WorldWideScience

Sample records for carabid coleoptera community

  1. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  2. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  3. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  4. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  5. Significantly Higher Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Catch in Conventionally than in Organically Managed Christmas Tree Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Soren; Lund, Malthe; Ronn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall tra...

  6. The effect of application of organic fertilizers on the dynamics of occurence of Carabid species (Carabidae, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Porhajasova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of organic fertilizers in defined doses on structure of Carabid communities was studied. The Carabids were pitfall trapped, in 2004 2006 on experimental plots in the university farm in Kolioany District of Nitra, S N Slovakia, in 5 variants 1st unfertilized; 2nd 25 t ha-1 farmyard manure, 3rd 50 t ha 1 bio sludge; 4th 50 t ha 1 farmyard manure; 5th 100 t ha 1 bio sludge to the selected rotatio 2004 Helianthus annuus, 2005 Beta vulgaris, 2006 Zea mays. The area of each variant was 1,800 m2. During the three-year period were obtained 16,172 individuals of Carabids belonging to 32 species. The distribution within the individual variants fluctuated as follows 1st variant 10 13 sp. and 612 1,904 ind. 2nd variant 12 15 sp. and 1,147 1,516 ind., 3rd variant 8 13 sp. and 360 3,127 ind.; 4th variant 7 9 sp. and 371 832 ind.; 5th variant 8 10 sp. and 404 1,072 ind. The dominant species in all variants were Pseudoophonus rufipes and Poecilus cupreus, while Calathus fuscipes, Anchomenus dorsalis, Carabus scheidleri, Brachinus crepitans were subdominant or recedent. However in individual varities and years they also reached dominant position. The high dominance of Pseudoophonus rufipes caused low values of the Shannon Wiever s diversity index ranging from 0.59 to 1.18. Based on maximum numbers of species and individuals, the most suitable were the 2. and 3. variants, 25 t ha 1 farmyard manure and 50 t ha 1 bio sludge. Out of the applied organic fertilizers, the climatic factors also played an important role.

  7. Low doses of the common alpha-cypermethrin insecticide affect behavioural thermoregulation of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merivee, Enno; Tooming, Ene; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid H

    2015-10-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly investigated in non-targeted beneficial carabids. Conspicuous changes in locomotor activity of carabids exposed to sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic insecticides suggest that many other behaviours of these insects might be severely injured as well. We hypothesize that behavioural thermoregulation of carabids may be affected by low doses of neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin which may have direct deleterious consequences for the fitness and populations of the beetles in the field. Automated video tracking of the carabid beetle Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on an experimental thermal mosaic arena using EthoVision XT Version 9 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations (0.1-10mgL(-1)) drastically reduces the ability of the beetles for behavioural thermoregulation. At noxious high temperature, a considerable number of the beetles died due to thermo-shock. Other intoxicated beetles that survived exposure to high temperature displayed behavioural abnormalities. During heating of the arena from 25 to 45°C, insecticide treated beetles showed a significant fall in tendency to hide in a cool shelter (20°C) and prolonged exposure to noxious high temperatures, accompanied by changes in locomotor activity. Next day after insecticide treatment the beetles recovered from behavioural abnormalities to a large extent but they still were considerably longer exposed to noxious high temperatures compared to the negative control beetles. Our results demonstrated that behavioural thermoregulation is a sensitive and important etho-toxicological biomarker in ground-dwelling carabids. Prolonged exposure to unfavourably high temperatures has an array of negative effects decreasing fitness and survival of these insects at elevated thermal conditions with deep temperature gradients

  8. DIVERSITY OF CARABIDS (COLEOPTERA) ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOWER LURIN RIVER, LIMA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    ARMANDO VÉLEZ-AZAÑERO; Alfonso Lizárraga-Travaglini

    2013-01-01

    Quarterly samples of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were taken associated with the lower basin of the Lurín River (Lima-Peru) during the period August 2009 - February 2011, in six sampling points between 5 and 51 masl. Pitfall traps were used and obtained a total of 59 specimens distributed among three tribes, three genera, and four morphospecies. We report the presence of Megacephala, Scarites genus, and Pterostichus with the latter being the predominant genus.

  9. Life forms of endemic carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the forest eco-systems of gorgany mountains

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    V. S. Pushkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems of Gorgany Mountains 11 endemic carabids are found. It is about 12.2 % of all ground-beetles fauna of the investigated region. As a result of the morphometric analysis the life forms of endemic carabids are determined. The system of ground beetles’ life forms developed by I. Sharova (1981 is supplemented. All endemics we have rated among 1 class (Zoophages, 2 subclasses (Epigeobionts, Stratobionts and 5 life forms. The analysis of the carabid beetles’ life form spectrum in the forest ecosystems of Gorgany mountains attests to their broad settlement of ecological niches in the investigated region.

  10. Annotated catalogue of the carabid beetles of the Republic of Macedonia (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2015-08-20

    The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).

  11. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints.

  12. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок брусники в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович; Морозов, О. В.

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) community at cowberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 3028 imagines of 45 carabid species have been collected. Activity density of carabid beetles was the highest from late May to early June. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) was the most abundant (87,39 %). Species richness of predator and...

  13. Effects of pitfall trap lid transparency and habitat structure on the catches of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in tame pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Aaron J; Phillips, Iain D; Floate, Kevin D; Hoemsen, Brittney M; Phillips, Colin E

    2014-02-01

    Captures of insects in pitfall traps are affected by features of trap design that may confound the interpretation of data. One such feature is a lid suspended over the opening of the trap to exclude debris and rainwater. In this study, we tested whether use of these lids affected captures of carabid beetles by altering the light conditions at the opening to the trap. In one experiment, we examined the effects of lid transparency (opaque, semitransparent, or transparent) on catch rates. In a second experiment, we manipulated the heights (high, medium, or low) of vegetation adjacent to the traps to test for lid transparency and vegetation height interactions. We found that significantly more carabids were captured with use of transparent lids compared with other lid transparencies. Fewest Agonum cupreum Dejean, 1831, were captured with use of opaque lids. No other effects were detected. Given these results, we advocate the use of transparent lids, which provide the benefits of traditional opaque lids while minimizing the effects of lid use on light conditions at the opening to the trap.

  14. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок голубики высокорослой в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities at highbush blueberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 623 imagines of 51 carabid species have been collected. Field and meadow mesophilous and mesokserophilous species are formed main part of whole carabid complex. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) and Agonum sexpunctatum (...

  15. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U;

    1995-01-01

    , but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...... behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males...... were either the same as or only slightly elevated in comparison with controls. The findings suggest that the altered locomotor behavior is associated with copper-induced internal structural damage during larval development and therefore expresses a prolonged or permanent effect. Such changes...

  16. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  17. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During a period of three years (2006–2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old fores...

  18. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae and springtails (Collembola in a polder habitat

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    Tanja Lessel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder “Ingelheim” to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder “Ingelheim”. These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.

  19. Effects of ecological flooding on the temporal and spatial dynamics of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and springtails (Collembola) in a polder habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, Tanja; Marx, Michael Thomas; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder "Ingelheim" to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder "Ingelheim". These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design. PMID:21738425

  20. Cenoses and species phenology of Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in three stages of vegetational succession in upper Pivka karst (SW Slovenia):

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Slavko

    2004-01-01

    The Carabid beetle cenoses in three stages of vegetational succession in selected karst area were studied. Year-round phenology of all species present is presented. Species richness of the habitats, total number of individuals trapped and the nature conservation aspects of the vegetational succession of the karst grasslands are discussed.

  1. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During a period of three years (2006–2008 the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland. The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB, species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990 for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna.

  2. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    During a period of three years (2006-2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid) and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB), species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990) for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna. PMID:21738426

  3. Effects of changes in plant species richness and community traits on carabid assemblages and feeding guilds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Turin, H.; Wagenaar, R.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted between 2001 and 2003 in constructed plant communities that were set up in 1996 on abandoned agricultural land. The primary aim of the experiment was to study how different secondary vegetation succession scenarios influence community development of invertebrates in differ

  4. Changes in carabid beetle assemblages across an urban-rural gradient in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishitani, M.; Kotze, D.J.; NiemelÀ, J.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the international Globenet project, carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) were collected using pitfall traps from four urban, four suburban and four rural sites in Hiroshima City, Japan, during the 2001 summer season. In agreement with expectation, carabid abundance and species richness decreased significantly from rural to urban sites. Furthermore, no large, and only few individuals of medium-sized specialist species were collected from the urban environment, whil...

  5. Changes in ground beetle diversity and community composition in age structured forests (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    Kathryn Riley

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined diversity, community composition, and wing-state of Carabidae as a function of forest age in Piedmont North Carolina. Carabidae were collected monthly from 396 pitfall traps (12×33 sites from March 2009 through February 2010, representing 5 forest age classes approximately 0, 10, 50, 85, and 150 years old. A total of 2,568 individuals, representing 30 genera and 63 species, were collected. Carabid species diversity, as estimated by six diversity indices, was significantly different between the oldest and youngest forest age classes for four of the six indices. Most carabid species were habitat generalists, occurring in all or most of the forest age classes. Carabid species composition varied across forest age classes. Seventeen carabid species were identified as potential candidates for ecological indicators of forest age. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS showed separation among forest age classes in terms of carabid beetle community composition. The proportion of individuals capable of flight decreased significantly with forest age.

  6. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

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    T. Magura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge effect on the studied carabid communities: the Shannon diversity increased significantly along the transects from the forest towards the grass. The diversity of the carabids were significantly higher in the forest edge and in the grass than in the forest interior. The carabids of the forest, the forest edge and the grass are separated from each other by principal coordinates analysis and by indicator species analysis (IndVal, suggesting that each of the three habitats has a distinct species assemblages. There were 5 distinctive groups of carabids: 1 habitat generalists, 2 forest generalists, 3 species of the open area, 4 forest edge species, and 5 forest specialists. It was demonstrated by multiple regression analyses, that the relative air moisture, temperature of the ground, the cover of leaf litter, herbs, shrubs and canopy cover, abundance of the carabids’ preys are the most important factors determining the diversity and spatial pattern of carabids along the studied transects.

  7. Carabid communities in forests of ENEA centre of Brasimone, Bologna (Italy); I coleotteri carabidi nei boschi del centro ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna: effetti della gestione forestale sulla carabidocenosi di alcune formazioni boschive dell`Appennino tosco-emiliano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mei, M.; Collina, M. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; De Felici, S.; Vigna Taglianti, A. [Rome Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Biologia Animale dell`uomo

    1995-08-01

    The ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) forest property may be regarded as an open laboratory; interdisciplinary studies on ecology of aquatic and terrestrial mountain ecosystems are feasible. Six sites in tosco-emiliano Apennine (Brasimone area, Italy) were sampled by pitfall traps to assess the forest dwellers ground beetle coenoses. In spite of different wood species, vegetation cover and physionomy, Carabid communities are quite similar in species assemblages, ecological characterization and chronological spectra.

  8. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa. PMID:25673121

  9. Drivers of carabid functional diversity: abiotic environment, plant functional traits, or plant functional diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J; Stockan, Jenni A

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how community assembly is controlled by the balance of abiotic drivers (environment or management) and biotic drivers (community composition of other groups) is important in predicting the response of ecosystems to environmental change. If there are strong links between plant assemblage structure and carabid beetle functional traits and functional diversity, then it is possible to predict the impact of environmental change propagating through different functional and trophic groups. Vegetation and pitfall trap beetle surveys were carried out across twenty four sites contrasting in land use, and hence productivity and disturbance regime. Plant functional traits were very successful at explaining the distribution of carabid functional traits across the habitats studied. Key carabid response traits appeared to be body length and wing type. Carabid functional richness was significantly smaller than expected, indicating strong environmental filtering, modulated by management, soil characteristics, and by plant response traits. Carabid functional divergence was negatively related to plant functional evenness, while carabid functional evenness was positively correlated to plant functional evenness and richness. The study shows that there are clear trait linkages between the plant and the carabid assemblage that act not only through the mean traits displayed, but also via their distribution in trait space; powerful evidence that both the mean and variance of traits in one trophic group structure the assemblage of another.

  10. Time-consistent rearrangement of carabid beetle assemblages by an urbanisation gradient in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L.; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2008-09-01

    To examine the impact of urbanisation on arthropod biodiversity, carabid (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were studied over 2 years along a rural-urban gradient representing increasing levels of human disturbance. Carabids were collected by pitfall trapping during their whole activity period in lowland oak forest patches in and near the city of Debrecen, Eastern Hungary, over two seasons (2001-2002). Carabid activity density was significantly higher in the rural than in the two other areas, but there was no significant difference in species richness (measured as mean number of species caught/trap). The proportion of forest specialists significantly decreased from the rural towards the urban area, and the proportion of forest specialist species was significantly higher in the rural and suburban areas than in the urban one. In contrast, the relative activity density of generalist species significantly increased along the rural-urban gradient. Both the relative number of open-habitat species and their activity density were significantly higher in the urban forest fragments than in the suburban and rural ones. The patterns found were consistent between the 2 years. Multidimensional scaling indicated pronounced changes in species composition along the gradient; the assemblages in urban forest fragments were more variable than in the other areas. A large proportion of the variation in overall activity density, species richness and the proportion of carabids with different habitat affinities could be explained by structural habitat variables (percentage cover by canopy, leaf litter, herbs and decaying wood), and prey availability.

  11. Large carabid beetle declines in a United Kingdom monitoring network increases evidence for a widespread loss in insect biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, David R; Bater, John E.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Monteith, Don T.; Andrews, Christopher; Corbett, Stuart J.; Beaumont, Deborah A.; Chapman, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    1. Carabid beetles are important functional components of many terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we describe the first long-term, wide-scale and quantitative assessment of temporal changes in UK carabid communities, to inform nationwide management aimed at their conservation. 2. Multivariate and mixed models were used to assess temporal trends over a 15-year period,across eleven sites in the UK Environmental Change Network. Sites covered pasture, field margins, chalk downland, woodland and hed...

  12. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  13. Weed seed predation by granivorous carabids as influenced by carnivorous carabids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mol, Friederike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed seed predation is influenced for both biological and abiotic factors. Knowledge about these factors is necessary to optimize seed predation as a biological weed control measure. Here, we asked whether carnivorous carabid beetles can affect the seed predation. Additionally, the effect of weather on seed predation rate was investigated. For this purpose, 12, 1m² enclosures were installed in a field (block design with four treatments and three replications in northeastern Germany over a period of 23 days. Treatments in the enclosures were 1 without carabids, 2 with a natural density and species composition of carabids, 3 with granivorous carabid beetles (Pseudoophonus rufipes, Harpulus affinis, and 4 as 3 but additionally with carnivorous carabids (Pterostichus melanarius, Poecilus cupreus Seed predation rate was determined daily using seed cards with Poa annua and Stellaria media seeds. Temperature, relative air humidity and daily precipitation were measured as covariables. In the treatment with granivorous carabids seed predation rate was 54.3 (P. annua resp. 14.3 (S. media seeds per enclosure and day. In the treatment with granivorous and carnivorous carabids, seed predation rate was significantly lower for P. annua (46.6 seeds per enclosure and day, paired Wilcoxon-Test, p = 0.04 and equally high for S. media (14.4 seeds per enclosure and day. In enclosures containing non-manipulated carabid densities 9.1 seeds of P. annua and 7.2 seeds of S. media were lost per enclosure and per day, which is significantly higher than from enclosures that were void of carabids. The minimum night temperature was the only weather variable that significantly influenced seed predation rate. This work contributes to a better understanding of the factors influencing seed predation rates in the field.

  14. Species radiation of carabid beetles (broscini: mecodema in new zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Goldberg

    Full Text Available New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses.

  15. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  16. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest. PMID:18559178

  17. Edge effect on carabid assemblages along forest-grass transects

    OpenAIRE

    Magura, T.; B. Tóthmérész; T. Molnár

    2001-01-01

    During 1997 and 1998, we have tested the edge-effect for carabids along oak-hornbeam forest-grass transects using pitfall traps in Hungary. Our hypothesis was that the diversity of carabids will be higher in the forest edge than in the forest interior. We also focused on the characteristic species of the habitats along the transects and the relationships between their distribution and the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Our results proved that there was a significant edge eff...

  18. CARABID BEATLES AS INDICATORS REFLECTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIVER REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kędzior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate factors responsible for sustaining riverine communities in stream sections with various bank regulation systems. The research were conducted on Porebianka stream in the Polish Western Carpathians, where 10 different types of river regulations were chosen for the analysis (strong incision without alluvial deposits, redeposition with sand and gravel banks, concrete revetment walls along the banks, channel with banks lined with rip-rap and reference unmanaged cross- section. We conclude that the carabid beetles assemblages of the studied river sections respond mainly to hydraulic parameters of the stream. Elimination of frequent natural bank inundation (due to the regulations of the banks is the main factor responsible for the impoverishment and extinction of riverine communities.

  19. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  20. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Bilton, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this

  1. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  2. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920–30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets. (letter)

  3. Patch size determines the strength of edge effects on carabid beetle assemblages in urban remnant forests

    OpenAIRE

    Soga, Masashi; Kanno, Nozomi; Yamaura, Yuichi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to urbanization is increasing rapidly worldwide. Although patch area and edge effect are both important determinants of species diversity and the number of individuals in fragmented landscapes, studies that tested interaction between two effects were limited. Here we examined the interaction between area and edge effects on species richness and the number of individuals of carabids in highly fragmented forests in Tokyo, central Japan. We surveyed carabids in each of ...

  4. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maddison

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus; the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini.Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data.

  5. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  6. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  7. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across a habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2010 Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae across habitat disturbance gradient in Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi. Biodiversitas 11: 29-33. Dung beetles are important component of most terrestrial ecosystems and used to assess the effects of habitat disturbance and deforestation. This study aimed at comparing dung beetle assemblages among several habitat types ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, Central Sulawesi (one of Indonesia’s biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, 10 pitfall traps baited with cattle dung were exposed at each habitat type (n = 4 replicate sites per habitat type to collect the dung beetles. The results showed that species richness of dung beetles declined significantly from natural forest to open area. However cacao agroforestry systems seemed to be capable of maintaining a high portion of dung beetle species inhabiting at forest sites. The closer relationship between dung beetle assemblages recorded at forest and agroforestry sites reflects the high similarity of some measured habitat parameters (e.g. vegetation structure and microclimate between both habitat types, while species assemblages at open areas differed significantly from both other habitat groups. These results indicated that habitat type has importance effect on determining the species richness and community structure of dung beetles at the margin of LLNP.

  8. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.

  9. Relationships between plant diversity and the abundance and α-diversity of predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a mature Asian temperate forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems.

  10. Influence de l'enherbement viticole sur les Carabidae (Coleoptera et intérêt potentiel pour le contrôle de certains ravageurs de la vigne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petremand, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground cover influence on Carabidae (Coleoptera populations and potential interest for bio-control of some vineyards pests. Description of the subject. This paper deals with carabid populations within vineyards. Objectives. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of ground cover management on carabid populations and to understand the potential of these beetles as predators of some grapevine pests. Method. Two vineyards, located in Geneva (Switzerland, were sampled with 60 pitfall traps. Observations were carried out from March to October 2014 and a botanical survey was carried out in June. Results. In total, 951 carabids belonging to 36 species were captured in the two vineyards. Bare ground and poor plant species treated with herbicides reduced the abundance of the ground beetles. On the other hand, ground covered with spontaneous vegetation, rather than a mixture of seeds, seemed to favor ground beetles throughout the sampling period. Conclusions. The peak activity of the potential predatory beetles corresponded to the occurrence of some vine pests. However, the most common carabid species captured had an omnivorous diet and a low potential for pest predation on viticulture.

  11. Effects of Timing of Grazing on Arthropod Communities in Semi-Natural Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Lisette; Lennartsson, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod communities were investigated in two Swedish semi-natural grasslands, each subject to two types of grazing regime: conventional grazing from May to September (continuous grazing) and traditional late management from mid-July (late grazing). Pitfall traps were used to investigate abundance of carabids, spiders, and ants over the grazing season. Ant abundance was also measured by mapping nest density during three successive years. Small spiders, carabids and ants (Myrmica spp.) were m...

  12. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

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    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  13. Density dependent mortality in the springtail species Orchesella cincta due to predaton by the carabid beetle Notiophilus biguttatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, P.C.; Ouborg, N.J.; Ernsting, G.

    1988-01-01

    Mortality of the collembole species Orchesella cincta (L.), due to predation by the carabid Notiophilus biguttatus F., has been measured in the laboratory at three levels of prey density. Prey densities were chosen such that the predator's consumption at the lowest prey density was a little above th

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    the time in locomotion, average velocity, and path length and by increasing the turning rate and frequency of stops. Females responded similarly at the two highest doses, whereas their locomotor behavior was not significantly different from the control group at the lowest dimethoate dose, suggesting a sex...... to locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer......-aided video tracking, whereupon the whole body AChE activity was measured in the individual beetle. AChE inhibition was strongly correlated with dimethoate dose in both sexes. Alterations in the locomotor behavior were directly correlated with AChE inhibition in male beetles, which responded by reducing...

  15. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands could be beneficial: distribution of carabid beetles and spiders in agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Knapp

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles and ground-dwelling spiders inhabiting agroecosystems are beneficial organisms with a potential to control pest species. Intensification of agricultural management and reduction of areas covered by non-crop vegetation during recent decades in some areas has led to many potentially serious environmental problems including a decline in the diversity and abundance of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. This study investigated carabid beetle and spider assemblages in non-crop habitat islands of various sizes (50 to 18,000 square metres within one large field, as well as the arable land within the field, using pitfall traps in two consecutive sampling periods (spring to early summer and peak summer. The non-crop habitat islands situated inside arable land hosted many unique ground-dwelling arthropod species that were not present within the surrounding arable land. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands with areas of tens of square metres were inhabited by assemblages substantially different from these inhabiting arable land and thus enhanced the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. The non-crop habitat area substantially affected the activity density, recorded species richness and recorded species composition of carabid and ground-dwelling spider assemblages; however, the effects were weakened when species specialised to non-crop habitats species were analysed separately. Interestingly, recorded species richness of spiders increased with non-crop habitat area, whereas recorded species richness of carabid beetles exhibited an opposite trend. There was substantial temporal variation in the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods, and contrasting patterns were observed for particular taxa (carabid beetles and spiders. In general, local environmental conditions (i.e., non-crop habitat island tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover and litter depth were better determinants of arthropod assemblages than non

  16. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands could be beneficial: distribution of carabid beetles and spiders in agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Michal; Řezáč, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Carabid beetles and ground-dwelling spiders inhabiting agroecosystems are beneficial organisms with a potential to control pest species. Intensification of agricultural management and reduction of areas covered by non-crop vegetation during recent decades in some areas has led to many potentially serious environmental problems including a decline in the diversity and abundance of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. This study investigated carabid beetle and spider assemblages in non-crop habitat islands of various sizes (50 to 18,000 square metres) within one large field, as well as the arable land within the field, using pitfall traps in two consecutive sampling periods (spring to early summer and peak summer). The non-crop habitat islands situated inside arable land hosted many unique ground-dwelling arthropod species that were not present within the surrounding arable land. Even the smallest non-crop habitat islands with areas of tens of square metres were inhabited by assemblages substantially different from these inhabiting arable land and thus enhanced the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. The non-crop habitat area substantially affected the activity density, recorded species richness and recorded species composition of carabid and ground-dwelling spider assemblages; however, the effects were weakened when species specialised to non-crop habitats species were analysed separately. Interestingly, recorded species richness of spiders increased with non-crop habitat area, whereas recorded species richness of carabid beetles exhibited an opposite trend. There was substantial temporal variation in the spatial distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods, and contrasting patterns were observed for particular taxa (carabid beetles and spiders). In general, local environmental conditions (i.e., non-crop habitat island tree cover, shrub cover, grass cover and litter depth) were better determinants of arthropod assemblages than non-crop habitat island

  17. Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius, 1792) in North America, benign or malign? (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an east-west range of ~90 km. It was also detected in 2010 in southwestern Washington (Vancouver), just north of Portland and the Columbia River. The ecological amplitude of Nebria brevicollis in Oregon rivals that of the most eurytopic native carabid species, e.g., Pterostichus algidus LeConte and Scaphinotus marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim). It has been found in highly degraded heavy industrial sites, agricultural fields, city parks, gardens, second growth woodlands, mature conifer forests, montane rock gardens, and otherwise pristine stands of old growth noble fir, with elevations ranging from essentially sea level to 1,249 meters. Climates at these locales vary from that of the Mediterranean Willamette Valley floor, where snow rarely occurs and summers are hot and dry, to the summit of the Oregon Coast Range, where deep snow may be present from November through April and summers are cool. The carabid communities in which Nebria brevicollis has been found range from those predominantly of fellow exotic species, e.g., at heavily perturbed sites, to those where it is the only exotic species, such as at the Coast Range summit. Nebria brevicollis is clearly an invasive species in that it is not restricted to anthropogenic habitats, is rapidly expanding its North American range, and can be abundant in essentially pristine settings. What is not yet clear is whether it is or will become a damaging species. Although it is already the most abundant carabid species in some

  18. Adult Diapause in Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hodek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies dealing with adult (reproductive diapause in the Coleoptera are reviewed, as a kind of supplement to the classic compendia. In the first two sections, the general characteristics of adult diapause are described and principal terms explained. Original articles dealing with 19 species from nine coleopteran families (Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Bruchidae, Curculionidae, Carabidae, Silphidae, Scolytidae, Scarabaeidae, and Endomychidae are reviewed. Finally attempts are made at generalisations from the papers reviewed, and hypotheses on diapause evolution are inferred. A polyphenic character of diapause is a prominent feature in C. septempunctata and L. decemlineata, but has been found also in other Coleoptera and in insects generally and often generates voltinism heterogeneity within populations.

  19. Bioindication Potential of the Coleoptera

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    Belitskaya Mariya Nikolaevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Different families of Coleoptera ambiguously respond to the pollution of SPZs with industrial emissions. For example, the SPZ of Volgograd aluminum plant has the changing biodiversity of insect communities at different distances from the pollution source. The increasing level of pollution is accompanied by the reduction in species abundance. At a distance of 200 m a special ecological zone with the specific composition of the entomofauna was formed. It is significantly different from other habitats. No Cerambycidae species may survive in the zone of maximum pollution, and the number of Curculionidae species is reduced significantly. The number of Cerambycidae decreases by more than 40 % in the presence of even minimal contamination. The most sensitive bioindicators are represented by such insects as Cerambycidae, Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Changes in the indices can be described by the function y = arctan (x, where x is the distance from the pollution source (in meters. The specificity of this function is to identify levels of possible changes of species richness and numerical abundance of communities. On the basis of trigonometric functions describing the changes in the species composition and abundance, the authors offered the method for assessing the quality of the environment in SPZs. The use of three families of insects opens up prospects of differentiation zones of technogenic pressure.

  20. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy

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    Nicola Pilon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI and Giussago (PV (Lombardy, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  1. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  2. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate. PMID:26602356

  3. Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius, 1792 in North America, benign or malign? (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James LaBonte

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an east-west range of ~90 km. It was also detected in 2010 in southwestern Washington (Vancouver, just north of Portland and the Columbia River.The ecological amplitude of N. brevicollis in Oregon rivals that of the most eurytopic native carabid species, e.g., Pterostichus algidus LeConte and Scaphinotus marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim. It has been found in highly degraded heavy industrial sites, agricultural fields, city parks, gardens, second growth woodlands, mature conifer forests, montane rock gardens, and otherwise pristine stands of old growth noble fir, with elevations ranging from essentially sea level to 1,249 meters. Climates at these locales vary from that of the Mediterranean Willamette Valley floor, where snow rarely occurs and summers are hot and dry, to the summit of the Oregon Coast Range, where deep snow may be present from November through April and summers are cool. The carabid communities in which N. brevicollis has been found range from those predominantly of fellow exotic species, e.g., at heavily perturbed sites, to those where it is the only exotic species, such as at the Coast Range summit.Nebria brevicollis is clearly an invasive species in that it is not restricted to anthropogenic habitats, is rapidly expanding its North American range, and can be abundant in essentially pristine settings. What is not yet clear is whether it is or will become a damaging species. Although it is already the most abundant carabid species in some settings

  4. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  5. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  6. Comunidad de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae en dos bosques del Chaco Oriental Húmedo, Argentina Copro-necrophagous beetle community (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in two forests from Eastern Humid Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam P. Damborsky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó y comparó la estructura de la comunidad de Scarabaeinae en dos ambientes con distinto grado de conservación. Se efectuaron muestreos en un bosque nativo del Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio y en un fragmento de bosque del establecimiento ganadero Los Alisos. Los ejemplares se capturaron con coprotrampas y necrotrampas que permanecieron activas durante 72 horas, en los meses de octubre, noviembre y diciembre de 2006. Se colectaron 769 individuos adultos pertenecientes a seis tribus, 11 géneros y 26 especies. En Los Alisos Ontherus sulcatus Fabricius y Onthophagus hirculus Mannerheim resultaron dominantes. Trichillum sp., Canthon podagricus Harold, Malagoniella sp., Gromphas lacordairei Brullé, y dos especies de Dichotomius Hope fueron exclusivas de este establecimiento. Canthon septemmaculatus Latreille y Coprophanaeus jasius Olivier sólo se colectaron en Pampa del Indio. El número de individuos y la diversidad alcanzaron valores significativamente superiores en Pampa del Indio. En Los Alisos, se constató igual proporción de coprófagos y necrófagos, y una mayoría de especies con hábitos endocópridos y paracópridos. En Pampa del Indio, se encontraron más especies de hábitos necrófagos y rodadores. La presente contribución constituye el primer estudio sobre la biodiversidad de Scarabaeinae en el ambiente de bosque de la provincia del Chaco.Scarabaeinae community structure was compared in two habitats with different degrees of conservation: a native forest at Pampa del Indio Provincial Park, and a forest fragment at Los Alisos cattle farm. Pitfall traps baited with carrion and cattle dung were left open for 72-hour periods in October, November and December 2006. 769 adults belonging to six tribes, 11 genera and 26 species were captured in all. At Los Alisos, Ontherus sulcatus Fabricius and Onthophagus hirculus Mannerheim were the dominant species. Trichillum sp., Canthon podagricus Harold, Malagoniella sp., Gromphas

  7. Comunidade de escarabeíneos (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae copro-necrófagos da região de Brejo Novo, Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil Copro-necrophagous scarab community (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae of the Brejo Novo region, Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Barbosa Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou levantar preliminarmente os escarabeíneos copro-necrófagos da região de Brejo Novo, Caruaru, Pernambuco, e verificar aspectos da estrutura da comunidade como sazonalidade, diversidade, equitabilidade, riqueza e abundância das espécies. Foram realizadas 10 coletas, com intervalos de 30 dias e duração de 48 horas, de setembro de 2003 a julho de 2004. Utilizaramse 24 armadilhas de queda, com dois tipos de isca, fezes humanas e carne bovina em estado de putrefação. Foram coletados 1.540 indivíduos pertencentes a seis tribos, 12 gêneros e 28 espécies. As espécies Canthon af. carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Dichotomius nisus, D. semisquamosus, Digitonthophagus gazella e Eurysternus hirtellus aparentemente são as mais adaptadas ao ambiente estudado. Foram coletados 826 indivíduos em armadilhas iscadas com fezes humanas e 714 em carne bovina apodrecida. Ocorreu um número maior de espécies consideradas "raras" (15, sendo três destas "singletons", duas "doubletons" e 10 com abundância entre três e 10 indivíduos, 13 espécies foram consideradas "comuns". Das espécies analisadas, sete apresentaram hábitos alimentares generalistas, quatro são estritamente coprófagas e uma estritamente necrófaga. Foram verificadas correlações positivas entre a precipitação mensal e a abundância e a riqueza de espécies. O levantamento preliminar das espécies de Scarabaeinae da região de Brejo Novo contribuiu para aumentar o número de espécies registradas para o estado de Pernambuco e região Nordeste do Brasil.This paper reports the results of the preliminary survey of copro-necrophagous dung beetles of Brejo Novo region, Caruaru, Pernambuco, as well as some aspects of the community structure such as seasonality, diversity, equitability, richness and abundance of species. Ten samplings with intervals of 30 days and duration of 48 hours, fortnightly were done between September 2003 to July 2004. Scarab beetles were

  8. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  9. Un nuevo Trechus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini hipogeo de la Sierra de Parapanda (Andalucía, España: taxonomía, sistemática y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortuño, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new hypogean Trechus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechini from Sierra de Parapanda (Andalucía, España: taxonomy, systematics and biology Sampling of arthropod fauna by pitfall traps in the cavern ‘Sima de San Rafael’ in Íllora (Granada, Spain has revealed a new carabid beetle species, Trechus parapandus n. sp., with remarkable troglobiomorphic characteristics: eyes visible only as scars, depigmentation, and elongation of antennae and legs. In consonance with these characteristics, this new species, Trechus parapandus n. sp. is absent in the upper region of the cave. The species belongs to the Trechus fulvus species group (that has five species in Andalusia according to the characteristics of both male and female genitalia. Study of the fauna in the cave suggests that Collembola might be the prey of this new species since they are the most abundant group and have a coincidental phenology. A key for the 11 Trechus species present in Andalusia is provided.

  10. 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in the southern states of Brazil. The pure stands of this culture was responsible for the increase of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies may increase the agroecossystem balance and thus a reduction of the insect-pest to an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  11. The effects of a winter cover crop on Diabrotica virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations and beneficial arthropod communities in no-till maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fergen, Janet K

    2010-12-01

    The effects of an autumn-planted, spring-killed, grass cover crop (Elymus trachycaulus [Link] Gould ex Shinners) on populations of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte and its predator community were evaluated in South Dakota maize fields over two seasons. Abundance and size of D. virgifera larvae and adults and sex ratio of adults were measured in maize produced under two treatments (i.e., a winter cover crop or bare soil), as were maize root damage and the abundance and diversity of the predator communities collected on the soil surface and in the soil column. First and second instars and adults of D. virgifera were similarly abundant in the two treatments, but third instars were significantly fewer in maize planted after a winter cover crop. Larvae developed at different rates in the two treatments, and second instars were significantly smaller (head capsule width and body length) in the maize planted after a cover crop. First and third instars and adults were of similar size in the two treatments, and adult sex ratios were also similar. Although initially similar, predator populations increased steadily in the cover-cropped maize, which led to a significantly greater predator population by the time D. virgifera pupated. There was significantly less root damage in the cover-cropped maize. Predator communities were similarly diverse in both treatments. Predator abundance per plot was significantly and negatively correlated with the abundance of third instars per plot. Clearly, winter cover crops reduce D. virgifera performance and their damage to the crop, and we suspect that this reduction is caused by both environmental effects of the treatment on D. virgifera size and development, and of increased predation on the third instars of the pest. Additional data on the impact of cover crops on actual predation levels, grain yield and quality, and farmer profitability, and correlations among pest performance, crop characteristics, and predator populations and

  12. Ensamble peridomiciliario de carábidos (Coleoptera: Carabidae en un talar del sudeste bonaerense, Argentina Peridomestic ground beetle assemblage (Coleoptera: Carabidae in a Celtis tala forest from southeastern Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela V. Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo fue conocer la diversidad de carábidos en un área peridomiciliaria del talar de Laguna Nahuel Rucá, Mar Chiquita. Realizamos un inventario de las especies, comparamos la variación estacional en la diversidad alfa acumulada, la estructura del ensamble y los grupos funcionales. En el año de muestreo (marzo 2008-marzo 2009, capturamos 2.588 individuos distribuidos en 63 especies, que representaron el 84-93% de la riqueza estimada. La riqueza específica fue mayor en primavera y verano, en relación a otoño e invierno (pOur purpose was to perform a research on the peridomestic carabid diversity in a Celtis tala Guillies ex Planch forest, at Laguna Nahuel Rucá, Mar Chiquita district. A species inventory and the comparison of the seasonal variation of cumulative species richness, as well as community structure and functional groups were carried out. During one year (March 2008-March 2009, 2588 carabids belonging to 63 species were collected, representing the 84%-93% of the estimated richness. Cumulative species richness during spring and summer was higher than in autumn and winter (p<0.05. Two species, Argutoridius bonariensis (Dejean and Pachymorphus striatulus (Fabricius, represented a total of 47% of captures and were dominant in all seasons. Concerning trophic guilds, zoophagous represented more than 50% of the assemblage in all seasons, while phytophagous and omnivorous remained at low percentages in autumn-winter (<10%; the former reached a peak in spring (20%, and the latter in summer (34%. Regarding humidity affinities, mesophilous species conformed more than 70% of the assemblage and hygrophilous and xerophilous reached less than 20%. We discuss the probable causes of such higher carabid diversity wandering through the talar stand and their simplified surroundings, as well as the influence that these factors exert on composition and structure of the ground beetle assemblage.

  13. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  14. Effects of timing of grazing on arthropod communities in semi-natural grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Lisette; Lennartsson, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod communities were investigated in two Swedish semi-natural grasslands, each subject to two types of grazing regime: conventional grazing from May to September (continuous grazing) and traditional late management from mid-July (late grazing). Pitfall traps were used to investigate abundance of carabids, spiders, and ants over the grazing season. Ant abundance was also measured by mapping nest density during three successive years. Small spiders, carabids and ants (Myrmica spp.) were more abundant in continuous grazing than in late grazing while larger spiders, carabids, and ants (Formica spp.) were more abundant in late grazing. The overall abundance of carabids was higher in continuous grazing in the early summer but higher in late grazing in the late summer. The switch of preference from continuous to late grazing coincided with the time for larvae hibernating species replacing adult hibernating. We discuss possible explanations for the observed responses in terms of effects of grazing season on a number of habitat variables for example temperature, food resources, structure of vegetation, litter layer, competition, and disturbance. PMID:20569138

  15. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  16. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johan Kotze

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed

  17. Patterns of insect communities along a stress gradient following decommissioning of a Cu-Ni smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babin-Fenske, Jennifer [Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Anand, Madhur, E-mail: manand@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    The diversity, estimated richness and abundance of terrestrial insect communities were examined along a stress gradient of past pollution in the region of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This gradient represents the natural recovery and lingering effects of a decommissioned copper-nickel smelting complex. Ant genera and sixteen higher taxonomic groups (family and order) had the highest abundance at the sites with intermediate stress. Eight families increased in abundance with distance from the decommissioned source of pollution and eleven families decreased reflecting a complex response of diversity to pollution. Carabid beetles show an increase in diversity further from the smelter; however, examination of the species composition reveals a distinct carabid community closest to the smelter, emphasizing the unique habitat created by severe pollution. Although almost forty years since decomissioning of the smelter complex, the terrestrial insect community in the vicinity remains significantly impacted suggesting slow recovery. - Highlights: > Several taxonomic groups had highest abundance at intermediate stress. > Eight families increased in abundance with distance from the source of pollution. > Eleven families decreased in abundance with distance. > Species composition reveals a distinct carabid community closest to the smelter. > Terrestrial insect community still significantly impacted suggesting slow recovery. - Our study finds both unexpected and expected responses of insect communities to a landscape gradient of past pollution suggesting the emergence of novel ecosystems.

  18. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruttke, H.; Kratz, W.; Weigmann, G.; Haque, A.

    1988-06-01

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of (/sup 14/C)PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models.

  19. Terrestrial model food chain and environmental chemicals. I. Transfer of sodium [14C]pentachlorophenate between springtails and carabids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model soil food chain of a ruderal ecosystem has been constructed in order to study the uptake, transfer, and accumulation of [14C]pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na). The model was based on three food levels, viz. baker's yeast, collembola, and carabid beetles, and the contaminant chemical introduced was via initial food. Continuous exposure of the organisms to the test chemical resulted in a significant uptake and transfer of radiocarbon into the food chain elements. Bioaccumulation of radiocarbon in the body tissues of the organisms was low, as large amounts taken up were quickly eliminated through the excrements. The radiocarbon level of prey animals was about 100 times higher than that of their predators, but there was only small difference in concentration between collembolas and yeast. This was probably because of a faster excretion of the chemical by the beetles than by the collembolas. During the test period no conversion of [14C]PCP-Na took place in the yeast, but the collembolas and beetles metabolized 50 and 59%, respectively. Criteria are proposed for successful implementation of food chain models

  20. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  1. PITYOPHAGUS QUERCUS REITTER, 1877, A NEW SAPROXYLIC SAP BEETLE FOR THE ITALIAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During ecological investigations on saproxylic beetle communities of central Italy (Latium, at Bosco Polverino (a mixed evergreen/deciduous forest fragment dominated by cork oaks, and at Allumiere (a small fragment of beech forest surrounded by turkey oak stands, the authors found three specimens of Pityophagus quercus Reitter, 1877 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae. These are the first known records of this species in Italy, and the first one in association with an evergreen oak, Quercus suber. This discovery led us to review both bionomical and faunistic data so far available on this exceedingly rare and poorly known species.

  2. Egg laying site preferences in Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Trefas, H.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of ground beetles, the number of studies investigating the effects plant-related structure and microclimate on the selection of egg laying sites is very limited. The egg laying site preference of Pterostichus melanarius, an important carabid beetle in agricultural fields, was studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of wet/dry substrate, light/shadow and structured/unstructured environment on the number of eggs laid were investigated, as well as the influence of the presen...

  3. Carabidae diversity along an altitudinal gradient in a Peruvian cloud forest (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Maveety; Robert Browne; Terry Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetles were sampled at five sites, ranging from 1500 m to 3400 m, along a 15 km transect in the cloud forest of Manu National Park, Perú. Seasonal collections during a one year period yielded 77 morphospecies, of which 60% are projected to be undescribed species. There was a significant negative correlation between species richness and altitude, with the number of carabid species declining at the rate of one species for each 100 m increase in altitude. The majority of species ...

  4. The response of sward-dwelling arthropod communities to reduced grassland management intensity in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helden Alvin J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared arthropod taxon richness, diversity and community structure of two replicated grassland husbandry experiments to investigate effects of reduced management intensity, as measured by nutrient input levels (390, 224 and 0 kg/ha per year N in one experiment, and 225 and 88 kg/ha per year N in another. Suction sampling was used to collect Araneae, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, with Araneae and Coleoptera also sampled with pitfall trapping. Univariate analyses found no significant differences in abundance and species density between treatments. However, with multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in arthropod community structure between treatments in both experiments.

  5. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe?

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    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  6. Predation of Notiophilus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Collembola as a Predator-Prey Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The carabid beetle (Notiophilus) preys readily on an easily-cultured collembolan in simple experimental conditions. Some features of this predator-prey system are outlined to emphasize its use in biology instruction. Experiments with another potential collembolan are described in the context of developing the method for more advanced studies.…

  7. Effect of light quality on movement of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allema, A.B.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Van der Werf, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Steingrover, E.; Van Lenteren, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour of nocturnal insects is routinely observed under red light, but it is unclear how the behaviour under red light compares to behaviour in complete darkness, or under a source of white light. Here, we measure movement behaviour of the nocturnal carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius Illiger

  8. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  9. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range chang

  10. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  11. Noteworthy records of Hispines from Belize (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Naczi, Robert F. C.; Charles L. Staines

    2011-01-01

    Cephaloleia consanguinea Baly, Cephaloleia fulvolimbata Baly, Cephaloleia ruficollis Baly, Chalepus amabilis Baly, Chalepus brevicornis (Baly), Chalepus pici Descarpentries and Villiers, Microrhopala erebus (Newman), Octhispa bimaculata Uhmann, Octotoma championi Baly, Pseudispa tuberculata Staines, Sceloenopla erudita (Baly), Stenispa guatemalensis Uhmann, Sumitrosis gestroi (Weise), and Sumitrosis terminatus (Baly) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae) are new country records of hispine c...

  12. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  13. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  14. Het voorkomen van de glanskevers van het genus Caprophilus in Nederland (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude, de J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of nitidulid beetles of the genus Carpophilus in the Netherlands (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Some species of the genus Carpophilus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) may act as pests of stored products like cocoabeans, peanuts, dried fruits like figs and dates, imported from tropical or subtropi

  15. Faunistic analysis of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in five agroecosystems in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil Análise faunística de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera em cinco agroecossistemas da Região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determined species composition and community structure of Carabidae and Staphylinidae in five areas of forest fragment and soybean/corn crops or orange orchard, from December 2004 to May 2007. Beetles were captured in pitfall traps distributed along two parallel transects of 200 m in length, placed across crop land/forest boundary fragment, with 100 m each. The Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indexes and Morisita similarity index were calculated. The carabids Abaris basistriatus Chaudoir, Calosoma granulatum Perty, Megacephala brasiliensis Kirby, Odontochila nodicornis (Dejean and Selenophorus seriatoporus Putzeys. are dominant and are widely distributed in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. Point-scale species diversity was greatest at the transition between forest fragment and cultivated area. The carabid and staphylinid communities of the forest fragment were more similar to the community of orange orchard than that of soybean/corn crops.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a composição de espécies e a estrutura das comunidades de Carabidae e Staphylinidae, em cinco áreas de fragmento florestal e cultura soja/milho ou pomar laranja, de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2007. Os besouros foram capturados com armadilhas de solo, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 200 m de comprimento, com 100 m no interior da área cultivada e 100 m no interior do fragmento florestal. A fauna foi caracterizada pelos índices de diversidade e equitabilidade de Shannon-Wiener e pelo de similaridade de Morisita. Os carabídeos Abaris basistriatus Chaudoir, Calosoma granulatum Perty, Megacephala brasiliensis Kirby, Odontochila nodicornis (Dejean e Selenophorus seriatoporus Putzeys. são as espécies dominantes com maior distribuição geográfica na região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. A maior diversidade de espécies de carabídeos e estafilinídeos ocorreu na transição entre fragmento florestal e

  16. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  17. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  18. Large carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and...

  19. Large carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeirsschieter, J.; Verheggen, F.; Lognay, G.; Haubruge, E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and ...

  20. Carabidae diversity along an altitudinal gradient in a Peruvian cloud forest (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Maveety

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetles were sampled at five sites, ranging from 1500 m to 3400 m, along a 15 km transect in the cloud forest of Manu National Park, Perú. Seasonal collections during a one year period yielded 77 morphospecies, of which 60% are projected to be undescribed species. There was a significant negative correlation between species richness and altitude, with the number of carabid species declining at the rate of one species for each 100 m increase in altitude. The majority of species (70.1 % were restricted to only one altitudinal site and no species was found at more than three of the five altitudinal sites. Only one genus, Pelmatellus (Tribe Harpalini, was found at all five sites. Active (hand collections yielded approximately twice as many species per individuals collected than passive (pitfall trap collections. This study is the first systematic sampling of carabid beetles of a high altitude gradient in the cloud forests of southeastern Perú and supports the need to conserve the zone of extremely high biodiversity present on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

  1. Nocturnal Migration of Coleoptera: Carabidae in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Vertical-looking radar (VLR) has allowed long-term automatic monitoring of the altitudinal and temporal dynamics of high-flying insect populations. To investigate whether ground beetle, insect of Coleoptera, was capable of migrating and its migration pattern by taking advantages of capability of the VLR for long-term real-time automatic monitoring, the migration of Coleoptera ground beetle was investigated by setting up radar observation points, making long-term observation using the VLR and related supplementary equipment, and analyzing low altitude air current and large area circulating current in combination with the meteorological data. Information obtained in 2005 and 2006 showed that the seasonal activities of ground beetles traps of trap lamps were mainly from late June to late August, peak period was mainly in August, seasonal traps of high-altitude lamps and ground lamps were featured by sudden increase and sudden decrease; in peak period, the height of radar echo point could be as high as 600 m, while it was mainly below the height of 450 m; night activities mainly occurred from 20:00 to 22:00, in very few nights, radar echo could last until about 04:00, changes in numbers of ground beetles within the searchlights were consistent with radar echo intensity; ground beetle images were successfully trapped in the sweep nets carried by captive balloons at the height of 200 m. Some species of Carabidaes had some degrees of migration, thus providing the foundation for investigating the migration of Coleoptera insects.

  2. Estados inmaduros de Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini Immature stages of Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon César Neita-Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y se ilustran por primera vez la larva de tercer estadio y la pupa de Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini. Se aportan datos sobre la biología de la especie y su distribución en Colombia. Se proporciona una clave para la identificación de las larvas de tercer estadio conocidas de las especies del género Ancognatha Erichson.The third instar larva and pupa of Ancognatha ustulata Burmeister, 1847 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are described and illustrated for the first time. New data on larval biology and distribution of the species in Colombia are included. A key to the known third stage larvae of Ancognatha Erichson is provided.

  3. Body size distribution in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as a possible monitoring method of environmental impacts of transgenic maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumo, Davide di; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2015-01-01

    informative Lorenz asymmetry coefficients. A total of 6339 carabids belonging to 38 species were captured and indentified. The analysis detected a shift in size distribution between months but no important differences in the assemblages in Bt vs. non-Bt maize plots were found. We concluded that an increasing...

  4. Displacement of Tetropium cinnamopterum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) by Its Invasive Congener Tetropium fuscum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Kenneth W; Heard, Stephen B; Sweeney, Jon; Pureswaran, Deepa S

    2016-08-01

    We examined the native community of insects interacting with an invasive species, Tetropium fuscum (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in its new range to explore reasons for the invader's relatively slow spread. Tetropium fuscum is a European spruce borer established in Nova Scotia since at least 1990, but it has spread only about 125 km from its site of introduction. We compared the densities of Tetropium spp., their known parasitoids, and the community of wood-boring insects at sites located within the invasion zone in Nova Scotia versus well outside this zone, in New Brunswick, Canada. Using red spruce trees stressed by girdling or felling, we tested whether: 1) T. fuscum had altered the native wood-boring community; 2) T. fuscum displaced a native congener, Tetropium cinnamopterum (Kirby); and 3) parasitism rates of Tetropium spp. differed between the invaded and noninvaded zones. Both Tetropium spp. and their parasitoid wasps emerged exclusively from felled trees as opposed to girdled trees. We found no difference in community diversity inside versus outside the invasion zone. The combined densities of both Tetropium spp. and their overall parasitism rates also did not differ between zones, but T. cinnamopterum density was significantly greater outside the invasion zone, suggesting T. fuscum may displace the native congener where they are sympatric. Our results suggest that the native and invasive Tetropium spp. act as a single functional species in the invasion zone. We speculate that natural control agents (predators, parasitoids, and competitors) might be limiting the rate of spread of T. fuscum. PMID:27247305

  5. Análise de fauna e flutuação populacional de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Faunal analysis and population fluctuation of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2009-01-01

    in the off-season crop. For obtaining the samples it was used pitfall traps, distributed in two transects of 200 m long being 100 m in the culture and 100 m in the fragment. The fauna was characterized by indexes of diversity, equitability, and abundance. In no-tillage system the larger number of carabid and staphylinid species and the equitability and diversity indexes indicated that the community of those beetles shows a better structure when compared with the conventional cropping system. Among the carabid species Abaris basistriatus stood out for having been characterized as dominant in crop and forest fragment of the two experimental areas. The species Scarites sp. 4 and A. basistriatus generally presented population peaks when the crop soybean counted less than 30 days of the implantation, the other species presented population peaks that were observed in varied times of the crops. Pluvial precipitation was the meteorological variable that obtained the largest number of positive correlations followed by minimum temperature.

  6. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.

  7. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated. PMID:27563272

  8. Parasitylenchus sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) parasitizing field populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, Susanne; Poinar, George O. Jr.; Dimitrova, Desislava V.;

    2011-01-01

    Adults of the invasive harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), were found to be parasitized by nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae) in Denmark. The nematodes were identified as Parasitylenchus sp. Major morphological characters of the nematodes did not differ...

  9. Apostasimerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae). Rectification of authorship, year of publication, rank, and taxa included

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...

  10. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  11. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  12. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  13. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

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    José Adriano Giorgi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  14. A diversidade inventarial de Coleoptera (Insecta em uma paisagem antropizada do Bioma Araucária The inventory diversity of Coleoptera (Insecta of an anthropized landscape in the Biome Araucaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como parte do Projeto PROVIVE, foram analisadas a riqueza de espécies, a composição taxonômica, a proporção de espécies raras e a constância taxonômica ao nível de família relacionada à riqueza de espécies, em comunidades de Coleoptera, em Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de coletas através de armadilha malaise no estrato do sub-bosque de cinco áreas com diferentes graus de intervenção antrópica, de setembro de 1999 a agosto de 2000. As 52 semanas de amostragem nas cinco áreas resultaram na coleta de 10.822 indivíduos de 1659 espécies. Todas as áreas apresentaram alta riqueza de espécies e diversidade, como indicado por vários índices. A área em estágio mais avançado de sucessão vegetal foi menos rica do que aquelas em estágio inicial/intermediária. De acordo com diferentes estimadores de riqueza de espécies, o número de espécies coletadas poderia aumentar de 22-123% com o aumento do esforço de coleta. As áreas menos conservadas foram mais ricas em espécies raras ("singletons", "doubletons" e únicas do que as mais conservadas. Nas cinco áreas houve uma constância taxonômica entre as famílias mais ricas (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae, Mordelidae, Elateridae, Scarabaeidae, Coccinellidae e Tenebrionidae envolvendo 60% do total de espécies, como observado para a abundância de indivíduos. A existência de um padrão de constância taxonômica de famílias, quando considerados 60% da riqueza de espécies e/ou de abundância de indivíduos por local, poderá tornar mais fácil e rápido o estudo de comunidades de Coleoptera, habilitando a ordem a ser um táxon indicador de condições ambientais de áreas florestadas.The species richness, taxonomic composition, rare species, and taxonomic constancy at family level were studied in communities of Coleoptera in Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, as part of PROVIVE project. The data were gathered

  15. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

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    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  17. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Thormann

    Full Text Available Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates.Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs (n = 284-289. Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2 and 469-481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation.Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons, the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities. Therefore, DNA-based species delimitation is confirmed as a

  18. Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich(Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal C. Grossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae. The South American genus Altitatiayus Weinreich is revised and now includes six species, A. rotundatus (Boileau, A. ruficollis (Lüderwaldt, A. godinhorum (Bomans & Arnaud, A. dulceae (Bomans & Arnaud, A. trifurcatus (Grossi & Racca-Filho and A. koikei sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Brazil. All species are described and illustrated. For the first time male and female genitalia are illustrated for five species and observations on the behavior of two species are included.

  19. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) na Entomologia Forense

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM), estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  20. Fossil history of Mesozoic weevils (Coleoptera:Curculionoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei A.Legalov

    2012-01-01

    The first synopsis of Mesozoic weevils (Curculionoidea: Coleoptera) is presented.Changes of family,genera and species abundance during the Mesozoic revealed three distributional patterns.The Jurassic (Karatau) fauna was dominated by the Nemonychidae.During the Early Cretaceous (beginning at the Jurassic/Cretaceous border),the Ithyceridae was the prevalent group with a significant role played by the Nemonychidae.In the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Turonian),the major groups were the Curculionidae and Brentidae.Obviously,the change of weevil fauna during this period was due to the expansion of the angiosperms,which provided multiple niches in their vegetative and reproductive organs for weevil development.

  1. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  2. Elucidating the Common Generalist Predators of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an Organic Apple Orchard Using Molecular Gut-Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jason M; Szendrei, Zsofia; Grieshop, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), plum curculio, is a serious direct pest of North American tree fruit including, apples, cherries, peaches and plums. Historically, organophosphate insecticides were used for control, but this tool is no longer registered for use in tree fruit. In addition, few organically approved insecticides are available for organic pest control and none have proven efficacy as this time. Therefore, promoting biological control in these systems is the next step, however, little is known about the biological control pathways in this system and how these are influenced by current mechanical and cultural practices required in organic systems. We used molecular gut-content analysis for testing field caught predators for feeding on plum curculio. During the study we monitored populations of plum curculio and the predator community in a production organic apple orchard. Predator populations varied over the season and contained a diverse assemblage of spiders and beetles. A total of 8% of all predators (eight Araneae, two Hemiptera, and six Coleoptera species) assayed for plum curculio predation were observed positive for the presence of plum curculio DNA in their guts, indicating that these species fed on plum curculio prior to collection Results indicate a number of biological control agents exist for this pest and this requires further study in relation to cultural practices. PMID:27348005

  3. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.

  4. Sensitivity and tolerance of Riparian arthropod communities to altered water resources along a drying river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we constructed artificial pools in the stream bed adjacent to a drying section of the San Pedro River and maintained them as the river dried. We compared pitfall trapped arthropods near artificial pools to adjacent control sites where surface waters temporarily dried. Assemblage composition changed differentially at multiple taxonomic levels, resulting in different assemblages at pools than at control sites, with multiple taxa and richness of carabid beetle genera increasing at pools but not at controls that dried. On the other hand, predator biomass, particularly wolf spiders, and diversity of orders and families were consistently higher at control sites that dried. These results suggest an important role for colonization dynamics of pools, as well as the ability of certain taxa, particularly burrowing wolf spiders, to withstand periods of temporary drying. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found some agreement between this manipulative study of water resources and a previous analysis of river drying that showed shifts in composition, changes in diversity, and declines in abundance of certain taxa (e.g. carabid beetles. However, colonization dynamics of pools, as well as compensatory strategies of predatory wolf spiders seem to have led to patterns that do not match previous research, with control sites maintaining high diversity, despite drying. Tolerance of river drying by some species may allow persistence of substantial diversity in the

  5. Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius, 1792) in North America, benign or malign? (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini)

    OpenAIRE

    James LaBonte

    2011-01-01

    Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an...

  6. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations.

  7. Fauna de Coleoptera no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil: abundância e riqueza das famílias capturadas através de armadilhas malaise Coleoptera fauna in the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Parana, Brazil: abundance and family richness captured with malaise traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma G. Ganho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coleoptera fauna of Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Parana, was sampled during 52 weeks using malaise traps (from September 1999 to August 2000. Five different sites were selected according to floristic conditions: one site in initial stage of vegetacional succession; one in intermediate stage; one in advanced stage (recognized as a mature forest; one with an Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze plantation, invaded by native forest vegetation; and a fifth site in the edge area. The Coleoptera communities from the five sites were analyzed based on abundance and family richness. The total of specimens collected was 10,822 belonging to 64 families. The most abundant sites were those in initial and intermediate stages of plant succession; the abundance in the edge area was the lowest. The family richness is not related with the level of preservation of the sites. The beetle community structures of the five sites were not significantly different when involving all the families captured; but the more correlated pair-wise site structures reflected the vegetational stages of the sites. A temporal comparison of the beetle community structures was made, based on data gathered in one of the selected site which were sampled 13 years ago (1986/1987. The fauna collected in this year was more related with that of the initial stage of succession, in 1999/2000, than the one collected in the same area, in 1999/2000, nowadays considered as an intermediate stage of succession. This fact probably represents a parallel succession of fauna and flora. The dominant families, about 60% of total abundance, include Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cerambycidae, Elateridae and Staphylinidae. Eventually, one or two of them, were substituted by Scarabaeidae, Ptilodactylidae, Cleridae, Coccinellidae, Lampyridae, Scolytidae, Cucujidae, Nitidulidae, Cantharidae, Scirtidae and Phengodidae. As observed in Vila Velha and other localities, there are a taxonomic

  8. BESOUROS COPRÓFAGOS (COLEOPTERA; SCARABAEIDAE COLETADOS EM PIRACICABA, SP

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    RODRIGUES S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Através do uso de armadilhas "pitfall" iscadas com massa fecal fresca de bovinos, realizou-se a coleta de besouros coprófagos (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae, durante o período de 15 de abril de 1995 a 17 de fevereiro de 1996, em área de pastagem ao lado de confinamento de bovinos, em Piracicaba, SP. Coletou-se um total de 11 espécies distribuidas nos gêneros Aphodius, Ataenius, Trichillum, Eurysternus, Dichotomius e Canthon. Os besouros coprófagos de comportamento endocoprídeo representaram 72,73% das espécies coletadas, sendo estes os de maior ocorrência e a espécie Aphodius lividus parece ser a mais bem adaptada na área estudada.

  9. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  10. Diversity and habitat preferences of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in two agroecosystems

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    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective determine the diversity and abundance of adults Carabidae and Staphylinidae in two areas, constituted by forest fragment and soybean/corn crops under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems and to analyze the distribution and preference of those beetles for the habitat. The beetles were sampled with 48 pitfall traps. In both experimental areas, two parallel transects of pitfall traps were installed. Each transect had 100 m in the crop and 100 m in the forest fragment. Four traps were close to each other (1 m in the edge between the crop and the forest fragment, the other traps were installed each 10 m. The obtained data were submitted to the faunistic analysis and the preference of the species by habitat was obtained by cluster analysis. The results demonstrated that the type of crop system (conventional tillage or no-tillage might have influenced the diversity of species of Carabidae and Staphylinidae. The cluster analysis evidenced that the carabids may prefer a specific habitat. In the present study, the distribution of carabids and staphylinids in the three habitats showed that these beetles have potential to be dispersed at great distances inside the crop.

  11. Carabidae diversity along an altitudinal gradient in a Peruvian cloud forest (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maveety, Sarah A; Browne, Robert A; Erwin, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetles were sampled at five sites, ranging from 1500 m to 3400 m, along a 15 km transect in the cloud forest of Manu National Park, Perú. Seasonal collections during a one year period yielded 77 morphospecies, of which 60% are projected to be undescribed species. There was a significant negative correlation between species richness and altitude, with the number of carabid species declining at the rate of one species for each 100 m increase in altitude. The majority of species (70.1 %) were restricted to only one altitudinal site and no species was found at more than three of the five altitudinal sites. Only one genus, Pelmatellus (Tribe Harpalini), was found at all five sites. Active (hand) collections yielded approximately twice as many species per individuals collected than passive (pitfall trap) collections. This study is the first systematic sampling ofcarabid beetles of a high altitude gradient in the cloud forests of southeastern Perú and supports the need to conserve the zone of extremely high biodiversity present on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes. PMID:22371680

  12. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  13. Track analysis of the Neotropical Entimini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae

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    Alberto Romo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Track analysis of the Neotropical Entimini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae. Distributional patterns of the species belonging to the tribe Entimini from the Neotropical region were analyzed. Based on a track analysis of 22 species of Entimus, Rhigus, and Phaedropus, for which distributional data were available, two generalized tracks were found. One is located in northern Brazil, corresponding to the Amazonian subregion, and is determined by Phaedropus candidus and Rhigus speciosus. The other is located in southern Brazil, corresponding to the Parana subregion, and is determined by Entimus imperialis, E. excelsus, Phaedropus togatus, Rhigus dejeanii, R. faldermanni, R. horridus, R. lateritus, R. nigrosparsus, and R. tribuloides. The development of the Chacoan subregion is hypothesized to have been the dynamic vicariant event that fragmented the former Amazonian-Parana forest.Análisis de trazos de Entimini Neotropical (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae. Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de la tribu Entimini en la región Neotropical. Con base en un análisis de los trazos de 22 especies de Entimus, Rhigus y Phaedropus, para los cuales se contaba con datos de distribución, se hallaron dos trazos generalizados. Uno se localiza en el norte de Brasil, en la subregión Amazónica, y está sustentado por Phaedropus candidus y Rhigus speciosus. El otro se localiza en el sur de Brasil, en la subregión Paranaense, y está sustentado por Entimus imperialis, E. excelsus, Phaedropus togatus, Rhigus dejeanii, R. faldermanni, R. horridus, R. lateritus, R. nigrosparsus y R. tribuloides. Se hipotetiza que el desarrollo de la subregión Chaqueña constituyó el evento de vicarianza dinámica que fragmentó el antiguo bosque Amazónico-Paranaense.

  14. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  15. Influence of growing location and cultivar on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of rough rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK H. ARTHUR; RUSTY C. BAUTISTA; TERRENCE J. SIEBENMORGEN

    2007-01-01

    Long-grain rice cultivars Cocodrie, Wells, and XP 723 grown in three locations (Hazen, MO; Essex and Newport, AR, USA), and medium-grain rice cultivars Bengal and XP 713 grown in two locations (Jonesboro and Lodge Corner, AR, USA), were harvested and assayed for susceptibility to Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), the lesser grain borer, and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rice weevil, on rice held at 27℃ 57% and 75% relative humidity (RH).Separate samples from the same harvest lots were also analyzed for the physical characteristics of brown rice yield, percentage whole kernels and kernel thickness. Progeny production and feeding damage of R. dominica were significantly different among long-grain cultivars within two of the three locations (P < 0.05), but not for location or RH (P ≥ 0.05), while progeny production of S. oryzae was different among cultivars, location, and RH (P < 0.05). On medium-grain rice, both cultivar and location were significant for progeny production of R. dominica, but not RH, while cultivar and RH were significant for progeny production of S. oryzae, but not location. On both rice types, feeding damage of R. dominica followed the same trends and was always strongly positively correlated with progeny production (P < 0.05), but for S. oryzae there were several instances in which progeny production was not correlated with feeding damage (P ≥ 0.05). Physical characteristics of both rice types were statistically significant (P < 0.01) but actual numerical differences were extremely small, and were generally not correlated with progeny production of either species. Results indicate that the location in which a particular rice cultivar is grown, along with its characteristics, could affect susceptibility of the rice to R. dominica and S. oryzae.

  16. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  17. Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilma Solange Napp; Ubirajara Ribeiro Martins

    2006-01-01

    Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Um novo gênero e quatro novas espécies, todos provenientes da Bolívia, são descritos em Compsocerini: Ecoporanga gen. nov., espécie-tipo E. achira sp. nov., Dilocerus brunneus sp. nov., Rierguscha florida sp. nov., procedentes de Santa Cruz e Ethemon iuba sp. nov. proveniente de Cochabamba.New South American taxa of Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). The following new genus and species, all from Bolivia, are describ...

  18. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Adephaga of America, north of Mexico

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    Yves Bousquet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s, year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated.One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838, one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911 for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911, Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919, are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5 are established.The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1, a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2, a list of Geadephaga species

  19. Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae in Europe

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    Ranius, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Research, monitoring and development of preservation strategies for threatened species are often limited by national borders even though a global perspective would be more appropriate. In this study, we collected data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, associated with tree hollows in 2,142 localities from 33 countries in Europe where it is or has been present. The larvae develop in tree hollows and very few observations of larvae have been observed in dead logs on the ground. As long as there is a suitable tree hollow, it appears that O. eremita may use any tree species. Oaks (Quercus spp. are the trees mainly used by O. eremita, followed by lime (Tilia spp., willow (Salix spp., beech (Fagus sylvatica and fruit trees (Prunus spp., Pyrus spp., Malus domestica. O. eremita is still found in some remnants of natural forest, but is mainly observed on land that has long been used by man, such as pasture woodlands, hunting parks, avenues, city parks and trees around agricultural fields and along streams. The occurrence of O. eremita seems to have decreased in all European countries. Relatively high densities of O. eremita localities occur in Central Europe (northern Italy, Austria, Czechia, southern Poland and eastern Germany, some parts of Northern Europe (south-eastern Sweden, Latvia and France. In some regions in north-western Europe, the species is extinct or may occur at some single sites (Norway, Danish mainland, The Netherlands, Belgium, north-eastern France. There are few data from south-eastern Europe. Many local extinctions of O. eremita are to be expected in the near future, especially in regions with recent habitat loss and fragmentation. O. eremita is useful as an indicator and umbrella species for the preservation of the entire invertebrate community associated with hollow trees in Europe. A preservation plan for O. eremita should include three aspects that are of general importance in nature conservation in

  20. Comparison of Coleoptera emergent from various decay classes of downed coarse woody debris in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Michael L.; Gimmel, Matthew L.; Harms, Kyle E.; Carlton, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Coleoptera species composition and succession in downed woody debris habitats are poorly known in eastern North America. A photoeclector emergence chamber was used to concentrate Coleoptera that emerged from various decay classes of fine and coarse woody debris (FWD and CWD, respectively) collected in primary and secondary forest sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, USA. A total of 5673 adult beetle specimens, representing 305 lowest identifiable taxa within 227 genera and...

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  2. Upper lethal temperature limits of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, larval and adult stages of Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to heat (46-54°C, 25-30% RH) was investigated. The larval stage was found to be most tolerant to heat. Very short exposure (5 min) of the larvae to temperatures of 52°C and above led to 100...

  3. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries

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    Lúcia M. Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Feeding by Exoplectra miniata (Germar on extrafloral nectaries of Inga edulis Mart. was observed in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first record of this behavior for Exoplectrini.

  4. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  5. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Korea

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    Ik Je Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  6. Study on the genus Daptus ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ik Je Choi; Jongok Lim; Jinyoung Park; Ji Hwan Park; Jong Kyun Park

    2016-01-01

    A genus Daptus Fischer von Waldheim, 1823 of the tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is reported for the first time from Korea, based on the Daptus vittatus Fischer von Waldheim from Incheon, Korea. Redescription of the species and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics, including genitalia characteristics of both sexes, are provided.

  7. Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae), information on a little known taxon from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kippenhan, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Two specimens of Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) in the Field Museum of Natural History offer additional information on the morphology and distribution of this rare species. One of the specimens, a female, is considered to be the first known specimen of this species.

  8. Diapause and post-diapause quiescence demonstrated in overwintering Harmonia axyeidis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe.

  9. Chaves para a identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta associados com produtos armazenados Keys for the identification of Coleoptera (Insecta associated with stored products

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    Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to identify nine families of Coleoptera commonly found in stored products is presented. Keys for the identification of Anobiidae [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792, Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus, 1761], Bruchidae [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833], Curculionidae [Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763, S. zeamais Motschulsky, 1885], Silvanidae [Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1832, Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin, 1892, Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel, 1889, O. surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758] and Tenebrionidae [Gnathocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797, T. confusum du Val, 1868] are also provided. These keys cover the most frequent Coleoptera found in stored products, specially grains, and are to the adult stage only. Illustrations of external morphology and general characteristics are provided for each species reported.

  10. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musaspp. EN COLOMBIA Dryophthorinae Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Associted to Platain and Banana crops (Musaspp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA A SEPÚLVEDA-CANO

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.This synopsis is about beetle&#’;s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838.

  11. Os grupos tróficos em Coleoptera The trophic groups in Coleoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Renato C. Marinoni

    2001-01-01

    The beetles are a useful group for studies on trophic structure of communities, mainly in forested areas. These kind of studies are based on food habits of species groups. The different terms applied to nomminated these groups (trophic category, ecologic group, trophic group, guild, trophic guild) are discussed. The term trophic group, a natural unity, is proposed to form a group of species with the same food habits, not considering the trophic level. The guild, an artificial unity, is recogn...

  12. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  13. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so

  14. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so

  15. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  16. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%. PMID:25427809

  17. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  18. New morphological aspects and phylogenetic considerations of Cicindis Bruch (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Juñent, S; Sallenave, S; Agrain, F A

    2011-01-01

    Cicindis Bruch is a monospecific genus of carabid beetles endemic to Argentina. In this contribution, Cicindis horni Bruch is re-described, with addition of new morphological features of male internal sac, female genital tract and elytral closure. New information on the species' habitat and distribution is also provided. The phylogenetic placement and relationships of Cicindis within the family Carabidae are discussed on the basis of a cladistic analysis. Terminal taxa included representatives of all subfamilies of Carabidae and supertribes of Carabinae, with a major sampling of those taxa considered to be closely related to Cicindini by previous authors. The phylogenetic analysis shows the basal position of Cicindis in a clade that includes Ozaeninae, Omophronini, Scaritinae and Conjuncta. A close relationship of Cicindis with Ozaenini + Metriini is supported by the particular closure of the procoxa and the ventral position of the oviduct with respect to the spermatheca. PMID:21710030

  19. Pygidial secretions ofPasimachus subsulcatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) deter predation byEumeces inexpectatus (Squamata: Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, B W; Mushinsky, H R

    1989-03-01

    The carabid beetlePasimachus subsulcatus is an abundant ground-dwelling insect in west central Florida that exudes a powerful mucous membrane irritant when disturbed. This secretion can be sprayed over 10 cm from the abdominal tip. The southeastern five-lined skink,Eumeces inexpectatus, is an abundant insectivorous lizard sympatric withPasimachus. We assessed the availability ofPasimachus toEumeces and found it to be within the foraging microenvironment of the lizard. Analysis ofEumeces gut contents and field feeding trials indicate thatPasimachus are not ingested by the lizard, yet arthropods of comparable size and exoskeletal thickness are ingested. The movement response ofEumeces to isolatedPasimachus secretion constituents, conducted in a modified Y-maze laboratory experiment, was used to assess the repellent capabilities of the secretion.Eumeces are consistently repelled byPasimachus secretion constituents, indicating that the beetle is protected chemically from the lizard. PMID:24271904

  20. Diversity of insect communities with different development phases in natural Populus euphratica forests in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hai-li; LUO You-qing; TIAN Chengming; SUN Jian-hua; FENG Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    An investigation method with sample plots was used to study insect communities in four different growth phases of natural Populus euphratica forests, which are juvenile, middle aged, over-mature and degraded forests, in Tarim, Xinjiang in July, 2005 and April, 2006. In our studies, 5,116 insect specimens, belonging to 12 orders, 61 families and 141 species, were collected. Lepidoptera and Coleoptera were the dominant orders. In middle-aged forests, species, individual numbers and diversity indices of insect communities were higher than those in other woodlands. The species richness and diversity indices were lowest in degraded forests because of extremely scarce vegetation.

  1. Macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics in Cerna River (western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina-Simona Răescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine water quality in Cerna River, researchers carried out analyses into thestructure and dynamics of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as well as into the physical-chemicalfactors. 12 Groups of macroinvertebrates were identified. Density, abundance and frequency values recordedfor benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each samplecollecting station. Researchers noticed a direct influence of Băile Herculane town and dam upon thecommunity submitted to study, the maximum density and percentage numerical abundance beingestablished for Oligochaeta and Diptera, benthic groups tolerant to changes in aquatic ecosystemsqualitative parameters. The community of organisms including Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera,Odonata and Coleoptera was characterized by a decrease in density and abundance values upstream -downstream as water quality is more and more degraded. This deterioration is also emphasized by the bioticindex EPT/Ch values.

  2. Definition of the jianfengling species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The jianfengling species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. This species group ranges from southern China, crossing Indochina and Myanmar to eastern India. To date, the jianfengling species group is composed of ten species, including six new species which are hereinafter described and illustrated: Orthogonius wrasei sp. n. (Myanmar), Orthogonius bellus sp. n. and Orthogonius limbourgi sp. n. (Vietnam), Orthogonius politior sp. n., Orthogonius aberlenci sp. n. (Laos) and Orthogonius meghalayaensis sp. n. (India). Habitus, elytral apices and male genitalia of all species are illustrated. A key to species and a distribution map of jianfengling species group are provided. PMID:27667943

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nishadh, K. A.; K.S.A. Das

    2012-01-01

    In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8%) belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies), Heteroptera (bugs), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles) and T...

  4. Egg-laying-site preferences of Pterostichus melanarius in mono- and intercrops

    OpenAIRE

    Tréfás, H.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Increased vegetational diversity influences the behaviour of carabid beetles by changing plant-related abiotic factors. These abiotic factors (light, humidity and habitat structure) affect the selection of oviposition sites and egg survival of carabid beetles. In a field experiment, more larvae of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) (Coleoptera Carabidae) were caught in Brussels sprout intercropped with barley than in Brussels sprout alone. The influence of the presence of living barley and Bru...

  5. Phylogenetic community ecology of soil biodiversity using mitochondrial metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Carmelo; Arribas, Paula; Ruzicka, Filip; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput DNA methods hold great promise for the study of taxonomically intractable mesofauna of the soil. Here, we assess species diversity and community structure in a phylogenetic framework, by sequencing total DNA from bulk specimen samples and assembly of mitochondrial genomes. The combination of mitochondrial metagenomics and DNA barcode sequencing of 1494 specimens in 69 soil samples from three geographic regions in southern Iberia revealed >300 species of soil Coleoptera (beetles) from a broad spectrum of phylogenetic lineages. A set of 214 mitochondrial sequences longer than 3000 bp was generated and used to estimate a well-supported phylogenetic tree of the order Coleoptera. Shorter sequences, including cox1 barcodes, were placed on this mitogenomic tree. Raw Illumina reads were mapped against all available sequences to test for species present in local samples. This approach simultaneously established the species richness, phylogenetic composition and community turnover at species and phylogenetic levels. We find a strong signature of vertical structuring in soil fauna that shows high local community differentiation between deep soil and superficial horizons at phylogenetic levels. Within the two vertical layers, turnover among regions was primarily at the tip (species) level and was stronger in the deep soil than leaf litter communities, pointing to layer-mediated drivers determining species diversification, spatial structure and evolutionary assembly of soil communities. This integrated phylogenetic framework opens the application of phylogenetic community ecology to the mesofauna of the soil, among the most diverse and least well-understood ecosystems, and will propel both theoretical and applied soil science.

  6. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Soares Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae. Coleopterans of the family Melolonthidae comprise a large group of species that feed on different food sources, including plant roots, stems, and leaves, in addition to plant materials at different decomposition stages. Several species are found in the genus Leucothyreus, occurring in different regions of Brazil, including the various biomes in the country. Information on the biology of species of the genus Leucothyreus is scarce, therefore, we conducted studies on the biological aspects of Leucothyreus ambrosius Blanchard, 1850. The period of adult occurrence was determined with a light trap installed between a cropped and pasture area in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Adults collected in the field were used to form insect pairs and the studies were initiated in the entomology laboratory as the adults began ovipositing. Adults were observed flying in the field from October to December. Eggs were obtained as pairs were formed and a colony was established, the embryonic period lasting 14.6 days on average. The larval period in the 1st instar lasted 21.6 days, in the 2nd instar 19.6 days, and in the 3rd instar, 85.6 days. The head capsule width was 1.48 mm in the 1st instar, 2.44 mm in the 2nd, and 3.83 mm in 3rd larval instar. The pupal stage had an average duration of 35.5 days. The egg to adult period lasted 173.3 days. Morphometric information for the larval and adult stages is presented in this study.

  7. A family of chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohatmed Abdel-Latief

    Full Text Available Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b, which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO(2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG. These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species.

  8. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Siddhartha S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m., and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m. phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito immatures. In the control tanks, mean larval density did not differ (p > 0.05 throughout the study period. Conclusion the larvae of the dytiscid beetle A. sulcatus proved to be an efficient predator of mosquito immatures and may be useful in biocontrol of medically important mosquitoes.

  9. Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilma Solange Napp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons sul-americanos de Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Um novo gênero e quatro novas espécies, todos provenientes da Bolívia, são descritos em Compsocerini: Ecoporanga gen. nov., espécie-tipo E. achira sp. nov., Dilocerus brunneus sp. nov., Rierguscha florida sp. nov., procedentes de Santa Cruz e Ethemon iuba sp. nov. proveniente de Cochabamba.New South American taxa of Compsocerini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The following new genus and species, all from Bolivia, are described in Compsocerini: Ecoporanga gen. nov., type species E. achira sp. nov., Dilocerus brunneus sp. nov., Rierguscha florida sp. nov., from Santa Cruz, and Ethemon iuba sp. nov. from Cochabamba.

  10. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics).Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life...

  11. Una especie nueva de Trechisibus de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Carabidae A new species of Trechisibus from Argentina (Coleoptera: Carabidae

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    Sergio Roig-Juñent

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Las Trechini constituyen una tribu de Carabidae distribuida ampliamente en la región Andino Patagónica. A pesar de que existen varias revisiones parciales de esta tribu para la Argentina y Chile, es muy común hallar especies nuevas, debido sobre todo a la prospección de áreas no exploradas. En este aporte se describe una especie nueva del género Trechisibus Jeannel del Cerro Nevado (Mendoza, Argentina. Por sus características morfológicas pertenece al grupo de especies depressus. Se describe e ilustra el adulto de esta especie nueva, se provee una clave para la identificación de las especies del grupo depressus y se discuten algunos aspectos de la distribución de estas especies.ABSTRACT. Trechini is a tribe of Carabidae (Coleoptera widely distributed in the Andean Patagonian region in South America. In spite of several partial revisions of the tribe for Argentina and Chile, it is very common to find new species due to the research of unexplored areas. In the present paper, a new species of the genus Trechisibus Jeannel from the Cerro Nevado (Mendoza, Argentina is described. Based on its morphological features the new species is considered as a member of the depressus group. The adult of the new species is described and illustrated, a key for the identification of the species of the depressus group is provided, and some aspects of the distribution of the group are discussed.

  12. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  13. The Leaf-Beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) Feed On Some Weeds In Tokat Province

    OpenAIRE

    Çam, Halit; ATAY, Turgut

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the leaf-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) which causes extensive damage on weeds in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey. Total 9 taxa including 4 species of Chrysomelinae, 1 species of Clytrinae, 1 species of Criocerinae, 2 species of Alticinae and 1 species of Cassidinae were found to be destructive on different weed species. These species were; Entomoscelis adonidis (Pall.) on Sinapis arvensis L., Gastrophysa polygoni (L.) on Polygonum convolvulus L. an...

  14. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  15. Ecological impact of entomopathogenic nematodes used to control the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most economically damaging pests in forestry across Northern Europe. Its larvae develop in coniferous tree stumps on clearfell sites and adult weevils feed on seedlings that are replanted on these sites, causing substantial mortality. As the drive towards achieving the sustainable management of natural resources increases, biological control agents are being considered as an alternative to chemical ...

  16. Otiorhynchus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as pests in horticulture: genetics and management options with entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) cause damage with detrimental economic effects to many horticultural crops due to the root feeding of their larvae as well as foliage feeding of their adults. Aside from the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus, which is the best-known pest within this genus, numerous other Otiorhynchus species have been increasingly recognized as pests in recent years. Nocturnal adult weevils and soil-inhibiting larvae are in princip...

  17. Laboratory Rearing of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): A Predator of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Salom, S. M.; L. T. Kok; Lamb, A B; Jubb, C

    2012-01-01

    Coleopteran species are biological control agents of numerous invasive pests. Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predaceous, univoltine species, spends the summer aestivating but is active for the rest of the year. Laricobius nigrinus possesses many essential attributes for effective biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The predator must be reared in large numbers for field releases. We describe some of the studies that led to the successful ...

  18. Life History of the Tamarind Weevil, Sitophilus linearis (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Tamarind Seed

    OpenAIRE

    James Adebayo Ojo; Adebayo Amos Omoloye

    2015-01-01

    The tamarind weevil, Sitophilus linearis Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of tamarind and other Caesalpinioideae. Investigating its life history is important in the implementation of management strategy. Its life history was monitored daily to understand its developmental biology on tamarind seed following standard procedures under laboratory conditions of 24–30°C temperature, 60–70% relative humidity, and 12L : 12D photoperiod. The egg incubation period lasted 3.17 ± ...

  19. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  20. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Characterization of white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera in salak plantation based on morphology and protein banding pattern. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. This research aims to find out the white grub (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera variability based on the morphological characteristic and protein banding pattern found in ”salak pondoh” farm in Regencies of Sleman, Yogyakarta and Magelang, Central Java. Each area has five sampling points. Morphological analysis on white grub was conducted using descriptive method and analysis on protein banding pattern was conducted using qualitative analysis based on the presence or absent of band pattern on the gel, and qualitatively based on the relative mobility value (Rf of protein. The result indicated that the white grub in Sleman and Magelang, based on morphology characteristic is only one species, namely Holothricia sp. Based on the protein banding pattern, the white grub sample have differences of protein band number and protein molecular weight. Key words: Salacca zalacca, white grub, morphology, protein banding pattern.Abstrak. Maryati KT, Sugiyarto. 2010. Karakterisasi lundi putih (Melolonthidae: Coleoptera pada pertanaman salak berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 72-77. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman lundi putih (Melolonthidae; Coleoptera berdasarkan ciri morfologi dan pola pita protein yang ditemukan di lahan pertanaman salak pondoh di Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta dan Kabupaten Magelang, Jawa Tengah. Pada masing-masing wilayah diambil lima titik sampling. Analisis morfologi lundi putih digunakan metode deskriptif, dan analisis pola pita protein digunakan analisis kualitatif berdasarkan muncul tidaknya pola pita pada gel, dan secara kuantitatif berdasarkan nilai mobilitas relatif protein (RF. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampel lundi putih di Kabupaten Sleman dan Magelang, berdasar karakter

  1. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Lúcia M. de Almeida; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  2. Novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae da Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas da Bolívia, Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.New species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae from Bolivia. New species described from Santa Cruz: Trachysomus apipunga sp. nov., Hesychotypa aotinga sp. nov., Cacostola apyraiuba sp. nov. and Glypthaga nearnsi sp. nov.

  3. Insecticidal Efficacy of Some Lamiaceae Plant Extracts Against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Kiradoo; Meera Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to screen some plants belonging to family Lamiaceae against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.. Among fourteen important insect pests of stored grains, the pulse beetle C. chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is one such pest causing considerable damage to stored pulses. The eggs are laid on the host grains; the larvae bore inside and after feeding and pupating emerge out as adults leaving behind damaged hollow seed-grains. Looking into the hazards of chemical insect...

  4. NEW CONTRIBUTION CONCERNING THE MASS REARING OF TANYMECUS DILATICOLLIS GYLL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MANOLE Traian; Irina IONESCU-MĂLĂNCUŞ; Iuliana ANTONIE; Laurenţiu Constantin REBEGA

    2013-01-01

    Controlled growth in the laboratory of some species of insect’s are justified both scientifically and practically. Due to the economic importance that the corn crop pest Tanymecus dilaticollis Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) had in Romania like the main pest of maize crops we tried to obtain successive generations under environment controlled of the insect mentioned. In this paper we aim to improve the efficiency of the multiplication of the species with respect to two aspects: attending la...

  5. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Tillman; Cottrell, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), Cycloneda munda (Say), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and ...

  6. Biological activities of Allium sativum essential oil against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaubey Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Allium sativum was isolated and investigated for its repellent, insecticidal, ovipositional and egg hatching inhibition activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). A. sativum essential oil repelled bruchid adults at a very low concentration in choice oviposition assay. A. sativum essential oil caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults in a concentration dependent manner. Oviposition potency of C. chinensis adults...

  7. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  8. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  9. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  10. Especies mexicanas de Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae Mexican species of Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera associated to agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las especies de picudos o gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociadas con agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae en México. Se registraron 5 especies asociadas con especies de Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes y Yucca; de éstas, 4 pertenecen a la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis y Cactophagus spinolae y 1 a la Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones y una clave para la identificación de las 5 especies de curculiónidos asociados con agaves. Se establecen las siguientes sinonimias: Sphenophorus validus LeConte, 1858 = Cactophagus spinolae (Gyllenhal, 1838; y Zygops polymitus seminiveus LeConte, 1884, Z. p. leopardinus Desbrochers, 1891 y Z. p. suffusus Casey, 1892 = Peltophorus polymitus Boheman, 1845.Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated with agaves (Asparagaceae: Agavoideae from Mexico are analyzed. Five species were recorded associated with species of Agave, Furcraea, Hesperoyucca, Polianthes, and Yucca. Four of these species belong to the subfamily Dryophthorinae (Scyphophorus acupunctatus, S. yuccae, Rhinostomus frontalis, and Cactophagus spinolae and 1 belongs to the subfamily Baridinae (Peltophorus polymitus. Diagnoses, illustrations and a key are presented for identifying the 5 species of weevils found on agaves. The following synonymies are established: Sphenophorus validus LeConte, 1858 = Cactophagus spinolae (Gyllenhal, 1838; and Zygops polymitus seminiveus LeConte, 1884, Z. p. leopardinus Desbrochers, 1891, and Z. p. suffusus Casey, 1892 = Peltophorus polymitus Boheman, 1845.

  11. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  12. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  13. Diversity and habitat preferences of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in two agroecosystems Diversidade e preferência de habitat de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera em dois agroecossistemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective determine the diversity and abundance of adults Carabidae and Staphylinidae in two areas, constituted by forest fragment and soybean/corn crops under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems and to analyze the distribution and preference of those beetles for the habitat. The beetles were sampled with 48 pitfall traps. In both experimental areas, two parallel transects of pitfall traps were installed. Each transect had 100 m in the crop and 100 m in the forest fragment. Four traps were close to each other (1 m in the edge between the crop and the forest fragment, the other traps were installed each 10 m. The obtained data were submitted to the faunistic analysis and the preference of the species by habitat was obtained by cluster analysis. The results demonstrated that the type of crop system (conventional tillage or no-tillage might have influenced the diversity of species of Carabidae and Staphylinidae. The cluster analysis evidenced that the carabids may prefer a specific habitat. In the present study, the distribution of carabids and staphylinids in the three habitats showed that these beetles have potential to be dispersed at great distances inside the crop.Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a diversidade e abundância de adultos de Carabidae e Staphylinidae em duas áreas, constituídas por fragmentos florestais e culturas de soja/milho sob sistemas de plantio convencional e direto, e analisar a distribuição e a preferência desses insetos para o habitat. Os besouros foram amostrados com o uso de 48 armadilhas de solo do tipo Pitfall. Em ambas as áreas experimentais, foram instalados dois transectos paralelos de armadilhas; cada transecto teve 100 m na culturas e 100 m no fragmento florestal. Na borda entre a cultura e o fragmento de floresta foram instaladas quatro armadilhas, que ficaram distantes entre si por 1 m e as outras armadilhas, a cada 10 m. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à an

  14. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  15. Environmental conditions enhance toxicant effects in larvae of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J., E-mail: a.bednarska@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The wide geographical distribution of ground beetles Pterostichus oblongopunctatus makes them very likely to be exposed to several environmental stressors at the same time. These could include both climatic stress and exposure to chemicals. Our previous studies demonstrated that the combined effect of nickel (Ni) and chlorpyrifos (CHP) was temperature (T)-dependent in adult P. oblongopunctatus. Frequently the different developmental stages of an organism are differently sensitive to single stressors, and for a number of reasons, such as differences in exposure routes, their interactions may also take different forms. Because of this, we studied the effects of the same factors on the beetle larvae. The results showed that all factors, as well as their interactions, influenced larvae survival. The synergistic effect of Ni and CPF was temperature-dependent and the effect of Ni x T interaction on the proportion of emerged imagines indicated stronger toxicity of Ni at 25 deg. C than at 10 deg. C. - Combined negative effects of nickel and chlorpyrifos on carabid beetles depend on ambient temperature.

  16. Phylogenetic diversification patterns and divergence times in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ober Karen A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harpalinae is a species rich clade of carabid beetles with many unusual morphological forms and ecological interactions. How this diversity evolved has been difficult to reconstruct, perhaps because harpalines underwent a rapid burst of diversification early in their evolutionary history. Here we investigate the tempo of evolution in harpalines using molecular divergence dating techniques and explore the rates of lineage accumulation in harpalines and their sister group. Results According to molecular divergence date estimates, harpalines originated in the mid Cretaceous but did not diversify extensively until the late Cretaceous or early Paleogene about 32 million years after their origin. In a relatively small window of time, harpalines underwent rapid speciation. Harpalines have a relative high net diversification rate and increased cladogenesis in some regions of the clade. We did not see a significant decrease in diversification rate through time in the MCCR test, but a model of diversification with two shift points to lower diversification rates fit the harpaline lineage accumulation through time the best. Conclusions Our results indicate harpalines are significantly more diverse and have higher diversification than their sistergroup. Instead of an immediate burst of explosive diversification, harpalines may have had a long "fuse" before major lineages diversified during the early Paleogene when other taxa such as mammals, birds, and some flowering plants were also rapidly diversifying.

  17. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  18. Nuevos datos de distribución de los Cholevinae hipogeos del Atlas marroquí (Coleoptera, Leiodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresneda, J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available New distribution data for the hypogean Cholevinae from the Moroccan Atlas (Coleoptera, Leiodidae The authors report new findings on the distribution of Speonemadus maroccanus (Jeannel, 1936, Nargus (Demochrus rufipennis (Lucas, 1846, Choleva (Choleva kocheri Henrot, 1962 and Catops fuscus fuscoides Reitter, 1909. The geonemy of these species is updated and the research is illustrated with maps of their distribution.

  19. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  20. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  1. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  2. Sorghum halepense (L.) Persoon (Poaceae), a new larval host for the South American corn rootworm Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabrotica speciosa is a South American corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) the adult of which is a pest on many crop and ornamental plants. The list of known larval hosts, however, is limited to maize, wheat, potatoes and peanuts. In March, 2005, larvae of D. speciosa were found ...

  3. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  4. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  5. Records of unsuccessful attack by Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on broadleaf trees of questionable suitability in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...

  6. First record of the agave snout weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatusGyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae), in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Setliff, Gregory P.; Anderson, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    The agave snout weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae), is reported from Puerto Rico for the first time. It was collected on feral sisal, Agave sisalana Perrine (Agavaceae), in the Guánica Dry Forest Reserve in the southwestern part of the island.

  7. Redescrição e transferência do gênero Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 para Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ricardo M. Mermudes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Redescription and transference of the genus Fregolia Gounelle, 1911 to Callidiopini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The genus Fregolia is transferred from Cleomenini Lacordaire, 1869 to Callidiopini Lacordaire, 1869. The genus and its type species, Fregolia listropteroides Gounelle, 1911, the only known species to the genus, are redescribed including characters of the mouth pieces, endosternites, wing venation, and male and female terminalia.

  8. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  9. Het lieveheersbeestje Harmonia axyridis in Nederland: een aanwinst voor onze fauna of een ongewenste indringer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, J.; Heijerman, Th.; Wielink, van P.; Loomans, A.

    2004-01-01

    Harmonia axyridis in the Netherlands: a gain for the fauna or an unwanted intruder (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)? The coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773), a well-known aphid predator originating from Asia, was found for the first time in the Netherlands (Heilige Landstichting near Nijmegen) i

  10. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  11. Resfriamento artificial para o controle de Coleoptera em arroz armazenado em silo metálico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Noemberg Lazzari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Resfriamento artificial para o controle de Coleoptera em arroz armazenado em silo metálico. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do resfriamento artificial de grãos de arroz para o controle de coleópteros-praga. O ar frio foi insuflado pelo sistema de aeração em um silo metálico com arroz-em-casca. A avaliação do tratamento foi feita quinzenalmente usando armadilhas caladores. As espécies de Coleoptera capturadas foram: Oryzaephilus surinamensis (60%; Cryptolestes ferrugineus (9%; Rhyzopertha dominica (16,5% e Sitophilus spp. (0,5%. Aos 28 dias, a temperatura média da massa de grãos era de 15ºC, e o número médio de insetos havia diminuído 76,8%. A aplicação de ar frio manteve as populações sob controle por aproximadamente 60 dias. Os resultados do monitoramento dos insetos e da temperatura indicaram que um novo ciclo de ar frio deveria ser aplicado nesse período para manter as populações sob controle. Também o manejo adequado da massa de grãos faz-se necessário para garantir resultados satisfatórios do resfriamento artificial.Artificial chilling to control Coleoptera in paddy rice stored in metallic silo. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of artificial chilling for the control of coleopterans in stored paddy rice. The cold air was insufflated through the aeration system of a metallic silo with paddy rice. Evaluation of insect number was made every 15 days using probe traps. The species of Coleoptera captured were: Oryzaephilus surinamensis (60%; Cryptolestes ferrugineus (9%; Rhyzopertha dominica (16.5% and Sitophilus spp. (0.5%. By the 28th day the average temperature of the grain mass was 15ºC, and the mean number of insects decreased 76.8%. The cold air application kept the insect populations under control for approximately 60 days. The results of temperature and insect monitoring indicated that a new cycle of cold air should be applied by that time to keep the populations under

  12. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  13. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  14. Australian marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 2. Pachycyphon, a new genus of presumably terrestrial Australian Scirtidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.

  15. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

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    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  16. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Gohain Barua; S Hazarika; N M Saikia; G D Baruah

    2009-09-01

    We recorded the in vivo emission and time-resolved spectra of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae). The emission spectrum shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for this particular species is 55 nm, which is significantly narrower than the in vivo half-widths reported till now. The time-resolved spectrum reveals that a flash of about 100 ms duration is, in fact, composed of a number of microsecond pulses. This suggests that the speed of the enzyme-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction in the firefly for the emission of light is much faster than was previously believed.

  17. Development of an attractant-baited trap for Oxythyrea funesta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós

    2008-01-01

    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.

  18. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870

  19. Espécies de Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini ocorrentes na Bolívia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Gorybia Pascoe (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Piezocerini occurring in Bolivia. The genus Gorybia (Cerambycinae, Piezocerini consists of 45 described species with seven species recorded from Bolivia. Nine new species are described herein from Bolivia: G. abnormalis sp. nov.; G. alveolata sp. nov.; G. asyka sp. nov.; G. florida sp. nov.; G. inarmata sp. nov.; G. longithorax sp. nov.; G. guenda sp. nov.; G. tuberosa sp. nov. and G. wappesi sp. nov. A key to the species now known to occur in Bolivia is included.

  20. Bioluminescence emissions of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Gohain Barua; S Hazarika; N M Saikia; G D Baruah

    2009-06-01

    We recorded the in vivo emission and time-resolved spectra of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae). The emission spectrum shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for this particular species is 55 nm, which is significantly narrower than the in vivo half-widths reported till now. The time-resolved spectrum reveals that a flash of about 100 ms duration is, in fact, composed of a number of microsecond pulses. This suggests that the speed of the enzyme-catalysed chemiluminescence reaction in the firefly for the emission of light is much faster than was previously believed.

  1. Redescription of Platynaspis flavoguttata (Gorham (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae and notes on nomenclature of Platynaspis kapuri Chakraborty & Biswas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Poorani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Platynaspis flavoguttata (Gorham (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is redescribed and the male genitalia are illustrated for the first time. It is also recorded from Sri Lanka for the first time. Platynaspis bimaculata (Hoang, 1983 is a new junior synonym of Platynaspis bimaculata Pang & Mao, 1979 (new synonym. Platynaspis kapuri Chakraborty & Biswas, 2000, the replacement name for Platynaspis bimaculata Pang & Mao, 1979 established by Ukrainsky (2007, is also the new replacement name for Platynaspis bimaculata (Hoang, 1983, as both are junior homonyms of Platynaspis bimaculata Weise, 1888 besides being synonyms. Platynaspis hoangi Ukrainsky (2007 is an unnecessary replacement name for P. bimaculata (Hoang.

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIES OF BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA FROM WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera between in wheat crops from Tişiţa, in Vrancea county. The observations were made in a crop of wheat in 2013, who were placed the soil traps type Barber, during the two months, May and June. It was used three variants: • Variant 1 - consumption wheat untreated • Variant 2 - consumption wheat treaty • Variant 3 - treated wheat seed The gathering of samples from the traps was done periodically, every 12-15 days. The most species frequent gathered was: Pentodon idiota, Epicometis hirta, Opatrum sabulosum, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nemorum, Tanymecus dilaticollis.

  3. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L

    2013-10-01

    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  4. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  5. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  6. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits.

  7. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  8. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  9. Further new species of the genus Dolichoctis Schmidt-Göbel from New Guinea and surrounding islands (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehr, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the carabid genus Dolichoctis Schmidt-Göbel from New Guinea and New Ireland are described: D. glabripennis of the striata-group (sensu Baehr, 1999 of the nominate subgenus, from New Guinea, and D. novaeirlandiae of the subgenus Spinidolichoctis Baehr, from the island of New Ireland. In New Guinea, D. glabripennis replaces D. microdera Andrewes of the Greater Sunda Islands and Moluccas that apparently does not occur in New Guinea. D. novaeirlandiae is the first record of a Dolichoctis from this island and it is outstanding due to its very short, only dentate elytra apex.

  10. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini, a result from the TIGER project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research. Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: O. taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park, O. coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park, O. setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park, O. pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park, O. constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park and O. variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan. In addition, O. mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and O. kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.

  11. Effects of nickel and temperature on the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    In natural ecosystems it is not unusual for an organism to be exposed both to chemical and physical stressful factors at the same time. Herein we present results of the study on nickel toxicity to the carabid beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, and effect of Ni and temperature on the beetles respiration rates. In the first part of the study (Experiment I) we measured the survival, respiration rates and internal Ni concentrations in animals exposed for 245 d at constant temperature (20 degrees C) to food contaminated with Ni at nominal concentrations 0; 600; 1,200; 2,400; 4,800; and 9,600 mg kg(-1) dry weigh (dw). The LC(50) was estimated at 8,351 mg Ni kg(-1), with no effect on fertility. We found a significant positive correlation between Ni concentration in food and internal body concentration of Ni, and a negative correlation between Ni exposure and the respiration rate. Based on these results, the concentration of 2,400 mg kg(-1) (LOEC for the respiration rate) was selected for the second part of the study (Experiment II) in which field-collected males of P. oblongopunctatus were exposed to Ni-contaminated food for 64 d and then to uncontaminated food for the next 64 d at three temperatures: 10, 15 and 20 degrees C. In this part of the study we found that the temperature under which the beetles were kept affected their respiration rates, and that effect of Ni on the respiration was significant only in animals originating from 20 degrees C. The results from both experiments indicate that negative effects of nickel appear only after relatively long exposure. PMID:18080185

  12. ESCARABAJOS TIGRE (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE DEL MUSEO ENTOMOLÓGICO FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA TIGER BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE AT THE ENTOMOLOGICAL MUSEUM FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NEW RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ramírez Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez las especies de escarabajos tigre (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae presentes en el Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG. Se identificaron 167 especimenes distribuidos en ocho géneros y 27 especies, se reportan 24 nuevos registros para diferentes departamentos de Colombia. Se señalan aspectos importantes de la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Además, se presentan comentarios biológicos y de distribución de las especies.Tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae species at the Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG are registered by first time. 167 specimens in 8 genus and 27 species were identified, 24 new records for different Colombian states are reported. Some important aspects of the group’s taxonomy and systematic are pointed. Additionally, species’ biological and distributional comments are presented.

  13. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  14. Especies de Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae y sus plantas hospederas en Yucatán Megacerus species (Coleoptera: Bruchidae and their host plants in Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Reyes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la incidencia de Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae en semillas de 7 especies de Convolvulaceae de 6 sitios al norte de Yucatán. Las semillas de Ipomoea crinicalyx, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. triloba, Jacquemontia penthanta, Merremia aegyptia y M. cissoides recolectadas en etapa de dispersión fueron colocadas en sobres limpios de papel y puestas en condiciones de laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los brúquidos. Se obtuvieron 1111 coleópteros pertenecientes a 5 especies: Megacerus (Megacerus cubiculus, M. (M. porosus, Megacerus (M. sp., M. (M. tricolor, y M. (Serratibruchus cubiciformis. Las semillas de I. crinicalyx, M. aegyptia y M. cissoides fueron infestadas principalmente por M. (M. porosus, las de I. hederifolia e I. triloba por M. (M. cubiculus y las de I. nil por M. (M. tricolor. Todos los individuos de Megacerus (M. sp., fueron encontrados en semillas de J. penthanta. En el nivel génerico de hospedero se encontró que las semillas de Ipomoea fueron infestadas principalmente por M. (M. cubiculus y las de Merremia por M. (M. porosus. Estos resultados amplían el rango de plantas hospederas registrado para las especies de Megacerus y resaltan la estrecha asociación que existe entre un linaje de depredadores de semillas Bruchidae y plantas de la familia Convolvulaceae.Seed-attacking by Megacerus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is reported for 7 Convolvulaceae species from 6 sites at the North of Yucatan. Seeds of Ipomoea crinicalyx, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. triloba, Jacquemontia penthanta, Merremia aegyptia and M. cissoides were collected and placed in clean envelopes under laboratory conditions to collect all bruchids emerged from seeds. A total of 1111 coleopterans were hatched from seeds, and 5 taxa were identify: Megacerus (Megacerus cubiculus, M. (M. porosus, Megacerus (M. sp., M. (M. tricolor, and M. (Serratibruchus cubiciformis. Seeds of I. crinicalyx, M. aegyptia and M. cissoides were attacked mainly by M. (M. porosus; I

  15. Longhorned Beetles Collection of the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey (Coleoptera,Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDİKMEN, Hüseyin; ŞAHİN, Özlem

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, specimens of Cerambycidae were examined in the Entomology Museum of Central Anatolia Forestry Research Directorship, Ankara, Turkey. As a result of identification of these specimens, thirty-eight species and two subspecies belonging to twenty-eight genera of five subfamilies were determined. With this paper, new faunistic data and some zoogeographical evaluations were presented on longhorned beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Turkey. The faunistic data in the pr...

  16. Uji Efektifitas Beberapa Insektisida Nabati Terhadap Mortalitas Hama Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera; Curculionidae) Pada Benih Jagung (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Fadillah

    2011-01-01

    Fadillah Subhan, "Test Effectiveness of Some Insecticides Against Plant Pests Sitophilus zeamais Motsch Mortality. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) In the Seed of Corn (Zea mays). "It was under supervised by Yuswani Pangestiningsih and Fatimah Zahara. S. zeamais is a pest of corn in storage that causes substantial yield losses, one of which effective control is the use of botanical insecticides. Testing the effectiveness of some botanical insecticides on mortality of S. zeamais on maize seed plant...

  17. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  18. Synergistic effects of chlorpyrifos with piperonyl butoxide (pbo) against the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Akter Mst Yeasmin; Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah; ASM Shafiqur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the co-toxicity and co-efficient activity of Chlorpyrifos (Dursban 20EC), an organophosphate and Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) against the lesser meal worm Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (A. diaperinus). Methods: The repellent activity was carried out by the residual film assay technique. Statistically the dose mortality relationship was expressed as a median lethal dose (LD50) by the probit analysis. The regression lines and isoboles were ...

  19. The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) has been located to the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia. Collected in 1775, this specimen represents the second species of Goliathus to be illustrated in European literature, however eluding a proper species description until 1837. This important specimen, overlooked by previous curators, represents another portion of the Dru Drury collections purchased by Alexander McLeay now held in the Macleay Museum. PMID:27615919

  20. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineens...

  1. Natural history of Belonuchus Nordmann spp. and allies (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Heliconia L. (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae) flower bracts

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Barrera, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Adults, and in some species larvae, of several members of Belonuchus Nordmann (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae) and a few related genera seem to be to various degrees consistently associated with flower bracts of the genus Heliconia (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae). They are predators and eat various dipterous and lepidopterous larvae in that habitat. Adults of at least Belonuchus cephalotes (Sharp) and Odontolinus fasciatus Sharp are able to immerse completely in water to capture larva...

  2. Functional homogenization of flower visitor communities with urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguines, Nicolas; Julliard, Romain; de Flores, Mathieu; Fontaine, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Land-use intensification and resulting habitat loss are put forward as the main causes of flower visitor decline. However, the impact of urbanization, the prime driver of land-use intensification in Europe, is poorly studied. In particular, our understanding of whether and how it affects the composition and functioning of flower visitor assemblages is scant, yet required to cope with increasing urbanization worldwide. Here, we use a nation-wide dataset of plant-flower visitor (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) interactions sampled by citizen scientists following a standardized protocol to assess macroecological changes in richness and composition of flower visitor communities with urbanization. We measured the community composition by quantifying the relative occurrence of generalist and specialist flower visitors based on their specialisation on flowering plant families. We show that urbanization is associated with reduced flower visitor richness and a shift in community composition toward generalist insects, indicating a modification of the functional composition of communities. These results suggest that urbanization affects not only the richness of flower visitor assemblages but may also cause their large-scale functional homogenization. Future research should focus on designing measures to reconcile urban development with flower visitor conservation. PMID:27066219

  3. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  4. Carpophilus zeaphilus, a new sap beetle species acclimatized in Italy (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae

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    Paolo Audisio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carpophilus zeaphilus Dobson, 1969 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae, Carpophilinae is an Afrotropical species that has become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Mediterranean areas in recent years. The species was first recorded from Europe in Portugal and Spain nearly thirty years ago, and it was later intercepted in Sicily near Trapani in 1991. A few specimens of this species were collected in April, 2015 in a sparsely forested area near Rome, which suggests a recent acclimatization into peninsular Italy. Specimens were taken on flowering trees of Prunus spinosa L. (Rosaceae, an unusual occurrence for most introduced species of Carpophilinae that are normally associated with rotten fruit and other decomposing vegetal matter.

  5. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  6. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Angola: a descriptive catalogue and designation of neotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A

    2013-11-01

    An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.

  7. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  8. Synthesis, antifeedant activity against Coleoptera and 3D QSAR study of alpha-asarone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Magdziarz, T; Dubis, A T

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a set of 56 compounds representing structural derivatives of naturally occurring alpha-asarone as an antifeedants against stored product pests Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev., and Tribolium confusum Duv., were subjected to the 3D QSAR studies. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) for 56 compounds, including 15 newly synthesized, were performed using comparative molecular field analysis s-CoMFA and SOM-CoMSA techniques. QSAR was conducted based on a combination of biological activity (against Coleoptera larvae and beetles) and various geometrical, topological, quantum-mechanical, electronic, and chromatographic descriptors. The CoMSA formalism coupled with IVE (CoMSA-IVE) allowed us to obtain highly predictive models for Trogoderma granarium Ev. larvae. We have found that this novel method indicates a clear molecular basis for activity and lipophilicity. This investigation will facilitate optimization of the design of new potential antifeedants. PMID:24601760

  9. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due......The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  10. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  11. Cellulose digestion in Monochamus marmorator Kby. (coleoptera: Cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukol, J.J.; Martin, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Larvae of the balsam fir sawyer, Monochamus marmorator Kby. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (Deuteromycetes, Moniliales, Moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. When larvae are maintained on a fungusfree diet, their midgut fluids lack cellulolytic activity, and they are unable to digest cellulose. Cellulolytic capacity can be restored by feeding the larvae wood permeated by fungi. We conclude that the enzymes which enable M. marmorator larvae to digest cellulose are not produced by the larvae. Instead, the larvae acquire the capacity to digest cellulose by ingesting active fungal cellulases while feeding in fungus-infected wood.

  12. A importância forense de Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840) (Coleoptera, Silphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Kraiczyi Kotzko; V. Costa-Silva; E. G. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Oxelytrum discicolle Brullé, 1840 é a espécie mais coletada de Silphidae (Coleoptera) na América Latina, constituindo um indicador forense na região Neotropical. O objetivo do trabalho é reunir informações sobre biologia e distribuição de O. discicolle, além de ferramentas para utilização desse besouro como indicador forense em casos de morte de humanos. O. discicolle é um besouro de grande porte, de cor preta com um colar vermelho. Larvas da espécie são necrófagas, já os adultos são onívoros...

  13. NEW CONTRIBUTION CONCERNING THE MASS REARING OF TANYMECUS DILATICOLLIS GYLL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MANOLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled growth in the laboratory of some species of insect’s are justified both scientifically and practically. Due to the economic importance that the corn crop pest Tanymecus dilaticollis Gyll. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae had in Romania like the main pest of maize crops we tried to obtain successive generations under environment controlled of the insect mentioned. In this paper we aim to improve the efficiency of the multiplication of the species with respect to two aspects: attending larval and multiplication high efficiency. The coefficient value of 20, 90 obtained by us indicate a considerable increase in performance compared to previous attempts multiplication thus increasing your chances of recovery of this method of mass multiplication.

  14. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  15. Brand Community.

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Albert M, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C

    2001-01-01

    This article introduces the idea of brand community. A brand community is a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relations among admirers of a brand. Grounded in both classic and contemporary sociology and consumer behavior, this article uses ethnographic and computer mediated environment data to explore the characteristics, processes, and particularities of three brand communities (those centered on Ford Bronco, Macintosh, and Saab). These bran...

  16. Diversidade de Carabidae (Coleoptera) Amostrados em Áreas de Reflorestamento de Mata Ciliar e Fragmento Florestal, no Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Quinteiro; José Lopes; Ivan Martins

    2012-01-01

    Carabidae são Coleoptera com a maioria de suas espécies apresentando hábito alimentar predatório. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a diversidade e abundância da família Carabidae (Coleoptera) em áreas de fragmento florestal e em áreas de reflorestamento de mata ciliar, evidenciando a importância deste grupo como indicador da biodiversidade em relação ao sucesso do reflorestamento. Os besouros foram amostrados por meio de armadilhas de solo pitfall, em fragmentos florestais e reflor...

  17. Locomotor activity of Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae on Chilean sandy beaches Actividad locomotora de Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, enebrionidae en playas arenosas chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO JARAMILLO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The locomotor activity of the beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae was studied on the surface of the substrate in two sandy beaches of the Chilean coast: one in north central (ca. 29ºS and the other in south central Chile (ca.39ºS. During the summer period of 1991 the circadian locomotor activity was studied in the southern beach, while during that of 1997 in both beaches. To analyze the activity, pitfall traps were used which were ordered along two transects extended between the upper beach and the resurgence zone. The traps were checked (i.e. collection of captured insects every two hours for a total period of 26 hours. The results showed that the adults of P. maculata were mostly active during the night hours, whereas the larvae were active during both, the day and night. Studies carried out in the beach located in south central Chile show that differences in the tidal range (neap vs. spring tides do not affect the activity patterns. During the locomotor activity, adult and larvae move to lower intertidal levels than those usually occupied while buried. Results of laboratory experiments using actographs under conditions of darkness and constant temperature, suggest that adults and larvae of P. maculata presented a circadian rhythm similar to that observed in the field experiments. It is concluded that P. maculata presents a behaviour that appear to be under control of an endogenous rhythm, without showing differences in the circadian rhythm of activity when beaches located at different latitudes are comparedSe estudió la actividad locomotriz del escarabajo Phalerisida maculata Kulzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae sobre la superficie del sustrato de dos playas arenosas de la costa de Chile: una en el centro norte (ca. 29ºS y otra en el centro sur (ca. 39ºS. Durante el período estival de 1991 se estudió la actividad locomotriz circadiana en la playa del centro sur y durante el de 1997 en ambas playas. Para analizar

  18. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  19. Fauna de Coleoptera no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil: abundância e riqueza das famílias capturadas através de armadilhas de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinoni Renato C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of the studies on the Coleoptera fauna from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Parana gathered through malaise and pitfall traps in sites with different floristic conditions. The present study deal with the data of pitfall trap captures, installed close to the malaise traps. The data were obtained weekly (52 samples, from September 1999 to August 2000. This survey was carried out on five areas, three of them with different plant succession stages (initial, intermediate, and advanced. The other two sites were: in Araucaria angustifolia plantation area, with the understory invaded by native forest vegetation and in the edge area. In the last one, two pitfall traps were installed, one inside the forest and other in the field vegetation. The Coleoptera communities were analyzed according the abundance, family richness, and the floristic conditions of the sites. The total of specimens collected was 13,093 belonging to 35 families. The most abundant site was the one in initial stage of succession; the abundance was lowest in the edge area. The beetle faunal composition of the five sites, including all the families, were not significantly different. However, when listed only the seven dominant families, the results showed the outside edge fauna composition significantly different from the other sites. Among the most abundant families in the Vila Velha litter are Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae, Nitidulidae, Scarabaeidae, Scolytidae, Hydrophilidae and Endomychidae, eventually substituted by Latridiidae, Corylophidae, Curculionidae, Carabidae and Histeridae. Several comparisons were made with the data from malaise and pitfall traps data obtained in Vila Velha, and from other studies in several world regions. From these comparisons was possible to highlight: the beetle family richness is higher when captured by malaise than pitfall trap; the family taxonomic compositions in the litter from several regions of the world are more similar among

  20. The first precinctive Carabidae from Moorea, Society Islands: new Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera from the summit of Mont Tohiea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Liebherr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp from Moorea, Society Islands are newly described; M. perraulti sp. n., M. pahere sp. n., M. menemene sp. n., M. mahatahi sp. n., M. popotioaoa sp. n., M. mapo sp. n., and M. fatata sp. n. These constitute the first Mecyclothorax species described from Moorea, and the first carabid beetle species shown to be geographically restricted to that island. Each of the newly described species is most similar to a different species on the island of Tahiti, suggesting that none of the seven Moorean taxa are evolutionary end-products of autochthonous speciation within Moorea. The occurrence of precinctive Mecyclothorax species on both Moorea and Tahiti demonstrates that radiation of Mecyclothorax in the Society Islands has been facilitated by speciation events implicating both islands. Whether this speciation has been preceded by vicariance or dispersal is discussed, with the generality of a dispersal hypothesis tested using information from Society Island Nabidae (Hemiptera. Salient morphological characters for taxa in the Society and Hawaiian Islands are compared to those representing a broad survey of southwest Pacific Mecyclothorax spp. This comparison supports the independent founding of each radiation in the Societies and Hawaii from an Australian ancestral propagule, likely drawn from the ecologically general, geographically widespread M. punctipennis (Macleay.

  1. Molecular species identification of Central European ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae using nuclear rDNA expansion segments and DNA barcodes

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    Raupach Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of vast numbers of unknown organisms using DNA sequences becomes more and more important in ecological and biodiversity studies. In this context, a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene has been proposed as standard DNA barcoding marker for the identification of organisms. Limitations of the COI barcoding approach can arise from its single-locus identification system, the effect of introgression events, incomplete lineage sorting, numts, heteroplasmy and maternal inheritance of intracellular endosymbionts. Consequently, the analysis of a supplementary nuclear marker system could be advantageous. Results We tested the effectiveness of the COI barcoding region and of three nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in discriminating ground beetles of Central Europe, a diverse and well-studied invertebrate taxon. As nuclear markers we determined the 18S rDNA: V4, 18S rDNA: V7 and 28S rDNA: D3 expansion segments for 344 specimens of 75 species. Seventy-three species (97% of the analysed species could be accurately identified using COI, while the combined approach of all three nuclear markers provided resolution among 71 (95% of the studied Carabidae. Conclusion Our results confirm that the analysed nuclear ribosomal expansion segments in combination constitute a valuable and efficient supplement for classical DNA barcoding to avoid potential pitfalls when only mitochondrial data are being used. We also demonstrate the high potential of COI barcodes for the identification of even closely related carabid species.

  2. Tipos de Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) depositados en la colección entomológica del Museo de La Plata Types of Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection

    OpenAIRE

    Analía A. Lanteri; Suárez, Sonia M.; Guadalupe del Río, M.

    2003-01-01

    Esta contribución referida al material tipo de Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) depositado en la colección entomológica del Museo de La Plata, actualiza la información sobre los tipos depositados durante los últimos diez años. Los 111 tipos examinados en este trabajo corresponden a 52 especies asignadas a las siguientes subfamilias: Curculioninae (5 spp.), Cryptorhynchinae (8 spp.), Cyclominae (4 spp.), Entiminae (31 spp.), y Erirhininae (4 spp.). Los autores de las especies son C. ...

  3. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  4. 伊朗北部Golestan省天牛科(鞘翅目)昆虫种类%The species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Golestan province, northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najmeh SAMIN; Hamid SAKENIN

    2015-01-01

    天牛(鞘翅目Coleoptera:天牛科Cerambycidae)是树木和灌木最重要的害虫.本文记录了伊朗北部Golestan省的天牛种类,总计采集和鉴定了5亚科(Aseminae,Cerambycinae,Lamiinae,Lepturinae和Prioninae)30种天牛.

  5. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  6. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  7. Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juares Fuhrmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológicas. Último instar larval e pupa do Hexoplonini sul-americano Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius, 1899 são descritos, ilustrados e disponibilizadas notas biológicas.

  8. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  9. Brood production by Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and growth of its fungal symbiont on artificial diet based on sawdust of different species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Blanford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is among the most important exotic pests of orchards and nurseries in the US. It attacks a wide range of hosts and is difficult to control using conventional insecticides. As part of our studies on the biology and cont...

  10. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  11. Post entry interception of the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle,Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Italy Genbank Accession Number GU244486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) known as the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle is native from eastern Asia (China, Japan including Ryukyu, Shikoku and Honshu archipelago and Taïwan) where it attacks plants belonging to Moraceae family, in particular to Morus and Ficus genera. In...

  12. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  13. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

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    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  14. Current Knowledge of Mesozoic Coleoptera from Daohugou and Liaoning (Northeast China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander G.KIREJTSHUK; Alexander G.PONOMARENKO; Alexander A.PROKIN; CHANG Huali; Georgy V.NIKOLAJEV; REN Dang

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to an overview on fossil Coleoptera studied from Inner Mongolia,Daohugou (Middle Jurassic,Jiulongshan Formation) and Liaoning (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous,Yixian Formation) deposited in Chinese collections.As a result,species of the tribe Sperchopsini and Hydrophilini from Hydrophilidae,families and subfamilies Silphidae,Syndesinae from Lucanidae,Pleocomidae,Trogidae,Trogissitidae,Pyrochroidae,Diaperinae from Tenebrionidae,and Cerambycidae were first registered in the Mesozoic and some families were defined as new.It was shown that many superfamilies represented in the Recent Fauna were formed within the Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous.The materials examined confirm the hypothesis that Cucujiformian beetles are a younger group than other infraordera of Polyphaga (Staphyliniformia and Elateriformia) and,therefore,they appeared in the fossil record only in the late Mesozoic.It was shown and confirmed that most superfamilies appeared in the fossil records before Cucujoidea.The synonymy of Notocupes Ponomarenko,1964;Sinocupes Lin,1976,syn.nov.;Amblomma Tan,Ren et Liu 2005,syn.nov.;Euryomma Tan,Ren et Shih,2006,syn.nov.,non Stein,1899 and Ovatocupes Tan et Ren,2006,syn.nov.;synonymy of Tetraphalerus Waterhouse,1901 and Odontomma Tan,Ren et Ge 2006,syn.nov.;and synonymy of Priacmopsis Ponomarenko,1966 and Latocupes Tan et Ren,2006,syn.nov.are proposed.Sinorhombocoleus papposus Tan et Ren,2009 is transferred from the family Rhombocoleidae to Schizophoridae.Cervicatinius complanus Tan,Ren et Shih,2007 and Forticatinius elegans Tan,Ren et Shih,2007 are transferred from the family Catiniidae (suborder Archostemata) to superfamily Cleroidea (suborder Polyphaga:first among the family Peltidae and second as a closely related group to the latter family).The family Parandrexidae is transferred from the superfamily Cucujoidea to Cieroidea.The ecological circumstances of the past ecosystems and hypotheses of historical development of the order

  15. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  16. Building Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    1996-01-01

    Offers 10 attributes of community: (1) wholeness incorporating diversity; (2) shared values; (3) mutual obligations; (4) effective internal communication; (5) participation; (6) continuous reaffirmation; (7) links beyond itself; (8) concern for youth; (9) forward-looking viewpoint; and (10) well-developed community maintenance. (JOW)

  17. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  18. Coleoptera and microbe biomass in Antarctic Dry Valley paleosols adjacent to the Inland Ice: Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hart, Kris M.; O'Reilly, Shane S.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Dohm, James M.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Kelleher, Brian P.; Milner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk paleosol samples collected from a Middle to Early Miocene moraine in the New Mountain area of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, yielded Coleoptera exoskeletons and occasional endoskeletons showing considerable diagenetic effects along with several species of bacteria, all lodged in a dry-frozen but salt-rich horizon at shallow depth to the land surface. The till is at the older end of a chronologic sequence of glacial deposits, thought to have been deposited before the transition from wet-based to cold-based ice (∼15 Ma), and hence, entirely weathered in contact with the subaerial atmosphere. It is possible, though not absolutely verifiable, that the skeletons date from this early stage of emplacement having undergone modifications whenever light snowmelt occurred or salt concentrations lowered the freezing temperature to maintain water as liquid. Correlation of the Coleoptera species with cultured bacteria in the sample and the likelihood of co-habitation with Beauveria bassiani found in two adjacent, although younger paleosols, leads to new questions about the antiquity of the Coleoptera and the source of N and glucose from chitinase derived from the insects. The skeletons in the 831 section may date close to the oldest preserved chitin (Oligocene) yet found on Earth. While harsh Martian conditions make it seemingly intolerable for complex, multicellular organisms such as insects to exist in the near-surface and subaerially, life within similar cold, dry paleosol microenvironments (Cryosols) of Antarctica point to life potential for the Red Planet, especially when considering the relatively diverse microbe (bacteria and fungi) population.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  20. Redefinition of the genus Silphitrombium (Trombidiformes: Neothrombiidae) with description of two new species parasitizing beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Tenebrionidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakor, Samaneh; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Saboori, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Two new species of Silphitrombium Fain, 1992 (Acari: Prostigmata: Neothrombiidae), ectoparasites of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera), are described from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran: S. elateridum sp. nov. on Heteroderes heideni Reitter, 1891 (Col.: Elateridae) and S. iranicum sp. nov. on Opatroides punctulatus Brullé, 1832 (Col.: Tenebrionidae) and the genus Silphitrombium is redefined. It is the first record of the relationship between beetles of the families Elateridae and Tenebrionidae, and mites of the genus Silphitrombium. A key to the species of the genus is presented.

  1. Sucinolivolia torpida--a new genus and species of flea-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I

    2015-12-15

    Sucinolivolia torpida gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. Sucinolivolia gen. nov. is similar to the extant Livolia Jacoby and Orthaltica Crotch, but difference include the absence of an antebasal pronotal sulcus, not crenulate lateral pronotal margins, possessing very short genae, more robust legs, and the shape of tibiae. Including this new record, six described species of Alticini are known from Baltic amber.

  2. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  3. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  4. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.;

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...... on parameters of reproduction, egg development and viability at five constant temperatures. Significant temperature effects were found on the pre-oviposition period, total number of eggs laid, daily oviposition rate, female longevity, egg-development rate and viability. The mean length of the pre...

  5. Influence of 60Co γ irradiation on fertility of Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fertility of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) irradiated with 60Co γ-rays was remarkable reduced at the doses of 30Gy, 35Gy and 40Gy, especially at 40Gy. When the non-irradiated females were coupled with the irradiated males first, and then coupled with non-irradiated males, the hatchability and the fertility had little higher but lower than the control. It explained that radiation has certain influence to the female gonad. It also has difference between the hatching rate and the amount of eggs in different match. (authors)

  6. Registros y distribución de la especie afroasiática Digitonthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. ÁLVAREZ BOHLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez el escarabajo coprófago Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae para Argentina, por lo que se amplía su área de distribución geográfica en Sudamérica. Esta especie de origen afro-asiático fue capturada mediante colecta manual en estiércol de ganado bovino y equino, con trampas de luz y trampas de caída cebadas con estiércol en seis provincias del centro y norte argentino entre los años 2006 y 2009.

  7. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  8. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  9. ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS SOBRE O Callosobruchus maculatus (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight medicinal plants on Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Plant powder from Rosmarinus officinalis (L. leaves, Peumus boldus (Mol leaves, Matricaria chamomilla (L. flowers, Baccharis trimera (Less. leaves, Camellia sinensis (L. leaves, Thea sinensis (L. leaves, Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hil. leaves, and fruits of Pimpinella anisum (L. were used in the experiment. Bioassays were carried out under constant conditions of temperature (28±2 °C, relative humidity (70±5% and scotophase of 24 hours. Experimental units consisted of 20 grams of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains with 13% wet basis moisture content, 2 g plant powder and ten adult insects, both placed in plastic containers (60 mm in diameter x 60 mm high. The analyzed variables included: insect mortality, oviposition (egg number and instantaneous rate of population growth (ri. The number of dead insects was recorded 5 days after bioassays were started, the egg number was recorded after 12 days, and ri was estimated on the 60th day. All the tested plants had toxicity to C. maculatus. The highest mortality was found in insects treated with P. boldus and I. paraguariensis. Number of eggs and ri also varied significantly among the powders. The lowest mean values for these parameters were recorded in the plots treated with P. boldus, P. anisum and R. officinalis.

  10. Fumigation Toxicity of Essential Oil Monoterpenes to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae

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    Olufunmilayo E. Ajayi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fumigant toxicity of eight essential oil components, 1-8-cineole, carvacrol, eugenol, (−-menthone, (−-linalool, S-(−-limonene, (−-β-pinene, and (+-α-pinene, was tested against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, at 0.25–60 µL/L air doses. 1-8-Cineole, carvacrol, and eugenol caused complete adult mortality at 10 µL/L air 24 h after treatment. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol were the most toxic with LD50 values of 0.24 and 0.6 µL/L air at 24 h, respectively. (−-β-Pinene and (+-α-pinene were the least toxic with LD50 values of 31 and 31.4 µL/L air at 24 h, respectively. Toxicity was negatively correlated with vapor pressure. 1-8-Cineole and carvacrol caused 100% oviposition deterrence at all doses tested. Eugenol and (−-menthone completely inhibited adult emergence. S-(−-Limonene, (−-β-pinene, and (+-α-pinene were not effective at preventing oviposition or adult emergence, suggesting that a lethal dose of the three oil components would be necessary to control C. maculatus infestations.

  11. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  13. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2011-08-01

    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.

  14. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  15. Identification, distribution, and adult phenology of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Patricia L; Riley, Edward G; Oswald, John D

    2013-01-01

    The carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas are surveyed. Thirteen of the 14 species, and five of the six genera, of this ecologically and forensically important group of scavengers that have previously been reported from Texas are confirmed here based on a study of 3,732 adult specimens. The one reported, but unconfirmed, species, Oxelytrum discicolle, was probably based on erroneous label data and is excluded from the Texas fauna. Two additional species, Nicrophorus sayi and N. investigator are discussed as possible, but unconfirmed, components of the fauna. Taxonomic diagnoses, Texas distribution range maps, seasonality profiles, and biological notes are presented for each confirmed species. The confirmed Texas silphid fauna of 13 species comprises 43% of the 30 species of this family that are known from America north of Mexico. The highest richness (11 species) is found in the combined Austroriparian and Texan biotic provinces of eastern Texas. Phenologically, three species (Necrophila americana, O. rugulosum and Nicrophorus tomentosus) exhibit bimodal adult temporal occurrence patterns with peaks in the spring and late summer or fall; four species (Oiceoptoma noveboracense, Necrodes surinamensis, Nicrophorus carolinus, and N. orbicollis) exhibit unimodal occurrence patterns with a single peak in late spring or early summer; one species (Oiceoptonia inaequale) exhibits a unimodal occurrence pattern with a single peak in early spring; and five species (Thanatophilus truncatus, Nicrophorus americanus, N. marginatus, N. mexicanus and N. pustulatus) display unimodal occurrence patterns with peaks in late summer or early fall.

  16. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  17. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  18. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. PMID:26470205

  19. Life History of the Tamarind Weevil, Sitophilus linearis (Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, on Tamarind Seed

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    James Adebayo Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tamarind weevil, Sitophilus linearis Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is an important pest of tamarind and other Caesalpinioideae. Investigating its life history is important in the implementation of management strategy. Its life history was monitored daily to understand its developmental biology on tamarind seed following standard procedures under laboratory conditions of 24–30°C temperature, 60–70% relative humidity, and 12L : 12D photoperiod. The egg incubation period lasted 3.17 ± 0.07 days. A mated female of S. linearis laid an average of 165 ± 5.78 eggs during an oviposition period of 86.8 ± 2.47 days. There were four larval instars, with a total larval developmental period of 16 days. The pupal period lasted 8 days, and adult lived 108.5 ± 3.61 days. The overall growth ratio for the four instars was 1.33. There was a regular relationship and significant correlation (r=0.94 between the stages of larval development and head capsule width.

  20. Preliminary Diversity Of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae Attracting By Human Dung (Calvario, Meta

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    Ruth Mariela Castillo Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Private Reserve, Refugio del Oso de Anteojos (El Calvario-Meta, the diversity of dung beetles was studied (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae, grouped around different types of vegetation (Montane Rain Forest, Rainforest Premontane, Lower Montane Rain Forest, by using pitfall traps baited with human dung. During the samplings carried out in the rainy station on 2008, were captured a total of 177 individuals belonging to 9 species. The tribe Canthonini was the most representative with 87.5%, of the described species, followed by Aechini 10.8%, and Onthophagini 1.7%. The dominant species was Canthon lituratus in the three vegetation units: Lower montane rain forest was the richest (9 species and abundance (86 individuals, compared with other environments sampled. By calculating the complementarity index, shows a similar species composition in the three habitats sampled, possibly, related to the floristic composition presented in each one of them.

  1. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Feng-Juan; Ao, Liang; Zhao, Hua-Bin; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), is an aquatic firefly species, whose larvae inhabit ponds or lakes. Here we present the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the firefly (GenBank accession number KP313820) and provide its annotation. This circular genome is 16,248 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Similar to other firefly species, the base composition of this mitochondrial genome is also biased toward A and T (44.09% A, 34.00% T, 12.89% C, and 9.01% G). All 13 protein-coding genes start with a typical mitochondrial start codon, and terminate with a usual stop codon TAA, or TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region (1636 bp in length) include one (A)20, and two (T)15 tandem repeats, and one (AAT)5 element. This mitochondrial genome sequence will promote a better understanding for firefly evolution in the future. PMID:25714154

  3. Development and Life History of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on Cereal Crops

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    James Adebayo Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals. Knowledge of the life history and biology is important to the development of an integrated pest management program. Investigation was carried out on developmental biology of S. zeamais on four main cereal crops, maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, under laboratory conditions. Egg incubation, oviposition periods, and larval instar development were not different significantly among the food hosts. Number of eggs laid varied significantly among the cereal grains; mean fecundity was highest on maize (67.2±3.16 and lowest on millet (53.8±0.17. Number of immature (larva and pupa and adult stages varied significantly among the cereal grains. There exist four larval instars with a varied mean head capsule width, with a mean total instar larval developmental period of 23.1, 22.2, 22.2, and 21.6 d on maize, rice, sorghum, and millet, respectively. There was linear relationship and significant correlation between the stages of larval development and head capsule width. The mean developmental period from egg to adult varied, being highest on maize (34.7 d and lowest on sorghum (33.5 d.

  4. Erotylidae (Insecta, Coleoptera of Poland – problematic taxa, updated keys and new records

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    Rafal Ruta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New data concerning the occurrence of pleasing fungus beetles (Coleoptera: Erotylidae in Poland are given, with a focus on rare and difficult to identify Central European taxa. Cryptophilus cf. integer (Heer (Cryptophilinae is reported from the Polish territory for the first time based on adult and larval specimens collected in the Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Identification problems concerning species of Cryptophilus introduced to Europe are discussed. Triplax carpathica Reitter (Erotylinae is recorded from the Białowieża Primeval Forest, which is the first known non-Carpathian finding of this species, located in the close proximity of the Polish-Belarussian UNESCO World Heritage Site “Białowieża Forest”. Discussion of T. carpathica being conspecific with Siberian T. rufiventris Gebler is provided. New Polish localities of several other Erotylidae are reported, and an updated key to Central European species of Triplax is given. The Triplax key is supplemented with dorsal and ventral habitus images of all treated Triplax species. One of the rarest Central European erotyline species Combocerus glaber (Schaller is recorded from xerothermic grasslands in North-West Poland.

  5. Fruit Damage Patterns Caused by Ovipositing Females of Conotrachelus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Guava Trees

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    Felipe Tafoya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the damage patterns produced by females of the guava weevil Conotrachelus dimidiatus Champion, 1904 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, according to the position of the damaged fruit in guava trees Psidium guajava L. in Calvillo, Aguascalientes, Mexico. The trees were subdivided in eight zones, and during one year the level of fruit lesions due to oviposition was registered. Results showed a higher level of damage in the upper and external zone of the trees (P≤.05. We found no significant differences in damage between the four cardinal points (P≥.05. During the year, the level of damage was recorded and was higher in the months of August and September (P≤.05 associated with rainfall (0.86, P=.06 and increase in temperature (0.84, P=.03. The most susceptible fruits were in the size range of 2.1–4.0 cm (polar diameter. The information from this study will be used to design and establish effective control strategies for the guava weevil, taking into account location of the most susceptible fruits, seasonality of the pest, and the abiotic factors.

  6. Advances in the use of trapping systems for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): traps and attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, S; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-08-01

    Given the social importance related to the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), efforts are being made to develop new control methods, such as the deployment of trapping systems. In this work, the efficacy of a new black pyramidal trap design (Picusan) has been verified in comparison with white and black buckets. In addition, the attractant and synergistic effect of ethyl acetate (EtAc) at different release levels has been evaluated under field conditions. The results show that Picusan traps captured 45% more weevils than bucket-type traps, offering significantly better trapping efficacy. The addition of water to traps baited with palm tissues was found to be essential, with catches increasing more than threefold compared with dry traps. EtAc alone does not offer attractant power under field conditions, and the release levels from 57 mg/d to 1 g/d have no synergistic effect with ferrugineol. Furthermore, significantly fewer females were captured when EtAc was released at 2 g/d. The implications of using EtAc dispensers in trapping systems are discussed.

  7. On the spatial spread of the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Erirhinidae, in Italy

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    Daniela Lupi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A five year study has been made to establish the spread of the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Erirhinidae in Northern Italy. Data obtained with GPS from 2005 throughout 2009 were first georeferenced with SW ArcGis® 9.2, then overlapped and compared to the map of the European environmental landscape based on the interpretation of satellite images (CORINE Land Cover map and to the hydrographic chart CT10 (Technical Regional map 10000. The analysis of the radial rate of spread per year indicates a deceleration in the expansion from 10.864 ± 6.801 km/year in 2005 to 5.318 ± 1.401 km/year in 2009. In five years the weevil has expanded its distribution in nearly all rice paddies in Lombardy and Piedmont, over an area of about 200,000 ha, which correspond to 86% of the total Italian rice area. Its expansion is thought to follow a type of stratified dispersal, due both to insect adult active dispersal and to accidental movements caused by human transportation.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts.

  9. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

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    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvos. Larvae were fed rabbit feed wetted with a triflumuron-water solution. Concentration-mortality regressions were estimated using Probit analysis and resistance ratios were calculated based on the susceptible population. Among the field populations evaluated, cypermethrin LC50 values for adults, ranged from 68.1 to 6,263 ng (AI/cm². LC50 values for adults challenged with dichlorvos ranged from 10.3 to 1,385 ng (AI/cm². One population from Pato Branco showed reduced susceptibility to triflumuron (LC50 = 272 µg (AI/ml of solution when compared to the most susceptible population (LC50 = 109.8 µg (AI/ml. Application of cypermethrin and dichlorvos analogues should be managed with caution to minimize insecticide resistance problems.

  10. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity. PMID:19886451

  11. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.

  12. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages.

  13. Notas e novas espécies de Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies descritas do Brasil: Hypsioma carioca sp. nov. (Rio de Janeiro e Hesychotypa maraba sp. nov. (Pará; do Equador: Sternycha ecuatoriana sp. nov. (Pichincha; da Bolívia (Santa Cruz: Hesychotypa magnifica sp. nov., Tibiosioma maculosa sp. nov. e Alexera secunda sp. nov. Transfere-se Hesycha strandi (Breuning, 1943 para o gênero Cacostola Fairmaire & Germain, 1859. Hesychotypa archippa Dillon & Dillon, 1946 é considerada sinônima de H. miniata Thomson, 1868. Novo registro (Trinidad e figura são dados para Trachysomus surdus.Notes and new species of Onciderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. New species described from Brazil: Hypsioma carioca sp. nov. (Rio de Janeiro and Hesychotypa maraba sp. nov. (Pará; from Ecuador: Sternycha ecuatoriana sp. nov. (Pichincha; from Bolivia (Santa Cruz: Hesychotypa magnifica sp. nov., Tibiosioma maculosa sp. nov. and Alexera secunda sp. nov. Hesycha strandi (Breuning, 1943 is transferred to the genus Cacostola Fairmaire & Germain, 1859. Hesychotypa archippa Dillon & Dillon, 1946 is considered a synonym of H. miniata Thomson, 1868. New record (Trinidad and figure for Trachysomus surdus Dillon & Dillon, 1946 are given.

  14. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5–7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1–4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread. (author)

  15. Insecticidal Efficacy of Some Lamiaceae Plant Extracts Against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    M.M. Kiradoo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to screen some plants belonging to family Lamiaceae against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.. Among fourteen important insect pests of stored grains, the pulse beetle C. chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae is one such pest causing considerable damage to stored pulses. The eggs are laid on the host grains; the larvae bore inside and after feeding and pupating emerge out as adults leaving behind damaged hollow seed-grains. Looking into the hazards of chemical insecticides, there is an utmost need to search for some alternate methods for protection against the damage caused by insects. The leaves of the select plants viz., Ocimum basilicum, O. sanctum and Mentha spicata were employed in the form of various formulations and mortality of the pest insect was assessed. A significant increase in mortality of C. chinensis was observed in all the experimental sets as compared to normal and control sets during the present study. When comparisons were made on the basis of ANOVA to compare the effect of the three plants on mortality, it was found that the treatments of O. basilicum were superior over M. spicata and O. sanctum. The findings overall suggest that all the three plants screened have a potential to be used against the pest C. chinensis and can be employed as an alternate to chemical insecticides in household and storehouses to minimize the infestation and damage caused by the bruchid.

  16. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  17. Caracteres preimaginales y aspectos bionómicos de Gyriosomus luczotii Laporte, 1840 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

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    Jerez, V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the morphology and microstructure of the egg chorion, and the morphology of the first instar larva of Gyriosomus luczotii Laporte, 1840 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Nycteliini. Bionomical and distributional data on this species are also provided. To obtain eggs and larvae, couples were collected in the field and kept in rearing cages until oviposture and ecclosion. The structure and adornment of the egg exochorion, and the exterior morphological features of larvae were examined with electron scanning microscopy. The eggs of G. luczotii showed a rounded micropyle and a smooth exochorion, composed of hexagonal cells without aeropyles. The larvae of G. luczotii showed morphological characteristics suited for an edaphic life similar to that of Pedobionta: digging prothoracic legs, cephalic capsule with abundant sensilla, and well–developed pygopodium. We analysed the importance of larval morphology as an element for specific diagnosis and found that interspecific differences regarding frontal sensilla, clypeus shape, and anterior part of labrum, had a taxonomic value and possibly a phylogenetic value.

  18. BIOECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ERVA-MATE BORER, Hedypathes betulinus (KLUG, 1825 (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE

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    Márcia d´Avila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in  the southern states of Brazil. The  pure stands of  this culture was responsible for the increase  of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies  may increase  the  agroecossystem  balance  and  thus  a  reduction  of  the  insect-pest  to  an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  19. Karyotype differentiation patterns in species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Sárah Gomes; Ramos, Ituza Celeste; de Moura, Rita de Cássia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the karyotype of species belonging to the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and to compile the conventional cytogenetic data available in the literature for this group. The karyotypes of ten species belonging to the tribes Canthonini, Coprini, Onthophagini and Phanaeini were analyzed by conventional staining. Eight of these species were described for the first time (Canthon aff carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Coprophanaeus dardanus, Deltochilum aff amazonicum, Dichotomius geminatus, Oxysternon silenus, Phanaeus chalcomelas and Malagoniella aff astyanax) and two were redescribed (Diabroctis mimas and Digitonthophagus gazella) since their karyotypes differed from those previously published in the literature. Four species studied showed a diploid number of 2n=20 and a parachute type sex determining system and the karyotype was 2n=20,Xy in two species and 2n=18,Xy(p), 2n=19,X0, 2n=12,XY and 2n=14,neoXY in one each. The chromosome morphology of the different species varied, with the observation of metacentric, submetacentric, subacrocentric and acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was predominantly meta or submetacentric in the species analyzed, whereas the y chromosome presented two arms or was punctiform. In conclusion, the subfamily Scarabaeinae comprises 120 species analyzed cytogenetically, and are observed the occurrence of five chromosome rearrangements (autosome-autosome and X-autosome fusions, pericentric inversions, fissions and loss of the y chromosome) that are related to the chromosome variability and evolution in the group. PMID:18495484

  20. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. PMID:27189867

  1. Coexistence and Competition between Tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytinae in Yunnan Pine

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    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig (Coleoptera: Scolytinae were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet in Yunnan province in Southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate dispersal from pine shoots to trunks in November, while the majority of T. minor begins to transfer in December. T. yunnanensis mainly attacks the top and middle parts of the trunk, whereas T. minor mainly resides in the lower and middle parts of the trunk. The patterns of attack densities of these two species were similar, but with T. yunnanensis colonizing the upper section of the trunk and T. minor the lower trunk. The highest attack density of T. Yunnanensis was 297 egg galleries/m2, and the highest attack density of T. minor was 305 egg galleries/m2. Although there was significant overlap for the same bark areas, the two species generally colonize different areas of the tree, which reduces the intensity of competition for the relatively thin layer of phloem-cambium tissues where the beetles feed and reside.

  2. Pathogenicity of Isolates of Serratia Marcescens towards Larvae of the Scarab Phyllophaga Blanchardi (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L.; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J.; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M. Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:25984910

  3. FAUNÍSTIC STUDY OF BEETLES (COLEOPTERA IN A SILVICULTURAL-PASTORAL SYSTEM

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    Alexander Machado Auad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of beetles (Coleoptera in a silvicultural-pastoral system, estimating constancy, abundance, richness, diversity of families and seasonality, from July 2006 to June 2008. The study was carried out at the Embrapa Dairy Cattle station, in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The beetles were collected in Malaise traps, every two weeks, and taken to the laboratory for analysis. A total of 26 families, 294 morphospecies and 1,606 specimens were found. The Elateridae, Mordelidae, Chrysomelidae, Coccinellidae and Curculionidae families were the most abundant, rich and diverse. The Scarabaeidae and Scolytidae families were also among the most abundant, and the Cerambycidae family was among the richest, while the Bruchidae and Carabidae families presented high diversity.  The largest number of individuals and morphospecies sampled occurred during the period of rain. November 2007 presented the most (n = 535 specimens captures of any month, followed by October 2006, September 2007, March and April of 2008.

  4. South American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera: part X: A systematic revision of Thalassa Mulsant (Hyperaspidinae

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    Julianne Milléo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Thalassa Mulsant, 1850 is revised. Its five species are redescribed: T. pentaspilota (Chevrolat, 1853, T. flaviceps Mulsant, 1850, T. similaris Mulsant, 1850, T. montezumae Mulsant, 1850, and T. glauca (Mulsant, 1850. A new species is proposed, Thalassa korschefskyi sp.nov., from Colombia. The species are illustrated and a key to species is also provided. Lectotype of Thalassa reyi Mulsant, 1850 is here designated.Coccinellidae (Coleoptera da América do Sul. Parte X: Revisão sistemática de Thalassa Mulsant (Hyperaspidinae. O gênero Thalassa Mulsant, 1850 é revisado. Suas cinco espécies são redescritas: T. pentaspilota (Chevrolat, 1853, T. flaviceps Mulsant, 1850, T. similaris Mulsant, 1850, T. montezumae Mulsant, 1850 e T. glauca (Mulsant, 1850. Uma nova espécie é proposta, Thalassa korschefskyi sp. nov., da Colômbia. São fornecidas ilustrações e chave para as espécies. O lectótipo de Thalassa reyi Mulsant, 1850 é aqui designado.

  5. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  6. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest's life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  7. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  8. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  9. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera

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    Jiyu Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera. The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s, and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding.

  10. Analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult Dastarcus helophoroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Q; He, C; Li, M L

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and a culture-dependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae). Universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16S rDNA gene were used in the PCR-DGGE assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. The intestinal bacteria detected by PCR-DGGE were classified to Enterococcus (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), Bacillus (Bacillales: Bacillaceae), Cellvibrio (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Caulobacter (Caulobacterales: Caulobacteraceae), and uncultured bacteria, whereas those isolated by the culture-dependent technique belonged to Staphylococcus (Bacillales: Staphylococcaceae), Pectobacterium Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Enterobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). These intestinal bacteria represented the groups Lactobacillales (Enterococcus), Pseudomonadales (Cellvibrio), Caulobacterales (Caulobacter), Bacilli (Bacillus and Staphylococcus), and Gammaproteobacteria (Pectobacterium and Enterobacter). Our results demonstrated that PCR-DGGE analysis and the culture-dependent technique were useful in determining the intestinal bacteria of D. helophoroides and the two methods should be integrated to characterize the microbial community and diversity. PMID:25373236

  11. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

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    Teodora M. Teofilova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  12. Registros y distribución de la especie afroasiática Digitonthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae en Argentina Records and distribution of the Afro Asian species Digitonthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Argentina

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    María C. Álvarez Bohle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez el escarabajo coprófago Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae para Argentina, por lo que se amplía su área de distribución geográfica en Sudamérica. Esta especie de origen afro-asiático fue capturada mediante colecta manual en estiércol de ganado bovino y equino, con trampas de luz y trampas de caída cebadas con estiércol en seis provincias del centro y norte argentino entre los años 2006 y 2009.The occurrence of the dung beetle Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae is reported for the first time for Argentina. The record of this species represents an extension of its geographical range in South America. This species of Afro Asian origin was captured by manual collection in cattle dung, light traps, and dung baited pitfall traps in six provinces of Northern and Central Argentina between 2006 and 2009.

  13. Danos de Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae em frutos de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia na Amazônia Central Damage of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia fruits by Conotrachelus dubiae (Coleoptera: curculionidae in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Alberto do Nascimento Ferreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a ocorrência de Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] tinha sido constatada somente em populações naturais. Relata-se sua ocorrência em um cultivo experimental, onde se avaliou os danos de C. dubiae em frutos de camu-camu, em diferentes graus de amadurecimento, entre 1999 e 2003. Os danos causados pela larva aumentaram com o amadurecimento dos frutos, havendo maior comprometimento da polpa do fruto (30 a 90% do que das sementes (7%. A incidência desse inseto pode implicar em perdas quantitativas significativas na produção de camu-camu.In Brazil, the occurrence of Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh, Myrtaceae] had only been verified in natural populations. This report describes its occurrence in an experimental cultivation, where damage of camu-camu fruits by C. dubiae at different ripening stages was evaluated between 1999 and 2003. The damage caused by the larva increased with the degree of ripening of the fruits, with greater damage of fruit pulp (30 to 90% than to seeds (7%. The incidence of this insect may cause significant quantitative losses in the camu-camu production.

  14. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  15. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... increasingly occupied with crime and violence. The paper concludes that this change fundamentally has transformed the political room for manoeuvre among state representatives and township residents alike, and that the onus of blame for the failure to realise a truly non-racial, democratic and developed South...

  16. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  17. [Community nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  18. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  19. Cowpea Vicilins: Fractionation of Urea Denatured Sub-Units and Effects on Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Development

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    Antônio Chagas Mota

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicilins (7S storage globulins isolated from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. seeds which were susceptible (S and resistant (R to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae were denatured by urea and fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. Isolated fractions were incorporated in artificial seeds for assessment of their toxicity to C. maculatus. The most acidic fractions of both susceptible (CE-31 cultivar and resistant (IT81D-1045 line seeds were shown to affect development and survival of the bruchid. Results indicated that vicilin polypeptides of toxic nature were expressed in both types of storage globulins although at different levels.Vicilinas (globulinas de reserva 7S isoladas de sementes de feijão-de-corda (Vigna unguiculata L., susceptíveis (S e resistentes (R ao caruncho/gorgulho (Callosobruchus maculatus F., Coleoptera: Bruchidae foram desnaturadas por uréia e fracionadas por cromatografia de troca iônica. As frações isoladas foram incorporadas em sementes artificiais para avaliação de sua toxicidade a C. maculatus. As fracões mais ácidas de ambas vicilinas afetaram o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência do bruquídeo. Sugerimos que polipeptídeos de vicilinas de natureza tóxica são expressos em ambos tipos de globulinas de reserva, embora em níveis diferentes.

  20. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Floor Traps: The Effect of Previous Captures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Campbell, James F

    2016-02-01

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in laboratory conditions. The effect of trap seeding, adding adults of the same or different species, was evaluated in order to determine possible effects of prior captures in the trap on each species' behavioral responses. The presence of seeded beetles of the same species resulted in an increase in beetle captures for both T. castaneum and T. confusum, but when traps were seeded with the opposite species, there was no increase in beetle captures for either species, and for T. castaneum overall captures in both seeded and unseeded traps was reduced. Overall, T. castaneum tended to have greater captures than T. confusum regardless of the treatment. When the two species were released together, this negated the increased response to seeded traps observed in the single-species treatments. These findings suggest the potential that the presence of beetles in a trap may be influencing the response of beetles in a nearby trap and that T. castaneum and T. confusum when they occur together may influence each other's response to traps.

  1. Longhorn beetles of the Ficuzza woods (W Sicily, Italy and their relationship with plant diversity (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso La Mantia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The woods in Sicily are the result of centuries of anthropogenic activities that have reduced the surface of woodand changed the original composition even with the introduction of alien species to native flora. The value interms of biodiversity of these forests remains, however, high for they are the last refuge areas for many animalsand plant species. This study was conducted within the Ficuzza woods (West Sicily, extended about 5,000hectares on the slopes of limestone-dolomite rock of Busambra (1615 m asl, within which lies the largestremaining forest area in western Sicily. It is an area with a wide diversity of vegetation, represented mainly bynative forests (holm oak, cork oak, deciduous oaks, groups of riparian vegetation, shrubs, bushes, grasslands,and of non-native forest formations (Pinus and Eucalyptus woods. The study on Cerambycidae in this area isfragmented and does not specify a relation the species with the surrounding vegetation. This study wasperformed by choosing among various groups of insects, xylophagous Coleoptera Cerambycidae; existingliterature data and extensive collected field data were reviewed. The analysis was also performed by thecollection of dead wood in order to distinguish the relationship between the plant species and coleoptera. Theresults summarize and supplement the data registered so far, shedding further light on the ecological role ofthis group of insects that are also valid biomarkers of the integrity and complexity of the forest.

  2. Morphological and genetic variation in Cicindela lusitanica Mandl, 1935 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of taxonomic and geographical boundaries is a common problem when analysing clinal distributions. This is of particular concern when the assessment of intraspecific groupings is required for conservation management. The tiger beetle Cicindela lusitanica Mandl, 1935 (Coleoptera, Carabidae is a typical case in which two recognised subspecies are distributed in a clinal latitudinal fashion in the dune systems along the Atlantic coast of Portugal. This habitat is increasingly under threat, and conservation measures are needed. We investigated the validity of the two named subspecies, based on a re-analysis of elytral and genitalic measurements using multivariate analysis. We also analysed variation in mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene for a total of six populations along the cline. Multivariate analysis supported the idea of a morphological cline and revealed a clear distinction of the southernmost population and also some degree of distinctiveness of the most northern populations, partially supporting the recognised subspecific ranking. The mtDNA analysis identified two main groups corresponding to northern and southern populations. Both sets of markers showed that variation within the C. lusitanica assemblage is complex, with the boundaries between morphological and mtDNA groups not in agreement. However, populations at either end of the distributional range are clearly distinct from each other, and should be considered as provisional units for conservation programmes.El reconocimiento de límites taxonómicos y geográficos de la variabilidad observada es un problema habitual cuando se analizan distribuciones clinales. Esto es particularmente problemático cuando se requiere la determinación de agrupamientos intraespecíficos para tomar medidas de conservación. El cicindélido Cicindela lusitanica Mandl, 1935 (Coleoptera, Carabidae constituye un caso típico en el que dos subespecies reconocidas se hayan distribuidas a

  3. Riqueza del complejo chisa (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae en cuatro agroecosistemas del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morón R. Miguel A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La composición y variación de la riqueza del complejo de larvas Melolonthidae se examinó en cuatro circunstancias agroecológicas en los municipios de Caldono y Buenos Aires, Cauca (1400 a 1500 m.s.n.m, 21,5ºC. y 2000 mm/año de precipitación promedio. Quincenalmente, durante un año, se visitaron parcelas de media hectárea de yuca, pastizal, cafetal y bosque, en cada parcela y ocasión se realizaron 10 muestreos ( 1m2 por 15 cm de profundidad. Se colectaron 10.261 larvas pertenecientes a 32 especies y 12 géneros de Melolonthidae, así: Phyllophaga, Plectris, Astaena, Macrodactylus, Ceraspis, Barybas, Isonychus, Anomala Callistethus, Strigoderma, Leucothyreus, Cyclocephala. La riqueza de especies presentó variaciones estadísticamente significativas entre localidades (F=87.24 p =2.72-18, muestreos (F=22.29 p =5.18-13, parcelas (F= 23.39 p=1.40-13 así como entre la mayoría de interacciones. Los promedios de riqueza fueron: yuca (4.5 , pastizal (3.6, café (2.1 y bosque (2.2, cada uno con grandes fluctuaciones que hicieron la diferencia. Se discuten las curvas de isodensidades de cada parcela y sus implicaciones en el programa de manejo. Abstract Richness of the white-grub complex (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae in agroecosystems of the Cauca province, Colombia. The composition and variation in the richness of the complex of rhizophagous Melolonthidae larvae was examinated in four agroecological zones in the Municipality of Caldono (1400-1500 m, 21.5ºC, average rainfall 2000 mm/yr with complementary surveys in the neighbouring site of Buenos Aires, Cauca. Half-hectare plots (cassava, pastures, coffee and wooded areas were selected and visited every 15 days (total of 15 visits per plot, and a total of 10 samples were taken (1 m2 by 15 cm deep. In total, 10,261 larvae of 32 species were collected: Phyllophaga, Plectris, Astaena, Macrodactylus, Ceraspis, Barybas, Isonychus, Anomala Callistethus, Strigoderma, Leucothyreus, Cyclocephala

  4. Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar. I: Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969 (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez González, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This first part about the vicariant Typhlocharis from Gibraltar Strait is dedicated to Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969; a second paper will cover T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869. The studied material was obtained in four field campaigns carried out in the south of Spain and north of Morocco between 1997 and 2001 (Zaballos & Banda, 2000; Zaballos, 2005. In these campaigns abundant specimens of Typhlocharis (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae were collected in different localities, the majority of them belonging to the species T. armata Coiffait, 1969. Their study and the comparison with the type series of this species allowed its complete redescription and clarification of its status within the genus. Contrary to what has been considered traditionally, the marginal umbilicate series of elytra in T. armata is composed of three, instead of four posterior setae. The taxonomical affinities of this species are established, the morphological weight of the umbilicate group of elytral setae as a lineage and species group defining character is discussed, and the theory of Jeanne (1973 about the relation between shortening of elytra and umbilicate series reduction with a decrease in body size is revised. The dispersal abilities are evaluated and a biogeographical explanation for the new distribution of the species is proposed.Esta primera parte sobre las especies de Typhlocharis vicariantes del Estrecho de Gibraltar está dedicada a Typhlocharis armata Coiffait, 1969; mientras que en un segundo artículo se tratará T. silvanoides Dieck, 1869. El material estudiado procede de cuatro campañas entomológicas realizadas en el sur de España y en el norte de Marruecos entre 1997 y 2001 (Zaballos & Banda, 2000; Zaballos, 2005. En estas campañas se recolectaron, en localidades diferentes, abundantes ejemplares de Typhlocharis (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Trechidae, la mayoría de los cuales han resultado pertenecer a la especie T. armata Coiffait, 1969. Su estudio y

  5. Contributions towards an understanding of the Atomariinae (Coleoptera, Cryptophagidae of Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Atomariinae (Coleoptera: Cryptophagidae fauna of Atlantic Canada are surveyed. Ten species in the genus Atomaria are reported in the region, six of which, including Atomaria distincta Casey, Atomaria fuscata Schonherr, Atomaria lederi Johnson, Atomaria lewisi Reitter, Atomaria testacea Stephens, and Atomaria nigrirostris Stephens, are newly recorded in Canada. Atomaria lederi and A. lewisi are newly recorded in North America. Twenty-three new provincial records are reported. Atomaria curtula Casey, 1900  (syn. n. is designated as a synonym of Atomaria lewisi Reitter; Atomaria ovalis Casey, 1900 (syn. n. is designated as a synonym of Atomaria apicalis Erichson, 1846; and Atomaria saginata Casey, 1900 (syn. n. is designated as a synonym of Atomaria fuscata Schonherr. A key to species is provided, as are species descriptions. Records of all species are given and their distribution in the region is plotted. The global distribution of all Holarctic and adventive species is briefly summarized, and the jurisdictions in North America where they have been reported are compiled. Habitat and bionomic information is also provided for all species, both from within the region, and from observations in European studies. The fauna is briefly discussed from a zoogeographic perspective; two species are Nearctic in origin, five may be Holarctic in distribution, and three others may be adventive Palaearctic species, although further evidence is required to confirm such preliminary assessments. Similarly, because of the paucity of information on this genus, further fieldwork is required to fully discern the distribution of these spe- cies in Atlantic Canada. Three are apparently saproxylic species characteristic of forested habitats; three are primarily grassland species; and the remaining four are eurytopic species found in a wide variety of forested and open habitats.

  6. Flight behaviour and dispersal of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using mark-release-recapture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos, J A; Balasch, S; Soto, A

    2016-10-01

    The flight ability and patterns of an insect influence its spread, and the study of its behaviour can be used to improve the strategies to control the pest. Regarding Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), one of the worst threats to palm trees worldwide, laboratory experiments have been conducted to analyze their flight potential. However, these data must be complemented with tests that allow us to know its flight behaviour and dispersal patterns under field conditions. Two mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted in areas with R. ferrugineus infestations. In the first, the effects of weevil sex, temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity, on the take-off and flight mobility of adults were analyzed. The second experiment aimed to determine the maximum flight distance covered by adults in field. The take-off rate for R. ferrugineus males was significantly greater than for females, and was positively influenced by temperature (optimum take-off around 25°C) and solar radiation, both factors being highly correlated. Female weevil recaptures were significantly higher, especially as temperatures increased (optimum recapture around 21°C). Dispersal distances of weevil adults increased when temperatures rose, and while this insect tended to fly short distances (<500 m), it was able to cover up to 7 km. The dispersal of R. ferrugineus adults mainly occurred during the first 7 days after their release, and when relative humidity increased, their dispersal time was reduced. The results obtained will permit a more effective implementation of certain measures used to control R. ferrugineus, such as olfactory trapping or intensive surveillance around pest outbreaks.

  7. Organization and comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of bioluminescent Elateroidea (Coleoptera: Polyphaga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Danilo T; Mitani, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-07-25

    Mitochondrial genome organization in the Elateroidea superfamily (Coleoptera), which include the main families of bioluminescent beetles, has been poorly studied and lacking information about Phengodidae family. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Neotropical Lampyridae (Bicellonycha lividipennis), Phengodidae (Brasilocerus sp.2 and Phrixothrix hirtus) and Elateridae (Pyrearinus termitilluminans, Hapsodrilus ignifer and Teslasena femoralis). All species had a typical insect mitochondrial genome except for the following: in the elaterid T. femoralis genome there is a non-coding region between NADH2 and tRNA-Trp; in the phengodids Brasilocerus sp.2 and P. hirtus genomes we did not find the tRNA-Ile and tRNA-Gln. The P. hirtus genome showed a ~1.6kb non-coding region, the rearrangement of tRNA-Tyr, a new tRNA-Leu copy, and several regions with higher AT contents. Phylogenetics analysis using Bayesian and ML models indicated that the Phengodidae+Rhagophthalmidae are closely related to Lampyridae family, and included Drilus flavescens (Drilidae) as an internal clade within Elateridae. This is the first report that compares the mitochondrial genomes organization of the three main families of bioluminescent Elateroidea, including the first Neotropical Lampyridae and Phengodidae. The losses of tRNAs, and translocation and duplication events found in Phengodidae mt genomes, mainly in P. hirtus, may indicate different evolutionary rates in these mitochondrial genomes. The mitophylogenomics analysis indicates the monophyly of the three bioluminescent families and a closer relationship between Lampyridae and Phengodidae/Rhagophthalmidae, in contrast with previous molecular analysis. PMID:27060405

  8. Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae

  9. Interactions between imidacloprid and Metarhizium brunneum on adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Calum W; Ugine, Todd A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-11-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid. Because entomopathogenic fungi like Metarhizium brunneum Petch have been identified as virulent against these beetles we conducted several tests to determine the compatibility of the two agents in combination. Radial hyphal growth and the sporulation capacity of M. brunneum on Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast were not significantly affected by the presence of imidacloprid. In a 2×3 factorial experiment investigating interactions between exposure to imidacloprid and M. brunneum we observed no effect of imidacloprid alone on beetle survival when beetles were given a single dose of 10 or 100 ppm compared to control insects. We observed a significant effect of exposure to M. brunneum, and a significant interaction between imidacloprid and M. brunneum representing a synergistic effect of dual treatment. Beetles exposed to the fungus alone lived significantly longer compared to insects treated with a single dose of 100 ppm imidacloprid (9.5 vs. 6.5d). Consumption of striped maple twigs by beetles exposed to imidacloprid, across concentrations, was reduced 48% compared to control insects, where as consumption by M. brunneum-exposed beetles was reduced by 16% over the first 6-days of the test period. Beetles fed 100 ppm imidacloprid consumed 32% less over the first 3d compared to beetles not exposed to imidacloprid and thereafter consumed as much as beetles not fed 100 ppm imidacloprid. M. brunneum-exposed beetles consumed significantly less food than control insects throughout the test period, and beetles treated with imidacloprid produced significantly fewer conidia compared to beetles

  10. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured.

  11. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.

  12. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  13. Observations on sex ratio and behavior of males in Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Scolytinae, Coleoptera

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    Peter Biedermann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungal feeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera, and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC. These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries.

  14. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult. PMID:26470208

  15. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  16. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 10(4)-10(6) living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  17. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors.

  18. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum. Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella. Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 104–106 living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  19. Modeling evolution of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to transgenic corn with two insecticidal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Meinke, Lance J

    2010-06-01

    A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn hybrid pyramided with existing toxins are simulated. In the hypothetical situations, results demonstrated that evolution is generally delayed by pyramids compared with deployment of a single-toxin corn hybrid. However, soil insecticide use in the refuge reduced this delay and quickened the evolution of resistance. Results were sensitive to the degree of male beetle dispersal before mating and to the effectiveness of both toxins in the pyramid. Resistance evolved faster as fecundity increased for survivors of insecticidal corn. Thus, effects on fecundity must be measured to predict which resistance management plans will work well. Evolution of resistance also occurred faster if the survival rate due to exposure to the two toxins was not calculated by multiplication of two independent survival rates (one for each insect gene) but was equivalent to the minimum of the two. Furthermore, when single-trait and pyramided corn hybrids were planted within rootworm-dispersal distance of each other, the toxin traits lost efficacy more quickly than they did in scenarios without single-trait corn. For the case study involving transgenic corn expressing Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, the pyramid delayed evolution longer than a single trait corn hybrid and longer than a sequence of toxins based on at least one resistance-allele frequency remaining below 50%. Results are discussed within the context of a changing transgenic corn marketplace and the landscape dynamics of resistance management.

  20. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Xu

    Full Text Available Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.

  1. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  2. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. PMID:27385755

  3. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.

  4. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  5. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

  6. Chemosensory gene families in adult antennae of Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae.

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    Xiao Li

    Full Text Available The metallic green beetle, Anomala corpulenta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae, is a destructive pest in agriculture and horticulture throughout Asia, including China. Olfaction plays a crucial role in the survival and reproduction of A. corpulenta. As a non-model species, A. corpulenta is poorly understood, and information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying olfaction in A. corpulenta and other scarab species is scant.We assembled separate antennal transcriptome for male and female A. corpulenta using Illumina sequencing technology. The relative abundance of transcripts with gene ontology annotations, including those related to olfaction in males and females was highly similar. Transcripts encoding 15 putative odorant binding proteins, five chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 43 odorant receptors, eight gustatory receptors, and five ionotropic receptors were identified. The sequences of all of these chemosensory-related transcripts were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and direct DNA sequencing. The expression patterns of 54 putative chemosensory genes were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Antenna-specific expression was detected for many of these genes, suggesting that they may have important functions in semiochemical detection.The identification of a large number of chemosensory proteins provides a major resource for the study of the molecular mechanism of odorant detection in A. corpulenta and its chemical ecology. The genes identified, especially those that were expressed at high levels in the antennae may represent novel molecular targets for the development of population control strategies based on the manipulation of chemoreception-driven behaviors.

  7. A importância forense de Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae

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    Camila Kraiczyi Kotzko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxelytrum discicolle Brullé, 1840 é a espécie mais coletada de Silphidae (Coleoptera na América Latina, constituindo um indicador forense na região Neotropical. O objetivo do trabalho é reunir informações sobre biologia e distribuição de O. discicolle, além de ferramentas para utilização desse besouro como indicador forense em casos de morte de humanos. O. discicolle é um besouro de grande porte, de cor preta com um colar vermelho. Larvas da espécie são necrófagas, já os adultos são onívoros e se alimentam tanto de larvas de dípteros quanto da própria carcaça. Nossa revisão aponta que a espécie reduz seu tempo de desenvolvimento conforme a temperatura aumenta, sugerindo que a taxa de desenvolvimento é diferente entre as temperaturas. Estudos mostram que a espécie O. discicolle é um forte indicador forense, porém para que ocorra o avanço das pesquisas de Entomologia Forense em humanos no Brasil é necessário que os Institutos de Criminalística publiquem mais dados sobre insetos que os colonizam. Além disso, são necessários mais estudos em carcaças de animais em diversas regiões e biomas diferentes, desta forma pode ser montado um mapa de distribuição da espécie em nível nacional.

  8. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  9. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  10. Mass Trapping and Classical Biological Control of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. 1794 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. A hypothesis based in morphological evidences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Miguens

    2011-07-01

    Resumo. Coleópteros têm sido descritos como pragas e vetores de nematódeos causadores de Anel Vermelho em diversas palmeiras da família Arecaceae. Rhynchophorus palmarum L (Coleoptera: Curculionidae é uma praga que afeta a cocoicultura e outras palmeiras; e, vetor de Bursaphelencus cocophilus (Cobb Baujard (Nematoda, agente etiológico de Anel Vermelho e de outros nematódeos. Atualmente, recomenda-se o emprego de inimigos naturais e parasitas no manejo integrado de pragas; dentre elas, Rhynchophorinae. Armadilhas de coleta massal são recomendadas no manejo integrado de pragas. Nosso estudo relata, na cocoicultura, a eficiência de armadilhas artesanais de baixo custo e a utilização cariomônios (toletes de cana-de-açúcar e cariômonios mais feromônios (toletes de cana-de-açúcar e machos adultos de R. palmarum como atrativos nas armadilhas. Ácaros ectoparasitas foram identificados nestes coleópteros, por microscopia, que podem ser propostos como parte do manejo integrado desta praga. Armadilhas de coleta massal com cariômonios foram eficientes na captura de R. palmarum e outros Curculionidae. No entanto, armadilhas de coleta massal com cariômonios e feromônios aumentaram a atratividade, em relação às primeiras, para este Coleoptera e Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Eventualmente, exemplares de R. palmarum apresentavam infecção fúngica. Ácaros ectoparasitas infestavam mais de 50% dos exemplares de R. palmarum. A microanatomia destes ácaros e sua interação com R. palmarum foi preliminarmente descrita. Todos os estágios do ciclo de vida destes ácaros foram identificados no compartimento dos élitros. As evidências morfológicas suportam a hipótese de que estes ácaros podem ser empregados no controle biológico de R. palmarum em um programa de manejo integrado.

  11. Attraction of Astylus variegatus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Melyridae by volatile floral attractants Atração de Astylus variegatus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Melyridae por atraentes florais voláteis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The beetle Astylus variegatus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Melyridae is frequently found in flowers feeding on pollen. Responses of A. variegatus to volatile floral attractants were studied in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. fields. Traps originally designed to capture Diabrotica speciosa (Germ. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, consisted of plastic bottles (2 L with 150 holes (5-mm diameter yellow gold painted and containing inside a plastic strip (3.5 ´ 25 cm with Lagenaria vulgaris (L. powder (0.28% B cucurbitacin - feeding stimulant and arrestant for diabroticites sprayed with carbaril insecticide. Treatments consisted of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (one or two dispensers per trap, 1,4-dimethoxybenze + indole, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene + cinnameldehyde and control. Volatile average release rates (over ten days was approximately 32 mg day-1 per dispenser under laboratory conditions. 1,4-dimethoxybenzene-lured traps caught significantly more beetles than the control, three and seven days after trap setting. Ten days after the onset of the experiment, there were no differences in number of beetles caught by treatments. Captures were higher in the 1,4-dimethoxybenzene + cinnamaldehyde treatment than in 1,4-dimethoxybenzene only in the first assessment. Adding indole to 1,4-dimethoxybenzene did not improve beetle captures.O besouro Astylus variegatus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Melyridae é freqüentemente encontrado em flores onde se alimenta de pólen. Respostas de A. variegatus a atraentes voláteis florais foram estudadas em campos de feijão, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Armadilhas, originalmente desenvolvidas para capturar Diabrotica speciosa (Germ. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, consistiram de garrafas plástica (2 L com 150 perfurações (5 mm de diâmetro pintadas com tinta amarelo ouro contendo no seu interior uma fita plástica (3,5 ´ 25,0 cm com pó seco de frutos de Lagenaria vulgaris (L. (0,28% de cucurbitacina B estimulante alimentar e arrestante para diabrotic

  12. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  13. A scientific note on a new pest for European honeybees: first report of small hive beetle Aethina tumida, (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Palmeri, Vincenzo; Scirtò, Giuseppe; Malacrinò, Antonino; Laudani, Francesca; Campolo, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    International audience The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray(Coleoptera Nitidulidae), is an important pest of honeybeesin many parts of the world. The beetle is native tosub-Saharan Africa and was unintentionally introducedinto USA (1996), Australia (2001) and in Canada(2002) (Ellis and Munn, 2005; Neumann and Ellis2008). In Europe the SHB was discovered in 2005 ina consignment of queens imported from Texas (USA)into Portugal and destroyed by the Portuguese NationalVeterinaria...

  14. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products Compostos de plantas com atividade inseticida a coleópteros-praga de produtos armazenados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Dionizio Moreira; Marcelo Coutinho Picanço; Luiz Cláudio de Almeida Barbosa; Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes; Mateus Ribeiro de Campos; Gerson Adriano Silva; Júlio Cláudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  15. Mortality and impaired development of Zabrotes subfasciatus Boh. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) induced by extract of sangra d’água Croton urucurana Baill (Euphorbiaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel dos Santos Carvalho; Leonardo Santana da Silva; Luciana Barboza Silva; Mayra Layra dos Santos Almeida; Bruno Ettore Pavam; Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2014-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L., the green bean, is an important source of protein and minerals in the diet of the population. But its productivity is affected by the attack of numerous pests, from emergence to storage, Zabrotes subfasciatus Boh. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) being the major pest of stored beans. In the search for alternatives to chemical control of this insect and considering the potential biological activity of plant secondary metabolites, this study was conducted in order to evaluate...

  16. A Temperature-Dependent Development Model for Willow Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Ireland: Simulation of Phenology/Voltinism in Response to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Ciaran P.

    2015-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel prices, energy security and adherence to existing European Union (EU) climate/energy policies means that Ireland must look towards alternative energy sources to meet future demand. Woody biomass in the form of short rotation coppice willow (SRCW) is considered a viable option. SRCW is vulnerable to damage by a range of diseases and pests however. The blue (Phratora vulgatissima) and brown (Galerucella lineola) willow beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are identified econom...

  17. Hexamermis paranaense new species (Nematoda, Mermithidae: a parasite of Diloboderus abderus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in Argentina Hexamermis paranaense sp. nov. (Nematoda, Mermithidae: parasito de Diloboderus abderus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Achinelly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Hexamermis paranaense n. sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae, a parasite of larvae of Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by amphids small, amphidial opening pocket-shaped, the anterior portion of the vagina muscularized and slightly protruding with a descending branch forming a loop before joining the uterus, and three rows of genital papillae: the ventrolateral divided in two rows with eight papillae in the outer row and with six papillae in the inner one; the ventral row with four pairs and one single preanal papillae, and with two pairs, a triplete, one pair, a single and one pair postanal papillae.Una nueva especie, Hexamermis paranaense sp. nov. (Nematoda, Mermithidae, parásito de larvas del gusano blanco, Diloboderus abderus Sturm, 1826 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, se describe e ilustra. Esta nueva especie se caracteriza por poseer anfidos pequeños, con la apertura en forma de bolsillo, parte anterior de la vagina muscular, con una rama que desciende y forma un lazo antes de la conexión al útero, tres hileras de papilas genitales: la hilera de posición ventro-lateral dividida en dos hileras con ocho papilas en la hilera externa y con seis papilas en la interna; la hilera ventral con una papila, seguida de cuatro pares, todas en posición preanal y dos pares, interrumpidos por tres papilas, seguida de un par, una simple, y un par, todas de posición postanal.

  18. Community Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Having communities extracted, appropriate knowledge and methods for dynamic analysis may be applied in order to identify changes as well as to predict the future of all or some selected groups. Furthermore, knowing the most probably change of a given group some additional steps may be performed in order to change this predicted future according to specific needs. Such ability would be a powerful tool in the hands of human resource managers, personnel recruitment, marketing, telecommunication companies, etc.

  19. Response of macroinvertebrate communities to remediation-simulating conditions in Pennsylvania streams influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Long, E.S.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We compared naturally alkaline streams with limestone lithology to freestone streams with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) to predict benthic macroinvertebrate community recovery from AMD in limestone-treated watersheds. Surrogate-recovered (limestone) and, in many cases, freestone systems had significantly higher macroinvertebrate densities; diversity; taxa richness; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa; EPT/chironomid ratios; scraper/collector - gatherer ratios; herbivores; collector - filterers; and scrapers. AMD-influenced systems had significantly greater numbers of Diptera and collector - gatherers. An entire trophic level (herbivores) was 'restored' in surrogate-recovered streams, which also showed greater trophic specialization. Indicator analysis identified seven taxa (within Crustacea, Diptera, Nematoda, Trichoptera, and Ephemeroptera) as significant indicators of limestone systems and six taxa (within Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Tricoptera, Coleoptera, and Mollusca) as significant freestone indicators, all useful as biological indicators of recovery from AMD. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  20. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge...... goes beyond a mere structural approach to the organization of social networks and hence proposes a tighter integration between research on social networks and organizational design....

  1. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  2. How old are the rove beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and their lineages? Seeking an answer with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-06-01

    The phylogeny and related evolutionary history of rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) remain unclear. This study provides phylogenetic analyses for the family based on three genes (mitochondrial COI, nuclear protein-coding wingless and a portion of the ribosomal 28S rDNA) including 2413 bp for 104 taxa representing most major staphylinid lineages. The subfamilies Oxyporinae, Paederinae, Steninae, and Proteininae are all well-supported clades, as evidenced by all three inference methods, namely maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood. From fossils available for calibration, the divergence time of the main lineages in the family is estimated based on an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock analysis method. The molecular clock analysis suggests that the family Staphylinidae dates from approximately the Early Triassic epoch and the most lineages of the family started to radiate from the Late Jurassic to the Early Paleogene.

  3. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  4. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G., E-mail: mhonnicke@bnl.go [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Rigon, L. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCPa, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Arfelli, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Dipartamento di Fisica-Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H. [Departamento de Zoologia-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-08-21

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  5. The effects of temperature, diet, and other factors on development, survivorship, and oviposition of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Patt, Joseph M

    2011-06-01

    Developmental rate and survivorship of small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), life stages were measured across different temperatures (21, 25, 28, 32 and 35 degrees C) and diets, which included natural and artificial pollen, honey, and bee pupae. Temperature affected hatch success, time to hatching, and larval growth. Eggs hatched in 61 h at 21 degrees C but in Beetles lived longer at 28 degrees C or lower but produced the most eggs per female, regardless of diet, at 32 degrees C. Beetle density influenced fecundity: beetles kept at three pairs per vial laid 6.7 times more eggs per female than those kept as single pairs. Overall, beetles fared best at 28-32 degrees C with mortality of all stages highest at 35 degrees C. PMID:21735891

  6. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  7. Descriptions of the Larvae of Two Species of Paranomala and One Species of Strigoderma (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae from Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alfonso Cuate Mozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  The third instar larvae of Paranomala flavilla  (Bates, P. hoepfneri  (Bates and Strigoderma costulipennis  Bates, collected in Puebla, Mexico, in soils cultivated with amaranth are described. Illustrations of the diagnostic structures and comments on the differences with other larvae of the genera studied in Mexico are included.CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS LARVAS DE DOS ESPECIES DE Paranomala Y UNA ESPECIE DE Strigoderma (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE: RUTELINAE DE PUEBLA, MÉXICO.Se presentan las descripciones de la larva de tercer estadio de Paranomala flavilla (Bates, P. hoepfneri (Bates y Strigoderma costulipennis Bates, recolectadas en el estado de Puebla, México, en suelos con cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.. Se incluyen ilustraciones distintivas y comentarios sobre las diferencias con las larvas de otras especies de los géneros estudiados en México.

  8. Effect of Plant Characteristics and Within-Plant Distribution of Prey on Colonization Efficiency of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folukemi Adedipe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae has been widely used in classical and inundative biological control of mealybugs, including the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. This study was conducted to investigate colonization and establishment efficiency of C. montrouzieri to manage P. longispinus on three different ornamental plant species (Ficus elastica, Lilium longiflorum, and Dieffenbachia seguine. Within-plant distribution pattern of P. longispinus and the colonization ecology of adult C. montrouzieri were investigated. Significantly more P. longispinus were found on the upper parts of the plants regardless of plant species, and C. montrouzieri adults discovered P. longispinus significantly faster when they were released on the top of the plants than on the bottom. Choice tests revealed that C. montrouzieri adults preferred smaller P. longispinus nymphs. The implications for utilization of C. montrouzieri for biological control of mealybugs on various ornamental plants are discussed.

  9. Potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank (Astigmata: Acaridae for the Biological Control of Lasioderma serricorne (F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco da Cruz Canevari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the potential of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank (Astigmata: Acaridae to control Lasioderma serricorne (F. (Coleoptera: Anobiidae in the laboratory. L. serricorne is the most destructive insect pest ever found on stored tobacco. The experimental delineation had 33 arenas being each experimental unit with 11 arenas of experiments with eggs, larva of L. serricorne with the density of T. putrescentiae maintained constant, where from 11 of these arenas, eight were for the analysis of predation and three to evaluate the natural mortality of the insect. The highest predation rate was found during the larval stage with, approximately, 54, 68 and 78% mortality of L. serricorne from the fourth until the sixty day of predation. These results indicated that it was possible to use the predatory mite T. putrescentiae in pest management programs of L. serricorne in the storage units of tobacco.

  10. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees in urban Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, R W; Moore, A

    2010-08-01

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes luzonicus Oshima (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The low-frequency, long-duration sound-impulse trains produced by large, active O. rhinoceros and the higher frequency, shorter impulse trains produced by feeding N. luzonicus had distinctive spectral and temporal patterns that facilitated their identification and discrimination from background noise, as well as from roaches, earwigs, and other small sound-producing organisms present in the trees and logs. The distinctiveness of the O. rhinoceros sounds enables current usage of acoustic detection as a tactic in Guam's ongoing O. rhinoceros eradication program.

  11. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities. PMID:23949861

  12. Genetic differentiation among populations of the beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae) in a fragmented and a continuous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, H; Rukke, B A; Jorde, P E; Ims, R A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic differentiation among local populations of the fungivorous beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied in two contrasting landscapes: one heavily fragmented with forest fragments of variable size surrounded by inhabitable agricultural fields, the other an old forest providing a continuous habitat. The genetic structure of the beetle within each of the two contrasting areas was investigated by means of protein electrophoresis, screening four polymorphic loci in 20 populations from each area. In both areas there were significant genetic differences among local populations, but on average differentiation in the fragmented area was three times greater than in the continuous one, strongly indicating a genetic isolation effect of habitat fragmentation. These genetic results are in accordance with previous studies on dispersal in this species. PMID:10886382

  13. Characterization of the proteases in the midgut of the xylophagous larvae of Oemona hirta (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian David Shaw; John Tane Christeller

    2009-01-01

    The protein digestive capability oftbe larvae of the longhorn beetle (Oemona hirta,Coleoptera:Cerambycidae,Fabricius,1775) was investigated.This species feeds only on wood where there is a high proportion of vascular tissue.The pH of the midgut,the major digestive organ,was alkaline and protein hydrolysis was maximal at alkaline pH.Use of specific synthetic peptide substrates showed that the major protease activities were the endopeptidases,trypsin and chymotrypsin-like activity,and the exopeptidase,leucine aminopeptidase and the pH curves corresponded to that with protein substrate.Studies using a range ofsefine protease inhibitors as well as specific inhibitors ofmetalloproteases,cysteine proteases and aspartate proteases confirmed a serine protease-based digestive system similar to earlier reports of sapwood-feeding Cerambycids.Control of these insect pests using protease inhibitors is discussed.

  14. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  15. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  16. Intra-Annual Variation in Responses by Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Pheromone Component endo-Brevicomin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian T; Brownie, Cavell; Barrett, JoAnne P

    2016-08-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endo-brevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component spacing, and proximity of beetle infestations. Anecdotal observations have further suggested that the effects of endo-brevicomin vary during the year. We investigated this possibility under nonoutbreak conditions in southwestern Mississippi where for two-and-a-half years we monitored traps baited with frontalin and the host odor alpha-pinene either (a) alone, or with an endo-brevicomin release device either (b) located directly on the trap, or (c) displaced 6 m away. The endo-brevicomin devices in our tests increased D. frontalis catches during all times of year, and 6 m displacement of the endo-brevicomin release device from the trap did not significantly alter responses except during the spring flight peak when displacement increased catches. Our data suggest that flying D. frontalis have a stronger tendency to avoid the immediate proximity of a release point of endo-brevicomin during their springtime dispersal flight when catches are greatest. Catches of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a major predator of D. frontalis, were not altered by endo-brevicomin, and ratios of D. frontalis to T. dubius changed over the course of the year. We discuss the possible effects of intra-annual variation in D. frontalis response to endo-brevicomin both on beetle attack behavior and use of endo-brevicomin as a lure adjuvant in D. frontalis population monitoring.

  17. Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae parasitizing Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinar George O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is native to central and eastern Asia and was purposely introduced into Europe to control aphids. While it proved to be a good biological control agent, its rapid spread and buildup of large populations made it a nuisance, since it overwinters in homes, emits unpleasant odors, stains fabrics, occasionally bites humans and feeds on apples, pears and grapes. Aside from the above, the ravenous appetite of H. axyridis results in their consumption of harmless native insects, including even other ladybird beetles. A study of the natural enemies of H. axyridis in Denmark revealed the presence of nematodes. The present study describes this nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development and ecology. Methods Adult harlequin ladybird beetles were collected from March to November from four localities in Copenhagen on different plant species. In addition, groups of last-instar larvae and pupae (n = 50 were examined for the presence of nematodes. Living and recently dead nematodes were removed from adult H. axyridis in 0.5% saline solution, the nematodes were then heat killed (at 75C, fixed in 5% formalin and transferred to glycerin on slides for further examination and measurements. Results A new species of Allantonematidae (Tylenchida, Parasitylenchus bifurcatus n. sp., is described from adults of the harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis in Denmark. The new species is characterized by a straight stylet lacking basal thickenings, a bursa and a forked tail tip in the vermiform (infective females and juvenile males. The new species is compared with P. coccinellinae previously described from ladybird beetles in France. Parasitism resulted in depletion of the fat body and partial or complete atrophy of the reproductive organs of the beetles. Infections occurred throughout the year with rates of parasitism reaching up to 35%. The rate increased to 60

  18. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera in Peregrina Canyon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Jeshua Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera is a highly speciose family that has been poorly studied at the regional level in Mexico. In the present study, we estimated species richness and diversity in oak-pine forest, Tamaulipan thorny scrub and in tropical deciduous forests in Peregrina Canyon within the Altas Cumbres Protected Area of the northeastern state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Sampling of Chrysomelidae consisted of five sweep net samples (200 net sweeps within each of three sites during four sample periods: early dry season, late dry season, early wet season, and late wet season. Species were identified and total numbers per species were recorded for each sample. A total of 2,226 specimens were collected belonging to six subfamilies, 81 genera and 157 species of Chrysomelidae from the study area. Galerucinae was the most abundant subfamily with 1,828 specimens, representing 82.1% of total abundance in the study area. Lower abundance was recorded in Cassidinae (8.5%, Eumolpinae (3.6%, Cryptocephalinae (2.2%, Chrysomelinae (2.2%, and finally Criocerinae (1.3%. The highest species richness was also presented in the subfamily Galerucinae with 49% of the total obtained species followed by Cassidinae (20%, Cryptocephalinae (9.7%, Eumolpinae (9.7%, Chrysomelinae (6.5% and Criocerinae (5.2%. The most common species were Centralaphthona fulvipennis Jacoby (412 individuals, Centralaphthona diversa (Baly (248, Margaridisa sp.1 (219, Acallepitrix sp.1 (134, Longitarsus sp.1 (104, Heterispa vinula (Erichson (91, Epitrix sp.1 (84 and Chaetocnema sp.1 (72. Twenty-two species were doubletons (1.97% of total abundance and 52 were singletons (2.33%. The estimated overall density value obtained was 0.0037 individuals/m2. The greatest abundance and density of individuals were recorded at the lowest elevation site. However, alpha diversity increased with increasing altitude. Similarity values were less than 50% among the three sites indicating that each site had distinct

  19. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine;

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  20. Impacts of an invasive non-native annual weed, Impatiens glandulifera, on above- and below-ground invertebrate communities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Robert A; Varia, Sonal; Eschen, René; Wood, Suzy; Murphy, Sean T; Gange, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation community composition and the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities are linked intrinsically, though few studies have assessed the impact of non-native plants on both these parts of the community together. We evaluated the differences in the above- (foliage- and ground-dwelling) and below-ground invertebrate communities in nine uninvaded plots and nine plots invaded by the annual invasive species Impatiens glandulifera, in the UK during 2007 and 2008. Over 139,000 invertebrates were identified into distinct taxa and categorised into functional feeding groups. The impact of I. glandulifera on the vegetation and invertebrate community composition was evaluated using multivariate statistics including principal response curves (PRC) and redundancy analysis (RDA). In the foliage-dwelling community, all functional feeding groups were less abundant in the invaded plots, and the species richness of Coleoptera and Heteroptera was significantly reduced. In the ground-dwelling community, herbivores, detritivores, and predators were all significantly less abundant in the invaded plots. In contrast, these functional groups in the below-ground community appeared to be largely unaffected, and even positively associated with the presence of I. glandulifera. Although the cover of I. glandulifera decreased in the invaded plots in the second year of the study, only the below-ground invertebrate community showed a significant response. These results indicate that the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities respond differently to the presence of I. glandulifera, and these community shifts can potentially lead to a habitat less biologically diverse than surrounding native communities; which could have negative impacts on higher trophic levels and ecosystem functioning. PMID:23840648

  1. Impacts of an invasive non-native annual weed, Impatiens glandulifera, on above- and below-ground invertebrate communities in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Tanner

    Full Text Available Vegetation community composition and the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities are linked intrinsically, though few studies have assessed the impact of non-native plants on both these parts of the community together. We evaluated the differences in the above- (foliage- and ground-dwelling and below-ground invertebrate communities in nine uninvaded plots and nine plots invaded by the annual invasive species Impatiens glandulifera, in the UK during 2007 and 2008. Over 139,000 invertebrates were identified into distinct taxa and categorised into functional feeding groups. The impact of I. glandulifera on the vegetation and invertebrate community composition was evaluated using multivariate statistics including principal response curves (PRC and redundancy analysis (RDA. In the foliage-dwelling community, all functional feeding groups were less abundant in the invaded plots, and the species richness of Coleoptera and Heteroptera was significantly reduced. In the ground-dwelling community, herbivores, detritivores, and predators were all significantly less abundant in the invaded plots. In contrast, these functional groups in the below-ground community appeared to be largely unaffected, and even positively associated with the presence of I. glandulifera. Although the cover of I. glandulifera decreased in the invaded plots in the second year of the study, only the below-ground invertebrate community showed a significant response. These results indicate that the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities respond differently to the presence of I. glandulifera, and these community shifts can potentially lead to a habitat less biologically diverse than surrounding native communities; which could have negative impacts on higher trophic levels and ecosystem functioning.

  2. Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

    2011-09-14

    The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

  3. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    of these designed communities: What social life is promoted in such recent architectural visions? And to what extent can the social life and identity of a place actually be designed? The paper discusses these questions based on a fieldwork in three new housing complexes in the Copenhagen Region: The A-house...... by architect Carsten Holgaard, the 8-house by BIG, and Lange Eng (The Long Meadow) by Dorte Mandrup. Rather than taking the perspective of either architect or user, the fieldwork has ethnographically traced the entire process from design to occupancy. The aim is to explore how the social life and identity...... of a place is initially formed through the hands of architects, developers and estate agents, and further shaped and realized by residents, when taken into use. I suggest that by way of branding and iconic architecture these thoroughly designed environments reinforce the notion of residential space...

  4. Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae da coleção de invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae of the invertebrate collection of the National Institute of Research of Amazonia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Jaime Gasca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA possui 554 espécimes de Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, pertencentes a 7 gêneros, 16 espécies e 2 subespécies. As distribuições geográficas das espécies são fornecidas, sendo que 97% do material examinado procedem de coletas feitas em diferentes locais da Amazônia brasileira.The Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, has 554 specimens of Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, belonging to seven genera, 16 species and two subspecies. Information about geographical distribution are provided, of which 97% of the material examined was collected from several places in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland-Riggert, Brandye T.; Cairns, Stefan H.; Poulton, Barry C.; Riggert, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O. hylas and one without. Significant differences between sites and across four sampling periods and two habitats were found in five categories of benthic macroinvertebrate metrics: species richness, percent/composition, dominance/diversity, functional feeding groups, and biotic indices. In most seasons and habitat combinations, the invaded site had significantly higher relative abundance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae), and significantly lower Missouri biotic index values, total taxa richness, and both richness and relative abundance of midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). Overall study results indicate that some macroinvertebrate community differences due to the O. hylas invasion were not consistent between seasons and habitats, suggesting that further research on spatial and temporal habitat use and feeding ecology of Ozark crayfish species is needed to improve our understanding of the effects of these invasions on aquatic communities.

  6. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  7. Fauna de Coleoptera no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil: abundância e riqueza das famílias capturadas através de armadilhas de solo Coleoptera fauna in the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil: abundance and family richness captured with pitfall traps

    OpenAIRE

    Renato C. Marinoni; Norma G. Ganho

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a part of the studies on the Coleoptera fauna from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Parana gathered through malaise and pitfall traps in sites with different floristic conditions. The present study deal with the data of pitfall trap captures, installed close to the malaise traps. The data were obtained weekly (52 samples), from September 1999 to August 2000. This survey was carried out on five areas, three of them with different plant succession stages (initial, intermediate, and advan...

  8. Levantamento da fauna de Coleoptera que habita a carcaça de Sus scrofa L., em Curitiba, Paraná A study of the Coleoptera (Insecta fauna that inhabits Sus scrofa L. carcass in Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Makoto Mise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou levantar a fauna de Coleoptera associada à carcaça de Sus scrofa L.,1758, espécie utilizada como modelo em Entomologia Forense. O acréscimo ou a substituição seqüencial das espécies de insetos pode ser utilizado para estimar o intervalo post mortem (IPM. O experimento foi realizado no Centro Politécnico (UFPR, de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006. A cada estação foi sacrificado um suíno de 15 kg no local, colocado em gaiola. A captura dos insetos foi realizada diariamente em bandeja posicionada abaixo da carcaça e em armadilha tipo Shannon modificada, e a cada 14 dias em cinco armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foram coletados 4.360 Coleoptera, pertencentes a 112 espécies de 26 famílias, 12 consideradas de importância forense. A coleta ativa realizada na bandeja foi responsável pela maior captura (2.023 espécimes, seguida pela armadilha Shannon modificada (2.016 espécimes e por último pelas do tipo pit-fall (324 espécimes. Staphylinidae foi mais coletada na bandeja e Shannon modificada, e Silphidae na armadilha pit-fall. Os principais hábitos encontrados foram predador/parasita (55%e onívoro (38,05%, com poucas espécies consideradas necrófagas (1,31%.This paper sought to assess the Coleoptera fauna associated with carcasses of Sus scrofa L., 1758, which is usually used as model in Forensic Entomology. The addition and sequential substitution of insect species could be used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI. The present study took place in Centro Politécnico (UFPR, between september 2005 to september 2006. A pig weighting 15 kg was sacrificed each season and put inside a cage. Sampling is made daily in a tray placed below the carcass and in a Shannon modified trap, and each 14 days in five pit-fall traps. 4,360 beetles were collected, belonging to 112 species of 26 families, 12 were considered of forensic potential. The active collecting made in the tray was responsible for the largest number of

  9. The root herbivore history of the soil affects the productivity of a grassland plant community and determines plant response to new root herbivore attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Sonnemann

    Full Text Available Insect root herbivores can alter plant community structure by affecting the competitive ability of single plants. However, their effects can be modified by the soil environment. Root herbivory itself may induce changes in the soil biota community, and it has recently been shown that these changes can affect plant growth in a subsequent season or plant generation. However, so far it is not known whether these root herbivore history effects (i are detectable at the plant community level and/or (ii also determine plant species and plant community responses to new root herbivore attack. The present greenhouse study determined root herbivore history effects of click beetle larvae (Elateridae, Coleoptera, genus Agriotes in a model grassland plant community consisting of six common species (Achillea millefolium, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Holcus lanatus, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens. Root herbivore history effects were generated in a first phase of the experiment by growing the plant community in soil with or without Agriotes larvae, and investigated in a second phase by growing it again in the soils that were either Agriotes trained or not. The root herbivore history of the soil affected plant community productivity (but not composition, with communities growing in root herbivore trained soil producing more biomass than those growing in untrained soil. Additionally, it influenced the response of certain plant species to new root herbivore attack. Effects may partly be explained by herbivore-induced shifts in the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The root herbivore history of the soil proved to be a stronger driver of plant growth on the community level than an actual root herbivore attack which did not affect plant community parameters. History effects have to be taken into account when predicting the impact of root herbivores on grasslands.

  10. Collection of Coleoptera from a poultry farm in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Flutuação de Coleoptera em granja avícola, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moscarelli Pinto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the population fluctuation of Coleoptera from a poultry farm in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, two sampling methods were used: a tube-type trap and a sandwich trap. The analyses of polynomial regression were applied independent of the type of sampling method used. The experiment was carried out for twelve months, from April 2002 to March 2003, in a broiler barn aviary at the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça/UFPEL. A total of 43.945 Coleopterans were captured from the following species: Alphitobius diaperinus, Carcinops troglodytes, Euspilotus rubriculus, Gnathocerus cornutus, Mezium americanum and Somotrichus unifasciatus. Among these, Alphitobius diaperinus was present in all months of the year, with larval population peak in February (235 and lowest capture in August (01. The adult population peak was in March (12,020 and the lowest capture in July (27. The remaining captured Coleopterans did not occur in all twelve months, however they also had population peaks in the months of February and March, which also were the months with the highest temperatures.Para avaliação da flutuação populacional de Coleoptera, em granja avícola, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foram utilizados dois métodos de coleta: armadilha do tipo tubo e do tipo sanduíche, durante doze meses. A análise de regressão polinomial foi aplicada independentemente do tipo de método de coleta utilizado. O experimento foi conduzido durante 12 meses, de abril de 2002 a março de 2003, em um aviário de aves poedeiras do Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL. Foram capturados 43.945 Coleopteros das espécies Alphitobius diaperinus, Carcinops troglodytes, Euspilotus rubriculus, Gnathocerus cornutus, Mezium americanum e Somotrichus unifasciatus. Entre esses Coleopteros, Alphitobius diaperinus esteve presente em todos os meses do ano, com pico populacional de larvas em fevereiro (235 e menor índice de

  11. Ocorrência de Hylettus seniculus (Germar,1824 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, em pomares cítricos de Roraima, Brasil, e alternativas de controle Hylettus seniculus (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, occurrence in citric orchards of Roraima, Brazil, and controle alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Barbosa Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção citrícola no estado de Roraima é limitada por alguns fatores, dentre os quais as pragas ocupam destaque especial. Nos últimos anos uma nova praga vem causando danos em vários pomares no Estado. Este trabalho objetivou identificar esta nova praga bem como descrever os principais sintomas e danos, visando a correta recomendação para o seu controle. Ramos e troncos infestados com o inseto, oriundos de vários pomares foram coletados e colocados em gaiolas teladas. Após a emergência, os espécimes foram mortos e acondicionados em frascos contendo álcool a 70% e conduzidos para o Centro de Identificação de Insetos Fitófagos da UFPR, Curitiba-PR, para a identificação. O inseto foi identificado como Hylettus seniculus (Germar,1824(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae,até então não citado como espécie de importância econômica para a citricultura de Roraima. Atribuiu-se sua ocorrência ao manejo fitossanitário inadequado dos pomares de citros; plantios velhos e abandonados; e a existência de hospedeiros florestais. Fatores estes considerados como favoráveis à proliferação e disseminação do inseto nos pomares.The citriculture in Roraima state is limited by some factors, within which the pests have a special prominence. In the last years, a new plague has damaged on several orchards in the state. The objective of this work is to identify this new pest as well as to describe the main symptoms and damages, aiming a correct recommendation for its control. Infested branches and trunks were collected from several orchards and placed into cages. After emergency, the specimens were sacrificed, then conditioned in bottles with 70% ethanol, and lead to the Centro de Identificação de Insetos Fitófagos-UFPR, Curitiba-PR, for the identification. The insect was identified as Hylettus seniculus (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, until this momment, it was not cited as a species of economic importance for the citriculture of the state

  12. Effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalaki, M P; Athanassiou, C G; Steenberg, Tove;

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal eVect of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) was evaluated against adults and larvae of the confused Xour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and larvae of the Mediterranean Xour...

  13. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James LaBonte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of S. schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in S. schevyrewi is discussed.

  14. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    James LaBonte

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of Scolytus schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in Scolytus schevyrewi is discussed.

  15. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  16. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    OpenAIRE

    August John Hoffman; Julie Wallach; Eduardo Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community ...

  17. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  18. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  19. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities.

  20. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  1. Molecular field analysis of trophic relationships in soil-dwelling invertebrates to identify mercury, lead and cadmium transmission through forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerić Jelaska, Lucija; Jurasović, Jasna; Brown, David S; Vaughan, Ian P; Symondson, William O C

    2014-08-01

    Contamination pathways in complex food chains in soil ecosystems can be difficult to elucidate. Molecular analysis of predator gut content can, however, rapidly reveal previously unidentified trophic interactions between invertebrates and thereby uncover pathways of pollutant spread. Here, we measured concentrations of the toxic metals lead, cadmium and mercury in carabid beetle predators and their prey. Invertebrates were sampled at one control and four heavy metal-polluted sites to reveal the impact of diet composition and seasonal variation in prey availability on metal burden in carabids and metal transfer pathways through forest ecosystems. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of carabid diet composition based on PCR analysis of gut contents at the forest community level, rather than in cultivated fields. Extensive screening using group- and species-specific primers revealed that carabids ate primarily earthworms and slugs, as well as smaller numbers of woodlice and springtails. Metal concentrations in carabids correlated with seasonal changes in diet. Mercury accumulated in beetle predators more than in their slug prey. As earthworms, slugs and carabid beetles are the major prey of many birds and mammals, prey-predator transfer and associated toxicity are major risks at mercury-contaminated sites. Carabids may be useful bioindicators for assessing the impact of pollutants on soil ecosystems, as long as species and seasonal factors are taken into account. PMID:24138157

  2. Protestant communities as mission communities / by Hyun Jin Kim

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Huyan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Community is an integrative motif and the central message of the Bible. The divine goal of history is God's establishment of community. The Triune God is the origin of community and community is the mode of existence of God. Christian community is derived from God's community. The church is a community restored by the Triune God, and so the essence of the church is Christian community. The Bible is the history of community involving the beginning of community, the destruction of community, th...

  3. Los ejemplares tipo de Dryopidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae y Psephenidae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea, depositados en la colección del Museo de La Plata The types of Dryopidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae and Psephenidae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea housed at the Museo de La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana A. Fernández

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron los ejemplares tipo depositados en la colección de la División Entomología del Museo de La Plata, pertenecientes a diversas especies nominales de Byrrhoidea: Dryopidae (1 especie, 1 ejemplar tipo, Elmidae (4, 9, Limnichidae (29, 47 y Psephenidae (1, 2. El material tipo fue estudiado por los siguientes autores: Pic, Spangler, Spangler & Brown, Spangler & Perkins, Spangler & Santiago, Spilman y Wooldridge. Para cada taxón se indica la publicación original, datos de colección y condición del material.The types of species of Byrrhoidea (Coleoptera housed in the collection of the División Entomología of Museo de La Plata were examined and listed. They belong to 35 species distributed in the families Dryopidae (1 species, 1 type, Elmidae (4, 9, Limnichidae (29, 47 and Psephenidae (1, 2. The types were described by Pic, Spangler, Spangler & Brown, Spangler & Perkins, Spangler & Santiago, Spilman, and Wooldridge. For each taxon, complete information about categories of types, reference original descriptions, collection data and specimen condition are given.

  4. Efeitos da radiação gama do Cobalto-60 em ovos de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Gamma radiation effects on eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Fontes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar as doses esterilizantes e letal para ovos de T. castaneum (Herbst., 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, através de doses crescentes de radiação gama. Utilizou-se uma fonte de Cobalto-60, tipo Gammabeam-650, com taxa de dose de 1,28 kGy/hora. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições controladas com temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e umidade relativa de 70 ± 5%. As doses letal e esterilizante para os ovos foram respectivamente 30 e 20 Gy.The objective of this research was to verify the effects of gamma radiation of a Cobalt-60 source on eggs of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797. The used dose rate was 1.28 kGy per hour, and the irradiated insects were kept under controlled environment condition: 25 ± 2°C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity. For eggs the sterilizing and lethal dose were respectively, 20 and 30 Gy.

  5. Prosthetops wolybergensis sp. nov.--a giant amongst the 'minute moss beetles', with new data on other members of the genus (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetops wolfbergensis sp. nov. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Western and Northern Cape regions of South Africa; the new species, at up to 4.2 mm total length, apparently being the longest 'minute moss beetle' described to date. Prosthetops species are characteristic inhabitants of temporary rainwater pools and seepages on exposed plateau in the Cape fold mountains, and on rock outcrops beside streams and rivers. New collection records and ecological data are given for members of the genus, and the female of Prosthetops pronotus Perkins & Balfour-Browne, 1994 is described and illustrated for the first time.

  6. Notas, descrições, sinonímias e revalidação em Hesperandra Arigony, 1977 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Parandrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Notes, descriptions, synonymies and reinstatement in Hesperandra Arigony, 1977 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Parandrinae. The genus Hesperandra Arigony, 1977, is divided in three subgenera: Hesperandra s. str., Zikandra subgen. nov. and Tavandra subgen. nov. Keys to the subgenera and species are added. H. glaberrima (Zikán, 1948 is revalidated and redescribed. H. humboldti sp. nov., from Colombia and Ecuador is described. New synonymies established: Hesperandra galapagoensis (Van Dyke, 1953 = H. brevicollis (Lameere, 1902; H. scrobriculata (Zikán, 1948 = Acutandra murrayi (Lameere, 1912. The lectotype of Parandra brevicollis Lameere, 1902 is designated.

  7. Estudio taxonómico de las especies de la familia bruchidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) relacionadas con el género Desmodium (Fabaceae) en el mundo.

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Chan, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó con el propósito de determinar las especies de brúquidos (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) que se alimentan de semillas de plantas del género Desmodium Desv. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) en el mundo. Se desarrollaron claves dicotómicas para determinar géneros y especies de brúquidos del Nuevo y Viejo Mundo, además de ampliar la información existente sobre la asociación brúquido-Desmodium de la base de datos BRUCOL. Se revisaron semillas de Desmodium infestadas por ...

  8. A new species of endogean, anophthalmous Parazuphium Jeannel from Northern Morocco (Coleoptera: Carabidae, with new molecular data for the tribe Zuphiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Andújar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Parazuphium (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zuphiini, Parazuphium aguilerai sp.n., is described from the Tingitan peninsula in North Morocco. The single known specimen was found below a large stone deeply inserted in the substratum, and it is anophthalmous, depigmented and flattened. This is the second species of blind Parazuphium, the other being P. feloi Machado 1998 from a lave tube in the Canary Islands. Molecular data of the unique known P. aguilerai sp.n. specimen is provided, and a molecular phylogeny confirm its inclusion inside Zuphiini within Harpalinae. Identification keys to the Mediterranean and Macaronesian species of Parazuphium are provided.

  9. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  10. Aspectos biológicos e técnica de criação do gorgulho-da-goiaba, Conotrachelus psidii marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio Iglesias Valente; Vera Lúcia Rodrigues Machado Benassi

    2014-01-01

    Considerada praga-chave da cultura da goiaba, Conotrachelus psidii Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) tem causado grandes prejuízos em vários países produtores desta fruta. A pesquisa objetivou avaliar os parâmetros biológicos da praga, sob condições controladas, através do desenvolvimento de uma técnica de criação que permitiu efetuar observações diárias de pré-pupas e pupas. Constatou-se que o substrato adequado para manutenção dessas fases foi o solo argiloso umedecido com viabilidade de...

  11. Synopsis of the genus Exalphus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, with description of a new species and new country records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Santana Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synopsis of the genus Exalphus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, with description of a new species and new country records. A synopsis of Exalphus Restello et al., 2001 is presented. Exalphus solangeae sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Amazonas. A key to identification with illustrations for 14 species of the genus is provided, and notes on distribution with new records are included for nine species: E. biannulatus (Aurivillius, 1921, E. calvifrons (Bates, 1872, E. colasi (Lane, 1965, E. foveatus (Marinoni & Martins, 1978, E. gounellei (Lane, 1973, E. guaraniticus (Lane, 1955, E. leuconotus (Thomson, 1860, E. malleri (Lane, 1955 and E. spilonotus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni, 2001.

  12. Insecticidal effect of essential oils from mediterranean plants uponAcanthoscelides Obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault-Roger, C; Hamraoui, A; Holeman, M; Theron, E; Pinel, R

    1993-06-01

    The bioactivity of 22 essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants was tested uponAcanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), a pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The insecticidal effect was evaluated by determination of 24- and 48-hr LC50 and LC50 (from 1.50 mg/ dm(3) to more than 1000 mg/dm(3)). Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified by gas chromatography. The most efficient essential oils were extracted from plants belonging to Labiatae.Origanum marjorana andThymus serpyllum essential oils were the most toxic.

  13. Effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of red turpentine beetle larvae, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Hong Shi; Bo Wang; Stephen R.Clarke; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Dendroctonus-fungus symbioses are often considered as the ideal model systems to study the development and maintenance ofectosymbioses,and diverse interactions,including antagonism,commensalism and mutualism,have been documented between these organisms.The red turpentine beetle,Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae) is a pine-killing invasive beetle in northern China.Fungi species Ophiostoma minus,Leptographium sinoprocerum,L.terebrantis and L.procerum were associated with this bark beetle.Antagonistic interactions between D.valens and its associated fungi,such as O.minus and L.sinoprocerum,have been demonstrated,but the underlying causes of this phenomenon are unknown.Here,we first found the two tested fungi species retarded the net weight gain of D.valens larvae after completing 3-day feeding on their media.Furthermore,we provide direct evidence indicating the effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of D.valens larvae to explain the documented antagonism.Our results showed that the activity of phenoloxidase and total phenoloxidase in D.valens larvae were significantly upregulated by two strains of associated fungi,O.minus and L.sinoprocerum as compared with the controls.The phenoloxidase ratio increased significantly in the larvae which had fed for 3 days on media inoculated with O.minus.Because insect immune defenses are costly to be deployed,these results could be explored as one of the underlying mechanisms of the documented antagonism.

  14. Population Dynamics of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Jatropha curcas, and Environmental Factors Favoring Its Abundance in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadogo, Alizèta; Nagalo, Estérer; Nacro, Souleymane; Rouamba, Mathurin; Kenis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The flea beetle Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the main pest of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Burkina Faso and several other West African countries. Adults severely defoliate plants, resulting in seedling mortality, poor growth, and low yields. To study the population dynamics of the pest in the Sissili Province of Burkina Faso, 12 sites were monitored weekly during a year and 31 sites were inspected for damage at the peak period of insect abundance. The effect of cropping systems (hedge, intercropping, and monoculture) and surrounding vegetation on population densities of A. whitfieldi was assessed. Beetles were rarely found in the dry season and peaked in the second half of the rainy season. The cropping system did not significantly influence the abundance and attack level. In contrast, the close vicinity of fallow lands seems to increase damage levels. Many aspects of the biology and ecology of A. whitfieldi remain to be investigated before sustainable control methods can be developed. However, this study already allows us to propose recommendations for further research on management. PMID:26206896

  15. Occurrence of adults and biological aspects of Geniates borelli Camerano (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae in Aquidauana, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roberto Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of adults and biological aspects of Geniates borelli Camerano (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Due to the importance of Geniates borelli Camerano as a pest in many crops, studies were developed at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Aquidauana campus, MS, Brazil. Adults were collected with a light trap from January 2006 to December 2007. 3,320 adults were collected, and the highest quantities were obtained in October 2006 and November 2007, with 1,548 and 802 adults recorded, respectively. Collected adults were kept in plastic containers with soil and Brachiaria decumbens seedlings for oviposition. 535 eggs measuring 2.30 × 1.60 mm were obtained. As the embryonic development progressed, eggs increased in size to 3.00 × 2.70 mm, and this change occurred between 6 and 10 days after oviposition. The embryonic period lasted 17.9 days. The first, second, and third instars lasted 37.6, 49.7, and 74 days, respectively. The prepupal stage lasted 65.9 days and the pupal stage lasted an average of 18.5 days. The biological cycle is completed in 315.8 days, which characterizes the species as univoltine. The average longevity of females was 35.4 days and 28.5 days for males.

  16. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae: matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state.Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix.Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say, Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say, Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say, Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.

  17. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron D; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D

    2014-01-01

    Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.

  18. Incidence of turf-damaging white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and associated pathogens and parasitoids on Kentucky golf courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Carl T; Potter, Daniel A

    2010-12-01

    Root-feeding grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were sampled from damaged areas of 61 irrigated roughs on 32 Kentucky golf courses to determine species composition and natural enemy incidence, the first such survey in the United States' transitional turfgrass climatic zone. Masked chafers (Cyclocephala lurida Bland and C. borealis Arrow) and Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) accounted for ≈73 and 26% of grubs found in an autumn survey, with Cyclocephala spp. predominating at most sites, although mixed infestations were common. Only a few Phyllophaga spp., and no exotic species other than P. japonica were found. Cyclocephala spp. also predominated in seasonal and statewide surveys regardless of whether a course had cool- or warm-season grass fairways. Pathogenic bacteria, Paenibacillus and Serratia spp., and the autumn-active parasitoid Tiphia pygidialis Allen were the main enemies associated with Cyclocephala spp. Predominant enemies of P. japonica were Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Metarhizium spp. in autumn, and eugregarines, Stictospora sp. (probably S. villani Hays and Clopton) and Tiphia vernalis Rohwer in spring. Entomopathogenic nematodes and the microsporidian Ovavesicula popilliae Andreadis & Hanula were nearly absent in our samples. No predictive relationships were found between soil parameters and proportionate abundance of Cyclocephala or P. japonica, or with natural enemy incidence at particular sites. Although incidence of individual enemies was generally low (hosts' prolonged development they may take a significant toll on grub populations. PMID:22182549

  19. Attaching lures to multiple-funnel traps targeting saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) in pine stands: inside or outside funnels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Crowe, Christopher M; Barnes, Brittany F; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Duerr, Donald A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted two field trapping experiments with multiple-funnel traps in 2008 and one experiment in 2010 to determine the effects of lure placement (inside or outside funnels) on catches of saproxylic species of beetles (Coleoptera). The experiments were conducted in southern pine (Pinus spp.) stands in central Georgia using combinations of ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures. We report on a modification to the multiple-funnel trap that allows placement of large lures inside the confines of the funnels with minimal blockage. In general, catches of five species of common longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae), two species of regeneration weevils (Curculionidae), four species of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and seven species of beetle predators and ectoparasites (Cleridae, Histeridae, Tenebrionidae, Trogossitidae, and Zopheridae) were higher in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. Catches of the remaining species were unaffected by lure placement. In no instance were catches of any species lower in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. For most species, catches in modified funnel traps with ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures attached inside funnels were comparable with those in cross-vane panel traps.

  20. Effects of seed type and bruchid genotype on the performance and oviposition behavior of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ERICK D. M. CAMPAN; BETTY BENREY

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different bean varieties on the performance of the bruchid beetle Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), was determined by using wild and cultivated seeds of the genus Phaseolus. Results showed that the quality of the host plant affected the performance and the oviposition behavior of female beetles. Overall, bruchid performance was higher on cultivated seeds than on wild seeds. It was also found that the oviposition behavior and the performance of their offspring differed between females that originated from wild versus cultivated seeds. We also demonstrated the importance of a genetic component in bruchid performance: longevity, fecundity, larval development, adult For example, on the same host type, some females laid twice as many eggs as females from Thus, the performance and behavior of Z. subfasciatus are not only affected by environmental factors such as the quality of the seeds on which they develop, but also have a genetic basis which can counterbalance a less suitable quality of the host plant. For a crop pest such as Z.subfasciatus, its ability to survive and adapt on host plants of differing quality may be an important attribute to consider for pest management.

  1. Population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) from the Sonoran Desert associated with rotting columnar cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Johnson, Sarah; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Markow, Therese A

    2013-12-01

    Dozens of arthropod species are known to feed and breed in the necrotic tissues (rots) of columnar cacti in the Sonoran Desert. Because the necrotic patches are ephemeral, the associated arthropods must continually disperse to new cacti and therefore the populations of any given species are expected to show very little local genetic differentiation. While this has been found to be true for the cactophilic Drosophila, the evolutionary histories and characteristics of other arthropods inhabiting the same necrotic patches, especially the beetles, have yet to be examined. Here we used nucleotide sequence data from segments of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes to examine population structure and demographic history of three sympatric beetle species (Coleoptera: Histeridae and Staphylinidae) collected on senita cactus (Lophocereus schottii) from six widely-separated localities on the Baja California peninsula of northwestern Mexico. Two histerids, Iliotona beyeri and Carcinops gilensis, and an unidentified staphylinid, Belonuchus sp., showed little or no population structure over a broad geographic area on the peninsula, consistent with the prediction that these beetles should show high dispersal ability. Demographic tests revealed varying levels of historical population expansion among the beetle species analyzed, which are discussed in light of their ecologies and concurrent biogeographic events. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses of COI sequences in Carcinops collected on a variety of columnar cacti from both peninsular and mainland Mexico localities revealed several species-level partitions, including a putative undescribed peninsular species that occurred sympatrically with C. gilensis on senita.

  2. Impact of the newly arrived seed-predating beetle Specularius impressithorax (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.; Fukada, M.; Samuelson, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to 2001, seed predation was virtually absent in the endemic Wiliwili Erythrina sandwicensis (Fabaceae: Degener), dominant tree species of lower-elevation Hawaiian dryland forests. The African bruchine chrysomelid Specularius impressithorax (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) was first detected in Hawai'i in 2001 and became established on all main islands within the next two years. The mode of entry for this invasive Erythrina seed predator into Hawai'i is unknown, but likely occurred with the importation of trinket jewelry from Africa containing characteristically brightly-colored Erythrina seeds. The initial establishment of this insect likely occurred on a non-native host, the widely cultivated coral tree E. variegata. Within three years of its first record, S. impressithorax accounted for 77.4% mean seed crop loss in 12 populations of Wiliwili on six main Hawaiian islands. Specularius impressithorax, dispersed through international commerce and established via E. variegata, has become a threat to a unique Hawaiian forest type and may threaten other Erythrina, especially New World representatives.

  3. Coleoptera families other than Cerambycidae, Curculionidae sensu lato, Chrysomelidae sensu lato and Coccinelidae. Chapter 8.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Denux

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we consider 274 alien Coleoptera species belonging to 41 of the 137 beetle families in Europe (Cerambycidae, Curculionidae sensu lato, Chrysomelidae sensu lato and Coccinelidae are treated separately elsewhere. Among the families we consider asinvaded the European fauna, Acanthocnemidae and Ptilodactylidae represent new arrivals. Many species-rich families have surprisingly few aliens, whereas some relatively minor families such as Dermestidae, Nitidulidae and Anobiidae have a relatively high representation of alien species. Since the start of the 19th century, the number of coleopteran aliens introduced into Europe has continued to increase. Alien species colonizing Europe derive from a wide range of geographic regions as well as ecozones, but the most important source area is Asia. The countries with the largest number of alien species established are France, Germany and Italy. The majority have been introduced accidentally via international transport mechanisms. The most important route for importation is stored products and crops, followed by transport of wood, then horticultural and ornamental plants. Most alien species in these families are found within anthropogenic habitats in Europe. The introduction of invasive alien beetles in these families has had significant economic impacts, particularly as pests of stored foodstuffs, as well as serious ecological impacts. For example, the buprestid species Agrilus planipennis, recently recorded in Russia, is an important potential economic threat which may also impact the biodiversity associated with ash trees.

  4. Knockdown, residual, and antifeedant activity of pyrethroids and home landscape bioinsecticides against Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Linden foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumler, Rebecca E; Potter, Daniel A

    2007-04-01

    Residual toxicity and leaf protection capability of five pyrethroids, professional and home garden azadirachtin formulations, and six other bioinsecticides for the home landscape were evaluated against the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on linden, Tilia cordata L. Capacity of intoxicated beetles to recover and subsequently feed and disperse also was evaluated to provide insight on activity characteristics of the different compounds. Intact shoots were sprayed and left in the field for varying intervals before being challenged with beetles in no-choice and choice tests. All pyrethroids except permethrin gave greater leaf protection, knockdown, and kill than did carbaryl, the standard, after 14 d of weathering. Deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lamda-cyhalothrin gave a high level of protection for at least 19 d, and azadirachtin (Azatin XL) deterred feeding in choice tests for as long as 14 d. Home garden formulations containing pyrethrins in canola oil (Pyola) or azadiractin (Neem-Away) gave good short-term (< 3-d) protection. Formulations of capsaicin, rotenone + pyrethrins, kaolin particle film, D-limonene, or garlic extract were ineffective, the latter two formulations being highly phytotoxic to linden. Results of this study should help support updating of guidelines for insecticidal control of Japanese beetles. PMID:17461070

  5. Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Javier; Urzúa, Alejandro; Tampe, Jocelyne; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44'9″S, 72°35'25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm³ and 1.58 × 10(-2) mg/cm³). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents. PMID:27110756

  6. Avaliação proteica e parâmetros populacionais de Cynaeus angustus Le Conte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Pedro Peixoto

    2016-08-01

    Protein Evaluation and Static life Table Cynaeus angustus (LeConte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Abstract. Cynaeus angustus (LeConte is characterized as a pest of stored grain, there is several food substrates on their feeding ecology including corn, wheat, sorghum and soybeans. But there is no record of their habits in peanut in natura, so the aim of this study was to present the static life table, to C. angustus in laboratory conditions using as substrate the peanut, and evaluate the protein composition in different stages of development C. angustus. The quantification of proteins was taken by microbiureto method and qualitative method was done per electrophoretic method. Protein quantitation indicated an increase of its values during development of insects: larvae 38,22 mg/mL, pupae 47,53 mg/mL and adults 60,00 mg/mL. It was possible to observe the electrophoretic profile C. angustus showed a significant increase in the variety of proteins (29-700 kDa on the different stages of the insect. Data obtained from the population analysis indicate that C. angustus shows higher initial survival rates, high biotic potential and continuous developing in favorable conditions showing potential growing conditions and, that can be used as a nutritional source such as mentioned for other species of the same family.

  7. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  8. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Under UVB Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; He, Li; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2015-04-01

    Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a widely used technique to quantify gene expression. It is necessary to select appropriate reference genes for normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of seven candidate genes in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) irradiated by ultraviolet B (UVB) at different developmental stages for various irradiation time periods. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were applied to determine the stability of these candidate genes. Ribosomal protein genes RpS3, RpL13A, and β-actin gene (ActB) showed the highest stability across all UVB irradiation time points, whereas expression of other normally used reference genes, such as those encoding the β-tubulin gene TUBB and the E-cadherin gene CAD, varied at different developmental stages. This study will potentially provide more suitable reference gene candidates for RT-qPCR analysis in T. castaneum subjected to environmental stresses, particularly UV irradiation.

  9. Biology and host preferences of Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a possible biocontrol agent for Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Elisabeth; Johnson, M Tracy; Chacón, Eduardo; Anderson, Robert S; Wheeler, Terry A

    2010-12-01

    The introduced plant Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) poses a grave threat to Hawaii's native ecosystems and biodiversity. One potential candidate for classical biological control is Cryptorhynchus melastomae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae), a stem-boring weevil from Central and South America. This weevil feeds on M. calvescens in its native Costa Rica and has been successfully reared under greenhouse conditions. Comparison of its environmental conditions in Costa Rica with those in the Miconia infested areas of Hawaii indicates the latter is a suitable habitat for C. melastomae. C. melastomae has one or two generations per year. Adults feed on new stems, petioles, leaf buds, veins, and lamina, whereas larvae mine the stem until pupation. Adults appear to prefer saplings for oviposition and feeding. Under greenhouse conditions both adults and larvae can seriously damage and kill small M. calvescens. Preliminary host testing indicates that C. melastomae may be family specific on Melastomataceae. However, because Hawaii lacks native melastomes and has many other serious melastome weeds, a family specific insect may be suitable as a biocontrol agent in this case. PMID:22182550

  10. Trends in detoxification enzymes and heavy metal accumulation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting a gradient of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David; Jepson, Paul; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Non-specfic carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in the ground beetle, Pterosthicus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from five sites along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. A previous study determined that beetles from the two most polluted sites (site codes OLK2 and OLK3) were more susceptible to additional stressors compared with beetles from the reference site (Stone et al., Environ. Pollut. 113, 239-244 2001), suggesting the possibility of physiological impairment. Metal body burdens in ground beetles from five sites along the gradient ranged from 79 to 201 microg/g Zn, 0.174 to 8.66 microg/g Pb and 1.14 to 10.8 microg/g Cd, whereas Cu seemed to be efficiently regulated regardless of metal levels in the soil. Beetle mid- and hindguts were homogenized and the soluble fraction containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was assayed using kinetic analyses. Significantly higher levels of GST were found only in female beetles from the most polluted sites (OLK2 and OLK3; P=0.049, P<0.001, respectively) compared with the reference site (OLK7). In addition, OLK3 females had significantly higher levels of CaE compared with the reference beetles (P=0.01). Male beetles did not differ in enzyme activity along the metal gradient. Overall, obvious trends in detoxification enzymes were not detected in ground beetles in association with metal body burdens.

  11. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  12. Field trapping of the flathead oak borer Coroebus undatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with different traps and volatile lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Riba, Josep Ma; Rosell, Gloria; Guerrero, Angel

    2015-02-01

    The flathead oak borer Coroebus undatus F. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is one of the primary pests of cork oak Quercus suber L. in the Mediterranean region causing great economic losses to the cork industry. Very little is known about its biology and behavior and, so far, no control measures have been established. We present the results of a pilot study aimed to develop an efficient trapping method for monitoring this harmful pest. In a 3-year field study, purple-colored prism traps baited with a mixture of green leaf volatiles (GLVs) from the host have been shown the most effective combination to catch C. undatus adults (solely females) compared to other trap and lure types tested. Wavelength and reflectance measurements revealed that purple traps exhibit reflectance peak values similar to those found in the abdominal and elytral cuticle of both sexes, suggesting the involvement of visual cues for mate location in this species. The data presented are the first to demonstrate captures of adults of the genus Coroebus by an attractant-based trapping method.

  13. Inheritance and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, David A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage pest insects. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt corn in the United States is western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Cry3Bb1 corn for management of western corn rootworm was commercialized in 2003, and beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn were found in Iowa. Here we quantify the magnitude, inheritance, and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in two strains (Hopkinton and Cresco) derived from field populations that evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. For Hopkinton, we found evidence for complete resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and nonrecessive inheritance. Additionally, no fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance were detected for Hopkinton. For Cresco, resistance was incomplete and recessive, and we detected fitness costs affecting developmental rate, survival to adulthood, and fecundity. These results suggest that variation may exist among field populations in both the inheritance and accompanying fitness costs of resistance. To the extent that field populations exhibit nonrecessive inheritance and a lack of fitness cost, this will favor more rapid evolution of resistance than would be expected when resistance is functionally recessive and is accompanied by fitness costs. PMID:26453731

  14. Heterochromatin and molecular characterization of DsmarMITE transposable element in the beetle Dichotomius schiffleri (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Crislaine; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Moura, Rita Cássia

    2014-12-01

    Cytogenetic studies of the Neotropical beetle genus Dichotomius (Scarabaeinae, Coleoptera) have shown dynamism for centromeric constitutive heterochromatin sequences. In the present work we studied the chromosomes and isolated repetitive sequences of Dichotomius schiffleri aiming to contribute to the understanding of coleopteran genome/chromosomal organization. Dichotomius schiffleri presented a conserved karyotype and heterochromatin distribution in comparison to other species of the genus with 2n = 18, biarmed chromosomes, and pericentromeric C-positive blocks. Similarly to heterochromatin distributional patterns, the highly and moderately repetitive DNA fraction (C 0 t-1 DNA) was detected in pericentromeric areas, contrasting with the euchromatic mapping of an isolated TE (named DsmarMITE). After structural analyses, the DsmarMITE was classified as a non-autonomous element of the type miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) with terminal inverted repeats similar to Mariner elements of insects from different orders. The euchromatic distribution for DsmarMITE indicates that it does not play a part in the dynamics of constitutive heterochromatin sequences.

  15. A DNA barcode library of the beetle reference collection (Insecta: Coleoptera in the National Science Museum, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coleoptera is a group of insects that are most diverse among insect resources. Although used as indicator species and applied in developing new drugs, it is difficult to identify them quickly. Since the development of a method using mitochondrial DNA information for identification, studies have been conducted in Korea to swiftly and accurately identify species. The National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK has been collecting and morphologically identifying domestic reference insects since 2013, and building a database of DNA barcodes with digital images. The NSMK completed construction of a database of digital images and DNA barcodes of 60 beetle species in the Korean National Research Information System. A total of 179 specimens and 60 species were used for the analysis, and the averages of intraspecific and interspecific variations were 0.70±0.45% and 26.34±6.01%, respectively, with variation rates ranging from 0% to 1.45% and 9.83% to 56.23%, respectively.

  16. Repellent Activity of the Essential Oil from the Heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin against Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Javier; Urzúa, Alejandro; Tampe, Jocelyne; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-04-22

    The weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus Guérin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is endemic to Central-Southern Chile and Argentina, is one of the major berry pests in Chile and the most important pest in the La Araucanía Region (38°44'9″S, 72°35'25″W). Due to the poor effectiveness and problems surrounding the implementation of the traditional control methods using organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, new strategies for controlling this pest are needed. In this communication, we evaluated the behavioral responses of male and female A. superciliosus to volatile compounds released from the essential oil (EO) obtained from the heartwood of Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florin using olfactometric bioassays. The composition of the EO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). According to these analyses, δ-cadinol (24.16%), cubenol (22.64%), 15-copaenol (15.46%) and δ-cadinene (10.81%) were the principal components of the EO. The Pilgerodendron uviferum EO, which is almost exclusively composed of sesquiterpenes (99.5%), exhibited a repellent effect against A. superciliosus adults, regardless of the sex or concentration used (56.6 mg/cm³ and 1.58 × 10(-2) mg/cm³). The EO has low volatility and greater persistence than the EOs composed of monoterpenes and is considered a good model in the search for raspberry weevil repellents.

  17. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of adults of raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odors released from conspecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutis, Ana; Parra, Leonardo; Manosalva, Loreto; Palma, Rubén; Candia, Oscar; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2010-08-01

    The raspberry weevil, Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most important pest in blueberry and raspberry fields in the south of Chile. In this study, we investigated the electroantennographic and behavioral responses of A. superciliosus to semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults, with particular attention to male attraction to females. Odors released from females significantly attracted males in a Y-tube olfactometer. Gas chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of female volatile extracts revealed the presence of limonene and α-pinene. Electroantennogram recordings from both sexes indicated that males of A. superciliosus possess olfactory sensitivity for the R isomer of limonene and α-pinene, whereas females only perceived R-limonene. Behavioral assays using synthetic compounds showed that only R-limonene elicited an attraction response from male weevils. Field experiments confirmed the laboratory results, showing that R-limonene was attractive to weevils. This is the first report of intraspecific chemical communication in this weevil. We discuss the origin of these compounds, their possible role in the sexual behavior of this species, and their potential use in a pest control strategy.

  18. Updated distribution of Osmoderma eremita in Abruzzo (Italy and agro-pastoral practices affecting its conservation (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Giangregorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli, 1763 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae are reported for Abruzzo (Italy, together with a review of its distribution in this region. O. eremita is a saproxylic beetle dependent on the presence of hollow deciduous trees with abundant wood mould in their cavities. The major threats for the species are habitat loss and fragmentation. EU Habitats Directive requests to the member States its protection and the monitoring of its conservation status. Detection of its occurrence is the first step to protect the species. The surveys have been carried out in ten sites of Abruzzo by using black cross-windows traps baited with specific pheromone. The species has been recorded for the first time in the Sant’Antonio forest and its presence is confirmed in the Peligna Valley, after a decade. The populations seem to be confined to small patches of suitable habitats. At local level, the abandonment of the pollarding practice (willow and beech forests and the use of pollarded trees as biomass for fuel are the major threats for this species. Indeed some key actions, such as the protection of old hollow trees and the continuation of pollarding practice in rural landscape, could be key factors for the conservation strategies of the species in the study area.

  19. Effects of irradiated diet on longevity and prolificity of successive generations of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was done in the laboratory of Entomology of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This research was carried out to observe the effect of irradiated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, (L.), cultivar Rosinha) on the longevity and prolificity of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). The first part of the study included the rearing of five generations of Zabrotes subfasciatus which were fed with irradiated beans (0, 10, 20, 100 e 200 krad, with a dose rate of approximately 70 krad/h). The second one consisted of growth of seven generations on irradiated beans (0, 100, 500, 1500 and 3000 krad, with a dose rate of approximately 70 krad/h). The data were obtained through daily countings of insect birth and death rates. It was concluded that irradiation modified the nutritional quality of beans, affecting the development of Zabrotes subfasciatus. This effect was studied through the longevity and prolificity, which were altered as compared with the control, once they were higher for the dosis of 1500 and 3000 krad. (author)

  20. Examining shifts in Carabidae assemblages across a forest-agriculture ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J

    2014-02-01

    Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix.

  1. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  2. Impact of wildfire on the edaphic microarthropod community in a Pinus pinaster forest in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the soil microarthropod community to wildfire in forest ecosystems. The edaphic microarthropod communities of pine stands burned in 2001, in 2009, both in 2001 and in 2009, in 2012 were compared to an area never burned. Sampling was conducted in the spring and autumn of 2011 and 2012 in the areas burned in 2001, in 2009 and those never burned, while in the area burned in 2012, soil samples were collected in March (10 days after fire, June and September. The abundance and biodiversity of the microarthropod community were assessed. A multitemporal analysis was also carried out to assess the effect of fire on soil microarthropod abundance 5 months, 2-3 years and 10-11 years after fire. The results showed that the abundance of edaphic microarthropod communities decreased dramatically in areas burned twice, but also in areas burned once in 2009 and five months after the fire in the area burned in 2012. Different taxonomic groups did not seem to respond to fire in the same way, some taxa being more sensitive than others. Pseudoscorpionida decreased in both the short- and the long-term, while Diplopoda, Thysanoptera and Symphyla showed a reduction in the intermediate- and long-term. In the short-term, Diptera and Coleoptera larvae appeared to be the most influenced taxonomic groups. Our study shows that biomonitoring is a valuable tool to investigate the reaction of forest ecosystems to fire, and that edaphic microarthropods can provide interesting answers about the direct and indirect effects of fire on soil.

  3. From Community Detection to Community Deception

    CERN Document Server

    Fionda, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    The community deception problem is about how to hide a target community C from community detection algorithms. The need for deception emerges whenever a group of entities (e.g., activists, police enforcements) want to cooperate while concealing their existence as a community. In this paper we introduce and formalize the community deception problem. To solve this problem, we describe algorithms that carefully rewire the connections of C's members. We experimentally show how several existing community detection algorithms can be deceived, and quantify the level of deception by introducing a deception score. We believe that our study is intriguing since, while showing how deception can be realized it raises awareness for the design of novel detection algorithms robust to deception techniques.

  4. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August John Hoffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.

  5. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

    2009-04-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions.

  6. White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Cherman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available White grubs (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: Key for identification, species richness and distribution. The objective of this study was to survey the occurrence and geographic distribution of white grub species (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae in cultivated and non-cultivated fields of the "Planalto Region", Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and develop a key at genus-level. Twenty-eight species from 15 genera and three subfamilies were recorded: Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae. The species or genera recorded for the first time in the state are: Cyclocephala metrica, C. tucumana, Isonychus albicinctus, Liogenys bidenticeps, L. fusca, L. obesa and L. sinuaticeps, Paranomala violacea, as well as unidentified species of Amononyx, Dicrania, Leucothyreus, Macrodactylus, Plectris and Rhizogeniates. Among the species recorded, 23 were associated with winter crops. Only Cyclocephala metrica, Dyscinetus rugifrons, two species of Leucothyreus and one species of the tribe Sericini were not present in cultivated crop fields. Cyclocephala flavipennis and Diloboderus abderus occurred in most of the municipalities sampled, often associated with Plectris sp., C. modesta and C. putrida. The highest richness of melolonthids was concentrated in the northeast of the Planalto region.

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the sex-determination gene doublesex in the sexually dimorphic broad-horned beetle Gnatocerus cornutus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Ishiguro, Mai; Nishikawa, Hideto; Morita, Shinichi; Okada, Kensuke; Miyatake, Takahisa; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Various types of weapon traits found in insect order Coleoptera are known as outstanding examples of sexually selected exaggerated characters. It is known that the sex determination gene doublesex (dsx) plays a significant role in sex-specific expression of weapon traits in various beetles belonging to the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Although sex-specific weapon traits have evolved independently in various Coleopteran groups, developmental mechanisms of sex-specific expression have not been studied outside of the Scarabaeoidea. In order to test the hypothesis that dsx-dependent sex-specific expression of weapon traits is a general mechanism among the Coleoptera, we have characterized the dsx in the sexually dimorphic broad-horned beetle Gnatocerus cornutus (Tenebrionidea, Tenebirionidae). By using molecular cloning, we identified five splicing variants of Gnatocerus cornutus dsx (Gcdsx), which are predicted to code four different isoforms. We found one male-specific variant (GcDsx-M), two female-specific variants (GcDsx-FL and GcDsx-FS) and two non-sex-specific variants (correspond to a single isoform, GcDsx-C). Knockdown of all Dsx isoforms resulted in intersex phenotype both in male and female. Also, knockdown of all female-specific isoforms transformed females to intersex phenotype, while did not affect male phenotype. Our results clearly illustrate the important function of Gcdsx in determining sex-specific trait expression in both sexes. PMID:27404087

  8. Notas e descrições em Acanthoderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. I. Novos táxons, nova sinonímia e novos registros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Notas e descrições em Acanthoderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. I. Novos táxons e novos registros. Descrição de espécies novas: Zikanita egregia sp. nov. (Bolívia, Santa Cruz; Dufauxia thomasi sp. nov. (Bolívia, Santa Cruz; Irundisaua punctata sp. nov. (Colômbia, Cauca; Cotyzineus gen. nov., espécie-tipo C. bruchi (Melzer, 1931 comb. nov. Novos registros: Zikanita argenteofasciata (Tippmann, 1960 é assinalada para o Brasil (Maranhão e Cotyzineus bruchi para a Bolívia (Santa Cruz. Novo sinônimo: Ateralphus diringsi Martins & Monné, 1993 = A. javariensis Lane, 1965.Notes and descriptions on Acanthoderini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae. I. New taxa and new records. New taxa described: Zikanita egregia, sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz; Dufauxia thomasi sp. nov. from Bolivia (Santa Cruz; Irundisaua punctata sp. nov. from Colombia (Cauca; Cotyzineus gen. nov. type species C. bruchi (Melzer, 1931 comb. nov. New records: Zikanita argenteofasciata (Tippmann, 1960 for Brazil (Maranhão; Cotyzineus bruchi for Bolivia (Santa Cruz. New synomym: Ateralphus diringsi Martins & Monné, 1993 = A. javariensis Lane, 1965.

  9. 太湖湿地昆虫群落的生态位%Ecological Niches of Insect Community in Taihu Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩争伟; 马玲; 张曼胤; 石小亮

    2014-01-01

    To understand the structure of insect community and insight into its inner connections,we classified insect communities in Taihu Wetland into different groups based on their taxonomic status and analyzed the relationships of niches between the groups in this study. The results showed that the spatial niche breadth,temporal niche breadth and temporal-spatial niche breadth were obviously different between different groups,indicating the groups fully utilized resources in Taihu Wetland. Among these groups,Hemiptera community had the widest temporal-spatial niche breadth,reflecting Hemiptera insects had the widest distribution and longest activity period; By contrast Dermaptera community had the narrowest temporal-spatial niche breadth,showing Dermaptera insects needed strict habitats and had relatively narrow distribution. Diptera and Coleoptera had relatively large spatial-temporal niche overlap value,which indicated that they had similar unitization of resource and a predator-prey or competitive relationship could be existed between the two groups in Taihu Wetland.

  10. Aspectos biológicos de Coccidophilus citricola (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre Aspidiotus nerii e Chrysomphalus aonidum (Homoptera, Diaspididae Biological studies of Coccidophilus citricola (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on Aspidiotus nerii and Chrysomphalus aonidum (Homoptera, Diaspididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos biológicos de Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae foram estudados sobre Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus e Aspidiotus nerii Bouchè (Homoptera, Diaspididae criadas sobre abóbora. Observou-se a duraç��o (dias do período de ovo, dos quatro ínstares, pré-pupa, pupa, longevidade de adultos e a proporção machos: fêmeas de C. citricola. Determinou-se também verificar a eficiência de predação de adultos de C. citricola sobre A. nerii. C. aonidum e A. nerii são presas adequadas para C. citricola, com desenvolvimento semelhante do coccinelídeo sobre essas cochonilhas; o período de incubação do ovo foi de 7,9 e 8,1 dias com A. nerii e C. aonidum; a duração (dias de cada ínstar larval de C. citricola sobre A. nerii e C. aonidum foram respectivamente de: (I 2,7 e 2,9; (II 3,1 e 3,3; (III 3,0 e 3,3 e (IV 3,2 e 3,1 dias. A duração das fases de pré-pupa e pupa foi de 2,5 e 4,5 dias sobre A. nerii e 2,8 e 4,8 dias sobre C. aonidum e a viabilidade de ovo a adulto foi de 63,2% e 62,7% respectivamente para indivíduos criados sobre essas presas. A longevidade de adultos de C. citricola foi de 57,0 dias com A. nerii e de 62,0 dias com C. aonidum. A proporção macho: fêmea foi de 0,82:1,00. O consumo diário de C. citricola foi de 1,15 adultos ou 2,35 ninfas de 2o ínstar ou 3,16 ninfas de 1o ínstar de A. nerii por dia.Laboratory trials were carried out to study biological aspects of Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on Chrysomphalus aonidum Linnaeus and Aspidiotus nerii Bouché (Homoptera: Diaspididae. The scales were reared on squashes and then served as food source to the predator. The period of egg, larvae (four ínstars, pre-pupae, pupae, adults’ longevity and male: female ratio was observed. Predatory efficacy of C. citricola on A. nerii was also determined. The period of egg was 7.9 and 8.1 days on A. nerii and C. aonidum. The development (days of different stages of C

  11. Hibbing Community College's Community Computer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    This paper reports on the development of the Community Computer Center (CCC) at Hibbing Community College (HCC) in Minnesota. HCC is located in the largest U.S. iron mining area in the United States. Closures of steel-producing plants are affecting the Hibbing area. Outmigration, particularly of younger workers and their families, has been…

  12. 金银花林下种植模式昆虫多样性研究%Study on Community Diversity of Insect in Honeysuckle Underwood Planting Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王品舒; 杨建国; 陈君; 丁万隆; 高卫洁; 牟金伟; 董杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:摸清北京市金银花林下种植模式的昆虫群落结构,为金银花害虫的绿色防控提供依据.方法:应用虫情测报灯进行监测,调查昆虫种类和数量,分析其多样性、种群动态等.结果:昆虫群落由7目21科50余种昆虫组成,其中,鳞翅目昆虫种类最多,为30种;鞘翅目次之,为10余种.鳞翅目、鞘翅目在数量上占整个昆虫群落的绝大多数,分别为30.26%、56.32%.5—9月为昆虫活动高峰期,在7月昆虫群落的个体数量达到最大值,4月和10月个体数量相对较低.8月、9月多样性指数较高,昆虫群落的物种多样性相对丰富.结论:上述结果为指导金银花综合防治提供了依据.%Objective:The purpose of this study is to verify the community diversity of insect in honeysuckle planting pattern,thus providing the basis for prevention and control of honeysuckle pests.Methods:Pest forecast lamp was used for monitoring,insect species and quantity was investigated,its diversity and population dynamics was analyzed.Results:The insect community consisted of 7 orders,21 families and more than 50 species.Among them,Lepidoptera was the dominant order which consisted of 30 species,Coleoptera came second which consisted of 10 species.Lepidoptera and Coleoptera accounted for the vast majority of the whole insect community in number,made up 30.26% and 56.32%,respectively.The peak period of the pest activities was from May to September,the individual number of insect community reached the maximum in July,the number of individuals was relatively low in April and October.The diversity index of insect community was high, species diversity was relatively rich in August and September.Conclusion:These results provide the basis for IPM in honeysuckle.

  13. Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae in crop succession at central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Furquim Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Rutelinae in crop succession at central Brazil. Beetles of the family Melolonthidae make up a large group and some species are considered pests of planted crops. Little information is available on the basic biological aspects of the genus Leucothyreus, such as association with cultivated crops and their occurrence periods. Therefore studies were developed in soybean and corn crops in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso, Brazil, with the objective of studying the occurrence and biological aspects of Leucothyreus alvarengai Frey and Leucothyreus aff. semipruinosus Ohaus. For acquisition of immature specimens of both species, in April 2011 sampling was performed in corn fields, in July and October in the fallow area, and in soybeans fields planted in December; in 2012 sampling was performed in January and February in soybean fields and in March in corn fields. In 2011 the total number of larvae obtained in April, July, October and December were 100, 6, 30 and 27, and in January, February and March of 2012 these quantities were 32, 52 and 65 larvae, respectively. In all sampling events the larvae of L. alvarengai were collected in greater quantity. At the beginning of the reproductive period of L. alvarengai and L. aff. semipruinosus, it was observed that the adults began to fly and soon after started oviposition in the field in September. The appearance of larvae coincides with the time of soybean planting in the field, thus the larvae feed on roots of soybean plants at the beginning of their development and the cycle from egg to adult of the two species was completed in one year.

  14. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  15. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate.

  16. Precise and low-cost monitoring of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pest activity in pyramid traps with cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, R D; Gage, S H; Whalon, M E

    2014-04-01

    Incorporating camera systems into insect traps potentially benefits insect phenology modeling, nonlethal insect monitoring, and research into the automated identification of traps counts. Cameras originally for monitoring mammals were instead adapted to monitor the entrance to pyramid traps designed to capture the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Using released curculios, two new trap designs (v.I and v.II) were field-tested alongside conventional pyramid traps at one site in autumn 2010 and at four sites in autumn 2012. The traps were evaluated on the basis of battery power, ease-of-maintenance, adaptability, required-user-skills, cost (including labor), and accuracy-of-results. The v.II design fully surpassed expectations, except that some trapped curculios were not photographed. In 2012, 13 of the 24 traps recorded every curculio entering the traps during the 18-d study period, and in traps where some curculios were not photographed, over 90% of the omissions could be explained by component failure or external interference with the motion sensor. Significantly more curculios entered the camera traps between 1800 and 0000 hours. When compared with conventional pyramid traps, the v.I traps collected a similar number of curculios. Two observed but not significant trends were that the v.I traps collected twice as many plum curculios as the v.II traps, while at the same time the v.II traps collected more than twice as many photos per plum curculio as the v.I traps. The research demonstrates that low-cost, precise monitoring of field insect populations is feasible without requiring extensive technical expertise.

  17. Laboratory and field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi for the management of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Zhao, Zihua; Humber, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U.S.-controlled Mariana Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic nature of the larvae and nocturnal activity of the adults, and the cancellation of long-residual pesticides, this pest has become increasingly difficult to control. Therefore, the present study sought to explore and to compare the effectiveness of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (90ml a.i./ha), Beauveria bassiana GHA (40ml a.i./ha), spinosad (90g a.i./ha), azadirachtin (1484ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+M. brunneum (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+azadirachtin (20ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+spinosad (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), M. brunneum+azadirachtin (45ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha) and M. brunneum+spinosad (45ml a.i./ha+45 grams a.i./ha) in controlling this pest in both the laboratory and the field. The treatment with B. bassiana+M. brunneum was the most effective in reducing tuber damage by C. formicarius, producing the highest yields. The most adult cadavers were found in plots treated with the combination of two fungi. This combined fungal formulation appears to be appropriate for the practical control of C. formicarius on sweet potatoes. PMID:25111763

  18. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  19. Behavioral explanations underlying the lack of trap effectiveness for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V; Enstrom, Patrick C; Schoenick, Carissa A

    2009-06-01

    Traps containing a combination floral and synthetic pheromone lure are used to monitor and manage Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). One key factor limiting trap effectiveness for beetle control is the "trap spillover" phenomenon, in which the trap attracts beetles without capturing them, resulting in increased damage to surrounding host plants. We investigated the mechanisms underlying trap spillover by conducting two studies in a soybean field in east central Illinois. In the first study, we set up trap stations for 1 d and compared the sex, size, and egg load (for females) of beetles caught in the traps with those on the plants immediately surrounding the trap, downwind of the trap, at lure-only (no trap) stations, and at control areas. Females caught in traps tended to be smaller than those on plants surrounding the traps, and females attracted to the traps had fewer eggs than those downwind or at control sites. We did not find any difference in male characteristics. In the second study, we observed the behavior of beetles initially approaching traps. Upon initial approach, the majority of individuals landed on plants before making contact with the trap, and those beetles that spent an extended time on the leaves tended to be females. Arriving males would occasionally pair with these females on the plants. Overall, traps did not capture a random subset of the beetles present in the field. We hypothesize that trap spillover is a result of arriving females not being as attracted to the precise location of the trap as they are to the general location itself, and of arriving males seeking mates and finding them among these spillover females.

  20. Functional morphology and adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of the rove beetles Stenus spp. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver

    2012-04-01

    The adhesive prey-capture apparatus of the representatives of the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) is an outstanding example of biological adhesive systems. This unique prey-capture device is used for catching elusive prey by combining (i) hierarchically structured adhesive outgrowths, (ii) an adhesive secretion, and (iii) a network of cuticular fibres within the pad. The outgrowths arise from a pad-like cuticle and are completely immersed within the secretion. To date, the forces generated during the predatory strike of these beetles have only been estimated theoretically. In the present study, we used force transducers to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces during the predatory strike of two Stenus species. The experiments revealed that the compressive forces are low, ranging from 0.10 mN (Stenus bimaculatus) to 0.18 mN (Stenus juno), whereas the corresponding adhesive forces attain up to 1.0 mN in S. juno and 1.08 mN in S. bimaculatus. The tenacity or adhesive strength (adhesive force per apparent unit area) amounts to 51.9 kPa (S. bimaculatus) and 69.7 kPa (S. juno). S. juno beetles possess significantly smaller pad surface areas than S. bimaculatus but seem to compensate for this disadvantage by generating higher compressive forces. Consequently, S. juno beetles reach almost identical adhesive properties and an equal prey-capture success in attacks on larger prey. The possible functions of the various parts of the adhesive system during the adhesive prey-capture process are discussed in detail.

  1. Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  2. All European Ash Species are Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – a Far Eastern Invader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Baranchikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae – an example of a destructive invasive insect which abruptly enlarged its initially East-Asian area in 80–90s of the previous century. Nowadays this species is the main pest of ash (Fraxinus trees in USA and Canada and is quickly spreading over 11 administrative regions of Russia. It is very important to determine a list of possible host plants of A. planipennis for the pest risk assessment of invasion of this pest over the territory of Central and Western Europe. In its native area – North-Eastern Asia – this buprestid is a secondary consumer of dying trees of East-Asian ash species F. сhinensis and F. mandshurica. Healthy trees of these species are highly resistant to the pest. No examples of resistant ash species were found at North American continent. Documentary data are presented for the first time on infestation of three European ash species at the territory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia by the emerald ash borer. At the first time this pest was registered at the garden in 2011. During the period of 2010–2014 EAB killed from 70 to 100 % of trees of European ash species: Fraxinus excelsior, F. angustifolia (= F. oxycarpa and F. ornus. At the same period from 81 to 90 % of specimens of North American ash species (F. pennsylvanica and F. americana were killed by this buprestid. Simultaneously dead trees of Asian species F. mandshurica and F. chinensis (= F. rhynchophyla did not carry any trace of EAB infestation. This case study is a good example of the «sentinel trees» concept’s usefulness. Arboretums with collections of non-native plants may serve as «ecological traps» for the local pests and pathogens – potential invasive organisms in the source regions of introduced plants.

  3. Host Resistance of Five Fraxinus Species to Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Effects of Paclobutrazol and Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Sara R; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2015-04-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has killed millions of Fraxinus spp. trees in North America. While all Fraxinus species assessed to date can be colonized, A. planipennis attraction to host trees varies among species and with tree health. We established a plantation of 105 trees (21 trees each of four North American species Fraxinus americana L., Fraxinus nigra Marshall, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall, Fraxinus quadrangulata Michaux, and the Asian species, Fraxinus mandshurica Ruprecht), and determined whether resistance to A. planipennis could be enhanced by fertilizer or paclobutrazol applications. Differences among species overshadowed most treatment effects. In 2010, A. planipennis survival over 14 d was 53% when beetles were caged with F. nigra, 30-32% when beetles were caged with F. americana, F. pennsylvanica, or F. mandshurica, and only 14% for beetles caged with F. quadrangulata. In 2011, beetle survival was lower for beetles caged with F. quadrangulata (33%) than F. americana (72%) or F. mandshurica (80%). In 2010 and 2011, leaf weight consumed by beetles was the same among Fraxinus species. However, beetles caged on F. quadrangulata consumed less leaf area than that by beetles caged with other ash species. In 2011, when trees were exposed to wild A. planipennis, larval density (per m(2)) was highest on F. nigra (235.9 ± 36.41) and F. pennsylvanica (220.1 ± 39.77), intermediate on F. americana (40.7 ± 11.61), and lowest on F. quadrangulata and F. mandshurica (2.0 ± 0.98 and 1.5 ± 0.67, respectively). Results indicate F. quadrangulata and F. mandshurica were relatively resistant to A. planipennis, F. nigra and F. pennsylvanica were highly vulnerable, and F. americana was intermediate. PMID:26313182

  4. Field trial of diatomaceous earth in cotton gin trash against the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N E; Porter, P

    2004-04-01

    The larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an agricultural and home nuisance pest in North America. In the Southern High Plains of Texas, the larger black flour beetle is associated with cotton gin trash, by-products of cotton ginning that are field stored in large piles for economic reasons. Larger black flour beetle overwinter in gin trash piles but may disperse by the millions in summer and autumn, entering houses as far as 2 km away where they cause distress to homeowners. Because > 1.2 billion kg of gin trash is produced annually in Texas alone, the potential consequences of the larger black flour beetle are enormous. We conducted a field experiment that evaluated the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) on the abundance of the larger black flour beetle in gin trash. There were no significant differences in numbers of larger black flour beetle among treatments and controls (mean number of adults summed over time: controls = 115.41, layered treatment = 87.60, top and bottom treatment = 96.50, bottom treatment = 115.16). There were sufficient numbers of beetles in treated piles to still pose a potential home nuisance problem, likely because the moisture content of field-stored gin trash is too high for DE to work effectively. Therefore, treating cotton gin trash with diatomaceous earth will probably be unable to prevent home infestations of larger black flour beetle. Location within a gin trash pile and season influenced pest numbers, which has implications for long-term field storage of cotton gin trash. PMID:15154486

  5. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  6. A revision of the Neotropical species of Bolitogyrus Chevrolat, a geographically disjunct lineage of Staphylinini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Brunke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz, stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided.

  7. A revision of the Neotropical species of Bolitogyrus Chevrolat, a geographically disjunct lineage of Staphylinini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Adam J; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini) are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz), stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson) and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided. PMID:25061393

  8. Determinants of acute mortality of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to ultra-low volume permethrin used for mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preftakes, Collin J.; Bodin, Jennifer L.; Brown, Christopher R.; Piccolomini, Alyssa M.; Schleier, Jerome J.

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few experimental studies and risk assessments of the effects on non-target insects from ultra-low volume (ULV) insecticides used for management of adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we evaluated factors that may influence the ability of an insect to intercept the insecticide at the time of application by using Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in field bioassay experiments in 2011 and 2015. Treatment factors included different distances, two cage heights (ground-level and 1.5 m above ground) to the point of the application, and covered vs. uncovered cage faces (2015 only). Insecticides used included a water-based formulation (Aqua-Reslin®) and an oil-based formulation (Permanone® 30-30) of permethrin. Cage height was highly significant both years, with much less acute (i.e., short-term exposure) mortality at ground-level compared with 1.5 m. In 2011, acute mortality was less at ground-level (mean = 3.2%, median = 0%) compared to 1.5 m (mean = 85.2%, median = 100%). Cage type also was highly significant, with less mortality in covered cages compared to uncovered cages. Mortality by cage height and cage type was as follows: ground level, covered cage (mean = 2.8%, median = 0.1%); ground level, uncovered cage (mean = 41.9%, median = 9.6%); 1.5 m, covered cage (mean = 6.8%, median = 0%); 1.5 m, uncovered cage (mean = 83.7%, median = 100%). Results suggest that acute mortality to non-target insects may vary considerably based on their height and their ability to directly intercept the insecticide as the aerosol passes through the area being sprayed. PMID:27366655

  9. A Novel Approach to the Quantitation of Coeluting Cantharidin and Deuterium Labelled Cantharidin in Blister Beetles (Coleop-tera: Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Boland

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae are the main natural source of cantharidin, but the compound titre is depended on several factors including, age, sex and mating status of the insects. In order to eliminate such uncertainty factors in physio¬logical and chemical studies deuterium labelled cantharidin (D2C with no natural abundance is normally introduced into the beetles' body to use it as a model for studying the cantharidin behaviour in vivo. Experiments were achieved on Mylabris quadripunctata (Col.: Meloidae from Southern France and the beetles were exposed to an artificial diet containing a de¬fined amount of D2C. On the other hand, because of the high similarity between the two compounds they cannot be well quantified by gas chromatography. In order to remove the burden, MRM technique was used for the first time which could successfully create well-defined cantharidin and D2C peaks and hence a precise measurement. MRM technique was exam¬ined using a GC-MS Varian Saturn which collected MS/MS data of more than one compound in the same time window of the chromatogram. It is especially useful when coeluting compounds have different parent ions, i.e. m/z 84 for D2C (coelut¬ing isotopically-labelled compound and m/z 82 for cantharidin (beetle-originated compound. Using the routine GC-MS runs, measurement accuracy may be significantly reduced because the D2C peak is covered by the cantharidin huge peak while MRM could reveal the two coincided peaks of cantharidin and D2C. Therefore MRM is hereby introduced as the method of choice to separate cantharidin from D2C with high sensitivity and thus provide a precise base of quantitation.

  10. A Novel Approach to the Quantitation of Coeluting Cantharidin and Deuterium Labelled Cantharidin in Blister Beetles (Coleop-tera: Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae are the main natural source of cantharidin, but the compound titre is depended on several factors including, age, sex and mating status of the insects. In order to eliminate such uncertainty factors in physio¬logical and chemical studies deuterium labelled cantharidin (D2C with no natural abundance is normally introduced into the beetles' body to use it as a model for studying the cantharidin behaviour in vivo. Experiments were achieved on Mylabris quadripunctata (Col.: Meloidae from Southern France and the beetles were exposed to an artificial diet containing a de¬fined amount of D2C. On the other hand, because of the high similarity between the two compounds they cannot be well quantified by gas chromatography. In order to remove the burden, MRM technique was used for the first time which could successfully create well-defined cantharidin and D2C peaks and hence a precise measurement. MRM technique was exam¬ined using a GC-MS Varian Saturn which collected MS/MS data of more than one compound in the same time window of the chromatogram. It is especially useful when coeluting compounds have different parent ions, i.e. m/z 84 for D2C (coelut¬ing isotopically-labelled compound and m/z 82 for cantharidin (beetle-originated compound. Using the routine GC-MS runs, measurement accuracy may be significantly reduced because the D2C peak is covered by the cantharidin huge peak while MRM could reveal the two coincided peaks of cantharidin and D2C. Therefore MRM is hereby introduced as the method of choice to separate cantharidin from D2C with high sensitivity and thus provide a precise base of quantitation.

  11. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L; Flori, A; Coffi, A; Cros, D; Glitho, I; Nodichao, L

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect's egg laying and feeding. PMID:26113512

  12. Taxonomic revision of Madagascan Rhantus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Colymbetinae with an emphasis on Manjakatompo as a conservation priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hjalmarsson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the diving-beetle genus Rhantus Dejean of Madagascar (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Colymbetinae based on museum collection holdings and recently collected expedition material. Both morphology and DNA is used to test species boundaries, in particular whether newly collected material from the Tsaratanana mountains in the north represent a new species or are conspecific with Rhantus manjakatompo Pederzani and Rocchi 2009, described based on a single male specimen from the central Ankaratra mountains. DNA of the holotype of R. manjakatompo was successfully extracted in a non-destructive way and sequenced. The general mixed Yule coalescent model applied to an ultrametric tree constructed from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequence data delimited three species. Morphological characters supported the same species unambiguously. We therefore recognise three species of Rhantus to occur in Madagascar: R. latus (Fairmaire, 1869, R. bouvieri Régimbart, 1900 and R. manjakatompo Pederzani and Rocchi, 2009. All three species are endemic to Madagascar and restricted to the highlands of the island. Rhantus stenonychus Régimbart, 1895, syn. n., is considered a junior synonym of R. latus. We designate lectotypes for R. bouvieri and R. goudoti Sharp, 1882, the latter a junior synonym of R. latus. We provide descriptions, a determination key, SEM-images of fine pronotal and elytral structures, distribution maps, habitus photos, and illustrations of male genitalia and pro- and mesotarsal claws. We discuss the role of the Manjakatompo forest as a refugium for Madagascan Rhantus diversity and other endemics of the montane central high plateau.

  13. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  14. Unsewered Communities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The unsewered communities file was originally conceived as a representation of communities without a municipal sewer system or on-site septic systems. The selection...

  15. Community Nursing Home (CNH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...

  16. Community Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Gordon; Thomson, Peter

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe the situation in Leicestershire, England, where a group of users and staff formed The Association for Community Education to oppose severe budget cuts in the community education service. (Editor/SJL)

  17. Bayesian community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N

    2012-01-01

    Many networks of scientific interest naturally decompose into clusters or communities with comparatively fewer external than internal links; however, current Bayesian models of network communities do not exert this intuitive notion of communities. We formulate a nonparametric Bayesian model...... for community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...... consistent with ground truth, and on real networks, it outperforms existing approaches in predicting missing links. This suggests that community structure is an important structural property of networks that should be explicitly modeled....

  18. A la Carte Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Brincker, Benedikte

    2010-01-01

    The exchange of open source software is a phenomenon that is becoming in- creasingly significant to IT users. This article presents the results of a study of the TYPO3 community, a community related to an open source CMS software. The article explores the community, identity and values of TYPO3...... and shows that there are high levels of virtual as well as face-to-face interaction among the members. The participants feel that they belong to the community and many also feel that they are recognised as part of the community. However, the members do not share common values neither in relation to software...... pro- duction nor generally. Instead, they stress that you are free to choose your own values. Against this background, the authors introduce the notion of an ‘a la carte community', i.e. a community where individuals pick and choose their degree of participation and integra- tion into the community...

  19. Community structures of soil fauna in reclaimed copper mine tailings and suburb forest land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongheng Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna were very important for the ecological reconstruction of mine tailings. We investigated community characteristics of soil fauna at two sites, including reclamated copper-mine-tailings (RCMT and suburb forest land of reclamated copper-mine-tailings (SFL in Tongling City to test and illustrate the value of soil fauna for mitigating the impacts of heavy metal pollution. In the spring of 2011, we established four transects (150 m at the two sites and collected soil samples of macro-, meso- and micro- soil fauna from four depths (0–5 cm, 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, 15–20 cm at 13 30 cm× 30 cm sampling quadrats. Our results showed that at RCMT, the Acarina, Collembola and Nematoda were dominant groups; the Formicidae, Coleoptera larvae, Oligochaeta, Diptera larvae and Diplura were frequent groups; and the additional 16 groups were less commonly encountered. While at SFL the Collembola and Acarina were dominant groups and the Nematoda and Oligochaeta were frequent groups. Overall abundance of soil fauna at RCMT were significantly less than that of SFL (F=20.65, P<0.01, and number of faunal groups were lower at RCMT (F=5.88, P<0.05. We did not find a significant difference between the density of macro-soil fauna at RCMT and SFL, but found that the density of meso- and micro- soil fauna at RCMT was significantly lower than that of SFL (F=29.99, P<0.01. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H at RCMT was higher than that of SFL (F=24.06, P<0.01, but DG diversity index was lower at RCMT compared to SFL (F=4.75, P<0.05. There was evident surface aggregation of soil fauna at RCMT, especially in the differences between the first layer and the other layers of the soil profile (Find.=17.80, Fgro.=33.33, P<0.01. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil macro-, dry-type, wet-type meso- and micro-fauna at different habitats were differentially affected by various environmental factors. At reclaimed land with higher copper concentrations, we found a higher

  20. Knowledge Communities in fives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern knowledge intensive organisations rely on knowledge sharing communities, often called ‘communities of practice. These communities can be found in many organisations, but their forms and functions appear to be quite diverse. This implies that questions concerning the functioning of commun