WorldWideScience

Sample records for car trucks railroads

  1. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  2. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  3. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  4. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... attachment. (a) The ultimate strength of the truck-to-car-body attachment for each unit in a train shall...

  5. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  6. 49 CFR 238.219 - Truck-to-car-body attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body attachment. 238.219 Section 238... I Passenger Equipment § 238.219 Truck-to-car-body attachment. Passenger equipment shall have a truck-to-car-body attachment with an ultimate strength sufficient to resist without failure the...

  7. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  8. 9 CFR 316.14 - Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. 316.14 Section 316.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... CONTAINERS § 316.14 Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. Each...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  10. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  11. ACEEE's green book: The environmental guide to cars and trucks, Model year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCicco, J.; Kliesch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-07-01

    This pathbreaking guide ranks cars and trucks according to environmental friendliness. Buyers can compare cars, vans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles by their environmental impacts, including air pollution, global warming, and fuel efficiency. Inside the guide: how to buy the cleanest and most efficient vehicle that meets your needs; Green Scores for all 2000 makes and models, listed by class--compact, mid-size, and large cars, vans, pickups, and sport utilities; Best of 2000 section featuring the greenest models in each class; Green by Design chapter highlighting advanced technologies and what makes some vehicles greener than others; listings for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles in addition to gasoline and diesel vehicles; tips on keeping your vehicle running cleanly and efficiently; and the environmental impacts of vehicles, including global warming and the health effects of vehicle pollution.

  12. On the Quasi-stationary curving dynamics of a railroad truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans; Hansen, T. G.; Lundell, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examine three aspects of the dynamics of the Cooperrider truck travelling in a curve with constant radius. First the critical speed is found. Second we investigate the existence of multiple steady solutions to the curving problem. Third - and it is related to the second problem - we examine...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  14. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc.

  15. European accident statistics related to car-to-truck frontal collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Langwieder, K.; Bäumler, H.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 the European Experimental Vehicles Committee (EEVC) has set up Working Group 14 to develop a test procedure for energy-absorbing front underrun protection systems (FUPS) for trucks. For this purpose the working group proposed a research programme, describing a stepwise approach to achieve th

  16. 上海市有轨电车系统布局规划研究%Research on Shanghai Railroad Car System Distribution Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安锋; 李东屹; 马士江

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, the railroad car system plays a role in the rail transport system. Focusing on the railroad car system, the paper analyzes its development history and requirements, functional orientation, technical features, and also its adaptability in urban area. Besides, combining with case studies both inside China and abroad and also according to the idea “3 merge into 1” of the Shanghai Prospective Planning of Rail Transport Network, the planning of railroad car in Shanghai is researched. Thirdly, associated with the railroad network planning in Songjiang, Jiading and Nanqiao new cities, the paper analyzes the development orientation and scale of railroad car system in public transport system in new cities.%现代有轨电车系统是轨道交通系统的组成部分。通过对现代有轨电车的发展历程、发展需求、功能定位以及技术性能特征和在城市中的适应性分析,结合国内外应用案例分析,按照上海市远景轨道交通网络发展规划提出的“三网融合”的规划理念,对全市现代有轨电车布局规划进行研究。并以松江新城、嘉定新城和南桥新城现代有轨电车网络规划和示范线工作为契机,对现代有轨电车在新城公共交通体系中的发展导向和发展规模进行分析。

  17. New microalloyed steels for heavy duty forgings in cars and trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, J. [CDP Bharat Forge GmbH, Ennepetal (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    CDP Bharat Forge has carried out a substantial alloy and process development on microalloyed steels for controlled cooling. The main focus was put on the introduction of this development into series production of parts that were 100% heat treated before. The R+D-activities resulted in the new grades cdpSo38 and cdpSo40. For the grade cdpSo38 an impact energy of >25J (RT) and an elongation of >14% can be guaranteed for the series production of safety critical chassis parts at a yield strength of >600MPa. For the cdpSo40 a yield strength of >700MPa at 10% elongation can be guaranteed in series production. Two of the biggest truck manufacturers in the world have already changed their steering knuckles from heat treated steels 42CrMo4 and 30MnB5 to the new cdpBF-grades. (orig.)

  18. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity... operators of rail accidents occurring in railroad rights-of-way where pipelines are present and the need to... 114 cars, 19 of which derailed. All of the derailed cars were tank cars carrying denatured...

  19. 9 CFR 71.6 - Carrier responsible for cleaning and disinfecting of railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate transportation of cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, or other animals affected with, or..., bovine foot rot, brucellosis, ram epididymitis, ringworm, infectious keratitis, and arthritis...

  20. 9 CFR 95.26 - Railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent available chlorine) in the proportion of one pound to three gallons of water; or any one of the... and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers, yards, and premises; cleaning and disinfection... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO...

  1. Improvement of underrun protection of trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Blaauw, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Truck accidents represent a significant factor in the overall road accident scene, namely 25 to 30% of the fatal accidents in the EU. Collision partners of trucks are mainly passenger cars in car-to-truck frontal collisions. The severity of this kind of accidents is due to the incompatibility of bot

  2. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  3. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  4. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  5. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  6. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  7. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  8. Car Detection Method Study in Full Automatic Truck Sampling System%全自动汽车采样系统中对车厢探测的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝培

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces three common methods to detect the planimetric position of the truck car in sampling area for the full automatic sampling system, it provids powerful guarantee for the control technology of full automatic sampling system.%本文详细介绍了在全自动汽车采样系统中常见的三种自动检测停靠在采样区内汽车车厢的平面位置.为实现全自动采样机控制技术提供有力保障.

  9. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  10. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... technological advancements and ergonomic design standards for new ] car construction and ensuring that modern... incorporating modern ergonomic design standards and technological advancements in construction. II. Statutory... railroad. Many of the modern railcar types that are presently being built to handle railroad traffic do...

  11. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  12. [Effects of selected factors on the degree of psychomotor efficiency of welders in a railroad car factory with automated work stations (robots)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszkiewicz, T; Andrzejak, R; Gosk, A; Smolik, R

    1992-01-01

    The study of 64 welders employed at automated work stands in the railway car factory conducted in 1989 and 1990 has shown that the psychomotor efficiency level in the examined workers (except for a few cases) was normal. The psychomotor efficiency of the welders studied depended on their age, work day phase and, to a small degree, on the detected biochemical and toxicological disorders.

  13. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  14. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  15. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... advancements and ergonomic design standards for new car construction and ensure that modern rail equipment... incorporating modern ergonomic design standards and technological advancements in construction. II. Statutory... railroad. Many of the modern railcar types that are presently being built to handle railroad traffic do...

  16. Safety restraint systems in heavy truck rollover scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Safety restraint systems have been widely applied in the passenger car industry. The heavy truck industry has followed along, integrating the seat belts in the seat system. The effectiveness of seat belts, in particular in rollover scenarios, was studied for a number of heavy truck rollover scenario

  17. 乘用车/轻型载重车子午线轮胎氮气硫化工艺%Nitrogen Vulcanization Process for Passenger Car/Light Truck Radial Tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雅

    2013-01-01

    介绍乘用车/轻型载重车子午线轮胎氮气硫化工艺条件及工序。采取严格控制定型压力、增加胎侧板排气孔、及时更换老化胶囊、采用双工位后充气装置和加强设备管理等措施,解决氮气硫化轮胎出现的缺胶、重皮、胎里打褶和胀肚等外观缺陷。轮胎的氮气硫化工艺能耗低、硫化时间短、效率高,成品轮胎的外观合格率高,高速性能、耐久性能、动平衡性能和均匀性能好。%The nitrogen vulcanization process for passenger car radial tire and light truck radial tire was introduced. With strict control on the pressure, addition of extra side vent, timely replacement of capsule, application of duplex inflation devices and strengthening equipment management, the appearance defects of tire such as lack of rubber, repeat skin, corrugated inner surface or tire bulge could be reduced. The nitrogen vulcanization process had advantages in low energy consumption, short curing time and high efficiency. The pass rate of appearance quality of the finished tire was quite high, and the high-speed performance, endurance performance, dynamic unbalance performance and tire uniformity of the finished tire were excellent.

  18. 78 FR 54849 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... existing general service tank cars authorized for transportation of denatured fuel ethanol and crude oil in... standard for tank cars used to transport crude oil, denatured alcohol and ethanol/gasoline mixtures as well... Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  19. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  20. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  1. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital; (2) The evacuation of a passenger train; (3) Damage to a tank car or container resulting in...) Accidents involving joint operations must be reported by the railroad that controls the track and directs... is required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section occurs in a remote area, the time limits...

  2. Railroad Lines, Railroads, Published in 2007, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroads'. Data by this publisher are often...

  3. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  4. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  5. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  6. Business Class in a race car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2008-01-01

    It's not a car, it's not a bus, it's not a truck, and it's not even a super stretch limousine. What is being built in Delft is the much-discussed Superbus, which is to travel from door to door, reaching speeds of 250 kilometres per hour. This summer this new form of public transport is to enter serv

  7. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  8. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  9. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  10. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request... California Air Resources Board (CARB) has notified EPA that it has developed an Advanced Clean Car program... into a single coordinated package of requirements for passenger cars, light-duty trucks and...

  11. The dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie

    2002-01-01

    and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the nonlinear suspensions and the nonlinear dry friction damping. For low speeds of the truck the kinematic and dynamical nonlinearities might be linearized, but the very strongly nonlinear suspensions and the dry friction damping can not be linearized...... body and the side supports on the bolsters the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The clearances in the assembly in the wedge damper systems give rise to a relative yaw motion of the bolster with respect to the side frame and a rotation around the truck center line and cause...... a warping. In addition the assembly clearances between the side frame and the adapter both in longitudinal and lateral directions produce another dead-band spring force. The tractive effort on the car body in the longitudinal direction may be left out of consideration in the modelling of the passenger car...

  12. Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Belay, Abraham; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Kroese, Dirk P.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/ assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model is developed here which aims to reprod...

  13. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall...

  14. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  15. Analysis of truck platoon dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, L.; Zuurbier, J.; Lupker, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of truck platoon dynamics using a simulation environment. In this case the platoon consists of a number of trucks following each other using driver algorithms. MADYMO (a multibody and FE software package) and MATLAB/SIMULINK are coupled to allow for these driver algo

  16. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before...

  17. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  18. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... when injected at standard industry rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's..., allergies, head colds, smoking, or the recent use of alcohol or drugs. Colorimetric tube testing and the...

  19. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  20. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  1. High energy absorption materials in front underrun protection systems for trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de; Paas, M.H.J.W.; Wiltink, F.J.; Hoebergen, L.M.J.A.; Håkansson, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an energy absorbing front underrun protection system with composite crash cones is described and the performance is demonstrated in a 70kph full-scale car-to-truck frontal collision. The results are compared with the results of a test with identical vehic

  2. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  3. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  4. Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it’s a tow truck!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CERN has equipped itself with a tow truck to fight back against dangerous parking habits. The Security service will use the truck to rid the site of abandoned cars, which take up so many parking spaces, as well as badly parked cars, which are often a danger to other road users.   Breaches of parking etiquette that endanger other vehicles and pedestrians include cars parked in such a way as to impede visibility, for example, at junctions and roundabouts, or cars parked in parking spaces for the disabled or in areas reserved for emergency vehicles. Various measures will be taken to tackle the problem: for less serious offences, a sticker will be put on the windshield of the vehicle and an e-mail sent asking the driver to park in an authorised space. For more serious offences, the vehicle will be immobilised with a wheel clamp, or even removed by the tow truck and taken to a dedicated car park on the Meyrin or the Prévessin site. “No fines will be issued," explains Did...

  5. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  6. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  7. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  8. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  9. Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

  10. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  11. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  12. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  13. Buildup and simulation of a truck model with rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of commercial truck is presented, which has rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod instead of original leaf spring. ADAMS/Car is used as a tool to build the whole truck model. The designed truck's constant-radius cornering analysis and its ride performance simulation analysis under B class random road condition are carried out according to national experimental method standards. Compared the simulation results with the field test results indicate that performance index of the designed air suspension truck's constant-radius cornering and its ride performance meets the design requirements and reaches its prospective target. And results from simulation are similar to those from tests in value and trend, which indicates the virtual prototype is correct. The model can be used further to optinize suspension parameters and do some design work on the control system of air suspension.

  14. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  15. Railroad Lines, Railroads, Published in 2007, Not Applicable scale, Dunn County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroads'....

  16. Railroad Lines, Railroad ROW, Published in 2009, Polk County Assessor's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroad ROW'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Albers...

  17. Railroad Lines, Railroads (vacated also), Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroads (vacated also)'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  18. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  19. Developing Chinese Heavy Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strong economic recovery=Great opportunity in heavy trucks Based on the four trillion investment expansionary fiscal policy and the loose monetary policy,China's economy is stimulated.Meanwhile,the CITIC Securities Research Dept.estimated that the economic growth will be better than expected in 2009 and 2010.Macro-economic expectations continue to improve and the fix-asset investment growth rate hit a new high level of the recent five years.

  20. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  1. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, wherein R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company) seeks to lease from RJC Railroad Property and to operate...

  2. Investigation of Class 2b Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2002-04-03

    The popularity of trucks in the class 2 category--that is, those with a 6,000 to 10,000 pounds (lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)--has increased since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine vehicles in the upper portion of the class 2 weight range (designated as vehicle class 2b) and to assess their impact. Vehicles in class 2b (8,500-10,000 lbs GVWR) include pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and large vans (i.e., not minivans). Oak Ridge National Laboratory researched each individual truck model to determine which models were class 2b trucks and arrived at four methodologies to derive sales volumes. Two methods--one for calendar year and one for model year sales--were recommended for producing believable and reliable results. The study indicates that 521,000 class 2b trucks were sold in calendar year 1999--6.4% of sales of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Eighty-two percent of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were pickups; one third of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were diesel. There were 5.8 million class 2b trucks on the road in 2000, which amounts to 7.8% of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Twenty-four percent of the class 2b truck population is diesel. Estimates show that class 2b trucks account for 8% of annual miles traveled by trucks under 10,000 lbs and 9% of fuel use. Data on class 2b trucks are scarce. As the Tier 2 standards, which apply to passenger vehicles in the 8,500-10,000 lb GVWR category, become effective, additional data on class 2b trucks may become available--not only emissions data, but data in all areas. At the moment, distinguishing class 2b trucks from class 2 trucks in general is a substantial task requiring data on an individual model level.

  3. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  4. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  5. The Potentials of Rail-Road Integration for Port-Hinterland Freight Transport in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Egba Ubogu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world are tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective. This study evaluates the potentials of integrating rail-road system for port-hinterland freight in Nigeria. Much of the primary data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire specifically designed to gather information on the cost involved, distanced covered, areal coverage, and time taken to deliver cargoes to consignees. The respondents that were sampled systematically for this study were truck drivers who were interviewed at the point of loading in Lagos and Port Harcourt port complexes. In all, 302 truck drivers were interviewed. Secondary data sources were from records of Nigerian Ports Plc and Nigerian Railway Corporation. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Student’s t-test, and Geometric Mean analysis. The findings of this paper reveal that integrating rail-road for hinterland bound goods would be timely and potentially save 44.2% and 93.7% freight costs on the western and eastern flank respectively from the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Furthermore, the paired differences of the costs and time on both flanks were statistically significant using the Student’s t-test statistics. The implications of these findings are that integrating the various modes of transport for port-hinterland freight distribution would make the nation’s transportation system to be faster and more cost-effective.

  6. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall...

  7. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... .02 or greater but less than .04. (12) Information concerning the effects of alcohol misuse on an..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must...

  8. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Video fieldstudies of people who could be potential users is widespread in design projects. How to analyse such video is, however, often challenging, as it is time consuming and requires a trained eye to unlock experiential knowledge in people’s practices. In our work with industrialists, we have...... discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...

  9. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  10. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  11. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  12. A summary of truck fuel-saving measures developed with industry participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.; Saricks, C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gregory, E.W. II [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Moore, A.J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the third project undertaken by the Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in a US Department of Energy program designed to develop and distribute compendiums of measures for saving transportation fuel. A matrix, or chart, of more than 60 fuel-saving measures was developed by ANL and refined with the assistance of trucking industry operators and researchers at an industry coordination meeting held in August 1982. The first two projects used similar meetings to refine matrices developed for the international maritime and US railroad industries. The consensus reached by those at the meeting was that the single most important element in a truck fuel-efficiency improvement program is the human element -- namely the development of strong motivation among truck drivers to save fuel. The role of the driver is crucial to the successful use of fuel-saving equipment and operating procedures. Identical conclusions were reached in the earlier maritime and rail meetings, thus providing a strong indication of the pervasive importance of the human element in energy-efficient transportation systems. The number and variety of changes made to the matrix are also delineated, including addition and deletion of various options and revisions of fuel-saving estimates, payback period estimates, and remarks concerning items such as the advantages, disadvantages, and cautions associated with various measures. The quality and quantity of the suggested changes demonstrate the considerable value of using a forum of industry operators and researchers to refine research data that are intended for practical application.

  13. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... on Mack H. Shumate, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad Company, Law Department, 101 North Wacker Drive, Room... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice...

  14. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R... acquisition transaction is related to the notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35364, R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-- Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, in which R....

  15. Attuning in-car user interfaces to the momentary cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Cars, trucks and busses are more and more equipped with functions and services that drivers are supposed to operate and understand. The most important developments in this area are the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS). In order to make sure that the

  16. A Stochastic Route Choice Model for Car Travellers in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Frederiksen, Rasmus Dyhr; Daly, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a large-scale stochastic road traffic assignment model for the Copenhagen Region. The model considers several classes of passenger cars (different trip purposes), vans and trucks, each with its own utility function on which route choices are based. The utility functions include...

  17. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  18. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  19. Is My Project's Truck Factor Low? Theoretical and Empirical Considerations About the Truck Factor Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Torchiano, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Truck Factor is a simple way, proposed by the agile community, to measure the system's knowledge distribution in a team of developers. It can be used to highlight potential project problems due to the inadequate distribution of the system knowledge. Notwithstanding its relevance, only few studies investigated the Truck Factor and proposed ways to efficiently measure, evaluate and use it. In particular, the effective use of the Truck Factor is limited by the lack of reliable thresholds. In...

  20. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad... from R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and operate approximately 42...

  1. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  2. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  3. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  4. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  5. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  6. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  7. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  8. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  9. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  10. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  11. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  12. Railroad Lines, Railroad-The data set is a line feature representing railroad tracks. It was created to maintain the location of the railroad., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1991. It is described as 'Railroad-The data set is a line feature...

  13. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  14. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  15. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  16. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  17. Cultural discourse embedded in truck scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Gökhan Ulum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The bond between a driver and his truck has been the subject of many famous films. If not actual adoration of the vehicle, it certainly is the destiny shared between a living human and a running machine, both heading for a common destination. Who and what else can replace this bond? Here, we see the truck bearing decorations, bumper sticks, script, and pictures of animate and inanimate objects all reflecting the taste and psyche of the driver. This study aims to introduce a thematic analysis into this picturesque look of over a thousand trucks with specific focus on scripts borne by trailers based on the assumption that content of scripts would be representing inner worlds of truck drivers. Photographed as well as internet-based data related to vehicles provided the source for this study. Scripts were thematised, and categorized observing nationality of origin of license plates. With its findings, the study yields valuable results regarding values and beliefs truck drivers of different nationalities hold to themselves. A variety of psychological profiles, harboring feelings such as sadness, joy, dejection, rejection, love, disappointments, anger, vengeance, etc., all expressed through scripts was also surfaced in this study.

  18. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2009 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2009 cost...

  19. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  20. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  1. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital for 2012. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2012...

  2. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  3. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  4. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  5. Investigation on Drag Reduction of Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiao-ni; LIU Zhen-yan

    2008-01-01

    A study of the mechanism of fences was given to reduce drag by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental research. A 3D mathematical model has been developed based on computational fluid dynamics software Phoenics that was capable of handling steady state, 3D flow to simulate the flow field around the truck. The experiment made in a low speed wind tunnel is used as references for validation. By analyzing the results of calculation and experiment, the flowing mechanism of the flow field around the container truck and the drag-reducing mechanism of #-shaped fences on the truck are unveiled, which provides theoretical guidance to the aerodynamic formation designing and amelioration.

  6. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) at milepost 426.88 in Gurdon, Ark. and milepost 429.5 north of... transaction from those listed in the emergency service proceeding involving the same line. See Ark. Midland...

  7. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom (city),...

  8. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  9. Mining truck scheduling with stochastic maintenance cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erkan TOPAL; Salih RAMAZAN

    2012-01-01

    Open pit mining operations utilize large scale and expensive equipment.For the mines implementing shovel and truck operation system,trucks constitute a large portion of these equipment and are used for hauling the mined materials.In order to have sustainable and viable operation,these equipment need to be utilized efficiently with minimum operating cost.Maintenance cost is a significant proportion of the overall operating costs.The maintenance cost of a truck changes non-linearly depending on the type,age and truck types.A new approach based on stochastic integer programming (SIP) techniques is used for annually scheduling a fixed fleet of mining trucks in a given operation,over the life of mine (multi-year time horizon) to minimize maintenance cost.The maintenance cost data in mining usually has uncertainty caused from the variability of the operational conditions at mines.To estimate the cost,usually historic data from different operations for new mines,and/or the historic data at the operating mines are used.However,maintenance cost varies depending on road conditions,age of equipment and many other local conditions at an operation.Traditional models aim to estimate the maintenance cost as a deterministic single value and financial evaluations are based on the estimated value.However,it does not provide a confidence on the estimate.The proposed model in this study assumes the truck maintenance cost is a stochastic parameter due to the significant level of uncertainty in the data and schedules the available fleet to meet the annual production targets.The scheduling has been performed by applying both the proposed stochastic and deterministic approaches.The approach provides a distribution for the maintenance cost of the optimized equipment schedule minimizing the cost.

  10. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Lecture presented at the United States Army Russian Institute, 6 December 1979. 39S. Troyan , "Baikal-Amur Railroad, A Road of Courage", Soviet Military...34. (Bridges On The BAM) Tyl i Snabzheniye, No. 9, 1979, pp.27-28. "Transport zimoy". (Transport In Winter) Pravda, 24 January 1978, p.1 . Troyan , S

  11. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  12. A Novel Approach for Estimating Truck Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, Guilherme; Passos, Leonardo; Hora, Andre; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Truck Factor (TF) is a metric proposed by the agile community as a tool to identify concentration of knowledge in software development environments. It states the minimal number of developers that have to be hit by a truck (or quit) before a project is incapacitated. In other words, TF helps to measure how prepared is a project to deal with developer turnover. Despite its clear relevance, few studies explore this metric. Altogether there is no consensus about how to calculate it, and no suppo...

  13. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  14. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  15. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  16. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial trucks. 1917.43 Section 1917.43 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.43 Powered industrial trucks. (a) Applicability. This section applies to every type of powered industrial truck used for material or...

  19. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  20. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  1. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  2. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  3. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  4. Production cars' featuring technologies derived from motor sports; Motor sports de hagukumareta shihansha no yoso gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Many recent innovative automotive technologies are derived from motor racing. This paper focuses on some applications of these leading-edge technologies to production cars. (1) Mitsubishi's vehicle technology, derived from its World Rally Championship car 'LANCER'. (2) Toyota's racing engine technology. (3) Subaru's center differential technology, derived from its 4WD competition car 'IMPREZA'. (4) Nissan's aerodynamic and highly rigid body structure applied to 'SKYLINE'. (5) Hino's heavy duty truck air suspension system, derived from 'CAMION'. (author)

  5. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  6. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  7. Challenges and issues with building a potential railroad to Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, R.L.

    2004-07-01

    On July 23, 2002, the President of the United States signed into law a joint resolution of the United States Congress designating the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorizes construction of the repository and receipt and possession of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive at Yucca Mountain, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would be responsible for transporting these materials to the Yucca Mountain repository as part of its obligation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Part of the site recommendation decision included the analysis of a nation-wide shipping campaign to the proposed repository site. The Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada'' (February 2002) (Repository EIS) evaluated the potential impacts of the transportation of 70,000 Metric Tons of Heavy Metal spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 locations around the nation to the potential repository in Nevada over a 24 year shipping campaign. DOE believes that the Repository EIS provides the environmental impact information necessary to make certain broad transportation-related decisions, namely the choice of a national mode of transportation outside Nevada (mostly rail or mostly legal-weight truck), the choice among alternative transportation modes in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), and the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. In the Repository EIS, DOE identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. In December 2003, based

  8. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  9. High-performance turbocharger for motor sports cars; Motor sports yo turbo ni tsuibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Motor sports car with a turbo-charged gasoline or diesel engine ranges over racing car, prototype car and production cars from light vehicle to large truck. Not only a large output power but also a high torque ranging from a low- revolution region of engines to a high-revolution region are required for turbochargers for racing cars. The turbocharger for racing cars requires the following features: (1) The latest fluid performance for achieving a high pressure ratio, high efficiency and large capacity, (2) a high reliability for bearing high exhaust temperature, (3) a high-response rotation part with low inertia moment, (4) a loss reduction bearing for improving a response and total performance, and (5) the small light-weight turbocharger for balancing a car with an engine. The turbocharger for motor sports cars has developed various advanced technologies concretely for achieving a high running performance and low fuel consumption required for automobiles. Such advanced technologies developed for motor races will also contribute to the growth of an automobile industry in the future. (NEDO)

  10. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  11. 26 CFR 48.4082-1T - Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bulk transfer/terminal system into the transport compartment of a truck, trailer, railroad car, or... system is placed out of service. (5) Mechanical injection system; revocation or suspension of approval... as a railroad car) does not satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d) if the required dye...

  12. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  13. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN TRUCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  14. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  15. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  16. 75 FR 4904 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  17. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: FRA is updating its announcement of the RSAC Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  19. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  20. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  1. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  2. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  3. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  4. 77 FR 43368 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of... October 20, 2011, applicable to workers of Navistar International Truck Development and Technology Center... Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation,...

  5. 49 CFR 1.49 - Delegations to Federal Railroad Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in freight rates and passenger fares for the Alaska Railroad, without power to redelegate authority for general changes in freight rates and passenger fares. (j) Promote and undertake research and... by the Crime Control Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-647) as it relates to a railroad police...

  6. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  7. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, SS

    2001-07-02

    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  8. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  9. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  10. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  11. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Triangle. A-4.1. Almost all counterbalanced powered industrial trucks have a three-point suspension system... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Materials Handling and Storage § 1910.178 Powered industrial trucks... and electrical systems. They may be used in some locations where a D unit may not be...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  14. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  15. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty trucks - Ford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  16. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Isuzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  17. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Mitsubishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  18. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Nissan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Mazda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  20. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Chrysler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  1. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  2. Powertrain Controls Optimization for HD Hybrid Line Haul Trucks - FY2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This is a vehicle system level project, encompassing analytical modeling and supervisory controls development as well as experimental verification/validation testing at the component, powertrain, and full vehicle system level. This project supports the goal of petroleum consumption reduction for medium and heavy trucks through the development of advanced hybrid technologies and control systems. VSST has invested previously in R&D to support hybrid energy storage systems (Li-ion plus ultra-caps) for light duty, passenger car applications. This research will be extended to the MD and HD sector where current battery technology is not mature enough to handle the substantial regenerative braking power levels these trucks are capable of producing. With this hybrid energy storage system, substantial gains in overall vehicle efficiency are possible. In addition, advanced combustion technologies, such as RCCI, will be implemented into an advanced hybrid powertrain for a Class 8 line haul application. This powertrain, leveraged from other VSST work (Meritor, a current ORNL/VSST partner), is ideal for taking advantage of the benefits of RCCI operation due to its series hybrid mode of operation. Emissions control is also a focus of this project, especially due to the fact that RCCI creates a low temperature exhaust stream that must addressed.

  3. Railroad Lines, Railroads within Sedgwick County. Primary attribute is railroad name. Names are provided as annotation also., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Railroads...

  4. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a)...

  5. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year. 330.4 Section 330.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the...

  6. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  7. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  8. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  9. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  10. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  11. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  12. PTSD in railroad drivers under the Federal employers' liability act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Farrell, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    Railroad and subway drivers can experience psychological trauma when trains strike or nearly miss other trains, motor vehicles, or persons or become instruments of death. Derailments, collisions, and suicides on the tracks can induce feelings of helplessness, horror, guilt, and anxiety in the drivers. Although some drivers experience acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their conditions are not always acknowledged within the occupational setting. The world literature suggests that PTSD has been an increasing focus of concern, giving rise to detailed intervention protocols. In the United States, the Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA) governs the adjudication of work-related injuries among railroad employees. In practice, it is difficult for railroad drivers with PTSD to receive benefits if there was no "direct impact" linked to the employer's negligence. In this article, the authors review the literature on PTSD among railroad drivers, discuss relevant case law, and explain how the FELA militates against some employees with PTSD.

  13. Projection of light-truck population to year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The recent growth in the number of light trucks is a matter of considerable interest in that it may have far-reaching implications for gasoline consumption. This paper forecasts the number of light trucks in the years to 2025. The forecast is based on economic scenarios developed by SRI International. Except for the case of the most-dismal economic forecast, the number of light trucks is predicted to increase monotonically and to show the greatest rate of increase between 1973 and 1980.

  14. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  15. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  16. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  17. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Harris, K. Aron, and J. Fendell "N2 and 00 Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CHI/N20 Flames," Proceedings of the Nineteenth...JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CIIA Publication No. 366, 1982, p 123. 21. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , "N and CO Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational...9 6 5 . p 3 8 4 . . . . . 23. J. Fendell , L. E, Harris, and K. Aron, "Theoretical Calculation of 11 CARS S-Branches for Propellant Flames

  18. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  19. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  20. Railroad Lines, Railroad Lines, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Columbia County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000. It is described as...

  1. Measurement of Micro Vibration of Car by Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Masuyama, Kosuke; Nakamura, Testuo; Bamba, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kajiro

    Recently, there are various accidents and crimes related to the car. In some cases, the accidents and the crimes can be prevented if it is possible to detect a human who is in the car. For example, we can prevent a baby who is left in a car under the hot weather from dehydration or death occurred by heat inside disease. In another case, it is estimated that the United States currently has as many as 12 million illegal immigrants. In order to prevent further influx of illegal immigrants, the police are physically searching incoming vehicles at national boundaries aiming at finding those who are hiding inside. However, the physical inspections require much manpower cost and time. An inspection method to see inside the vehicles through X-ray images has also been used for this end. But the cost and the installation places are the problems of the large-scale X-ray system. Proposed in this paper is a piezoelectric ceramic system to handily measure the micro vibrations of motor vehicles. And applying the algorithm of Support Vector Machine (SVM), the existence of human body inside vehicles can be detected. The experiment was carried out using four types of vehicles: a mini car; an auto mobile; a van; and a truck weighing 1.5 tons. As the results, the correct determination ratio was 91.2% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 97.0% under the rear wheels, when the vehicle used for the examination had also been used together with other three types of vehicles to obtain SVM training data. When the vehicle used for the examination had not been used together with the other three to obtain SVM training data, on the other hand, the correct determination ratio was 93.7% for the experiment with the piezoelectric ceramic under the front wheels and 95.7% under the rear wheels.

  2. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  3. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  4. A cognitive Analysis of truck Drivers' right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Sieker, Tobias; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    using several brief glances in mirrors, and that the front and near-zone mirrors are never used during right-hand turns. Controlling the vehicle is found to be more or less automatic, whereas their focus is on the orientation about surroundings. Lastly, the drivers’ behavior is discussed in relation......This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...... driving instructor is interviewed, and four truck drivers are observed and interviewed. This results in a cognitive work analysis with the phases work domain analysis, control task analysis and strategies analysis. Through this study it is indicated that many different types of information are sought...

  5. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    using several brief glances in mirrors, and that the front and near-zone mirrors are never used during right-hand turns. Controlling the vehicle is found to be more or less automatic, whereas their focus is on the orientation about surroundings. Lastly, the drivers’ behavior is discussed in relation......This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...... driving instructor is interviewed, and four truck drivers are observed and interviewed. This results in a cognitive work analysis with the phases work domain analysis, control task analysis and strategies analysis. Through this study it is indicated that many different types of information are sought...

  6. STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VAN-BODY TRUCKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the van-body truck were studied by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiments. The concept of critical length was presented for the van-body truck in wind tunnel experiments, the proper critical Reynolds number was found and the effects of ground parameters in ground effect simulation on the aerodynamic measurements were examined. It shows that two structure parameters, van height and the gap between the cab and the van, can obviously influence the aerodynamic characteristics, and the additional aerodynamic devices, the wind deflector and the vortex regulator in the rear, can considerably reduce the aerodynamic drag of the van-body truck. Numerical simulations provided rich information of the flow fields around the van-body trucks.

  7. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  8. Scheduling inbound and outbound trucks at cross docking terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Boysen; Malte Fliedner; Armin Scholl

    2007-01-01

    At cross docking terminals, shipments from inbound trucks are unloaded, sorted and moved to dispatch points where they are directly loaded onto outbound trucks for an immediate delivery elsewhere in the distribution system. This warehouse management concept aims at realizing economies in transportation cost by consolidating divergent shipments to full truckloads without requiring excessive inventory at the cross dock. The efficient operation of such a system requires an appropriate coordinati...

  9. Determination of Practical ESALs Per Truck Values on Indiana Roads

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has been using ESAL (Equivalent Single Axle Load) values for pavement design. The current ESAL values were obtained in the late 1970. However, truck deregulation and higher allowable maximum loads have increased the 1970's values. Updated ESAL values are needed for better road designs. The 1998 and 1999 traffic data from the all Weight-in-Motion (WIM) stations were obtained and used to compute updated ESAL values for multiple unit trucks (Class...

  10. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  11. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  12. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  13. Lateral Dynamics Of A Railway Truck On Flexible Tangent Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha*, A. K.; Karmakar, R.; Bhattacharyya, R.

    A railway vehicle becomes unstable beyond a critical speed. Assessment of the critical speed is important for safety and passenger comfort. Bond graph model of a railway truck-wheelset system on flexible tangent track has been created with eighteen degrees of freedom considering six degrees of freedom for each wheelset and the truck unit without any linearity approximation for the wheelsets. Kalker's linear creep theory has been used for rail-wheel contact forces. The bond graph model of a single wheelset created earlier has been used for the front and rear wheelsets to model the truck-wheelset system. The model is created and simulated for a given set of nominal parameter values with rigid track condition. Truck-critical speeds and stability bahaviour are studied through simulations. Critical speed of a truck is found to be higher than that of a wheelset at the same axle load and conicity for nominal primary suspension and wheelbase. Contrary to the variation of critical speed of a single wheelset with increasing conicity critical speed of a truck decreases with increasing conicity.

  14. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  15. MCDA APPLIED TO PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF SHORT-HAUL TRUCK DRIVERS: A CASE STUDY IN A PORTUGUESE TRUCKING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance appraisal increasingly assumes a more important role in any organizational environment. In the trucking industry, drivers are the company's image and for this reason it is important to develop and increase their performance and commitment to the company's goals. This paper aims to create a performance appraisal model for trucking drivers, based on a multi-criteria decision aid methodology. The PROMETHEE and MMASSI methodologies were adapted using the criteria used for performance appraisal by the trucking company studied. The appraisal involved all the truck drivers, their supervisors and the company's Managing Director. The final output is a ranking of the drivers, based on their performance, for each one of the scenarios used. The results are to be used as a decision-making tool to allocate drivers to the domestic haul service.

  16. Reducing Truck Emissions at Container Terminals in a Low Carbon Economy: Proposal of a Queueing-based Bi-Objective Model for Optimizing Truck Arrival Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2012-01-01

    a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...

  17. Development of ACC system for heavy-duty trucks; Ogata truck yo shakan seigyo kuruzu control no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, S.; Shibata, N. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okata, H.; Matsuoka, K. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) system for heavy duty trucks which is now on the market. The ACC system consists of the distance warning system with a scanning laser radar device and the conventional cruise control system. The ACC is carefully tuned taking the characteristics of heavy-duty trucks into consideration. That has made it possible to achieve lower degree of driver`s fatigue as well as higher ride comfort and easier driving. (author)

  18. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  20. EFFECT OF OPERATION CONDITIONS ON CHANGE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EFFICIENCY OF THE CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krivoshapov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles of analytical determination of the efficiency of the entire vehicle and individual units are stated. The dependences of change of the efficiency depending on the speed and load modes of vehicle operation are specified. The mathematical model takes into account the real characteristics of the road and transport machines operating conditions. The results of calculation of the indicator and the mechanical efficiency of the engine, transmission and the wheel efficiency, total efficiency of the car, depending on the category of roads, weight and the speed of the machine on example of GAZ-3307 truck are presented.

  1. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  2. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  3. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  4. 7 CFR 868.1 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by a cooperator. (9) Carrier. A truck, trailer, truck/trailer(s) combination, railroad car, barge... provided in the agreement. (16) Department. The United States Department of Agriculture. (17) Factor. A... specific physical factors using approved equipment and an inspector's interpretation of visual...

  5. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may...... be large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...... is discussed and the nonlinear aspects are emphasized. The author explains why it is necessary to reformulate the mathematical problem for calculation of the critical speed due to the nonlinear character of the modelling. It is suggested that another critical speed be defined for a railroad vehicle. It can...

  6. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  7. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-12-31

    The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

  8. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  9. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesung Hwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.

  10. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... requirements, either to remedy perceived shortcomings in the railroads' rules to emphasize the importance of... Railroad Passengers (NARP); National Association of Railway Business Women;* National Conference of Firemen... Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc.; Transport Canada;* Transport Workers Union of...

  11. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  12. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  13. Load Express Analysis of the Car Running Against the Bumps in the Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Baryshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many fields of technology when calculating the strength there are options available to choose design cases and loads in compliance with different operating conditions. In the automotive industry there are no such standards yet. This is due to both a variety of operating conditions, and a complexity of calculating the actual loads.K. Ert`s article is considered to be a pioneering work in this regard. There the author makes a hypothesis of the linear dependence of torque acting on the car, and of the height of bumps in the road. All formulas were obtained for vehicles with the leaf spring suspensions. An appearing entire class of new cars made it necessary to generalize the experience.This paper proposes an engineering method for calculating the vertical loads acting on the car when bumping in the road. We derive general formulas to calculate the height of the road bumps (irregularities on the way of a running car with various types of suspension. A dump truck BELAZ with various types nonlinear of suspension has been used to test the obtained formulas. The results analysis has shown that under equal conditions a car with dependent rear suspension will bear the lower loads than its prototype with a different type of suspension.The paper presents the relationships between the hights of bumps, which cause an equivalent load when different wheels bump against them. It shows a relation between the loads acting on the car when bumping against the same road irregularity by different wheels. The practical significance of the equations is the possibility to calculate loads in various cases in the road using the one-test results. A comparative results analysis of analytical calculation of loads and numerical experiments is based on the nonlinear model of the vehicle.The proposed method is an effective tool for the rapid analysis of loads in the design and fine-tuning the car.

  14. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  15. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  16. 78 FR 65422 - Notice of Funding Availability and Solicitation of Applications for Grants Under the Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... estimate total project costs and explain how the affected Class II and Class III railroad will finance the... reporting (described in Appendices 1 and 2). 8. For the railroad(s) operating on the infrastructure proposed... estimate site and right(s)-of-way acquisition costs (this includes purchase, lease, and/or easements)....

  17. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  18. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  19. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  20. 78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco Holdings), Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc. (Watco Railroad), and Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc. (Merger Sub), all noncarriers, have filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) for...

  1. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., Attention: Melissa Shurland, Office of Research and Development, Mail Stop 20, Room W36-429, 1200 New Jersey... alternatives to these products. Currently in the railroad industry petroleum-based fuel and lubricants are used... FRA Railroad System Issues Research and Development Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...

  2. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  3. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  4. The market for large rigid haul trucks in surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilewicz, P.

    2002-04-15

    Originally published in 2001 this updated report provides a definition of the market for large rigid haulers in surface mining. The analysis covers changes to the mining market segments buying these machines including the gains made by coal producers, retrenchment in copper mining, the consolidation taking place among gold mining companies, and the expansion of iron ore producers in Australia and Brazil. It includes a detailed accounting of 2001 truck shipments, and an analysis of trends in the Ultra-truck segment. It concludes with a revised forecast for shipments through 2006. 12 charts, 56 tabs., 2 apps.

  5. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  6. The Old Railroad Right-of-Way Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a classroom challenge involving an old railroad right-of-way. Using the knowledge gained via research into what others may have done with utilizing old rail lines, along with team creative efforts, students should begin generating ideas for how to use these land areas. The students might suggest the land areas be used for:…

  7. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  8. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... the productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Deduction From Monthly Benefits § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee... benefits or a civil service annuity, or both. (b) Action when benefits are suspended. If the...

  10. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  11. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Equipment and Operation of Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.51 Railroad conveyances... servicing area, toilets shall be kept locked unless means are provided to prevent contamination of the area... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-627), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  12. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  13. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...

  14. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum,...

  15. 78 FR 76888 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials AGENCY... for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study, which... public meetings on the MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study and to announce...

  16. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Truck Fleet Survey AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of...- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey. Background: The Energy Independence and Security Act...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  19. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  20. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  1. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  2. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  3. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  4. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease agreement... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35217, must be filed with...

  5. 76 FR 28850 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption-Mohall Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... milepost 67.5, near Calvin. NPR, MHC, and a third Class III rail carrier, Mohall Railroad, Inc., are... segment of its line between milepost 67.5, near Calvin, N.D., and milepost 72.9, at Sarles) and...

  6. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    This paper explores the experiences of different emotions that develop during commuting practices between home and the workplace. In an explorative form, the analyses will elucidate on the various emotional states of the drivers as they drive through different urban and rural landscapes and manages...... different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...

  7. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuo [Canberra-Japan (Japan); Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  8. Testing Refrigeration Trucks for the Emergency Evacuation of Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Ellifrit, Nancy; Sime, Debra; Rowe, Mike; Hogue, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight = 1,248 kg) housed in individual crates were loaded into a 16-m refrigeration truck. Once they were loaded, the doors were closed and the percentages of O2 and CO2 were measured every 5 min by O2 and CO2 analyzers, and they were used to quantify the changes in gas pressure in the sealed truck. CO2 had a much higher-than-predicted increase, and O2 had a higher-than-predicted decrease. These 2 pressures in combination with the functionality of the respiratory system will limit the animal's ability to load O2, and over time, they will initiate asphyxia or suffocation. Over time, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the sealed truck will decrease, causing hypoxia, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) will increase, causing hypercapnia.

  9. NREL Highlight: Truck Platooning Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-21

    NREL's fleet test and evaluation team assesses the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning of line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics. Platooning reduces aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and safely decreasing the distance between them via electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. In 2014, the team conducted track testing of three SmartWay tractor - two platooned tractors and one control tractor—at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights. While platooning improved fuel economy at all speeds, travel at 55 mph resulted in the best overall miles per gallon. The lead truck demonstrated fuel savings up to 5.3% while the trailing truck saved up to 9.7%. A number of conditions impact the savings attainable, including ambient temperature, distance between lead and trailing truck, and payload weight. Future studies may look at ways to optimize system fuel efficiency and emissions reductions.

  10. EPA, Seattle truck repair firm settle water pollution case

    Science.gov (United States)

    (SEATTLE - May 13, 2015) Western Peterbilt, LLC, a Seattle truck sales and repair shop, has reached a settlement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stemming from violations of the federal Clean Water Act. As part of the settlement, the company h

  11. Evaluating impact of truck announcements on container stacking efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco); B. Borgman (Bram); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContainer stacking rules are an important factor in container terminal efficiency. We build on prior research and use a discrete-event simulation model to evaluate the impact of a truck announcement system on the performance of online container stacking rules. The information that is con

  12. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  13. Analysis of a distributed system for lifting trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pang, J.; Wouters, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The process-algebraic language muCRL is used to analyse an existing distributed system for lifting trucks. Four errors are found in the original design. We propose solutions for these problems and show by means of model-checking that the modified system meets the requirements.

  14. Comparison of visibility measurement techniques for forklift truck design factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chin-Bong; Park, Peom; Kim, Young-Ho; Susan Hallbeck, M; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2009-03-01

    This study applied the light bulb shadow test, a manikin vision assessment test, and an individual test to a forklift truck to identify forklift truck design factors influencing visibility. The light bulb shadow test followed the standard of ISO/DIS 13564-1 for traveling and maneuvering tests with four test paths (Test Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 6). Digital human and forklift truck models were developed for the manikin vision assessment test with CATIA V5R13 human modeling solutions. Six participants performed the individual tests. Both employed similar parameters to the light bulb shadow test. The individual test had better visibility with fewer numbers and a greater distribution of the shadowed grids than the other two tests due to eye movement and anthropometric differences. The design factors of load backrest extension, lift chain, hose, dashboard, and steering wheel should be the first factors considered to improve visibility, especially when a forklift truck mainly performs a forward traveling task in an open area.

  15. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    driving instructor is interviewed, and four truck drivers are observed and interviewed. This results in a cognitive work analysis with the phases work domain analysis, control task analysis and strategies analysis. Through this study it is indicated that many different types of information are sought...... to change blindness and confirmation bias....

  16. 78 FR 20373 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ..., FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a... commercial zones as detailed in the Agency's April 13, 2011, Federal Register proposal [76 FR 20807]. The... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  17. 77 FR 12356 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov... municipalities (border commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  18. 77 FR 40938 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  19. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  20. 76 FR 56868 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  1. 76 FR 56272 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  2. 77 FR 47693 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  3. Stress analysis of portable safety platform (Core Sampler Truck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-03-30

    This document provides the stress analysis and evaluation of the portable platform of the rotary mode core sampler truck No. 2 (RMCST {number_sign}2). The platform comprises railing, posts, deck, legs, and a portable ladder; it is restrained from lateral motion by means of two brackets added to the drill-head service platform.

  4. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  5. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  6. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety of Railroad Bridges A Appendix A to Part 237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS... Railroad Bridges A Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges was originally published...

  8. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  9. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  10. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... in the system. A conventional Genetic Algorithm (GA), a multi-society GA, and a hybrid algorithm using GA and Simulated Annealing are used to solve the optimization problem. A case study based on a real container terminal in China is performed, which shows the VDTWs method can flatten the truck arrivals...

  11. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  12. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  13. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  14. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  15. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  16. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  17. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also included in this article.

  18. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also incl...

  19. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  20. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  1. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  2. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  3. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  4. "Auman Speed"--A Miracle of China's Commercial Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In 2004, Foton Auman, located in a beautiful place-Beijing Hongluosi, made a remarkable achievement, selling nearly 45,000mid-heavy-duty trcuks. From 2002 to2004, Foton Auman has completed the whole process which the traditional truck enterprises need take several decades to complete. As soon as Foton Auman entered the market, it has become a competitive challenger in China's mid-heavytruck market, with its unique products and advanced philosophy in management; it takes Foton Auman less than three years to become the biggest group in China's mid-heavy-truck industry and become a leading enterprise of the market. The development of Foton Auman is called"Auman Speed" by auto circle and experts.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shared facilities. 8. Showering facilities. (a) Showering facilities should be provided in the following.... Consumption of food and beverages on the premises. (a) Application. This paragraph should apply only...

  6. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  7. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  8. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  9. 21st Century Truck Partnership 2013 Fall Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Steels (AHHSs), Long- Fiber Carbon Composites , etc.  Dissimilar Material Joining − Robust Bio- Fuels − Heavy-Duty Vehicles  SuperTruck II...National Automotive Center U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) U.S. Army Research Development and...Program Executive Officer, Tank Automotive Command (TACOM), Combat Support & Combat Service Support (CS&CSS) for providing the Warfighter’s

  10. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  11. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  12. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E

    1993-06-01

    Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

  13. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kornilovich, E. [Construction Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment, Mytischy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99.

  14. Computer monitors and controls all truck-shovel operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1985-03-01

    The intense competition in the coal industry and the advances in computer technology have led several large mines to consider computer dispatching systems as a means of optimizing production. Quintette Coal, Ltd., of Vancouver, B.C., has engaged Modular Mining Systems, Inc., of Tucson, to install a comprehensive truck-dispatch system at a new, multiseam mine northeast of Vancouver. This open-pit operation will rely on truck-shovel teams to uncover both steam and metallurgical coal. The mine is already using about 12 shovels and 50 trucks to produce 3 million tpy. By 1986, production will hit 5 million tpy of metallurgical coal and 1.3 million tpy of steam coal. The coal is under contract to be shipped to Japan. Denison Mines Ltd., owns 50% of Quintette Coal. Of the other 14 shareholders, 10 are Japanese steel companies. Although about 10 non-coal mines worldwide are using some form of computer-controlled dispatching system, Quintette is the first coal company to do so and western US mines are reportedly studying the Quintette system carefully.

  15. LNG 卡车原理以及常见布置方式介绍%LNG truck principle and common Arrangement structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文倩

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, cars have more and more, the car in improving people's living standards at the same time, fuel car exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxide and particulate matter has gradually become one of the main sources of air pollution in cities. Vehicular natural gas as a common clean energy has become an effective substitute for fossil fuels, liquefied natural gas liquid natural gas (LNG) heavy truck more and more by the favor of the market. In this paper, liquefied natural gas liquid natural gas (LNG) heavy-duty truck principle and application of do is introduced in this paper.%随着我国经济的飞速发展,汽车的拥有量也越来越多,汽车在提高人们物质生活水平的同时,燃油汽车其尾气排放中的氮氧化物和微粒也逐渐成为城市空气污染的主要来源之一。车用天然气作为常见的清洁能源已经成为化石燃料的有效替代品,液化天然气(Liquid Natural Gas, LNG)重型载货汽车越来越受到市场青睐,文章就液化天然气(Liquid Natural Gas, LNG)重型载货汽车原理以及应用情况做一介绍。

  16. Developing high-resolution urban scale heavy-duty truck emission inventory using the data-driven truck activity model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugu, Harikishan; Wei, Heng; Yao, Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelers often rely on regional travel demand models to estimate the vehicle activity data for emission models, however, most of the current travel demand models can only output reliable person travel activity rather than goods/service specific travel activity. This paper presents the successful application of data-driven, Spatial Regression and output optimization Truck model (SPARE-Truck) to develop truck-related activity inputs for the mobile emission model, and eventually to produce truck specific gridded emissions. To validate the proposed methodology, the Cincinnati metropolitan area in United States was selected as a case study site. From the results, it is found that the truck miles traveled predicted using traditional methods tend to underestimate - overall 32% less than proposed model- truck miles traveled. The coefficient of determination values for different truck types range between 0.82 and 0.97, except the motor homes which showed least model fit with 0.51. Consequently, the emission inventories calculated from the traditional methods were also underestimated i.e. -37% for NOx, -35% for SO2, -43% for VOC, -43% for BC, -47% for OC and - 49% for PM2.5. Further, the proposed method also predicted within ∼7% of the national emission inventory for all pollutants. The bottom-up gridding methodology used in this paper could allocate the emissions to grid cell where more truck activity is expected, and it is verified against regional land-use data. Most importantly, using proposed method it is easy to segregate gridded emission inventory by truck type, which is of particular interest for decision makers, since currently there is no reliable method to test different truck-category specific travel-demand management strategies for air pollution control.

  17. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  18. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  19. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using GRASP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking play an important role in management of supply chains where items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly sorted out, reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is held in storage, it is usually for a short time, which is normally less than 24 hours. The proposed model of this paper considers a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and uses GRASP technique to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using GRASP method. The preliminary test results indicate that the GRASP method performs better than alternative solution strategies.

  20. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver′s task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05. Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz. The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up

  1. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Nasiri, Saleh; Kazerooni, Farshid Khodaparast; Oliaei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver's task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC) in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS) was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05). Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB) in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz). The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up some interventions

  2. 75 FR 80430 - Passenger Car and Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standards Request for Product Plan Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ..., market trends, and prospects for more advanced technologies (such as HCCI engines, dual loop cooled EGR... data about engines, transmissions, vehicle mass reduction technologies, and hybrid technologies for MY... States Code, 49 U.S.C. 32901. ] 2. ``Basic engine'' has the meaning given in 40 CFR 600.002- 93(a)(21)....

  3. Improving Road Safety of Tank Truck in Indonesia by Speed Limiter Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto Hadi; Leman A.M; Baba Ishak; Feriyanto Dafit; Putra Gama Widya

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank tru...

  4. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Xiao-Yu; Kong Xiao; Zhang Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new ...

  5. The Rapid Development of Chinese Heavy Truck Industry : Adapted Porter’s Diamond Model Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaonan; Cao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Chinese heavy truck industry has witnessed an unprecedentedprosper since 2009, and it has been attracting an increasing number of westernheavy truck companies to conduct business activities. However, differentindustry environment has brought different situation including the government’spolicies and consumers’ buying habits for local companies and foreign competitors.Thus, this study aims to analyze the impact of industry factors in Chinese heavy truck industry by examining a collection of th...

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENT OF ACOMPUTER-CONTROLLED TRUCK DISPATCHING SYSTEM IN SURFACE MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏靖; 刘胜富; 赵铁林

    1996-01-01

    The development and experiment of a computer-controlled truck dispatching system insurface mine is presented in this paper. It includes the system overall design, the system workingmode design, the selection of the best truck travel path, the development of truck fleet program-ming, the development of database management system, and the development of truck real timedispatching, etc. The successful experiment is carried out in Huolinhe surface mine, and the sat-isfied results are obtained. Application of this system can improve the system production and themine management. This system is the first one in our country at present.

  7. An analysis on China’s segmented truck market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The truck market in 2007 maintained the rapid growth trend formed in 2006. The year saw a total of 2.1145 million trucks sold, a year on year growth of 22.46 percent. Detailed figures: finished truck: 1.5164 million units, a year on year growth of 15.11 percent; truck chassis: 450,400 units, a year on year growth of 31.98 percent; semi-trailer: 177,800 units, a year on year growth of 91.86 percent.

  8. Comparing Gravimetric and Real-Time Sampling of PM2.5 Concentrations Inside Truck Cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J.; Davis, Mary E.; Jonathan I. Levy; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers’ exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers’ on-road exposure patterns to PM2.5 were assessed in five weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological ...

  9. Scheduling Trucks in a Cross-Dock with Mixed Service Mode Dock Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodnar, Peter; Azadeh, Kaveh; Koster, René de

    2015-01-01

    The problem considered in this paper is how to schedule inbound and outbound trucks subject to time windows at a multidoor cross-dock. Dock doors can either be dedicated to inbound or outbound trucks or be capable of handling both truck types. In addition, loads are allowed to be temporarily...... buffered to bridge the time between load arrival and departure. We minimize operational costs consisting of the cost of handling loads in temporary storage, as well as the cost of tardiness caused by processing outbound trucks after their respective due times. A mathematical model is derived...

  10. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  11. Six reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend......, because a truck driver's work is unpredictable and independent, but the regulation is action-defining and inflexible. Thus the regulations provoke violations because they counteract with the reality of truck drivers´ work conditions. The fifth reason is that the regulation counteracts with a general...

  12. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  13. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  14. Railroad Lines, Separate layers for active and inactive railroad lines for an eleven county region. Data is a subset from NCOneMap., Published in 2007, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Separate layers for active and inactive railroad...

  15. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  16. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  17. Railroad Bridges and Culverts, All railroad bridges for the state of Michigan, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is...

  18. Railroad Lines, Effingham County Railroad Lines, Published in 1997, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 1997. It is described...

  19. Railroad Lines, Lyon County Railroads, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2010. It is described...

  20. Railroad Lines, Tiger 2000 Railroad layer for the counties we serve., Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Prairie Land Electric COOP, Inc..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000. It is described...

  1. Development in the technology of internal combustion engines for passenger cars over the next 10 to 15 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willand, J. [Daimler Benz (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The mainly use of fossil fuels and their limited resources and also the requirement of a 25% reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions in Germany caused by the motor traffic, force the pressure on the car manufacturer to reduce the fuel consumption by respecting the emission limits given by the legislative institutions. The development of the worldwide vehicle population shows, that we can expect that markets like eastern Europe and developing countries will book the biggest amount of growing during the next decades. Related to this fact is also the amount of CO{sub 2}-Emissions caused by this countries. Of interest is that the emissions produced by cars will stagnate which is basically caused by the falling fuel consumption and in opposition the emissions of heavy trucks will expand over proportional. The reason is the strong expanding infrastructure in new markets and the fast growing number of heavy trucks in those countries. The target for Mercedes Benz is to reach a fuel economy until 2005 for the vehicle fleet of a maximum 6,0 liter / 100 km. Results concerning fuel economy could only be achieved on the base of progressive technologies. (EG)

  2. Emotional Intelligence and job performance: Evidence from railroad industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahmanabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in railroad industry. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring emotional intelligence adopted from Salovey and Mayer (1989 [Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3, 185-211.] and the other one for measuring job performance. The study selects 300 full time employees who work for railroad industry in city of Tehran, Iran, distributes two questionnaires among the employees and managed to collect all filled ones. Using Spearman correlation, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance (r = 0.796, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there were positive and meaningful relationships between four components of emotional intelligence, namely consciousness (r = 0.642, Sig. = 0.000, self-regulation (r = 0.41, Sig. = 0.000, self-awareness ( r = 0.552, Sig. = 0.000 and social skills (r = 0.524, Sig. = 0.000.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. 77 FR 24233 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... hold a meeting on May 30, 2012, at 9:30 a.m. at the office of the Chief Actuary of the U.S. Railroad... communications or notices to the RRB Actuarial Advisory Committee, c/o Chief Actuary, U.S. Railroad...

  5. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  6. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  7. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  8. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  9. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  10. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  11. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  12. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  13. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  14. 77 FR 51107 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pocahontas County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pocahontas County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  15. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  16. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  17. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines... the employee's supplemental annuity. A private pension for purposes of this subpart is a plan that: (1... pension plan under this section. (d) Effective date of private railroad pension for supplemental...

  18. 76 FR 25588 - Hours of Service Exception for Railroad Signal Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Railroad Signal Employees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Final... employees operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in connection with railroad signal work. This is in... statutory exemption applicable to signal employees and eliminate the potential for issuance of...

  19. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). JVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  20. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail... or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). LVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that it will...

  1. 77 FR 25910 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... property for restoration or reconstruction of rail service. 49 CFR 1152.29(c)(2), (d)(2); Birt, 90 F.3d at....3d 580, 582-83 (DC Cir. 1996). Under 16 U.S.C. 1247(d), the STB must ``preserve established railroad... that, if such interim use is subject to restoration or reconstruction for railroad purposes,...

  2. 78 FR 46682 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Joint Use-Louisville & Indiana Railroad Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... jointly use the Line with L&I, CSXT seeks to acquire and use a perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad... perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad operating easement over the Line. In order to accomplish this... arrangement is perpetual and is based on the Transaction Agreement. L&I would also be charged for...

  3. 78 FR 60375 - Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation--Corporate Family..., has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for a corporate family transaction in which Rogue Valley will transfer ownership of track and right-of-way of a line of railroad...

  4. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the comm...

  5. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  6. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  7. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.

  8. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  9. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  10. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  11. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  12. Santa Fe Indian Camp, House 21, Richmond, California: Persistence of Identity among Laguna Pueblo Railroad Laborers, 1945-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    In 1880 the Laguna people and the predecessor of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad reached an agreement giving the railroad unhindered right-of-way through Laguna lands in exchange for Laguna employment "forever." Discusses the Laguna-railroad relationship through 1982, Laguna labor camps in California, and the persistence of…

  13. 78 FR 13932 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage Rights Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage... County, ND On February 11, 2013, Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ filed with the Surface... 59270. \\1\\ According to YVRR, its name was formerly Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco...

  14. 76 FR 37888 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Dawson and Richland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Dawson and Richland Counties, Mont. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ has filed a verified... Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings, Watco Companies, and Watco Transp....

  15. 78 FR 73585 - The Three Rivers Railway Company-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Mahoning State Line Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Three Rivers Railway Company--Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Mahoning State Line Railroad Company The Three Rivers Railway Company (TRRC) and Mahoning State Line Railroad...)(3) for a corporate family transaction. According to applicants, TRRC is a Class III railroad and...

  16. 76 FR 13272 - Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC (CLC) and Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC (Woods... corporate family. CLC seeks to lease and operate all of Woods' lines of railroad consisting of...

  17. 76 FR 26682 - Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of..., list, or data compiled or collected for the purpose of evaluating, planning, or implementing a...

  18. 75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis, Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division, Fortress... Company of Indianapolis (CERA); Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division (CFE); Fortress Investment... Louis E. Gitomer, Esq., Law Offices of Louis E. Gitomer, 600 Baltimore Avenue, Suite 301, Towson,...

  19. The Merger between Volvo-Renault VI-Mack Trucks: The Keys to A Successful Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Raynaud

    2006-01-01

    @@ Three brands, one group The merger of Volvo Trucks with Renault Ⅵ and Mack created a new heavy goods vehicles group comprised of the Mack, Renault and Volvo brands. The three companies, which were initially merged into Volvo Global Trucks (VGT),kept their own brand identities and their distribution networks.

  20. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  1. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  2. A study on sexual risk behaviors of long-distance truck drivers in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Thakur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual behavior of trucking populations has been associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI and HIV in India and elsewhere in the world. The objective of the study was to describe the Health seeking and sexual risks behaviors among the long distance truck drivers and to estimate the prevalence of STI symptoms in the long distance truck driver. Methods: Cross sectional study conducted on the Long Distance truck drivers plying on national highway passing through Bhopal state Highway, who halted at road side group of and ldquo;Dhabas and rdquo; (road side hotels at 3 exits ways of Bhopal City M.P (India. A total of 309 truck drivers approached over a period of 90 days. Out of these 251 consented for the study. Result: The study revealed that 49 % of the long distance truck driver had CSW exposure in last 6 months. The prevalence of STI symptoms was found to be 21.51 % among the long distance truck drivers. The Truck Driver who had exposure with CSW more than five times in the last 6 months were found to be more careless regarding using condoms while having intercourse with the CSW's. Conclusion: Effort like availability of condoms in the high risk group settings is required. Dhabas should be made to function as a sentinel centre for promoting awareness for HIV/AIDS and STIs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1769-1774

  3. 75 FR 20396 - Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative... negative determination of the TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH,...

  4. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  5. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  6. The influence of positionality in car-purchasing behaviour on the downsizing of new cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Anco; Geurs, Karst T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from stated choice experiments looking at the influence of positionality in peoples’ choices of passenger cars in the Netherlands. It provides evidence that cars are positional goods and that selected car attributes such as size, engine capacity and interior add to their

  7. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  8. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  9. Mixed Integer Programming Model and Incremental Optimization for Delivery and Storage Planning Using Truck Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Tian, Yajie; Nishikawa, Ikuko

    We discuss the planning of transportation by trucks over a multi-day period. Each truck collects loads from suppliers and delivers them to assembly plants or a truck terminal. By exploiting the truck terminal as a temporal storage, we aim to increase the load ratio of each truck and to minimize the lead time for transportation. In this paper, we show a mixed integer programming model which represents each product explicitly, and discuss the decomposition of the problem into a problem of delivery and storage, and a problem of vehicle routing. Based on this model, we propose a relax-and-fix type heuristic in which decision variables are fixed one by one by mathematical programming techniques such as branch-and-bound methods.

  10. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  11. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  12. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  13. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 44 / Monday, March 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48 CFR Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  14. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  16. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  17. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  18. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  19. CRISPR Meets CAR T-cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, researchers have devised a method to deliver a CAR gene to a specific locus, TRAC, in T cells. This targeted approach yielded therapeutic cells that were more potent even at low doses; in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, they outperformed CAR T cells created with a randomly integrating retroviral vector.

  20. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.

    2009-06-10

    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  1. Study on Performances of Car-following Models Induced by Motions of a Leading Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the performances of a well-known car-following model with numerical simulations in describing the deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. A leading car with a pre-specified speed profile was used to test the above model. The results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing the process aforementioned. Modifications of the model to overcome these deficiencies were demonstrated and a modified car-following model was proposed accordingly. Furthermore, the delay time of car motion of the new model were studied.

  2. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building.

  3. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmann, Charles W; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Sokolov, Alexei V; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nanooptics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ...

  4. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  5. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  6. Introduction and Market Prospect Analysis of Diesel and natural gas dual- fuel heavy truck%柴油-天然气双燃料重卡简介及市场前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿志勇; 李丽君

    2012-01-01

    通过分析国内天然气行业现状和天然气重卡销售情况,认为目前发展柴油-天然气双燃料重卡更符合我国国情。该双燃料重卡突破纯天然气汽车续驶里程限制,不仅降低运营成本而且节能环保,在技术性能、二手车买卖、应用前景等方面更具市场推广价值。%Analysis of the domestic gas industry status quo and natural gas heavy-duty truck sales,the development of diesel fuel - natural gas dual-fuel heavy-duty truck is more in line with China's national conditions.The dual-fuel heavy-duty truck to break through the pure natural gas vehicles driving range restrictions not only reduce operating costs and energy saving and environmental protection to promote the value of technical performance,used cars,and application prospects of more market.

  7. 活体动物运输车厢空气流动及传热特性模拟与优化%Simulation and optimization of air flow and heat transfer characteristic of truck for live animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡之钰; 游田; 李先庭

    2016-01-01

    近年来,随着科技发展和生活水平提高,活体动物的运输量越来越大。特种运输车辆增设通风空调系统可改善运输过程中活体动物的生存环境。但国内现有活体运输车中普遍存在气流组织不合理的问题,导致车厢内局部气温过高或过低,动物存活率低、车辆装载量少。该文以兔子运输车为例,利用 CFD 软件模拟分析了现有车厢内空气流动和传热状况,并提出风口优化布置原则:将回、排风口置于高温区域,提高回、排风温度。研究表明,现有车厢内气流短路现象严重,车内最高温度超出设计温度范围3.20℃,且约21%的兔笼超温;优化布置的风口可明显改善车厢内空气温度分布;所有兔笼温度均保持21.05~29.20℃以内,满足设计要求。该工作对活体动物运输车的设计和生产具有指导意义。%With the development of technology and the improvement of life standard, the poultry and rabbit breeding industry becomes prosperous and the transportation volume of live animal is larger and larger. To improve the living environment of animal during transportation, the special truck equipped with air conditioner is developed. However, the unreasonable air distribution is a universal problem in the body of this specific truck, leading to local air temperature too high or too low which causes the low animal survival rate and low vehicle loading capacity. There were some simulations and experiments on the refrigerator car, but few on the animal truck. With the requirement of the market, a truck carrying rabbits is chosen as the research object, which is produced by Kangfei Mobile Systems Company in Jiangsu Province. There are 98 air inlets with the radius of 25 mm installed uniformly on the roof of the truck body, 2 air returning outlets with the radius of 160 mm on the front wall of the truck body and 5 air exhausting outlets with the radius of 60 mm on each side of the

  8. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  9. The benefits of improved car secondary safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2003-07-01

    The term 'secondary safety' refers to the protection that a vehicle provides its occupants when involved in an accident. This paper studies information from the British database of road accident reports between 1980 and 1998, to estimate the reduction in the number of occupant casualties over these years which may be attributed to improvements to secondary safety in cars. The paper shows that the proportion of driver casualties who are killed or seriously injured (KSI) is lower for modern cars than for older cars. The reduction of this proportion is used to assess the improvement in secondary safety. Statistical models are developed to represent the proportion with 'year of first registration' as one of the independent variables, although only an incomplete assessment of the benefits of improved secondary safety can be made with the available data. The assessment compares the number of casualties that would have been expected if secondary safety had remained at the level found in cars first registered in 1980 with the actual casualty numbers. It is estimated that improved secondary safety reduced the number of drivers KSI by at least 19.7% in 1998, in comparison with what might have occurred if all cars had had that lower level of secondary safety. This figure relates to all cars on the road in 1998, and rises to 33%, when confined to the most modern cars (those which were first registered in 1998).

  10. Comparing gravimetric and real-time sampling of PM(2.5) concentrations inside truck cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Levy, Jonathan I; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-11-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers' exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers' on-road exposure patterns to PM(2.5) were assessed in five, weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM(2.5) concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM(2.5) measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers.

  11. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  12. Vulnerability of bus and truck drivers affected from vehicle engine noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the vulnerability of bus and truck drivers due to constant exposure of vehicle-engine noise inside the vehicle cabin. Comparative results revealed that noise levels inside the cabin of buses and trucks were in the range of 88.6–102.4 dB and 87.95–103.4 dB, respectively. The health status of bus and truck drivers was assessed by measuring their systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse rate, BMI, digestion problem, hearing loss, vision problem, back pain and irritation. Paired t-test of the results revealed non-significant (p < 0.05 relation between systolic and diastolic pressure of both bus and truck drivers. The pulse rate of truck driver was significantly (p < 0.01 related with noise level inside the cabin of truck. The humidity level inside the cabin showed a positive relation with vehicle age (p < 0.01 and driving period (p < 0.01. This study clearly suggests that vehicle engine noise adversely affects the cardiovascular health of both bus and truck drivers.

  13. Fatigue Design of Leaf Springs for New Generation Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, E.; Malikoutsakis, M.; Savaidis, G.

    2016-11-01

    Taking as example high-performance parabolic leaves made of the high-strength steel 52CrMoV4 used for the suspensión of heavy truck axles, the present paper focuses on the effect of the manufacturing process (heat treatment and stress peening) on their performance under fatigue loading. Investigations of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the core and the surface of selected prototype specimens reveal the degradation of the mechanical surface properties due to the applied manufacturing process. The results of these investigations have been used as input for analytical fatigue life calculations and the theoretical assessment of every individual life-influencing factor (material, heat treatment, surface treatment, loading). Wohler (S-N) curves for various probabilities of survival were experimentally determined and compared to the calculated ones. The agreement between Experiment and Theory is satisfactory.

  14. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  15. Wishbone Structure for Front Independent Suspension of a Military Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Jagirdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wishbone structure for double wishbone front-independent Suspension for a military truck application is presented. At present, the vehicle is equipped with rigid axle with leaf springs. There are two aspects that dictate the design of wishbone structure, viz. the path of relative motion between the constituents of the suspension system and the forces transmitted between them. Also, enhancement of mobility was made possible by maintaining the live axle in the system. A double wishbone, double coil spring with twin damper configuration was employed for this application. MBD Analysis was carried out using MSC ADAMS. A double wishboneindependent suspension has been designed for the front axle and has been successfully integrated with the vehicle.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.178-183, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.337

  16. DIAGNOSTICS OF A MODERN CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a technical diagnostics of a car as a complex of goals and tasks connected with trouble-shooting of mechanisms and systems in order to eliminate them. We have considered the stages of computer diagnostics of different automobile systems such as diagnosing the engine, the brake system, steering and suspension. We have analyzed their components, the ways of troubleshooting and elimination recommendations. The article presents the main troubles transferred from the electronic control unit. The article also presents the stages of diagnosing the engine including external examination, listening to abnormal noises, checking the operating fluids and the engine management system, diagnosing the basic engine systems and checking the cylinders being filled. The article contains the list of main troubles and their reasons. One can also see diagnosing the brake system, its defects and remedies. The article presents diagnostics and repair of the suspender and graphics describing the check of the dismantled shock strut at the stand and tests of the shock strut without being dismantled. We have analyzed computer diagnostics and the problems it solves

  17. Improving Road Safety of Tank Truck in Indonesia by Speed Limiter Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank truck in order to improve safety engineering system, decrease accident and to maintain engine performance. This research is conducted in Indonesia especially in Java-Bali route travel. Speed limiter is installed to the tank truck engine which completed by fuel cut-off solenoid to reduce the speed automatically when it exceeding the maximum speed that has been determined. From the result shows that top speed which performed by driver up to 133 km/h when tank truck uninstalled by speed limiter. Meanwhile, when speed limiter is installed to the tank truck, top speed locked at 70 km/h even though the driver want to speed up. It means that fuel cut-off system is very effective to lock the speed at 70 km/h and it shown the improvement up to 65%. The monitoring activities observed that the decreasing number of fatalities caused by tank truck accident become 7% as compared to last year of 17%. It can be found that the speed limiter coupled by speed recorder was very efficient to improve safety engineering system of the tank truck.

  18. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  19. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  20. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  1. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  2. The Stylistic Analysis of car ads languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟苹

    2014-01-01

    Automotive advertising language is mix of phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric, syntax, and discourse language etc., and owning a strong promotional effect which can functioned as a bridge between language expression and promotion system for es-sential products and consumers. As a kind of the commercial advertising, car advertising with its own unique language features not only for product considerably, but also enriches the advertising language. In order to analysis the car ads, this article draws at-tention from the aspects of the phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric and syntax features, and aims to get a further and better analysis or understanding of the car ads Languages.

  3. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Moffatt, Douglas J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-11-08

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm(-1)-3400 cm(-1)), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm(-1)-2970 cm(-1)) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials.

  4. Omnidirectional Active Vision for Evolutionary Car Driving

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We describe a set of simulations to evolve omnidirectional active vision, an artificial retina scanning over images taken via an omnidirectional camera, being applied to a car driving task. While the retina can immediately access features in any direction, it is asked to select behaviorally-relevant features so as to drive the car on the road. Neural controllers which direct both the retinal movement and the system behavior, i.e., the speed and the steering angle of the car, are tested in thr...

  5. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  6. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  7. APPLICATION OF MSC ADAMS – NX NASTRAN/FEMAP INTERFACE IN STRENGTH CALCULATIONS OF TRUCK FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam PRZEMYK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to calculate the strength of truck frames by integrating the MSC Adams software, for dynamics analysis of mechanical systems, and the NX Nastran/Femap software. At the same time, a method for reducing degrees of freedom is been developed based on the Craig–Bampton method. The interface is applied in order to calculate the strength of the frame in the selected truck, which runs on the test track. The selected model of truck can be treated as the virtual prototype that is useful in the design process.

  8. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  9. Technical documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the design of the NTACS are described in this document.

  10. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L.

    1994-09-29

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0.

  11. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  12. THE EXPERIMENT OF THE COMPLEX INSPECTION OF THE RAILROAD BRIDGE PIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Usachenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure and results of a visual inspection and vibrosonic diagnostics of the railroad bridge pier are described. The spatial model of the pier with an arrangement of large cracks is presented.

  13. Railroad Lines, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2011. Data by this publisher are...

  14. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  15. 77 FR 73114 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY:...

  16. 76 FR 50327 - Arkansas Shortline Railroads, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-North Louisiana & Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Railroad--Abandonment Exemption--in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark., AB 384 (Sub-No. 3X) (STB served Mar... Village, in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark., subject to environmental and standard employee...

  17. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are...

  18. Railroad Lines, Published in 1992, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1992. Data by this publisher are...

  19. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  1. Railroad Lines, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. Data by this publisher are...

  2. Railroad Lines, Published in 1995, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Greenwood County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1995. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Sauk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. Data by this...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative in the tags, power required for transmission of position information to the reader is harvested by the tags from the power wirelessly transferred from the reader. Basic mechanism in wireless power transfer is magnetic induction and power transfer efficiency according to the relative location of the reader to a tag is discussed with simulation results. Since power transfer efficiency is significantly affected by the ferromagnetic material (steel) at the bottom of the railroad vehicle and the track, magnetic beam shaping b...

  6. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE image of Allegheny Portage Railroad NHS. Two separate photomosaics (final_alpo_a.img and final_alpo_b.img) were produced...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  8. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  9. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: 130 Italian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Carnuccio, R; Valenti, D; Lodi, P; Amaducci, E

    1995-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and particularly on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. One hundred and thirty cases of mesothelioma (122 pleural, 1 pericardial, 6 peritoneal and 1 pleuro-peritoneal), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were reported. Fifty-three of these cases (among which 49 reported in the Emilia Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Seventy-seven cases of mesothelioma occurred among occupationally exposed FS workers, in particular machinists; 45 cases occurred among rolling-stock machinists and workers engaged in the repair and demolition of the rails of workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock, not belonging to the FS; and 5 cases were found in family members (1 daughter, 3 wives and 1 sister) of railroad workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, and the automatic compensation for tumours following the exposure to the asbestos used in railroads.

  10. Computer-Based Decision Support for Railroad Transportation Systems: an Investment Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the development of the economical and social life increased the complexity of transportation systems. In this context, the role of Decision Support Systems (DSS became more and more important. The paper presents the characteristics, necessity, and usage of DSS in transportation and describes a practical application in the railroad field. To compute the optimal transportation capacity and flow on a certain railroad, specialized decision-support software which is available on the market was used.

  11. Empirical Analysis on the Structural Changes in Railroad Logistics in China (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In China, with its vast land area, railroad transportation plays the most important role in forming an extensive basic logistics structure and logistics system. However, since 1949, railroad logistics has not been used freely as it has been managed under the centralized control of the Ministry of Railways, which is a semi-military organization in nature under a national strategy. Since shifting to reform and opening-up policies in 1978, economic resources have been mobilized as a result of th...

  12. Electric cars for Germany; Deutschland stromert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-09-15

    The German government has defined eight model regions in which electric cars will be funded. Results are not available as yet, but there are experts who criticize the focus on electric-powered vehicles. (orig.)

  13. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following model is a kind of microscopic simulation model for vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of vehides in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control.Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors and feflects the real traffic sit-uation in a better way. This paper gives a systematic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introducing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disavantages of GHR model, OV model,CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptotic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  14. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  15. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following models is a kind of microscopic simulation model f or vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of v ehicles in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control. Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors a nd reflects the real traffic situation in a better way. This paper gives a syste matic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introd u cing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disadvantages of GHR model, OV m odel, CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptot ic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  16. [Health risk railroad noise - prognosis of potential health risks subsequent to night-time exposure to railroad noise in the German part of the Transversal Rotterdam Genova].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiser, E

    2014-12-01

    Based on risk coefficients for cardiovascular and psychiatric disease derived from a case-control study in the vicinity of a major German airport, statistics on persons exposed to night-time railroad noise in the vicinity of the Rotterdam-Genova Transversal, and on health expenditure calculations by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany a prognosis on effects of railroad noise was performed. It resulted for 1 10-year period in nearly 75 000 excess cases of diseases, nearly 30 000 excess deaths and health expenditures of 3.8 billion euros.

  17. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Monday 30 October until the evening of Tuesday 31 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  18. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 22 October until the evening of Monday 23 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  19. The individual car transportation and its aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Alina

    2009-01-01

    Automobile transport is integral part of everyday modern live. On the other hand all the time bigger quantity of cars on roads and motorways slows down the transport speed, road are overloaded, congested, thereby human mobility holds down. Last but not least heavy traffic bears much bad influence above all for environment and landscape. On that ground it's needed to analyze individual car transport, its aspects, usage and problems. Consequences, which have been found from research, are in man...

  20. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  1. Travel Time Estimation Using Floating Car Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sevlian, Raffi

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the use of machine learning techniques to accurately predict travel times in city streets and highways using floating car data (location information of user vehicles on a road network). The aim of this report is twofold, first we present a general architecture of solving this problem, then present and evaluate few techniques on real floating car data gathered over a month on a 5 Km highway in New Delhi.

  2. Automated Recognition of Railroad Infrastructure in Rural Areas from LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Arastounia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing automated methods to recognize railroad infrastructure from 3D LIDAR data. Railroad infrastructure includes rail tracks, contact cables, catenary cables, return current cables, masts, and cantilevers. The LIDAR dataset used in this study is acquired by placing an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system on a railcar, operating at 125 km/h. The acquired dataset covers 550 meters of Austrian rural railroad corridor comprising 31 railroad key elements and containing only spatial information. The proposed methodology recognizes key components of the railroad corridor based on their physical shape, geometrical properties, and the topological relationships among them. The developed algorithms managed to recognize all key components of the railroad infrastructure, including two rail tracks, thirteen masts, thirteen cantilevers, one contact cable, one catenary cable, and one return current cable. The results are presented and discussed both at object level and at point cloud level. The results indicate that 100% accuracy and 100% precision at the object level and an average of 96.4% accuracy and an average of 97.1% precision at point cloud level are achieved.

  3. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  4. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data from 2002 to 2008 for MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  5. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2000-2007 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Energy Analysis Dept.

    2011-09-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data from 2002 to 2008 for MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  6. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  7. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2003-2010 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003, 2010, and 2012 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane 2010, Kahane 2012, Puckett 2016). The new study updates the 2012 analysis using FARS data from 2005 to 2011 for model year 2003 to 2010. Using the updated databases, NHTSA estimates that reducing vehicle mass by 100 pounds while holding footprint fixed would increase fatality risk per VMT by 1.49% for lighter-than-average cars and by 0.50% for heavierthan- average cars, but reduce risk by 0.10% for lighter-than-average light-duty trucks, by 0.71% for heavier-than-average light-duty trucks, and by 0.99% for CUVs/minivans. Using a jack knife method to estimate the statistical uncertainty of these point estimates, NHTSA finds that none of these estimates are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level; however, the 1.49% increase in risk associated with mass reduction in lighter-than-average cars, and the 0.71% and 0.99% decreases in risk associated with mass reduction in heavier-than-average light trucks and CUVs/minivans, are statistically significant at the 90% confidence interval. The effect of mass reduction on risk that NHTSA estimated in 2016 is more beneficial than in its 2012 study, particularly for light trucks and CUVs/minivans. The 2016 NHTSA analysis estimates that reducing vehicle footprint by one square foot while holding mass constant would increase fatality risk per VMT by 0.28% in cars, by 0.38% in light trucks, and by 1.18% in CUVs and minivans.This report replicates the 2016 NHTSA analysis, and reproduces their main results. This report uses the confidence intervals output by the logistic regression models, which are smaller than the intervals NHTSA estimated using a jack-knife technique that accounts for the sampling error in the FARS fatality and state crash data. In addition to reproducing the NHTSA results, this report also examines the

  8. 75 FR 52804 - Notice of Funding Availability Application Procedure and Deadlines for the Truck Parking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... truck parking, safety, economic competitiveness and sustainability, traffic congestion, or air quality... solution. The effect on highway safety, economic competitiveness and sustainability, traffic congestion... the goals of the DOT in addressing congestion and safety concerns on the Nation's highways....

  9. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres......, characteristics of the truck stock, and congestion. We also analyse the rebound effect for road freight transportation, i.e. the percentage of increased energy efficiency that does not result in the reduction of fuel used. For the purpose of analysing the rebound effect for road freight transportation, we...... decompose the standard definition of the rebound effect for motor vehicles, i.e. the elasticity of traffic volume with respect to fuel cost, into the elasticity by which changes in fuel costs affects freight activity and the elasticity by which changes in freight activity affect traffic volume. We estimate...

  10. Operator health risk evaluation of off-highway dump truck under shovel loading condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申焱华; 许敏; 金纯; 高玉; 魏福林

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the operator health risk exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) while the electric-shovel loads the ore on the truck body, the semi-truck mathematical model and 3-D virtual prototype were built to simulate the high shockwave of truck cab under the shovel loading. Discrete element method was utilized to accurately estimate the impacting force on the truck body. Based on the ISO 2631-5 criteria, theSed is about 0.56 MPa in both models, which means that the dump operators have a high probability of adverse health effects over long-term exposure to these vibrations. The 4-DOF operator model was built to investigate the biodynamic response of seated-human body exposed to WBV in terms of the transmission of vibrations through the body. The results show that the response peak is in the frequency range of 4−6 Hz corresponding to the primary body resonant frequency.

  11. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  12. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  13. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY... the 9th day of September 2010. John Augustine, Managing Director, ITS Joint Program Office....

  14. Improving the system of warranty service of trucks in foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the practical methods development of improving one of the ways to ensure the health of trucks in the system warranty. Methodology is aimed at optimizing the processes of formation of warranty spare parts kits during the implementation of KAMAZ trucks in foreign markets. The example is given to demonstrate the importance of different factors in the formation of the warranty set for different regions. The algorithm was developed to assess the qualitative composition formed warranty package that will optimize the planning and organization of activity centers to improve operational reliability of commercial trucks. A basis for acceptance of the scientifically-proved decisions is the statistical data analysis of requests monitoring that allows organizing duly replacement of parts with expired service life, and also promotes customer servicing quality improvement and reliability of trucks by prevention of its failures.

  15. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  16. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report {open_quotes}Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File{close_quotes}. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  17. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  18. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  19. Modeling Strategic Interactions to Car and Fuel Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  20. On-Road Measurement of Exhaust Emission Factors for Individual Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Diesel trucks are an important source of primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. More stringent exhaust emission standards for new engines, effective starting in 2007, considerably reduce allowable emissions and have led to use of after-treatment control devices such as diesel particle filters. The state of California is also implementing programs to accelerate replacement or retrofit of older trucks. In light of these changes, measurements of emissions from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks are timely and needed to understand the impact of new control technologies on emissions. PM2.5, BC mass, particle light absorption, and particle light extinction emission factors for hundreds of individual diesel trucks were measured in this study. Emissions were measured in July 2010 from trucks driving through the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Gas-phase emissions including nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (CO2) were also measured. Pollutants were measured using air sampling inlets located directly above the vertical exhaust stacks of heavy-duty trucks driving by on the roadway below. All of these measurements were made using fast time response (1 Hz) sensors. Particle optical properties were simultaneously characterized with direct measurements of absorption (babs) and extinction (bext) coefficients. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which emissions of PM2.5, BC, babs, and bext in each exhaust plume were normalized to emissions of CO2. Emission factor distributions and fleet-average values are quantified. Absorption and extinction emission factors are used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo and BC mass absorption efficiency for individual truck exhaust plumes.

  1. An Optimisation Approach Applied to Design the Hydraulic Power Supply for a Forklift Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2004-01-01

    -level optimisation approach, and is in the current paper exemplified through the design of the hydraulic power supply for a forklift truck. The paper first describes the prerequisites for the method and then explains the different steps in the approach to design the hydraulic system. Finally the results...... of the optimisation example for the forklift truck are presented along with a discussion of the method....

  2. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  4. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  5. Factors associated with falling asleep at the wheel among long-distance truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A T; Rohrbaugh, J W; Hammer, M C; Fuller, S Z

    2000-07-01

    Data on the prevalence and hypothesized predictors of falling asleep while driving were gathered through face-to-face interviews with 593 long-distance truck drivers randomly selected at public and private rest areas and routine roadside truck safety inspections. Hypothesized predictor variables related to drivers' typical work and rest patterns, extent of daytime and night-time drowsiness, symptoms of sleep disorder, measures of driving exposure, and demographic characteristics. A sizeable proportion of long-distance truck drivers reported falling asleep at the wheel of the truck: 47.1% of the survey respondents had ever fallen asleep at the wheel of a truck, and 25.4% had fallen asleep at the wheel in the past year. Factor analysis reduced the large set of predictors to six underlying, independent factors: greater daytime sleepiness; more arduous schedules, with more hours of work and fewer hours off-duty; older, more experienced drivers; shorter, poorer sleep on road; symptoms of sleep disorder; and greater tendency to night-time drowsy driving. Based on multivariate logistic regression, all six factors were predictive of self-reported falling asleep at the wheel. Falling asleep was also associated with not having been alerted by driving over shoulder rumble strips. The results suggest that countermeasures that limit drivers' work hours and enable drivers to get adequate rest and that identify drivers with sleep disorders are appropriate methods to reduce sleepiness-related driving by truck drivers.

  6. THE ROLE OF RAILROAD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN WEST--Railroad, Migration and Urban Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the role of geographical expansion of railroads, one of the most important Fransportation vehicles, in the history of American west development, analyses its implication on the unprecedentedmigration movement and the resulted urbanization in the west and concludes with the fact that the appropriate interference by the governmnet, especially in the early period, is vital to regional development practice, because of market failure at the initial stage, infrastructure construction conducted by the government always plays as the first impetus to any regional development process. Only through this bridge, can some physical factors, such as population, be attracted to feed the backward area. As a result, cities grow fast and the region develops well. The experience can be shared by all countries. Besides reviewing the history of west development in America, focusing on the relationship between railroadsexpansion and urban growth, which was realized through population migration. A comparison on the particular pattern of regional development between U. S and China is made as well at the end. It is noted that despite of the common first impetus, government subsidies and the common final result, urbanization, the path for the America is bottom-up, whereas that for China is topdown, that is to say, development should originate from big cities, then to towns, and finally radiate into rural areas.

  7. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and...

  8. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  9. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car... devices must be retested periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this...

  10. An improved car-following model with multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lantian; Zhao, Xiangmo; Yu, Shaowei; Li, Xiuhai; Shi, Zhongke

    2017-04-01

    In order to explore and evaluate the effects of velocity variation trend of multiple preceding cars used in the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) strategy on the dynamic characteristic, fuel economy and emission of the corresponding traffic flow, we conduct a study as follows: firstly, with the real-time car-following (CF) data, the close relationship between multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback and the host car's behaviors is explored, the evaluation results clearly show that multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation with different time window-width are highly correlated to the host car's acceleration/deceleration. Then, a microscopic traffic flow model is proposed to evaluate the effects of multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the CACC strategy on the traffic flow evolution process. Finally, numerical simulations on fuel economy and exhaust emission of the traffic flow are also implemented by utilizing VT-micro model. Simulation results prove that considering multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the control strategy of the CACC system can improve roadway traffic mobility, fuel economy and exhaust emission performance.

  11. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  12. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  13. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  14. 75 FR 26838 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Pacific Railroad Company, Mr. William E. Van Trump, AVP Engineering -- Signal/Comm/TCO, 1400 Douglas..., near Chilcoot, California. The modification consists of the discontinuance and removal of...

  15. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2006-01-31

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in the activities planned for FY 06. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. These benefits estimates, along with market penetrations and other results, are then modeled as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY06 Budget Request.

  16. Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIngh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

    2008-02-29

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 05 the Heavy Vehicles program activity expanded its technical involvement to more broadly address various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This broadening of focus has continued in subsequent activities. These changes are the result of a planning effort that occurred during FY 04 and 05. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY07 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the FCVT program for internal project management purposes.

  17. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability for car accidents to occur when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time $T$ necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  18. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 658 - Trucks Over 80,000 Pounds on the Interstate System and Trucks Over STAA Lengths on the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... all trailer(s) and converter dolly axles. A brake force limiting valve, sometimes called a “slippery... combination shall consist of a truck tractor, first semitrailer, fifth-wheel converter dolly, and a second semitrailer. The converter dolly may be either a separate unit or an integral component of the...

  19. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  20. THE RAILROAD CAPACITY CRISIS: After Cutting to the Bone and More, Trains Are Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Stone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Era of Railroad building (primarily the last half of the 19th century, it was far more profitable to lay track than to operate railroads due to the subsidiesfrom various levels ofgovernment and the competition between cities to be located on as many lines as possible, and the overcharging of the railroads by the construction companies. Railroads compensated for this glut by cross-subsidizing the unprofitable branch lines with revenues from the main lines. But as competition from other modes took hold, this was increasingly difficult to do. Therefore, by the early 20th century, railroads began to slowly shed some of the lightly trafficked lines. Regulatory changes in the 1980s made abandonment easier, and wholesale discarding of lines, including former mainlines, became common. But by the turn of the century,foreign imports put a greater demand on rail transportation, and lack of capacity caused many of the remaining lines to become very congested, in turn, causing extensive delays.