevistadas. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se como recurso a metodologia da Grounded Theory e a visão do interacionismo simbólico, de onde emergiram as seguintes categorias: a busca de não ser bom, reafirmação do papel das mulheres, consumo como experiência, o olhar dos outros para a adolescente que usa drogas e o toxicodependente como cuidador. Por fim, conclui-se que o uso de drogas na rua, para adolescentes do sexo feminino, é uma forma de proteção, sobrevivência e inclusão grupal.This descriptive study with a qualitative approach aims to reveal the meaning of drugs use among adolescents living in the street, a condition that turns them into a social problem, so

  7. Field evaluation of an exoantigen-containing Babesia vaccine in Venezuela

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    S. Montenegro-James

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is endemic in Venezuela, causing significant losses in highly susceptible imported cattle. Current immunoprphylatic methods include the less desirable use of live parasites. Inactivated vaccines derived from exoantigen-containing supernatant fluids of in vitro Babesia bovis and B. bigemina cultures have been developed and constitute a major improvement in vaccine safety, stability and ease of handling. Vaccination trials conducted under field conditions provide the final evaluation of a culture-derived B. bovis-B. bigemina vaccine. During a 5-year period, approximately 8,000 cattle were vaccinated and 16 clinical trials carried out in. 7 states of Venezuela Clinical, serologic and parasitologic data were collected monthly from 10% of the animals over a 2-year period. Data were also collected from a similar number of nonvaccinated control cattle. Analysis of results from these trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of clinical disease among vaccinated animals and complete protection against mortality among vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Use of this inactivated vaccine offers the best combination od safety, potency and efficacy for thew immunoprophylatic control of bovine babesiosis.

  8. The Institutional Vision of the Geopolitics of Water Resources in Venezuela (State, Nation and Government

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    Carlos Javier Lizcano Chapeta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the global, regional and local context, water resources are a strategic element from the geopolitical point of view, given the scarcity of water and the management that must be given to this problem from States, governments and nations. In this sense, the purpose is to analyze the strategic importance that has been given to water resources in Venezuela, taking into account the vision of the State, government and nation. A documentary design is used, of descriptive type, and as a data collection technique, bibliographic archiving and content analysis of previous sources are used. The results indicate that the international debate on the importance of water resources is a fact and that in countries such as Venezuela that have great reserves, a strategy must be adopted that aims at a true integral management of water resources. It is concluded that it is urgent the coordinated work between the national government and local governments to enforce the regulations created by the State and operationalize with the institutions that have been established for the management of water resources in the country.

  9. Una nueva especie de Axonopus (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae de la Guyana de Colombia y Venezuela

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    Giraldo Cañas Diego

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus piccae, a new species of the series Barbigeri G. A. Black, is described and illustrated. The new species is known only from two areas of Guayana Region: Guainía (Colombia and Bolívar (Venezuela. Its inflorescence is polytelic and truncate.Based on SEM microphotographs, the characters of its upper anthecium are presented. Its morphological and anatomical relationships are discussed, and a key to the nearest species is provided.Se describe e ilustra Axonopus piccae, una nueva especie perteneciente a la serie Barbigeri G. A. Black, conocida únicamente de dos áreas de la región Guayana en Guainía (Colombia y Bolívar (Venezuela. Su inflorescencia es politélica y truncada. Se comentan las características de su antecio superior sobre la base de microfotografías al microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se discuten sus relaciones morfológicas y anatómicas. Se presenta una clave para separar las especies afines.

  10. Severity of the 1998 and 2005 bleaching events in Venezuela, southern Caribbean

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    Sebastián Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the severity of the 2005 bleaching event at 15 reef sites across Venezuela and compares the 1998 and 2005 bleaching events at one of them. During August and September 2005, bleached corals were first observed on oceanic reefs rather than coastal reefs, affecting 1 to 4% of coral colonies in the community (3 reef sites, n=736 colonies. At that time, however, no bleached corals were recorded along the eastern coast of Venezuela, an area of seasonal upwelling (3 reefs, n=181 colonies. On coastal reefs, bleaching started in October but highest levels were reached in November 2005 and January 2006, when 16% of corals were affected among a wide range of taxa (e.g. scleractinians, octocorals, Millepora and zoanthids. In the Acropora habitats of Los Roques (an oceanic reef, no bleached was recorded in 2005 (four sites, n=643 colonies. At Cayo Sombrero, a coastal reef site, bleaching was less severe in 1998 than in 2005 (9% of the coral colonies involving 2 species vs. 26% involving 23 species, respectively. Our results indicate that bleaching was more severe in 2005 than in 1998 on Venezuelan reefs; however, no mass mortality was observed in either of these two events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 189-196. Epub 2010 October 01.

  11. La actividad económica informal y el negocio de franquicia en Venezuela

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    Ana Prieto Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se plantea el negocio de franquicia como una alternativa viable para canalizar la problemática de la informalidad laboral en Venezuela. Con base a un análisis documental-bibliográfico, semuestra la aplicabilidad de dichomodelo en un proceso de reconversión de la actividad económica informal en el país. Para lograrlo, se ha considerado la articulación entre diferentes conceptos económicos: el modelo de franquicia de conversión y la problemática de la economía informal en Venezuela, flagelo económico social presente en la realidad venezolana. Se concluye que un modelo de reconversión de la actividad económica informal representaría una alternativa para transformar esta actividad en el país, planteándose la conformación de una PYME con fortalezas financiera y operacional, con altos niveles de racionalidad, cuya actividad principal es ejecutada por otros individuos de manera informal; de esta forma se estructura una estrategia de crecimiento en función de la absorción de los ejecutores informales quienes, a través del financiamiento público o privado, concretan la conformación de una microempresa y la firma de un contrato tipo franquicia con la PYME.

  12. MODELIZACIÓN ACTUARIAL DE LAS NUEVAS PRESTACIONES SOCIALES EN VENEZUELA

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    Evaristo Diz Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente paper se trata el tema de la valoración actuarial del nuevo esquema de prestaciones sociales contempladas en la nueva Ley Orgánica del Trabajo de Venezuela . Se desarrolla un modelo actuarial en detalle y se ilustra con un ejemplo numérico el impacto en temas de pasivo actuarial para una empresa típica. Besides the usual pension benefits the pension plan of a company may be forced by law in some countries to offer wage based Lump-sum payments for labor termination this is the Venezuela case. An actuarial model of funding severance payment liabilities is formulated and studied. All formulas involved are explained in detail. Finally a specific numerical example illustrates the dynamics of the liabilities determined by the Projected Unit Credit Method for a typical Venezuelan company within the new Labor Law context a Venezuelan accounting College is promoting Actuarial Valuations of this contingencies as mandatory so this model can be used for it.

  13. Spinocerebellar ataxias in Venezuela: genetic epidemiology and their most likely ethnic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, Irene; Ikonomu, Vassiliki; Arias, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Dominantly inherited ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias, SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar and spinal tract degeneration with ataxia and other signs, common to all known subtypes. Several types are relatively frequent worldwide, but in several countries, one specific SCA may show a higher prevalence owing to founder phenomena. In Venezuela, genetic epidemiological features of SCAs have been assessed during the last 30 years; mutations in ATXN1 (SCA1), ATXN2 (SCA2), ATXN3 (SCA3), CACNA1A (SCA6), ATXN7 (SCA7), ATXN8 (SCA8), ATXN10 (SCA10), TBP (SCA17) and ATN1 (dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy, DRPLA) loci were searched among 115 independent families. SCA7 was the most frequent subtype (26.6%), followed by SCA3 (25.0%), SCA2 (21.9%), SCA1 (17.2%), SCA10 (4.7%) and DRPLA (3.1%); in 43% of the families, the subtype remained unidentified. SCA7 mutations displayed strong geographic aggregation in two independent founder foci, and SCA1 showed a very remote founder effect for a subset of families. SCA10 families were scattered across the country, but all had an identical in-phase haplotype carried also by Mexican, Brazilian and Sioux patients, supporting a very old common Amerindian origin. Prevalence for dominant SCAs in Venezuela was estimated as 1:25 000 nuclear families, provenances of which are either Caucasoid, African or Amerindian.

  14. New species of Andiorrhinus Cognetti, 1908 (Oligochaeta: Rhinodrilidae) from Venezuela and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Alexander M; Brown, George G; James, Samuel W

    2017-12-08

    Findings pertinent to 11 earthworm species from Venezuela and Brazil are reported. Six of these species are described as new to science, one is re-described and relocated in the genus Andiorrhinus, and new sites of occurrence are reported for four other species. Eight species of oligochaetes were found in the Andes in the state of Mérida, Venezuela: Andiorrhinus (Turedrilus) duranti sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) timotocuica sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) torondoy sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) sp. 1, Andiorrhinus (Quibario) tatuy sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) kuika (Righi, 1993), Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) mukuci (Righi, 1993), and Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) rimeda (Righi & Araujo, 2000). Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) sp. 1, represented by one specimen only, is possibly a new species. Three other species were collected in Brazil: Andiorrhinus (Amazonidrilus) karinae sp. nov. in the Cerrado bioregion of Mato Grosso state; Andiorrhinus (Amazonidrilus) rodriguezi sp. nov. in the Amazon region in compost, and Andiorrhinus (Amazonidrilus) duseni (Michaelsen, 1918) in the Atlantic Forest, in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, the last species characterized by broad geographical and land use occurrences. The new subgenus Quibario was distinguished by the presence of three pairs of hearts in segments 10, 11, and 12. Keys are also included to differentiate species of subgenera Amazonidrilus and Meridrilus. The implications of these results in the context of ecological interactions, and dispersion of Andiorrhinus species in South America are discussed.

  15. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  16. [Entomological study of Trypanosoma cruzi vectors in the rural communities of Sucre state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jordán, Noris; Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Concepción, Juan Luis; Aldana, Elis; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    The ecological niche of Reduvidae vectors has been modified due to environmental changes and human encroachment into the rural areas. This study evaluates the current entomological indices of triatomines responsible for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela. A cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted in 95 towns and 577 dwellings in the 15 municipalities of the state of Sucre, Venezuela, from August to November, 2008. Triatomine bugs were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics, and their feces examined for T. cruzi infection through direct microscopy. Positive slides were stained with Giemsa and parasites were identified by morphologic characterization. The entomological indices expressing the highest values were dispersion (16.67%) and household colonization (33.33%). The triatomine species captured were: Rhodnius prolixus , Rhodnius main intradomiciliary vector. Despite the low index of vector infection (1.72%), the existence of species with domiciliary and peridomiciliary reproductive success ensures the persistence of the epidemiological chain both for the disease and the parasite.

  17. Field evaluation of an exoantigen-containing Babesia vaccine in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-James, S; Toro, M; Leon, E; Guillen, A T

    1992-01-01

    Bovine babesiosis is endemic in Venezuela, causing significant losses in highly susceptible imported cattle. Current immunoprophylactic methods include the less desirable use of live parasites. Inactivated vaccines derived from exoantigen-containing supernatant fluids of in vitro Babesia bovis and B. bigemina cultures have been developed and constitute a major improvement in vaccine safety, stability and ease of handling. Vaccination trials conducted under field conditions provide the final evaluation of a culture-derived B. bovis-B. bigemina vaccine. During a 5-year period, approximately 8,000 cattle were vaccinated and 16 clinical trials carried out in 7 states of Venezuela. Clinical, serologic and parasitologic data were collected monthly from 10% of the animals over a 2-year period. Data were also collected from a similar number of nonvaccinated control cattle. Analysis of results from these trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of clinical disease among vaccinated animals and complete protection against mortality caused by babesiosis. Vaccine efficacy was measured calculating the incidence rates of disease and mortality among vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. Use of this inactivated vaccine offers the best combination of safety, potency and efficacy for the effective immunoprophylactic control of bovine babesiosis.

  18. Producción, Reservas y Sostenibilidad de la Energía en Venezuela

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    Juan Carlos Rojas-Zerpa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo está relacionado con la evaluación de los recursos energéticos de Venezuela y su posicionamiento estratégico mundial, referido principalmente a la producción y consumo de energía primaria y reservas. Así mismo se han evaluado los recursos energéticos renovables con la finalidad de identificar oportunidades para el desarrollo de la energía sostenible. Los resultados indican que Venezuela posee recursos fósiles para más de 130 años de explotación, lo cual lo convierte en una potencia energética relevante en el contexto mundial. La potencialidad aprovechable de las energías renovables duplicó la producción de recursos fósiles en 2011. En la actualidad, el aprovechamiento de estas fuentes es inferior al 2 % del total disponible, lo que deja abierto un amplio rango de posibilidades para la diversificación de la matriz energética nacional mediante tecnologías limpias o sostenibles

  19. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

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    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  20. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women’s Breast Cancer in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women’s breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women’s perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women’s breast cancer healthcare. PMID:27867750

  1. A project: 'Radiological protection in radiology', IAEA - Universidad Central de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.R.; Salazar, G.; Fermin, R.; Gonzalez, M.

    2001-01-01

    For several years a reference center of the UCV has been working on the project VEN/9/007 on dose reduction in diagnostic radiology sponsored by the IAEA. The dose and quality image was evaluated for different types of radiological study (conventional radiology, CT, mammography, interventional radiology) in different facilities at Caracas and others regions of the Venezuela. TL dosimeters were used to assess dose and reduction in dose. Based on the recommendations given by CEC documents on diagnostic quality criteria, a quality control program in radiological protection of patients and staff has been developed, for example: Pilot study by using TLD in personnel radiation monitoring. Comparative study between high and low kVp in chest. Evaluation and dose reduction in chest pediatric. Reduction of radiation dose in studies of billiards via Quality Image and reduction of the dose in studies of colon by enema. Radiation dose of staff in fluoroscopy procedures. Evaluation and dose reduction in dental radiography in public Institutions. A mammography accreditation program for Venezuela, applied to public hospitals. (author)

  2. Ictiofauna asociada a un arrecife somero en el Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A López-Ordaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyofauna associated to a shallow reef in Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. Morrocoy National Park is one of the most studied coastal marine enviroments in Venezuela; however, efforts have been concentrated in south zone. In this study we select a shallow reef located in the north zone, characterized the benthic community and the structure of the fish community was studied using visual censuses. The benthic community was dominated by dead coral covered by algae (31% and the live coral coverage was 12%. A total of 65 fish species belonging to 24 families were recorded, being Pomacentridae (43%, Scaridae (19% and Haemulidae (15% the most abundant families. Significant differences in the fish species abundances were found along the depth gradient, which could be related to the habitat characteristics, nevertheless herbivorous species dominance was evident at all depth strata. There seems to be a trend towards greater richness and density in the south zone reefs, and these differences may be related to the presence of extensive seagrass meadows and mangrove forests in that area or to differences in the recruitment patterns. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 163-174. Epub 2010 October 01.

  3. Results From Venezuela's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Méndez-Perez, Betty; Morales, Vanessa Castro; Martín-Rojo, Joana; Tristan, Bianca; Bandy, Amilid Torín; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; López-Blanco, Mercedes

    2016-11-01

    The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available. Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents. Some indicators report incomplete information or a lack of data. Overweight and Obesity were classified as A; Body Composition and Nongovernmental Organization Policies as B; Municipal Level Policies as C; and Overall Physical Activity Levels and National Level Policies as D. 63% of children and youth have low physical activity levels. Venezuela needs to undergo a process of articulation between the several existing initiatives, and for said purposes, political will and a methodological effort is required. Investments, infrastructure, and opportunities will be more equal for all children and youth if more cooperation between institutions is developed and communication strategies are applied.

  4. Comparative federal health care policy: evidence of collaborative federalism in Pakistan and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracskay, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative federalism has provided an effective analytical foundation for understanding how complex public policies are implemented in federal systems through intergovernmental and intersectoral alignments. This has particularly been the case in issue areas like public health policy where diseases are detected and treated at the local level. While past studies on collaborative federalism and health care policy have focused on federal systems that are largely democratic, little research has been conducted to examine the extent of collaboration in authoritarian structures. This article applies the collaborative federalism approach to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Evidence suggests that while both nations have exhibited authoritarian governing structures, there have been discernible policy areas where collaborative federalism is embraced to facilitate the implementation process. Further, while not an innate aspect of their federal structures, Pakistan and Venezuela can potentially expand their use of the collaborative approach to successfully implement health care policy and the epidemiological surveillance and intervention functions. Yet, as argued, this would necessitate further development of their structures on a sustained basis to create an environment conducive for collaborative federalism to flourish, and possibly expand to other policy areas as well.

  5. Venezuela: del ajuste neoliberal a la promesa de “Socialismo del siglo XXI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Uharte Pozas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, partiendo de un marco conceptual en torno a la democracia, pretende identificar los rasgos fundamentales del proyecto de gobierno que actualmente rige en Venezuela, y que está liderado por el presidente Hugo Chávez. Se analizan los cambios en el sistema político, en el ámbito económico, en el área social, en participación ciudadana, y en política exterior, realizando una comparación con los dos gobiernos precedentes, el de Carlos Andrés Pérez y el de Rafael Caldera.___________________ABSTRACT:The article takes as its starting point the conceptual framework around democracy and attempts to identify the fundamental characteristics of the project of the government currently in power in Venezuela, led by the president Hugo Chávez. It analyses the changes in the political system, in the field of economy, in the social area, in the citizen participation and the foreign policy, making a comparison with two preceding governments, headed by Carlos Andrés Pérez and Rafael Caldera.  

  6. How far will the public policies of higher education in Venezuela?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Parra-Sandoval

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the key role of higher education for the development of society, we understand the public policy in this field as the decision-making assembly and non-decisions with respect to the tertiary sector of the country's education, by the government or institutions. Also, we assume that the process of establishing a public policy - in any field - assume both its design and implementation and evaluation of its results. Starting from these premises, this chapter explains the historical context and background of higher education policies in Venezuela in the last twelve years (1999-2011, to highlight the particular feature that it takes this country during that period. Only with the panorama that offers this context and its history, as the setting for the design and implementation of higher education policies, it is possible to understand or approach to the description of the factors that determine them and their characteristics. In this work - as far as possible, given the lack of reliable information - we approach the evaluation of the results of the policies implemented and their possible future implications. In Venezuela, the facts indicate that the trend of the core concept of public policy is oriented towards more control and state intervention and focus on the establishment of conditions that tend to strike the college market; whereas in most of the region and even the world, the trend observed is marked by the discourse of commodification and its impact on the state's role in their treatment of higher education.

  7. Severity of the 1998 and 2005 bleaching events in Venezuela, southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sebastián; Cróquer, Aldo; Bone, David; Bastidas, Carolina

    2010-10-01

    This study describes the severity of the 2005 bleaching event at 15 reef sites across Venezuela and compares the 1998 and 2005 bleaching events at one of them. During August and September 2005, bleached corals were first observed on oceanic reefs rather than coastal reefs, affecting 1 to 4% of coral colonies in the community (3 reef sites, n = 736 colonies). At that time, however, no bleached corals were recorded along the eastern coast of Venezuela, an area of seasonal upwelling (3 reefs, n = 181 colonies). On coastal reefs, bleaching started in October but highest levels were reached in November 2005 and January 2006, when 16% of corals were affected among a wide range of taxa (e.g. scleractinians, octocorals, Millepora and zoanthids). In the Acropora habitats of Los Roques (an oceanic reef),no bleached was recorded in 2005 (four sites,n = 643 colonies). At Cayo Sombrero, a coastal reef site, bleaching was less severe in 1998 than in 2005 (9% of the coral colonies involving 2 species vs. 26% involving 23 species, respectively). Our results indicate that bleaching was more severe in 2005 than in 1998 on Venezuelan reefs; however, no mass mortality was observed in either of these two events.

  8. Severity of the 1998 and 2005 bleaching events in Venezuela, southern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the severity of the 2005 bleaching event at 15 reef sites across Venezuela and compares the 1998 and 2005 bleaching events at one of them. During August and September 2005, bleached corals were first observed on oceanic reefs rather than coastal reefs, affecting 1 to 4% of coral colonies in the community (3 reef sites, n=736 colonies. At that time, however, no bleached corals were recorded along the eastern coast of Venezuela, an area of seasonal upwelling (3 reefs, n=181 colonies. On coastal reefs, bleaching started in October but highest levels were reached in November 2005 and January 2006, when 16% of corals were affected among a wide range of taxa (e.g. scleractinians, octocorals, Millepora and zoanthids. In the Acropora habitats of Los Roques (an oceanic reef, no bleached was recorded in 2005 (four sites, n=643 colonies. At Cayo Sombrero, a coastal reef site, bleaching was less severe in 1998 than in 2005 (9% of the coral colonies involving 2 species vs. 26% involving 23 species, respectively. Our results indicate that bleaching was more severe in 2005 than in 1998 on Venezuelan reefs; however, no mass mortality was observed in either of these two events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 189-196. Epub 2010 October 01.En este estudio se describe la severidad del evento de blanqueamiento del 2005 en 15 arrecifes coralinos de Venezuela, y se compara con el ocurrido en 1998 para uno de esos arrecifes. Los primeros corales blanqueados se observaron en agosto y septiembre 2005, en arrecifes oceánicos en lugar de costeros, afectando entre 1 y 4% de las colonias coralinas (3 arrecifes, n= 736 colonias. Para ese momento, tampoco se había detectado blanqueamiento en áreas oceánicas de la costa este de Venezuela (3 arrecifes, n= 181 colonias, donde ocurre una surgencia estacional. En arrecifes costeros, el blanqueamiento comenzó en octubre pero alcanzó su máximo entre noviembre 2005 y enero 2006, afectando hasta el 16% de

  9. Health Seeking Behaviour and Treatment Intentions of Dengue and Fever : A Household Survey of Children and Adults in Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Jelte; Lizarazo Forero, Erley; Vincenti Gonzalez, Maria F.; Schmidt, Masja; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Arias, Luzlexis; Bailey, Ajay; Tami, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue in Venezuela is a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment influences the outcome of dengue illness, as delay in care-seeking is significantly associated with complications leading to severe dengue. We aimed to

  10. Dosimetry of radon, thorium and their progenies in the environment of a chemistry lab and crude in Zulia State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, L.; Viloria, T.; Palacios, D.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the dose rate of inhalation and the annual contribution of effective dose in the mixed field of radon and thoron in the environment of laboratory chemicals and oil from Zulia State, Venezuela, due to manipulation and storage of oil samples and water production

  11. Are Returns to Education on the Decline in Venezuela and Does Mission Sucre Have a Role to Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Naihobe; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence points to a falling standard of living for the educated in Venezuela. During this same period, President Hugo Chavez implemented several education reforms. We focus on a major university education reform known as Mission Sucre and its potential impact on returns to university education. First, we show that returns to education…

  12. Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a new species with unusual wood anatomy from black-water river banks in southern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2004-01-01

    Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical...

  13. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Joaquin; Guada, Hedelvy J.; Doyle, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts

  14. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  15. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  16. Gasto social y consolidación de la sobrepoblación relativa en Venezuela durante el chavismo (1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina De Luca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the administration of Hugo Chavez, social expenditure in Venezuela expanded in relative and absolute terms simultaneously with the increase in oil revenues. Expenditures even went beyond the levels reached during the previous oil boom in the 1970s, particularly due to the expenditures in social security. Based on an analysis of Venezuela's social and economic structure, we show that this increase is aimed mostly towards the working population that is increasingly seen as excess workers. The increase in expenditure substantially improves the living conditions of this group. However, since there is no change in capital accumulation in Venezuela, this group continues to consolidate itself as excess wokers.

  17. The policy process in a petro-state. An analysis of PDVSA's (Petroleos de Venezuela SA's) internationalisation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, C.E. [Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-07-01

    Venezuela offers a unique case and fertile ground for the study of oil policy-making processes. In the specialised literature very little attention has been paid to the nature and operations of multinationals from developing countries. By analysing Petroleos de Venezuela SA's (PDVSA's) internationalisation policy, this unique book explores the difficulties encountered by a major state oil enterprise in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. This informative study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policy-making in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. (author)

  18. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.

    2005-01-01

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now

  19. Caracterización del indumento de nueve especies de Loasaceae de Venezuela Indument characterization of nine Loasaceae species from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Noguera-Savelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracterizó el indumento observado en diferentes órganos de 9 especies de Loasaceae presentes en Venezuela, precisando su ubicación en la planta a fin de establecer una posible importancia taxonómica. Este estudio se efectuó tanto al microscopio óptico como al microscopio electrónico de barrido. El indumento está constituido por 2 clases de apéndices epidérmicos: tricomas y emergencias. Los tricomas se clasificaron en tricomas eglandulares uni-y multicelulares y tricomas glandulares multicelulares. Los tricomas cónicos y gloquidiados uncinados son comunes en todas las especies estudiadas. Nasa resultó el género con la mayor diversidad de tricomas. Se registra por primera vez la presencia de tricomas dendríticos, exclusivamente en Nasa venezuelensis. Las hojas y ovarios son los órganos que mayor variedad de apéndices mostraron. Gronovia scandens fue la única especie con emergencias, restringidas a los tallos. La morfología del indumento es un carácter de valor diagnóstico a nivel de subfamilia, lo cual se evidencia en la clave.In this work the epidermal indumentum observed in different organs of 9 species of Loasaceae from Venezuela were characterized, emphasizing their type and location on the plant to establish their possible taxonomic significance. The indumentum was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Two classes of indumentum were observed: trichomes and emergences. The trichomes were classified as uni- and multicellular, non-glandular trichomes, and multicellular glandular trichomes. The conical and uncinate glochidiate trichomes were common in all the species studied. Nasa was the genus with the greatest trichomes diversity. The occurrence of dendritic trichomes is reported for the first time, exclusively in Nasa venezuelensis. Leaves and ovaries are the organs with the greatest variety of appendices. Gronovia scandens is the only species with emergences, which are restricted to

  20. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asención Diez, Matías D; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E M; Lawson, David M; Iglesias, Alberto A; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-20

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The Production and Utilization of GDP-glucose in the Biosynthesis of Trehalose 6-Phosphate by Streptomyces venezuelae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asención Diez, Matías D.; Miah, Farzana; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Lawson, David M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase OtsA from streptomycetes is unusual in that it uses GDP-glucose as the donor substrate rather than the more commonly used UDP-glucose. We now confirm that OtsA from Streptomyces venezuelae has such a preference for GDP-glucose and can utilize ADP-glucose to some extent too. A crystal structure of the enzyme shows that it shares twin Rossmann-like domains with the UDP-glucose-specific OtsA from Escherichia coli. However, it is structurally more similar to Streptomyces hygroscopicus VldE, a GDP-valienol-dependent pseudoglycosyltransferase enzyme. Comparison of the donor binding sites reveals that the amino acids associated with the binding of diphosphoribose are almost all identical in these three enzymes. By contrast, the amino acids associated with binding guanine in VldE (Asn, Thr, and Val) are similar in S. venezuelae OtsA (Asp, Ser, and Phe, respectively) but not conserved in E. coli OtsA (His, Leu, and Asp, respectively), providing a rationale for the purine base specificity of S. venezuelae OtsA. To establish which donor is used in vivo, we generated an otsA null mutant in S. venezuelae. The mutant had a cell density-dependent growth phenotype and accumulated galactose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and GDP-glucose when grown on galactose. To determine how the GDP-glucose is generated, we characterized three candidate GDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases. SVEN_3027 is a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, SVEN_3972 is an unusual ITP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, and SVEN_2781 is a pyrophosphorylase that is capable of generating GDP-glucose as well as GDP-mannose. We have therefore established how S. venezuelae can make and utilize GDP-glucose in the biosynthesis of trehalose 6-phosphate. PMID:27903647

  2. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirchio, Mauro; Ehemann, Nicolás; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Ron, Ernesto; Pérez, Julio Eduardo; Rossi, Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n = 48 (2m + 10sm + 36a) with FN = 60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH

  3. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    The growing toward decentralization and democratization of development planning in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has a long tradition of rule by a strong centralized authority. Currently, the Office of the President is vested with considerable power, despite the existence of an elected legislator and an independent judiciary. The president rules by decree. State legislatures are elected, but governors of the states are appointed by the president. There are also elected municipal councils. Both state and municipal governments are almost fully dependent on the federal government for both their operating and capital investment budgets. Development programs are administered through 2 systems. Specific programs are administered by almost 100 different institutes and enterprises. The activities of these various programs are coordinated by administrative bodies at the state and federal level. The 2nd administrative system operates at the regional and federal levels. The administrative body at the federal level is the Central Office for Coordination and Planning and was established by Presidential Decree in 1958. This body prepares and coordinates all national development plans. The administrative bodies at the regional level are the Regional Organizations for Development. These bodies were created in specific regions through a series of legislative acts commencing in 1969 and continuing into the present. The development of these regional bodies represented a 1st step toward decentralization. Decree 478, promulgated in 1980, further promoted the decentalization of developmental planning. The decree established a series of assemblies and councils at various levels. A National Council of Regional Development was created at the federal level, and a Regional Council of Development was established at the regional level. At the state level an Assembly of Participation was organized, and at the municipal level a Committee of Citizen Participation was established

  4. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae from Margarita Island, Venezuela

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela. Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n=48 (2m+10sm+36a with FN=60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and

  5. MORTALIDAD CAUSADA POR ANIMALES VENENOSOS EN VENEZUELA: 1980-1999 I MORTALITY CAUSED BY VENOMOUS ANIMALS IN VENEZUELA: 1980-1999

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    De Sousa Leonardo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chronology and epidemiological pattern of human mortal accidents inflicted by venomous animals in Venezuela for the period 1980 to 1999. National mortality data were obtained by passive epidemiological surveillance through inspection of series E905 and X20 to X29, registered in the mortality and vital statistics yearly records, produced by the Venezuelan National Health System. The mortality rates per year and the average rate for the 20-year period per 100.000 inhabitants were assessed from the 1,494 deaths recorded in this period. The main cause of death was snakebite (n = 921; 61.6%, followed by envenoming by hymenoptera (n = 310; 20.7% and scorpion stings (n = 185; 12.4%. The higher frequency of deaths due to snakebites corresponded to 1987 (62 cases, whereas for hymenoptera were in 1980 and 1991 (21 cases each and 1995 for scorpions (18 cases. For any of these etiological factors mortality was higher for males (80.4%. The average annual mortality rate for the studied period (deaths per 100,000 inhabitants per etiological agent was 0.24 (snakes, 0.08 (hymenoptera and 0.05 (scorpions. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by venomous animals represent a collective health problem in Venezuel

  6. Programa piloto de reciclaje en colegios del estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela | Schools pilot recycling program in Anzoátegui state, Venezuela

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    Ana Ghanem

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Between october 2013 and june 2015, a solid waste pilot recycling program was applied in six educational units located in Juan Antonio Sotillo and Diego Bautista Urbaneja counties, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela. The program was designed for its implementation in schools with educational levels from kinder garden to high school, with the purpose of contributing to environmental education for developing awareness on preservation of the environment and natural resources. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the program. For developing the program, undergraduate students participated as a human resource along with the authors, schools personnel and schools students. During two consecutives phases, a series of activities were performed to achieve the proposed goals. Some of the most significant were environmental education for recycling and its practice. Data were collected by direct observation, structured interviews, questionnaire and on-site measuring techniques. Results reflected that students had a better response during the first phase of the program, with respect to participation and materials recovering. In addition, it was observed that preschool and elementary school students had the best response to the program application. Motivation was one of the main factors that influenced on the results. The lack of a municipal recycling program could also have influenced over the results.

  7. Bacteria, carbon dioxide and methane measurements in the Cariaco Basin on the continental shelf of Venezuela, April 2001 - January 2002 (NODC Accession 0001078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteria, carbon dioxide and methane measurements were collected using bottle casts in the Cariaco Basin on the continental shelf of Venezuela from 30 April 2001 to...

  8. 17.879 law approve it integral agreement about Energetic Cooperation between Republic Oriental del Uruguay Government and Republic Bolivariana de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The 17.879 law describe the Uruguay -Venezuela Agreement with the followings items about :main aims and cooperation areas, information uses, budget, competent authorities, mixed commission, labour relationship, controversy solutions, sovereignty, duties, signal with others, duration and force entrance

  9. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  10. Empresas de internacionalización acelerada: estudio de casos en Venezuela

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    Hortencia Graterol-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la internacionalización acelerada de empresas venezolanas del tipo InternationalNew Ventures con el objetivo de describir sus características y capacidades para luego clasificarlas y valorar las cualidades de sus fundadores. Se utilizó como metodología el estudio de 6 casos de empresas de produc- ción y servicios. Como conclusiones, las International New Ventures de Venezuela exhiben características similares a aquellas de la literatura, pero las distingue el hecho de que buscan permanecer en el anoni- mato y pasar desapercibidas tanto como sea posible. La complejidad y la incertidumbre del entorno del país, producto de la cambiante normativa del gobierno y de los numerosos controles que existen para comercializar con otros países, surgen como razones para este comportamiento.

  11. FIRST REPORT OF METALLO-β-LACTAMASES PRODUCING Enterobacter spp. STRAINS FROM VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Rodulfo, Hectorina E.; Rodríguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa E.; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; Carreño, Numirin; Marcano, Daniel; Donato, Marcos De

    2014-01-01

    Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21), E. aerogenes (7), E. intermedium (1), E. sakazakii (1) and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%), CRO (48.8%), CAZ (46.6%), PIP (46.4%), CIP (45.2%) and ATM (43.3%). This is the first report for South America of bla VIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed bla TEM-1, but only one showed bla CTX-M-15 gene, while no bla SHV was detected. PMID:24553611

  12. Writing Skills in Students of Education. (Case: University Pedagogical Experimental Libertador. Mérida, Venezuela

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    Gisela Consolación Quintero Chacón

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the partial results of a research conducted on the writing skills of students of the Education at the Pedagogical University Experimental Libertador in Venezuela. The overall objective of the research was to identify the characteristics of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic types of texts produced by students. The method used for the interpretation of the data was discourse analysis, which allowed communication processes addressing their structures to describe them textually. The difficulty table was adapted from Rudy Mostacero containing one hundred fifty seven (157 difficulties was reduced to twenty-four (24; distributed as follows: eleven (11 for syntax, eight (8 to semantics and five (5 to the Pragmatic. The results show a high percentage of features in the semantic and pragmatic dimension valued regular and bad. These results will help to design a comprehensive program that will act in favor of innovative proposals for improving the writing process in the training of professionals in Education career.

  13. Bordes urbanos metropolitanos en Venezuela ante nuevas leyes y proyectos inmobiliarios

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    Nubis Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, a los tradicionales factores motivadores de la dinámica de expansión metropolitana, hoy se incorporan nuevas decisiones de políticas emanadas como leyes desde el gobierno central. La implementación de estas leyes contribuye a acelerar la ampliación de los bordes metropolitanos, reforzando, paradójicamente, un proceso improvisado y desarticulado de anexión de nuevos desarrollos populares, sin infraestructura, equipamiento y servicios necesarios para garantizar la calidad de vida urbana, y a expensas de espacios ecológicamente valiosos y vulnerables. Estas áreas constituyen emergencias territoriales que ameritan atención particular e inmediata, porque constituyen las formas territoriales de mayores y más recientes cambios y las más susceptibles a intervenciones con fines de ordenamiento territorial.

  14. Harttia merevari, a new species of catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Venezuela

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    Francisco Provenzano R.

    Full Text Available Harttia merevari, a new species of loricariid catfish, is described from eight specimens captured in the upper Caura River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. The new species is recognized by the following combination of characters: abdomen naked; two or three preanal plates; a bony plate before each branchial opening; seven lateral plates between the pectoral and pelvic fins; maxillary barbel short and attached to the oral disk by a fleshy fold; head dorsal surface and anterior portion of the body light or dark yellow with numerous, round black spots; posterior region of the body light or dark yellow with five black transverse bands, dorsal central area of the two anterior bands diffused. The discovery of this new species extends the distribution of the genus northwest to include the Orinoco River basin on the northern slope of the Guyana shield.

  15. La volatilidad del tipo de cambio paralelo en Venezuela 2005-2015

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    Laura Daniela Castillo Paredes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El tipo de cambio paralelo constituye una de las principales variables económicas para la toma de decisiones en Venezuela. Para analizar el comportamiento de esta variable tomando en cuenta sus características inherentes, exceso de curtosis, persistencia y asimetría, se hace una síntesis teórica de los principales modelos estocásticos de volatilidad y, se estima un conjunto de modelos. El modelo que mejor ajusta el comportamiento de la variable es un EGARCH (1,1, que captura el efecto asimétrico de las perturbaciones estocásticas sobre la serie. Ante choques negativos (depreciación del tipo de cambio paralelo, la volatilidad asociada se incrementa, pero para choques positivos (apreciación del tipo de cambio paralelo, se mantiene constante.

  16. Comparison of fish assemblages in two littoral habitats in a Neotropical morichal stream in Venezuela

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    Carmen G. Montaña

    Full Text Available Morichales are lowland streams in South American savannas with riparian forest dominated by the moriche palm (Mauritia flexuosa. We sampled littoral habitats from ten flooded vegetated patches (dominated by Mauritiella aculeate and six sand banks in two months of the dry season (Feb-Mar 2005 in a stream in the savannas of Apure State, Venezuela. We collected samples that compromised 12,407 individual fishes of 107 species. Small-bodied fishes (< 100 mm, representing diverse trophic and life history strategies, were abundant. The most abundant species were in the families Characidae and Cichlidae. Fish assemblages from flooded vegetated patches differed significantly from those on adjacent sand banks. High structural complexity along vegetated shoreline habitats of morichal streams likely contributes to species richness and affects assemblage composition.

  17. A revision of the Larainae (Coleoptera, Elmidae) of Venezuela, with description of nine new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the riffle beetle subfamily Larainae occurring in Venezuela are revised. Examination of 756 specimens yielded 22 species in nine genera occurring throughout the country. Seven species are newly recorded from the country: Phanoceroides sp. 1, Phanocerus clavicornis Sharp, 1882, Phanocerus congener Grouvelle, 1898, Pharceonus volcanus Spangler & Santiago-Fragoso, 1992, Disersus dasycolus Spangler & Santiago-Fragoso, 1992, Disersus chibcha Spangler & Santiago-Fragoso, 1987, and Disersus inca Spangler & Santiago-Fragoso, 1992. Nine species are found to be new to science, which are here described: Hexanchorus dentitibialis sp. n., H. falconensis sp. n., H. flintorum sp. n., H. homaeotarsoides sp. n., H. inflatus sp. n., Phanocerus rufus sp. n., Pharceonus grandis sp. n., Pharceonus ariasi sp. n., Potamophilops bostrychophallus sp. n. Additionally, a key to species, distribution maps, and photographs and genitalia illustrations are provided for all species. PMID:24146552

  18. [Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the rural population of Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jordán, Noris; Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Rodríguez, Jessicca; Concepción, Juan Luis; Cáceres, Ana; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2017-10-26

    The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela, and its association with epidemiological risk factors. The cluster sampling design allowed selecting 96 villages and 576 dwellings in the State's 15 municipalities. A total of 2,212 serum samples were analyzed by ELISA, HAI, and IFI. Seroprevalence in Sucre State was 3.12%. Risk factors associated with T. cruzi infection were: accumulated garbage, flooring and wall materials, type of dwelling, living in a house with wattle and daub walls and/or straw roofing, living in a house with risky walls and roofing, risky buildings and wattle and daub outbuildings, poultry inside the human dwelling, and presence of firewood. Infection was associated with individual age, and three seropositive cases were found in individuals less than 15 years of age. Sucre State has epidemiological factors that favor the risk of acquiring T. cruzi infection.

  19. Analysis of antenal sensilla patterns of Rhodnius prolixus from Colombia and Venezuela

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    Lyda Esteban

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Antennal sensilla patterns were used to analyze population variation of domestic Rhodnius prolixus from six departments and states representing three biogeographical regions of Colombia and Venezuela. Discriminant analysis of the patterns of mechanoreceptors and of three types of chemoreceptors on the pedicel and flagellar segments showed clear differentiation between R. prolixus populations east and west of the Andean Cordillera. The distribution of thick and thin-walled trichoids on the second flagellar segment also showed correlation with latitude, but this was not seen in the patterns of other sensilla. The results of the sensilla patterns appear to be reflecting biogeographic features or population isolation rather than characters associated with different habitats and lend support to the idea that domestic R. prolixus originated in the eastern region of the Andes.

  20. CULTURA ORGANIZACIONAL Y POSMODERNIDAD. UNA APROXIMACIÓN AL CASO VENEZUELA

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    Fredy R. Vallenilla Solórzano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to approach the study of the Organizational Culture and Postmodernism. Yes, we could talk about a post Modernistic Organizational Culture, and how these concepts could be interpreted in some Venezuelan organizations. Hence, a descriptive-documental research is in course. There bibliographic sources on this subject are studied. It is clear the Organizational Culture concept, but the Postmodernism concept is not, because of the contrast between theoretical positions resulting in contradictory and excluding issues. This makes difficult the characterization of a Post modernistic-Organizational Culture. Organizations like Procter & Gamble and the Electricity de Caracas have an Organizational Culture which is characteristic of private firms, centered basically to be accordingly to new eras and changing markets. Petroleos de Venezuela, traditionally dedicated to the oil business, since 1999, due to the new politic scenery, undertakes other responsibilities aimed to enhance Venezuelan Social Indicators.