WorldWideScience

Sample records for car shortages railroads

  1. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... odorant during the transportation cycle (commonly known as ``odorant fade''). This safety advisory... odorization standards and procedures, and take appropriate actions to guard against odorant fade in...

  2. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  3. Optimizing Railroad Tank Car Safety Design to Reduce Hazardous Materials Transportation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik

    2009-01-01

    The design of railroad tank cars is subject to structural and performance requirements and constrained by weight. They can be made safer by increasing tank thickness and adding various protective features, but these increase the weight and cost of the car and reduce its capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. Aircraft, automobiles and…

  4. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  6. 上海市有轨电车系统布局规划研究%Research on Shanghai Railroad Car System Distribution Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安锋; 李东屹; 马士江

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, the railroad car system plays a role in the rail transport system. Focusing on the railroad car system, the paper analyzes its development history and requirements, functional orientation, technical features, and also its adaptability in urban area. Besides, combining with case studies both inside China and abroad and also according to the idea “3 merge into 1” of the Shanghai Prospective Planning of Rail Transport Network, the planning of railroad car in Shanghai is researched. Thirdly, associated with the railroad network planning in Songjiang, Jiading and Nanqiao new cities, the paper analyzes the development orientation and scale of railroad car system in public transport system in new cities.%现代有轨电车系统是轨道交通系统的组成部分。通过对现代有轨电车的发展历程、发展需求、功能定位以及技术性能特征和在城市中的适应性分析,结合国内外应用案例分析,按照上海市远景轨道交通网络发展规划提出的“三网融合”的规划理念,对全市现代有轨电车布局规划进行研究。并以松江新城、嘉定新城和南桥新城现代有轨电车网络规划和示范线工作为契机,对现代有轨电车在新城公共交通体系中的发展导向和发展规模进行分析。

  7. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  8. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad... EMPLOYEES Pt. 228, App. C Appendix C to Part 228—Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided..., medical services, dressing, showering, toilet use, washing, and eating. (g) Potable water means water...

  10. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  11. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  12. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  13. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  14. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  16. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  17. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  18. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  19. The STEM shortage paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    The UK is believed to suffer from a shortage of scientists and engineers, yet unemployment rates for new graduates in these fields are high. Does that mean the skills shortage doesn't exist, asks Margaret Harris.

  20. 49 CFR 215.9 - Movement of defective cars for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of defective cars for repair. 215.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.9 Movement of defective cars for repair. (a) A railroad freight car which has any component described as defective in...

  1. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  2. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  3. Supply shortage; Nachschub gefaehrdet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pries, P.D.; Rentzing, S.

    2006-08-15

    Producers of solar wafers intend to produce several MW of solar wafers during the next few years. However, indium and tellurium are not in unlimited supply, and prices are rising. A new shortage of raw materials is impending. (orig.)

  4. Exploring the STEM shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, S. James, Jr.; Bhulai, Alfred; IcePilot; JoeB

    2014-12-01

    In reply to Margaret Harris' article on "The STEM shortage paradox" (Graduate careers, October pp56-59, http://ow.ly/DXvIq) and a related post on the physicsworld.com blog ("The STEM employment paradox, revisited", http://ow.ly/DXvCl), both of which questioned reports that the UK is suffering from a severe shortage of graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  5. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  6. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  7. Addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, J. [Alberta Economic Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Labour shortages are an increasing concern for companies in Alberta, where the economy is booming. This presentation provided statistics on labour shortages and Alberta's labour force. Between 1995 and 2004, employment in Alberta increased by more than 433,000 jobs, and is predicted to grow, but the natural population increase in the province is only 19,600 per year. It is expected that by 2010, immigrants will account for all growth in Canada's labour force. By 2020, an additional $100 billion of capital will be invested in Alberta, which is competing for labour with every other industrialized economy in the world. This presentation included a series of graphs and charts depicting Canada's national unemployment rate by province; Alberta's unemployment rate; oil sands capital expenditure; regional workforce requirements; and new jobs in the oil sands industry from 1998 to 2010. Employment requirements by trade were also highlighted along with projected labour shortages in 16 different trades. The author recommended that better long-term labour supply and demand models are needed along with rationalization and streamlining of credentials systems. Other solutions to labour shortages may include the removal of barriers to interprovincial and foreign workers; education and training; enhanced productivity; industry collaboration; and maximization of the labour pool to include women and Aboriginal workers. tabs., figs.

  8. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  9. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative...

  10. Electromechanical Suspension-based Energy Harvesting Systems for Railroad Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nagode, Clement Michel Jean

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the railroad industry, the lack of electrical sources in freight cars is a problem that has yet to find practical solutions. Although the locomotive generates electricity to power the traction motors and all the equipment required to operate the train, the electrical power cannot, in a practical manner, be carried out along the length of the train, leaving freight cars unpowered. While this has not been a major issue in the past, there is a strong interest in equipping modern ca...

  11. Teacher Shortages: What We Know. Teacher Shortage Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    This brief is the first in a series of reports examining the teacher shortage dilemma. It considers what the research says about teacher shortages and highlights recent state task force findings. Designed to guide state leaders in policy decisions, the briefs that follow examine five strategies states are using to address shortages: (1)…

  12. DOT Basemap Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents railroads lines within the state of Minnesota. It has its source as one of the layers in the State of Minnesota BaseMap 2001. This layer was...

  13. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital; (2) The evacuation of a passenger train; (3) Damage to a tank car or container resulting in...) Accidents involving joint operations must be reported by the railroad that controls the track and directs... is required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section occurs in a remote area, the time limits...

  14. 78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for Regulatory and Legislative... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake...

  15. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main...

  16. Ph.D. shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  17. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  18. Labor Shortage Looming Ahead?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large quantity of cheap labor resources has long been regarded as one of the important factors that make it possible for China’s economy to maintain rapid growth. However, Cai Fang, Director of the Institute of Population and Labor Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, warned at a lecture in early May that China’s surplus rural labor force is not as large as thought and that China will soon experience the transition from labor surplus to labor shortage. He predicted that the turning point would occur probably in 2009. In response, Hou Dongmin, Director of the Institute of Population, Resources and Environment of Renmin University of China, and Deng Yuwen, researcher at the China Society of Economic Reform, analyze the expected impacts of transition on China’s future growth mode (in sequence).

  19. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  20. Global Shortage of Fresh Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>阅读下表。以Global Shortage of Fresh Water为题写一篇短文。词数:100—120学生习作:Global Shortage of Fresh Water Fresh water seems ineverywhere,in rivers,lakes,wells as well as rain,which make some people think that we can’t use up water.

  1. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  2. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  3. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  4. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  5. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  6. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before...

  7. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  8. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  9. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  10. Car-to-Car Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Stephan; Schroth, Christoph; Eberspächer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Car-to-car communication aims at increased driving comfort and safety. Moreover, it changes the role of vehicles from mere transportation means to "smart objects". Despite many R&D activities in the last years, this technology still poses multiple challenges on the wireless transmission and network protocols. Aspects like efficient message dissemination, network scalability, and information security mechanisms are still major research areas in the area of vehicular ad hoc networks. In this pa...

  11. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Principal Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, John C.; Hewitt, Paul M.; Brady, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    The research literature on the principal shortage is inconsistent regarding the actual scope of the shortage and a clear articulation of factors contributing to the successful recruitment and retention of today's school leaders. Often, critical data related to the principal shortage are ignored, including the number of younger principals…

  12. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  13. Romanian Tourism Facing Labour Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Chivu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main tendencies in the Romanian tourism and their impact on the labour market. The first partof the paper presents the main tendencies in travel and tourism sector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market inthe hotel sector, highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration, financial compensations.The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into the travel and tourism sector in order to better manage the multipledimensions of growth.

  14. ROMANIAN TOURISM FACING LABOUR SHORTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main trends în the Romanian tourism sector andtheir impact on the labour market. The first part of the paper presents the main trends în the travel and tourismsector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market în the hotel sector,highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration,financial compensations. The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into thetravel and tourism sector în order to better manage the multiple dimensions of growth.

  15. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  16. 77 FR 64185 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2011 Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2011 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... the 2011 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  17. 78 FR 62940 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2012 Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2012 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2012 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  18. Drug shortages: a complex health care crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Erin R; Sweet, Burgunda V; Jensen, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    National tracking of drug shortages began in 2001. However, a significant increase in the number of shortages began in late 2009, with numbers reaching what many have termed crisis level. The typical drug in short supply is a generic product administered by injection. Common classes of drugs affected by shortages include anesthesia medications, antibiotics, pain medications, nutrition and electrolyte products, and chemotherapy agents. The economic and clinical effects of drug shortages are significant. The financial effect of drug shortages is estimated to be hundreds of millions of dollars annually for health systems across the United States. Clinically, patients have been harmed by the lack of drugs or inferior alternatives, resulting in more than 15 documented deaths. Drug shortages occur for a variety of reasons. Generic injectable drugs are particularly susceptible to drug shortages because there are few manufacturers of these products and all manufacturers are running at full capacity. In addition, some manufacturers have had production problems, resulting in poor quality product. Although many suppliers are working to upgrade facilities and add additional manufacturing lines, these activities take time. A number of stakeholder organizations have been involved in meetings to further determine the causes and effects of drug shortages. A new law was enacted in July 2012 that granted the Food and Drug Administration additional tools to address the drug shortage crisis. The future of drug shortages is unknown, but there are hopeful indications that quality improvements and additional capacity may decrease the number of drug shortages in the years to come.

  19. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified ...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model.......This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...

  20. Artificial Shortages and Strategic Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We consider a monopolist who manipulates the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods. The approach is to develop an intertemporal model of pricing strategy for a monopolist. Approach: The postulated pricing strategy creates an incentive for producers to reduce current supply and raise current prices and sacrifice current profits in order to increase future profits. The main problem is to explain the precise mathematical conditions under which the pricing strategy will be chosen by a monopolist. Results: We derive the optimal pricing strategy to argue that the monopolist has an incentive to adopt simple market manipulation that calls forth a close examination of issues concerning deregulation. Conclusion: The paper examines two possible strategies for a typical monopolist-strategic pricing vis-a-vis a myopic pricing. The intuition is that the monopolist can manipulate the market by artificially creating shortages that result in an increase in current price that, in turn, boosts demand for the product in subsequent periods.

  1. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  2. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  3. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  4. Identifying shortage occupations in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Downs

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the top-down methodology used by the Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) to identify shortage occupations. Identifying shortage occupations is difficult and few countries have attempted to do this in a systematic way. The methodology developed by the MAC to identify shortage occupations is the first to use a comprehensive range of indicators. The methodology dovetails national level top-down data with bottom-up micro-level data and qualitative information from stakeholde...

  5. Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2010-01-01

    也许你需要一辆天马行空完全按自己心中所设计的车,无论是有太空感还是充满设计性,无论你希望它可以升空还是可以下水,那才是一辆真正的Dream Car!

  6. Critical drug shortages: implications for emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Pourmand, Ali; Singer, Steven; Pines, Jesse M; van den Anker, John

    2014-06-01

    Prescription drug shortages have become increasingly common and more severe over the past decade. In addition, reported shortages are longer in duration and have had a greater effect on patient care. Some of the causes of current drug shortages are multifactorial, including the consolidation of drug manufacturers, quality problems at production plants that restrict the supply of drugs, and a lack of financial incentives for manufacturers to produce certain products, particularly generic medications. Generic injectable medications are most commonly affected by shortages because the production process is complex and costly for these drugs, and profit margins are often smaller than for branded medications. Many commonly used emergency department (ED) generic injectables have been affected by shortages, including multiple resuscitation and critical care drugs. Several reports have shown that shortages can potentially have major effects on the quality of medical care, including medication errors, treatment delays, adverse outcomes, and increased health care costs. Currently, no published data exist outside of case reports that directly link ED-based drug shortages to overall patient safety events; however, there are several examples in the ED where first-line therapies for life-saving medications have been in short supply, and alternatives have higher rates of adverse events, narrower therapeutic indexes, or both. Aside from increasing notification about shortages, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has little power to coerce manufacturers to produce medications during a shortage. Therefore, ED providers must learn to mitigate the effects of shortages locally, through active communication with pharmacy staff to identify safe and effective alternatives for commonly used medications when possible. Particularly given the effect on critical care medications, therapeutic alternatives should be clearly communicated to all staff so that providers have easy access to this

  7. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...... by the Weyl van der Pol solution with the single parameter model of the ground impedance. The method of determining of the referenced A-weighted power spectrum is presented....

  8. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  9. Railroad Lines, Railroad ROW, Published in 2009, Polk County Assessor's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroad ROW'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Albers...

  10. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'....

  11. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  12. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  13. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  14. 76 FR 68830 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2010 Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2010 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2010 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. One carrier, Union Pacific Railroad Company, was found to be revenue adequate. DATES: Effective Date: This decision...

  15. Nursing the Nursing Shortage Back to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses shortage of nurses, improved compensation, and other benefits for nurses. Discusses effects of institutional reputation. Describes move to retention programs by nurse recruiters. Concludes image of nursing has developed into professional status. (ABL)

  16. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... .02 or greater but less than .04. (12) Information concerning the effects of alcohol misuse on an..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  18. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  19. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... technological advancements and ergonomic design standards for new ] car construction and ensuring that modern... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. ] Because modern... car type. Problems arise because modern designs are often combinations of multiple car types, and...

  20. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  1. The "lessons" of the Australian "heroin shortage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour Stuart

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heroin use causes considerable harm to individual users including dependence, fatal and nonfatal overdose, mental health problems, and blood borne virus transmission. It also adversely affects the community through drug dealing, property crime and reduced public amenity. During the mid to late 1990s in Australia the prevalence of heroin use increased as reflected in steeply rising overdose deaths. In January 2001, there were reports of an unpredicted and unprecedented reduction in heroin supply with an abrupt onset in all Australian jurisdictions. The shortage was most marked in New South Wales, the State with the largest heroin market, which saw increases in price, dramatic decreases in purity at the street level, and reductions in the ease with which injecting drug users reported being able to obtain the drug. The abrupt onset of the shortage and a subsequent dramatic reduction in overdose deaths prompted national debate about the causes of the shortage and later international debate about the policy significance of what has come to be called the "Australian heroin shortage". In this paper we summarise insights from four years' research into the causes, consequences and policy implications of the "heroin shortage".

  2. 76 FR 68523 - Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC-Change in Operators Exemption-Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC--Change in Operators Exemption--Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC (USRC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iron Bull Railroad Company (IBRC) to...

  3. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,253), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a...

  4. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... on Mack H. Shumate, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad Company, Law Department, 101 North Wacker Drive, Room... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice...

  5. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is made. (d) Plats of railroad station grounds shall be drawn on a scale of 400 feet to an inch, and... on a scale sufficiently large to show clearly their dimensions and relative positions. (e) If...

  6. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... significantly increased. Interruptions in the supplies of these drugs endanger patient safety and burden doctors, hospitals, pharmacists, and patients. They also increase health care costs, particularly because some... potential problem. Similarly, early disclosure of a shortage can help hospitals, doctors, and patients...

  7. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  8. Reducing the Special Education Teacher Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Medina, Ricky

    2007-01-01

    New demands and high attrition levels of special education teachers have created a crisis for education and extensive additional stress for special education directors and principals. The critical shortage of highly qualified special education teachers has significantly increased the pressure to hire and retain them. This article discusses factors…

  9. Nursing Shortage Generates Innovative Program Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welhan, Beverly L.; Benfield, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Responding to an impending health crisis due to a national nursing shortage, Montgomery County Community College increased nursing admissions by 50% and graduates by 51% through implementing a Continuous Nursing Program (CNP). Through implementing three 14-week semesters per year, the CNP uses an accelerated timeframe while maintaining a…

  10. Coping with the influenza vaccine shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2004-12-01

    Faced with a shortage of the inactivated intramuscular influenza vaccine this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has revised its guidelines for immunization and use of antiviral agents. The most rational solution at this time is to direct the supply of scarce vaccine to patients at highest risk of influenza-related complications. PMID:15641521

  11. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  12. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and guidance using image processing. The proposed system includes counting the number of parked vehicles, and dentifying the stalls available. The system detects cars through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded on the floor. A camera is installed at the entry point of the parking lot. It capturesimage sequences. The image sequences are then analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection and according to the status ofvehicle occupancy inside, real time guidance and information is provided to the incoming driver.

  14. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  15. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  16. Railroad perspective on transportation of spent fuel and high level waste and recent ICC decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to summarize some railroad viewpoints on issues concerning transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste and to outline Interstate Commerce Commission decisions arising over differing opinions about the manner of such transportation. Although the railroad position includes a number of legal arguments, it also involves operating expertise and a number of well-based questions concerning the safety of casks under actual operating conditions in regular trains. The commonly-used estimates of accident frequency and severity in regular trains are severe underestimates based on a mistake in the annual number of railroad car-miles, inadequacies in and misunderstanding of accident reporting, and invalid assumptions, especially concerning fires, which some actual data suggest are far more frequent than assumed. Thus, railroads estimate casks could be involved in at least 12 accidents involving severe fires by 1990. A number of unanswered questions about casks and perceived inadequacies in testing lead to a conservative railroad position. These include the possibility of escape routes of materials other than by breach such as weld and pressure relief valve failures and direct radiation hazards through loss of shielding. These doubts are fostered through experience with accidents more severe than those used in testing or certification as well as these questions. Also, there is doubt concerning the integrity of fuel rod cladding (used as a second level of containment) in credible accident situations. Moreover, the damage estimates of $1,000 per man rem have been shown to have no relationship to damages in a transportation accident.Added safety is expected in special trains for at least 17 reasons involving speed, transit time, routing, train consist, crew alertness, reduced slack and other reduced hazards and accident opportunities

  17. Isotope shortage triggers delays for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Paula

    2009-07-01

    An unplanned shutdown of a nuclear reactor in Canada is disrupting the supply of medical isotopes across North America and forcing some hospitals to cancel or postpone patients' tests. The closure of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Chalk River, Ontario, has also embarrassed Canadian officials, including a senior government minister who was forced to apologize after calling the isotope shortage a "sexy" career challenge.

  18. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  19. The nursing shortage: a worldwide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Rachel Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide shortage of nurses has been acknowledged by the multidisciplinary Global Advisory Group of the World Health Organization. The shortage is caused by an increased demand for nurses, while fewer people are choosing nursing as a profession and the current nurses worldwide are aging. The shortage applies to nurses in practice as well as the nurse faculty who teach students. The inter-country recruitment and migration of nurses from developing countries to developed countries exacerbates the problem. Although public opinion polls identifies the nurse as the person who makes the health care system work for them, the conditions of the work environment in which the nurse functions is unsatisfactory and must change. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects on the nurse of a healthy work environment and the positive relationships between nursing care and patient outcomes. It is important that government officials, insurance companies, and administrators and leaders of health care systems acknowledge and operationalize the value of nurses to the health care system in order to establish and maintain the integrity and viability of that system.

  20. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Swan

    2015-01-01

    The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber). The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be hel...

  1. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  2. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool is a locator tool designed to...

  3. Solving Shortage in a Priceless Market: Insights from Blood Donation

    OpenAIRE

    Tianshu Sun; Susan Feng Lu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2015-01-01

    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we investigate whether market designers can use non-price methods to address shortage. Specifically, we study two methods that are used to alleviate shortage in the market for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them t...

  4. A multi-objective ant colony optimization method applied to switch engine scheduling in railroad yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodelson A. Sabino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an ant colony optimization algorithm to assist railroad yard operational planning staff in their daily tasks. The proposed algorithm tries to minimize a multi-objective function that considers both fixed and variable transportation costs involved in moving railroad cars within the railroad yard area. This is accomplished by searching the best switch engine schedule for a given time horizon. As the algorithm was designed for real life application, the solution must be delivered in a predefined processing time and it must be in accordance with railroad yard operational policies. A railroad yard operations simulator was built to produce artificial instances in order to tune the parameters of the algorithm. The project is being developed together with industrial professionals from the Tubarão Railroad Terminal, which is the largest railroad yard in Latin America.Este trabalho propõe um algoritmo de otimização com colônia de formigas para auxiliar a equipe de planejamento de operações de pátios ferroviários em suas tarefas diárias. O algoritmo proposto é baseado em uma função multi-objetivo que busca a redução dos custos fixo e variável de movimentação de vagões no pátio. Isto é feito através da busca da melhor programação para as locomotivas de manobra, considerando um dado horizonte de planejamento. Como o algoritmo foi desenvolvido para aplicação na vida real, a solução deve ser entregue em um tempo de processamento definido previamente e deve obedecer as políticas operacionais do pátio. Foi desenvolvido um simulador de operações de pátio que gera instâncias artificiais utilizadas para ajuste dos parâmetros do algoritmo. O projeto está sendo desenvolvido em conjunto com profissionais envolvidos na operação do Terminal Ferroviário de Tubarão, o qual é o maior pátio de manobras da América Latina.

  5. Fatigue crack initiation life prediction of railroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of multiaxial high-cycle fatigue initiation life prediction for railroad is done in this paper. Using ANSYS 11.0 software three dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model of rail/wheel contact is constructed and fine mesh technique in contact region is used to achieve both computational efficiency and accuracy. Stress analysis is performed and fatigue damage in railroad is evaluated numerically using multiaxial fatigue crack initiation model. Using the stress history during one loading cycle and fatigue damage model, the effects of vertical loading, material hardness material fatigue properties and wheel/rail contact situation on fatigue crack initiation life are investigated.

  6. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment....

  7. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment....

  8. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment....

  9. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In...

  10. Railroad Lines, Railroad-The data set is a line feature representing railroad tracks. It was created to maintain the location of the railroad., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1991. It is described as 'Railroad-The data set is a line feature...

  11. Microfluidic CARS cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Han-Wei; Bao, Ning; Le, Thuc T.; Lu, Chang; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytom...

  12. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  13. Organ shortage crisis: problems and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouna, G M

    2008-01-01

    The demand for organ transplantation has rapidly increased all over the world during the past decade due to the increased incidence of vital organ failure, the rising success and greater improvement in posttransplant outcome. However, the unavailability of adequate organs for transplantation to meet the existing demand has resulted in major organ shortage crises. As a result there has been a major increase in the number of patients on transplant waiting lists as well as in the number of patients dying while on the waiting list. In the United States, for example, the number of patients on the waiting list in the year 2006 had risen to over 95,000, while the number of patient deaths was over 6,300. This organ shortage crisis has deprived thousands of patients of a new and better quality of life and has caused a substantial increase in the cost of alternative medical care such as dialysis. There are several procedures and pathways which have been shown to provide practical and effective solutions to this crisis. These include implementation of appropriate educational programs for the public and hospital staff regarding the need and benefits of organ donation, the appropriate utilization of marginal (extended criteria donors), acceptance of paired organ donation, the acceptance of the concept of "presumed consent," implementation of a system of "rewarded gifting" for the family of the diseased donor and also for the living donor, developing an altruistic system of donation from a living donor to an unknown recipient, and accepting the concept of a controlled system of financial payment for the donor. As is outlined in this presentation, we strongly believe that the implementation of these pathways for obtaining organs from the living and the dead donors, with appropriate consideration of the ethical, religious and social criteria of the society, the organ shortage crisis will be eliminated and many lives will be saved through the process of organ donation and

  14. Identifying biomass fuel shortages in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Michael (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Inst. of Development Studies)

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Sri Lankan Forestry Master Plan and other sources, to explore the causes of biomass shortages, and to identify the areas where interventions are likely to have most impact. Five districts, concentrated in the wet lowland and hill country zones, are found to be in overall biomass fuel deficit whilst in a further five, which include dry zone locations, fuelwood consumption exceeds potential supply, Within the area of overall deficit, poorer urban groups and rural families with no home gardens - who together comprise 15% of all households nationally - are affected most severely. Another 10% of households are likely to suffer to a lesser extent. (author).

  15. Inspector shortage in the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varcoe, David

    2002-07-01

    According to an article published by the Scotsman Online, a critical shortage of offshore safety inspectors is placing the lives of thousands of North Sea oil men at risk. Key improvements in the offshore safety regime, which followed the Piper Alpha disaster, are being compromised by the inability of front-line inspectors from the UK government's Health and Safety Executive to police platforms in the UK sector of the North Sea. The present article discusses the safety situation in the petroleum industry of the North Sea.

  16. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  17. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  18. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  19. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  20. Railroad Lines, DASC railroad centerline layer, Published in 2003, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'DASC railroad...

  1. 76 FR 2748 - Competition in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Competition in the Railroad Industry AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... to explore the current state of competition in the railroad industry and possible policy alternatives... Railroad Industry and Analysis of Proposals That Might Enhance Competition (November 2009), is available...

  2. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  3. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... 2010. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2010 current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2010 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any); (3) the... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board....

  4. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2009 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2009 cost...

  5. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2012 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any); (3... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2012 cost...

  6. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2011 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any); (3... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of...

  7. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom...

  8. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) at milepost 426.88 in Gurdon, Ark. and milepost 429.5 north of... transaction from those listed in the emergency service proceeding involving the same line. See Ark. Midland...

  9. Railroad Lines, Line feature class representing individual Railroad rail lines, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Line feature class representing individual...

  10. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  11. Pollinator shortage and global crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Marcelo A; Cunningham, Saul A; Klein, Alexandra M

    2009-01-01

    A pollinator decline caused by environmental degradation might be compromising the production of pollinator-dependent crops. In a recent article, we compared 45 year series (1961–2006) in yield, production and cultivated area of pollinator-dependent and nondependent crop around the world. If pollinator shortage is occurring globally, we expected a lower annual growth rate in yield for pollinator-dependent than nondependent crops, but a higher growth in cultivated area to compensate the lower yield. We have found little evidence for the first “yield” prediction but strong evidence for the second “area” prediction. Here, we present an additional analysis to show that the first and second predictions are both supported for crops that vary in dependency levels from nondependent to moderate dependence (i.e., up to 65% average yield reduction without pollinators). However, those crops for which animal pollination is essential (i.e., 95% average yield reduction without pollinators) showed higher growth in yield and lower expansion in area than expected in a pollination shortage scenario. We propose that pollination management for highly pollinator-dependent crops, such us renting hives or hand pollination, might have compensated for pollinator limitation of yield. PMID:19704865

  12. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  13. Chemotherapy drug shortages in pediatric oncology: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, Matthew; Joffe, Steven; Fernandez, Conrad V; Faden, Ruth R; Unguru, Yoram

    2014-03-01

    Shortages of essential drugs, including critical chemotherapy drugs, have become commonplace. Drug shortages cost significant time and financial resources, lead to adverse patient outcomes, delay clinical trials, and pose significant ethical challenges. Pediatric oncology is particularly susceptible to drug shortages, presenting an opportunity to examine these ethical issues and provide recommendations for preventing and alleviating shortages. We convened the Working Group on Chemotherapy Drug Shortages in Pediatric Oncology (WG) and developed consensus on the core ethical values and practical actions necessary for a coordinated response to the problem of shortages by institutions, agencies, and other stakeholders. The interdisciplinary and multiinstitutional WG included practicing pediatric hematologist-oncologists, nurses, hospital pharmacists, bioethicists, experts in emergency management and public policy, legal scholars, patient/family advocates, and leaders of relevant professional societies and organizations. The WG endorsed 2 core ethical values: maximizing the potential benefits of effective drugs and ensuring equitable access. From these, we developed 6 recommendations: (1) supporting national polices to prevent shortages, (2) optimizing use of drug supplies, (3) giving equal priority to evidence-based uses of drugs whether they occur within or outside clinical trials, (4) developing an improved clearinghouse for sharing drug shortage information, (5) exploring the sharing of drug supplies among institutions, and (6) developing proactive stakeholder engagement strategies to facilitate prevention and management of shortages. Each recommendation includes an ethical rationale, action items, and barriers that must be overcome. Implemented together, they provide a blueprint for effective and ethical management of drug shortages in pediatric oncology and beyond.

  14. The Role of Drinking Water Shortages on Human Psychological Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Khodarahimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is grounded on an ecopsychological approach towards the effect of water shortages on human psychological functioning. The purpose of this study was to: (1 to examine the prevalence of psychological problems in rural residents with and without water shortages; (2 to evaluate human attributions about the possible causes of water scarcity; (3 to explore human coping styles towards water shortage; and (4 to recognize the role of sociocultural factors on the aforesaid factors. Participants included 3850 Iranian rural residents, those with water shortages (WWS, and those without water shortages (WOWS. A demographic questionnaire and several self-rating measures were used. Resulting data indicates that the prevalence of mental health problems is significantly higher in rural residents who suffer with water shortages. Attributional styles towards water shortages consisted of four components: personal, social, natural, and organizational. Coping styles of participants (with water shortages indicated an emotional-avoidant coping style, the utilization of water consumption methods to optimize water usage, the use of water-free technologies, social adaptation to life with regards to water, and the application of high quality technologies for water saving. Demographic and sociocultural factors influence psychological functioning with regards to water scarcity. This study demonstrates that mental health problems are more prevalent in areas with water shortages. It also indicates the impact of attributional styles, coping methods and the role of demographic and sociocultural factors on psychological functioning when water shortages occur,

  15. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  16. [Organs shortage in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masahiro; Iwaki, Yuichi

    2005-11-01

    Since the law pertaining to deceased transplantation was legalized in October 1997 in Japan, 140 cases of deceased transplants have been performed through March 2005. Patients on waiting lists, however, are increasing every year. Meanwhile patients traveling abroad in desperations to require donors also increase. In the United States, over 25,000 transplantations are performed annually. The number of patients on waiting list exceeded 86,000 in 2003. Organ shortages are a serious problem, even in the United States. Expanded criteria donor(ECD) and Model for endstage liver disease (MELD) scoring systems were implemented to improve some problems in kidney and liver allocation systems, respectively in 2002. Utilization of donated organs for non-citizens is limited in the United States. Japan must independently increase deceased donor transplantations. PMID:16277249

  17. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  18. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  19. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  20. Solving shortage in a priceless market: Insights from blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianshu; Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2016-07-01

    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage. Using 447,357 individual donation records across 8 years from a large Chinese blood bank, we show that both methods are effective in addressing blood shortage in the short run but have different implications for total blood supply in the long run. We compare the efficacy of these methods and discuss their applications under different scenarios to alleviate shortage.

  1. Solving shortage in a priceless market: Insights from blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianshu; Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2016-07-01

    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage. Using 447,357 individual donation records across 8 years from a large Chinese blood bank, we show that both methods are effective in addressing blood shortage in the short run but have different implications for total blood supply in the long run. We compare the efficacy of these methods and discuss their applications under different scenarios to alleviate shortage. PMID:27263024

  2. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  3. Evidence-based practice in times of drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Mário L; Waignein, Sally; de Haan, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Shortage of oncology drugs is a particularly complicated issue because there are usually limited therapeutic options. Moreover, oncology practice may employ medications for supportive indications which differ from their main usage. This means shortage of oncology drugs is not usually addressed by the major drug shortage guidelines. We have previously shown that, during a shortage crisis, it is possible to make a recommendation on the use of an expired drug supply based on a reasonable estimate of its safety and efficacy. Here, we would like to share further examples on how to deduce potential therapeutic alternatives based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles in the absence of direct clinical evidence in the literature.

  4. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  5. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  6. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  7. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  8. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  9. Competition and Car Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Molly; Hamilton, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We examine determinants of the nearly 30 percent increase in the average age of domestically produced, registered automobiles since the mid-1960s. We find that very little of the increase in car longevity is attributable to improvements in the inherent durability of cars. Rather, we find that the temporal pattern of longevity improvement is highly correlated with the level of market concentration in the auto industry. In particular, we argue that the arrival of competition in the industry led...

  10. Composing for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Adam; Tanaka, Atau

    2013-01-01

    The authors report on composing a piece for RoadMusic, an interactive music project which generates and manipulates music for the passengers and driver in a car, using sensor information gathered from the surroundings and from the movements of the car. We present a literature review which brings together related works in the diverse fields of Automotive UI, musical mappings, generative music and sonification. We then describe our strategies for composing for this novel system, and the uni...

  11. Overview of allied health personnel shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, T W

    1991-01-01

    Upon learning that 95% of all fatal traffic accidents occur within three miles of one's home, an acquaintance moved to another residence four miles away and is still alive today. The world might be a much better place if most obstacles could be overcome this handily. Unfortunately, the problem of allied health personnel shortages appears to be more intractable. Because the situation is complicated in nature, it is most unlikely that any single remedy will suffice. Public and private interests have joined forces in many states, but it is abundantly clear that conventional market forces are unlikely to prevail. These forces usually focus on supply and demand. While shortages may cause entry-level salaries to rise, they do not stimulate academic institutions to increase their output nor will they affect the availability of research funding and/or doctoral training programs. Current market forces compel health facilities to engage in bidding wars for scarce manpower. Although individual job seekers may benefit, this practice does not increase the number of training program graduates. The federal government has a decisive role to play in assuring an adequate number of personnel to meet this nation's health care needs. Assistance is necessary in the form of providing entry- and advanced-level traineeships to accelerate the flow of part-time students pursuing doctorates, and to fund model student recruitment/retention projects. This role should encompass attracting students (particularly from minority and underserved portions of the population) to academic programs. The Disadvantaged Minority Health Improvement Act, PL 101-527 that was enacted in November 1990, contains only minimal provisions for allied health. Eligibility for student scholarship assistance is restricted to a small handful of allied health professions. Moreover, allied health is not eligible for the loan repayment program aimed at individuals who agree to serve on the faculty of health professions

  12. The Continuing Shortage of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R.; Holzer, Charles E., III

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The national shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists has prompted efforts to improve recruitment. It is uncertain whether these efforts will be sufficient to address this shortage and its impact on youth mental health services. Method: Data were compared from 1990 to 2001 by state, county characteristics, number of youths, and…

  13. The American Nursing Shortage: Implications for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2012-01-01

    This article examines national employment and program trends in the nursing profession, the nursing shortage in Iowa, and state policy and community college responses in Iowa. During the seven-year period 2001-2008, two Iowa governors convened special task forces to study the nursing shortage and to make recommendations. The policy responses dealt…

  14. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  15. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  16. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  17. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  18. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  19. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  20. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  1. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  2. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  3. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  4. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  5. French Professional Car Language

    OpenAIRE

    Veslav Kuranovič

    2011-01-01

    In this scientific article is presented french professional car language, also it is analysed a problem of teaching professional language at the technical university. It is presented lot of methods which help student to acquire language skills and also it is presented importance of dialog between student and teacher. Psychology and pedagogy are 2 sciences strong related in teacher’s work.

  6. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  7. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  8. Soil Contamination by a Former Railroad Shop in Mexico:Proposed Handling and Remedation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Rocha, M.

    2001-12-01

    The study deals with an area of 589,062 m2 occupied by a national railroad shop located in Aguascalientes, a city in the central part of Mexico. Since 1903, the city became a transcendental railway center in the country and a transportation route toward the United States. Main activities were maintenance and repair of railroads cars, supply of fuel, and foundry of metallic pieces. The place was contaminated for 100 years, up to the recent sale of that company. The workshop area, now surrounded by populated urban areas, is abandoned. This study presents an evaluation of a previous survey of soil contamination in the different areas of the workshop. Based on our evaluation, we are proposing an optimal handling and remediation of the area. The survey referred 19 shallow boreholes (0-12 meters). Cores and chemical samples were analyzed. We defined the most relevant characteristic and contaminants of the soil samples. In terms of health risk analysis, we conclude that the most important contaminants are hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The following areas present the most significant health risk: the fuel supply zone , the oil petroleum or tar (called in Mexico "chapopote") lagoon, the painting area and the dump of axes and wheels.

  9. Retrieval improvement is induced by water shortage through angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Lia; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) has an evolutionary preserved role in determining adaptative responses to water-shortages. In addition, it has been shown to modulate diverse phases of memory. Still, it is not clear whether ANGII improves or spoils memory. We demonstrated that endogenous angiotensins enhance consolidation of a long-term associative memory in the crab Chasmagnathus and that water shortage improves memory consolidation through brain ANGII actions. Here, we show that weakly trained crabs, when water-deprived, exhibit enhanced retrieval. Subsequently, memory retention is indistinguishable from that of strongly trained crabs. ANGII, but not angiotensin IV, is a necessary and sufficient condition for such enhancing effect. We conclude that ANGII released due to water shortage leads to enhanced memory retrieval. Thus, it seems that ANGII has an evolutionary preserved role as a multifunction coordinator that enables an adaptative response to water-shortage. The facilitation of memory consolidation and retrieval would be among those coordinated functions. PMID:15721803

  10. Shortages of Lifesaving Drugs Linger in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158708.html Shortages of Lifesaving Drugs Linger in U.S. Longer wait time for vital acute-care meds ... professor of emergency medicine. Since 2012, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was authorized to deal ...

  11. Energy Policies Cause Unexpected Diesel Shortage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ An unprecedented diesel shortage is sweeping through Chinese cities, as numerous enterprises have to resort to diesel fuel to generate electricity to continue operation during periods of forced power outages.For example, the diesel shortage has recently paralyzed traffic on a pivotal expressway in Northwest China, with trucks waiting in long lines to fill their fuel tanks.China's Ministry of Commerce has recently required the local bureaus to ensure ample supply of fuel amid rising inflation.

  12. Farmer strategies to face labor shortages in Chilean agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Aguirre; Rodrigo Echeverría; Clara Olmedo; Gustavo Blanco

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the strategies that farmers in the south of Chile use to face current labor shortages and identify the variables that determine each of these strategies. A multinomial logit model and odds ratios plots with predicted probabilities were applied to a sample of 384 farmers. Interviews and focus groups were applied to specific producers, professionals and public officials. The main results show that only 32.3% of farmers declared that labor shortage is a problem. Of this perce...

  13. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  14. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  15. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  16. New developments in clinical CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  17. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... on a survey undertaken in the Copenhagen area. The study reveals that a relatively low percentage of drivers (10-20%) consider commuting by public transportation in the near future, which is hardly a surprise. A hierarchical analysis, where reported use of public transportation is regressed on intentions...

  18. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  19. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  20. Railroad Lines, Railroads within Sedgwick County. Primary attribute is railroad name. Names are provided as annotation also., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Railroads...

  1. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may use a railroad-supplied electronic device only for an authorized business purpose as specified by... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices §...

  2. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and the... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...

  3. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  4. An analysis of news flow on the nation's nurse shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, B J; Kalisch, P A; Clinton, J

    1981-09-01

    Using data from national newspaper clipping services, this article analyzes characteristics of 1978 news coverage of the nation's nurse shortage. Based on a content analysis of nearly 3,000 newspaper articles, findings revealed that 14 per cent of the articles mentioned problems of nurse supply. Articles on nurse shortage were most frequent in the Pacific, Mid-Atlantic and South-Atlantic states and occurred least in the West-North Central and East-South Central states. Articles mentioning nurse shortage were more frequently placed on page 1, associated with clinical nursing in hospital settings and explained as the result of maldistribution of nurses, poor salaries, deficient working conditions and lack of job satisfaction. The reading public was confronted with three major consequences of current and continued shortages in nursing: 1) decline in the availability and diversity of health services; 2) erosion in the quality of care offered the public and jeopardized patient welfare; and 3) escalating health care costs. Solutions to the nurse shortage appear to be closely tied to further expansion of the issue among the public, the initiation of remedial governmental action and timely relocation of scarce resources within the health care industry. PMID:7289679

  5. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  6. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., the railroad environment; and perceived likelihood of technical and practical success. 4. Key Personnel and Supporting Organization (15%): The technical qualifications and demonstrated experience of key... in the following order: Projects that: ] 1. Facilitate sharing of PTC communications...

  7. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  8. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  9. The nursing shortage and ethics: up front and personal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M C; Ludwick, R

    2001-01-01

    In times of crisis it is often that values and beliefs and, subsequently, our ethics are challenged. Authors in OJIN have addressed some of the ethical issues that nurses face in relation to crises in health care. For example, P. J. Maddox (1998) addressed ethical issues surrounding economic constraints and scarce resources. In this current issue of OJIN, Cheryl Peterson (2001) writes of the ethical dilemma nurses face in trying to comply with the Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statement, 1985 in light of the present nursing shortage. We invite you to read these and the other OJIN articles on the shortage and then submit to this column a story about how the nursing shortage has ethically affected you or your patients/clients. PMID:11936945

  10. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  11. The nurse manager: job satisfaction, the nursing shortage and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2005-07-01

    A critical shortage of registered nurses exists in the United States and this shortage is expected to worsen. It is predicted that unless this issue is resolved, the demand for nursing services will exceed the supply by nearly 30% in 2020. Extensive analysis of this pending crisis has resulted in numerous recommendations to improve both recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to clearly outline the issues contributing to this problem, and to provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on job satisfaction as it relates to job turnover and employee retention. To accomplish this, an analysis of the literature using both national and international sources is used to formulate the lessons learned as well as strategies and future courses of action designed to address this shortage. PMID:15946168

  12. Railroad Lines, To provide railroads of Louisiana, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'To provide railroads of Louisiana'. The extent of these data is...

  13. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  14. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  15. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  16. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  17. Organ shortage: the greatest challenge facing transplant medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, David; Kodish, Eric; Tzakis, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The success of organ transplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ disease has yielded a series of ethical quandaries originating from the issue of organ shortage. Scarcity of organs for transplantation necessitates formulation of just and fair allocation policies as well as ethically viable solutions to bridging the vast gap between organ supply and demand. The concept of "triage" provides a useful paradigm in which to contextualize the organ shortage issue. This entails subjugating the welfare of the individual patient for the benefit of the wider community as an ethically justified response to the challenge of scarcity.

  18. Logarithmic inventory model with shortage for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedlekar Uttam Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have modeled a business which starts with shortage of deteriorating items. After a duration, managers have freedom to order the stock of assurance of committed customers. There are many products that follow logarithmic demand pattern, so in this paper we incorporate it with the shortage of items at the beginning. A new model is developed to obtain the optimal solution for such type of market situation and have obtained some valuable results. Numerical examples and simulation study is appended along with managerial insights.

  19. Railroad Lines, Railroad Crossings: Public Roads, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as...

  20. Railroad Lines, Adams Co Railroads, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is described...

  1. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  2. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,254), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC...

  3. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... advancements and ergonomic design standards for new car construction and ensure that modern rail equipment... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern.... Problems arise because modern designs are often combinations of multiple car types, and the design of...

  4. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  5. The O&M Personnel Shortage and University Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William R.; Joffee, Elga

    1993-01-01

    Measures taken during the 1980s to increase the number of orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists to work with persons with visual impairments were evaluated, by means of a telephone survey of 15 university O&M programs. Survey findings indicated that efforts to address critical shortages in O&M personnel have been effective. (DB)

  6. The Human Constraint; The Coming Shortage of Managerial Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, John B.

    The prospect of a massive managerial talent shortage in the United States and what can be done about it are the central concerns of the study, which revealed a notable decline in motivation to manage among business students and young managers. Part 1 defines the components of motivation to manage and their vital relationship to personal and…

  7. US Congress considers bill to relieve helium shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    A bill to alleviate the threat of a significant shortage of helium was set to be debated in the US House of Representatives as Physics World went to press with the House's Natural Resources Committee putting the finished touches to the motion.

  8. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  9. The Dilemma of Physician Shortage and International Recruitment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Islam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of interest overweighs the intent of ethically justified solution. Such a recommendation has not only invited policy debate and disagreement, but has also raised serious ethical concerns. Canadian healthcare policy-makers were put into a series of twisting puzzles—recruiting IMGs in mitigating physician shortage was questioned by lack of vision for Canada’s self-sufficiency. In-migration of IMGs was largely attributed to Canada’s point-based physician-friendly immigration system without much emphasizing on IMGs’ home countries’ unfavorable factors and ignoring their basic human rights and choice of livelihood. While policy-makers’ excellence in integrating the already-migrated IMGs into the Canadian healthcare is cautiously appraised, its logical consequence in passively drawing more IMGs is loudly criticised. Even the passive recruitment of IMGs raised the ethical concern of source countries’ (which are often developing countries with already-compromised healthcare system vulnerability. The current paper offers critical insights juxtaposing all these seemingly conflicting ideas and interests within the scope of national and transnational instruments.

  10. Newsvendor problem with random shortage cost under a risk criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Meng; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2013-01-01

    We study profit maximization vs risk approaches for the standard newsvendor problem with uncertainty in demand as well as a generalized version with uncertainty in the shortage cost (as often applies in practice). We consider two well-known risk approaches: Value-at-Risk (VaR) included as a constrai

  11. The Impending Shortage of Special Education Faculty: A Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. D.; Young, C.; Montrosse, B.; Tyler, N. C.; Robb, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This document highlights the major findings of a four-year study about the supply and demand of special education college and university faculty. The Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment (SEFNA) project concluded its data collection efforts in July of 2011. This national study continued the work of previous efforts that found the shortage of…

  12. End of the silicon shortage?; Mangelware bald im Ueberfluss?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, J.

    2008-08-29

    Some experts are expecting an end of the silicon shortage even this year, while others assume that the raw material will continue to be in short supply for years to come. One thing can be said for sure, i.e. today's 'big five' will have to share with many new producers in the future. (orig.)

  13. Isobutanol: Supply Shortage Lasts for Long in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Supply Shortage of Feedstock In recent years, with the fast increasing demand from downstream sectors and the extension of new facilities for producing oxo-alcohol, China has boosted its production capacity of isobutanol to some extent. In 2006 China had a production capacity of 81 500 t/a with an output of around 60 000 tons.

  14. Another Educational Problem: Shortages of University Scientific and Engineering Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul W.

    It is pointed out that there is a desperate need for engineering and computer science doctoral faculty, a need recognized by various schools of science and engineering and by the Federal government. Although the National Science Foundation and other agencies do not see a shortage of college faculty in the other sciences, faculty in some of these…

  15. Monthly shortage trends for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Md; Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.

    2009-09-01

    Monthly shortage time trends are analysed for Central and Western Europe by considering more than 100 rain records (European Climate Assessment, ECA, and the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET) covering the whole 20th century. Spells of monthly shortage are defined as consecutive months with amounts lowering the corresponding monthly median. Three annual variables are analysed: the average,, the largest, SM, and the cumulative, CS, monthly shortage. Due to the quite irregular annual evolution of these three variables, the Kendall-tau algorithm instead of a simple linear regression of the series has been applied to evaluate time trends. Positive and negative trends, never exceeding ±4.0 mm/decade, have been obtained for the three variables within the area delimited by 10°W-25°E longitude and 35°N-65°N latitude. The statistical significance at 95% level of local time trends has been assessed with the Mann-Kendall test. Additionally, the field significance of time trends is assessed by Monte Carlo simulations, randomly reproducing magnitudes and signs of time trends. The low number of empirical significant trends induces lack of field significance. A relatively high number of significant local trends (25) is only detected for CS, 6 of them are positive and 19 negative. Given that local significant trends are scattered throughout Central and Western Europe, a single spatial pattern for the monthly shortage should be discarded. Nevertheless, a close revision of local trends (statistically significant or not) manifests that positive values (increasing monthly shortage) are observed in France, a great part of the Iberian Peninsula, Central Europe and Italy.

  16. GIS for Nevada railroads: 1993 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on a task within a large, ongoing study by the University of Nevada, Reno to examine the safety of Nevada railroads. The overall goal, of which this year's research is a middle stage, is to develop models based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS). These models are to enable the selection of the best and safest railway routes for the transport of high-level nuclear waste across Nevada to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Last year's research concluded that the databases are adequate and that GIS are feasible and desirable for displaying the multi-layered data required to reach decisions about safety. It developed several database layers. This report deals with work during 1993 on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for rail-route selection. The goal was to identify and assemble many of the databases necessary for the models. In particular, the research aimed to identify (a) any problems with developing database layers; and (b) the level of effort required. This year's effort developed database layers for two Nevada counties: Clark and Lincoln. The layers dealt with: topographic information, geologic information, and land ownership. These are among the most important database layers. The database layers were successfully created. No significant problems arose in developing them. The level of effort did not exceed the expected level. The most effective approach is by means of digital, shaded relief maps. (Sample maps appear in plates.) Therefore, future database development will be straightforward. Research may proceed on the full development of shaded relief elevation maps for Elko, White Pine, Nye and Eureka counties and with actual modeling for the selection of a route or routes between the UP/SP line in northern Nevada and Yucca Mountain

  17. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  18. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  19. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  20. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  1. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  2. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  3. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  4. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may...... be large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...... is discussed and the nonlinear aspects are emphasized. The author explains why it is necessary to reformulate the mathematical problem for calculation of the critical speed due to the nonlinear character of the modelling. It is suggested that another critical speed be defined for a railroad vehicle. It can...

  5. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  6. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  7. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  8. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-12-31

    The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

  9. Are staffing shortages changing the culture of midwifery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nadine; Gilbert, Arianna; Mander, Rosemary; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    The effects of budgetary changes on midwives' practice environment have raised concerns in many settings. A survey of midwives and student midwives in the UK and Republic of Ireland in 2014 produced 280 responses. Staffing shortages were regarded as underpinning many changes, one of which was that of previously optional 'extra' activities, such as unpaid overtime, becoming mandatory. Shortages were aggravated in less acute areas by the transfer of midwives to more acute settings. One of the fears expressed by midwives was that a permanent change in the culture of midwifery would result. These phenomena are the everyday experiences of practising midwives, but they have failed to be addressed in the documents published by regulatory and review bodies.

  10. Skilled labour shortage : implications, recruitment and workforce planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charette, A. [Canadian Council of Human Resources Association, St. Catherines, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation provides information on how a long-term recruitment strategy can affect the viability of the oil and gas industry, which is currently facing a shortage of skilled labour in Canada. The problem poses a threat to the competitiveness of the industry and the problem will likely worsen unless action is taken now to prevent a crisis in the near future. A survey of business owners in 2002 indicated that 186,000 of 265,000 jobs remained vacant for at least 4 months. As the aging workforce of baby boomers reaches retirement age, the labour shortage is likely to be more pronounced by 2010 to 2015. The consequences of changing labour demographics affect costs, attracting and retaining talented workers, productivity, culture, creativity and competitiveness. figs.

  11. Employment regulation peculiarities in the terms of labour shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nail Zalilovich Shaimardanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Current problems and peculiarities of employment due to the growing shortage of manpower are discussed on the example of Sverdlovsk region. The causes of labour shortages and the main features of its overcoming are associated with an increase in economic activity, growing productivity, mitigating structural problems of the labour market and migration replacement. Priority areas for management of regional employment, taking into account the negative effects of demographic factors, are proposed. These trends include the increased interaction of ministries and departments to coordinate actions in the social sphere, science-based development model for monitoring the social and labour sphere (with the situational analysis, monitoring and short-term forecasting, modernization of software on employment in the current conditions and the formation of constantly updatable information database for the migration planning.

  12. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  13. Future cars: the electric option

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Avery, NR; Muddle, BC

    1999-01-01

    Global economic, environmental and political issues are pushing car manufacturers to consider electric power systems as an alternative to the current spark ignition engine. In this article, we analyse the power and energy requirements of a modern car and conclude that a viable electric car could be operated with a 50 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack to provide power for cruising and climbing, coupled in parallel with a 30 kW supercapacitor or battery bank to supply additional sho...

  14. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta G.P.; Roy Ajanta

    2004-01-01

    A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time...

  15. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Louisa Izamis; Berendsen, Tim A.; Korkut Uygun; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP) in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP...

  16. Challenges of Organ Shortage for Transplantation: Solutions and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi, R. F.; Hejazii Kenari, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is the greatest challenge facing the field of organ transplantation today. A variety of approaches have been implemented to expand the organ donor pool including live donation, a national effort to expand deceased donor donation, split organ donation, paired donor exchange, national sharing models and greater utilization of expanded criteria donors. Increased public awareness, improved efficiency of the donation process, greater expectations for transplantation, expansion of th...

  17. Modeling Water Shortage Management Using an Object-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Senarath, S.; Brion, L.; Niedzialek, J.; Novoa, R.; Obeysekera, J.

    2007-12-01

    As a result of the increasing global population and the resulting urbanization, water shortage issues have received increased attention throughout the world . Water supply has not been able to keep up with increased demand for water, especially during times of drought. The use of an object-oriented (OO) approach coupled with efficient mathematical models is an effective tool in addressing discrepancies between water supply and demand. Object-oriented modeling has been proven powerful and efficient in simulating natural behavior. This research presents a way to model water shortage management using the OO approach. Three groups of conceptual components using the OO approach are designed for the management model. The first group encompasses evaluation of natural behaviors and possible related management options. This evaluation includes assessing any discrepancy that might exist between water demand and supply. The second group is for decision making which includes the determination of water use cutback amount and duration using established criteria. The third group is for implementation of the management options which are restrictions of water usage at a local or regional scale. The loop is closed through a feedback mechanism where continuity in the time domain is established. Like many other regions, drought management is very important in south Florida. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) is a finite volume, fully integrated hydrologic model used by the South Florida Water Management District to evaluate regional response to various planning alternatives including drought management. A trigger module was developed for RSM that encapsulates the OO approach to water shortage management. Rigorous testing of the module was performed using historical south Florida conditions. Keywords: Object-oriented, modeling, water shortage management, trigger module, Regional Simulation Model

  18. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  19. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  20. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  1. The global nursing shortage: an overview of issues and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulton, Judith A

    2006-08-01

    Today's global nursing shortage is having an adverse impact on health systems around the world. A major initiative by the International Council of Nurses (ICN) yielded important information regarding the shortage and solutions to it. These are organized into five priority areas: policy intervention; macroeconomics and health sector funding; workforce planning and policy, including regulation; positive practice environments; and retention and recruitment (includes migration); and nursing leadership. Internationally momentum is building, providing the opportunity to bring attention to these issues and to take action. This article presents an overview of the global nursing shortage (which, since 2002, has been termed a global crisis), provides the perspectives of the ICN, and discusses the ICN's initiatives regarding that crisis. Founded in 1899, the ICN is the world's first and largest organization for health professionals. As a federation of national nurses' associations in 129 countries, ICN represents the more than 13 million nurses working worldwide. It works to ensure quality nursing care for all, sound health policies globally, the advancement of nursing knowledge, and the presence worldwide of a respected, competent professional workforce. PMID:17071693

  2. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  3. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  4. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  5. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  6. Power Shortage Likely to Affect Operating Ratio of Non-ferrous Metals Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Since this March,many places in China have been plagued by "power shortage" in low sea-son.Zhejiang,Guangdong,Hunan,Jiangxi and Guizhou have taken electricity rationing measures to cope with electric power shortage.

  7. 78 FR 75959 - Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application...

  8. 75 FR 62185 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  9. 75 FR 45207 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  10. 78 FR 55778 - Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes...: Regulation on Reduction of Nursing Shortages in State Homes; Application for Assistance for Hiring...

  11. Plastic cars for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plastic automobiles may have passed a milestone on the long road to commercial reality with the development of Composite Concept Vehicle (CCV) from Chrysler Corp. in Auburn Hills, Mich. This basic compact car--so basic it could be called bare bones--is built by attaching an injection-molded thermoplastic polyester body onto a tubular steel chassis. The 1,200-pound CCV, which is expected to require one-third the labor and investment needed to build a conventional small car, was designed for new buyers in the emerging economies of China, India, and Southeast Asia. If commercialized, the car would likely cost about $6,000--halfway between a motorcycle and an entry-level auto. The small car was unveiled in September 1996 at the Frankfurt Auto Show in Germany.

  12. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  13. Cars Are Hot in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    MANY Chinese have long dreamedabout the joy of driving. However, in thepast only professional drivers had theopportunity as most cars were stateowned and it was too expensive forindividuals to buy their own.

  14. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ..., and 243 Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees; Proposed Rule #0... Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees AGENCY: Federal Railroad... employee to develop and submit a training program to FRA for approval and to designate the qualification...

  15. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines whether a pension established by a railroad employer is a private pension that will cause a reduction...

  16. 77 FR 25229 - Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Dallas County, TX Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company (DGNO) has filed a... from Union Pacific Railroad Company exclusive trackage rights over the Line. See Dallas,...

  17. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  18. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  19. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  20. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... of contractor employees at Sec. Sec. 243.1(b), 243.101(e)-(f), and 243.209. 77 FR 6453. These... Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR); Proposed Rule #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AB89 Railroad Workplace Safety;...

  1. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  2. Online Availability and Safety of Drugs in Shortage: A Descriptive Study of Internet Vendor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Bryan A.; Mackey, Tim K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Unprecedented drug shortages announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have severely affected therapeutic access, patient safety, and public health. With continued shortages, patients may seek drugs online. Objective To assess the prevalence of online marketing for current FDA shortage drugs and potential patient safety risks. Methods We performed a descriptive study of the prevalence of online marketing for shortage drugs—that is, offers for sale of each drug, includi...

  3. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  4. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  5. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Equipment and Operation of Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.51 Railroad conveyances... servicing area, toilets shall be kept locked unless means are provided to prevent contamination of the area... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-627), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  6. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  7. The Old Railroad Right-of-Way Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a classroom challenge involving an old railroad right-of-way. Using the knowledge gained via research into what others may have done with utilizing old rail lines, along with team creative efforts, students should begin generating ideas for how to use these land areas. The students might suggest the land areas be used for:…

  8. 49 CFR 1.49 - Delegations to Federal Railroad Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the Crime Control Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-647) as it relates to a railroad police officer's authority to enforce the laws of any jurisdiction in which the police officer's rail carrier employer owns... intervene and present evidence concerning applicants' fitness in Commission proceedings under 49 U.S.C....

  9. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease...

  10. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  11. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  12. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  13. NEWS Nonferrous Metals Shortage Expected in China for Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China has become the largest nonferrous metalsconsumer country in the world. Along with thehigh-speed development of industrialization,China’s demand for nonferrous metals is grow-ing with more dependence on the internationalmarket supply and more shortages are expectedfor the years to come.Statistics show that with constant and high-speed economic development,China’s refinedmetals consumption grew from 4.5 million tonsin 1995 to 12 million tons in 2003,increasingby almost 2.7 times over a period of nine years.And with direct import of fabricated materials

  14. Silicon shortage: supply constraints limit PV growth until 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, H.; Bradford, T. [Prometheus Inst. (United States)

    2006-10-01

    It is argued that a shortage of refined (polycystalline) silicon will curtail the expansion of the solar photovoltaics industry until about 2008. At present, 94% of PV cells produced worldwide use refined silicon. The problem has arisen because the traditional source, scrap silicon from the electronics industry, is no longer available in sufficient quantities - demand has outstripped supply. Although plans are in place to double the present supply of silicon over the next four years, doubts are expressed over the likelihood of this happening. Currently, there are only seven big companies producing the silicon - production figures for these companies are given. (author)

  15. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  16. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  17. New Strategies for the Treatment of Solid Tumors with CAR-T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ye, Zhen-long; Yuan, Zhen-gang; Luo, Zheng-qiang; Jin, Hua-jun; qian, Qi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, we have witnessed significant progresses in both basic and clinical studies regarding novel therapeutic strategies with genetically engineered T cells. Modification with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) endows T cells with tumor specific cytotoxicity and thus induce anti-tumor immunity against malignancies. However, targeting solid tumors is more challenging than targeting B-cell malignancies with CAR-T cells because of the histopathological structure features, specific antigens shortage and strong immunosuppressive environment of solid tumors. Meanwhile, the on-target/off-tumor toxicity caused by relative expression of target on normal tissues is another issue that should be reckoned. Optimization of the design of CAR vectors, exploration of new targets, addition of safe switches and combination with other treatments bring new vitality to the CAR-T cell based immunotherapy against solid tumors. In this review, we focus on the major obstacles limiting the application of CAR-T cell therapy toward solid tumors and summarize the measures to refine this new cancer therapeutic modality. PMID:27194949

  18. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  19. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  20. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  1. Shortage management in power transmission networks; Engpassmanagement im Uebertragungsnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G. [VDE, Inst. fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft an der Technischen Univ. Wien (Austria)

    2002-08-01

    Deregulation of the electricity market has raised co-ordination problems of power plant and network operation, which may lead to short-term power shortage. This danger is made even more acute by large-area power trading and a reluctance to make investments. Regionally balancing of power generation and sufficient 380 kW networks will make power supply more reliable. Measures to ensure short-term power shortage management by network operators are presented. [German] Die Deregulierung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft hat zu einer Aufspaltung in die Geschaeftsbereiche Erzeugung, Uebertragung, Verteilung und Handel gefuehrt. Die Koordinierung des Kraftwerks- und Netzbetriebs ist hierdurch erschwert worden, was sich im Besonderen bei kurzfristigen Engpaessen bemerkbar macht. Der weitraeumigere Stromhandel und die deutliche Zurueckhaltung bei den Investitionen erhoeht zukuenftig die Gefahr von Engpaessen. Durch eine regional ausgeglichene Erzeugungsbilanz und ausreichend verstaerkte 380-kV-Netze ist auch zukuenftig eine sichere Versorgung moeglich. Insbesondere fuer das kurzfristige Engpassmanagement sollten die Netzbetreiber mit verbesserten Massnahmepaketen ausgestattet werden. (orig.)

  2. Careers : the next generation addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    This article described the activities of CAREERS: The Next Generation, a group formed 20 years ago to address anticipated labour shortages in Alberta. The group has reached out to over 350 schools and 225,000 students in the province in order to promote trades, forestry, and health services careers. The province has had a shortage of at 150,000 skilled workers in both trades and technical jobs in the petroleum industry. CAREERS now has many partners in the oil and gas industry, and has recently launched an initiative involving a basic apprenticeship model designed for young people to explore different trades. CAREERS is now focusing its efforts on high schools in order to promote trades amongst students. The Registered Apprenticeship Program (RAP) allows high school students to gain up to a year's worth of hours towards a journeyman status in the trade of their choice. CAREERS is now developing programs for the province's health services and has just completed a 3-year health care pilot program. A study has shown that 87 per cent of the students involved in the program plan to continue on to a career in the health services field. CAREERS is now involved in an Aboriginal Youth Initiative designed to bring career education and workplace learning opportunities to young people across the province. 2 figs.

  3. The times of oil shortage are not far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The reduction of oil production means that a sharp rise of oil price will be brought and a keen competition for securing oil resource will happen. The most concern of Korea is how to secure oil, which is the major energy resource as a basis of economic activities. Even though the efforts to develop alternative energy should be continued, and the times to fulfill the energy demand comes someday, just developing alternative energy is not a countermeasure for coming oil shortage within 10 years. In addition to that, we have to change our perception on nuclear plant as another preparing measure. Even many problems, the nuclear plant is necessary to substitute oil with a large amount while developing another alternative energy in the 21st century. Unless we want to live in a perfectly safe country, without nuclear accident, even if curtailing economic size with a mutual agreement of people and submitting a big difficulty, the government should notify the necessity of increasing nuclear plant dependency to people and persuade them to share the risk in order to overcome oil shortage.

  4. Skills shortage - identification of needs for engineering training in longwalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Lugg; Dewen Liu; Rebecca Hill [CRC Mining (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This report investigates the impacts of the skills shortage on the productivity of longwall faces. The scope is limited to the supervisors and crews that operate, maintain and procure the longwall face equipment. Using a combination of face-to-face interviews and written questionnaires, the industry was canvassed about the impacts of the skills shortage, the current level of skilling and the competence of the workforce to perform its assigned tasks without supervision. The participants also identified the skillsets and levels of understanding required to allow them to work unsupervised, and the preferred delivery methods for training in the identified skills. An Industry Advisory Group was assembled to provide insight and advice to the research team with regards to the survey process and the interpretation of results. The survey data was drawn from face to face interviews from four mines and questionnaires completed by sixteen mines in Queensland and New South Wales. The data is analysed and the results presented along with conclusions and recommendations for future training.

  5. Farmer strategies to face labor shortages in Chilean agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Aguirre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the strategies that farmers in the south of Chile use to face current labor shortages and identify the variables that determine each of these strategies. A multinomial logit model and odds ratios plots with predicted probabilities were applied to a sample of 384 farmers. Interviews and focus groups were applied to specific producers, professionals and public officials. The main results show that only 32.3% of farmers declared that labor shortage is a problem. Of this percentage 52% chose the strategy of paying better, 13.8% chose improve the workers' working conditions, 9.5% chose to mechanize, and 24.1% did not follow a strategy. The production of labor-intensive products (e.g., exportable fruit determines the strategy of paying better; the farmer's educational level influences the strategy of improving the working conditions, and the farmer's age affects the strategy of mechanizing. However, the production of labor-intensive products exhibits the greater effect. The main disadvantage of the "pay better" strategy is that workers do not want to commit to their job.

  6. Mitigation of maximum world oil production: Shortage scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Robert L. [Management Information Services, Inc., 723 Fords Landing Way, Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    A framework is developed for planning the mitigation of the oil shortages that will be caused by world oil production reaching a maximum and going into decline. To estimate potential economic impacts, a reasonable relationship between percent decline in world oil supply and percent decline in world GDP was determined to be roughly 1:1. As a limiting case for decline rates, giant fields were examined. Actual oil production from Europe and North America indicated significant periods of relatively flat oil production (plateaus). However, before entering its plateau period, North American oil production went through a sharp peak and steep decline. Examination of a number of future world oil production forecasts showed multi-year rollover/roll-down periods, which represent pseudoplateaus. Consideration of resource nationalism posits an Oil Exporter Withholding Scenario, which could potentially overwhelm all other considerations. Three scenarios for mitigation planning resulted from this analysis: (1) A Best Case, where maximum world oil production is followed by a multi-year plateau before the onset of a monatomic decline rate of 2-5% per year; (2) A Middling Case, where world oil production reaches a maximum, after which it drops into a long-term, 2-5% monotonic annual decline; and finally (3) A Worst Case, where the sharp peak of the Middling Case is degraded by oil exporter withholding, leading to world oil shortages growing potentially more rapidly than 2-5% per year, creating the most dire world economic impacts. (author)

  7. One smart card, one less car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, B.

    2003-06-30

    A system of car-sharing in Bremen, Germany, a membership-based structure of car-sharing that gives members access to a network of cars stationed throughout the city on a pay-per-trip basis, and without the hassles of car ownership, is discussed. The car-sharing scheme is combined with the city's transit system by means of a smart card that serves both as a pass for the city's transit system and as an electronic key to the cars in the car-sharing system. Future plans include to use the card also as a method of payment for taxis, and organizers are also working with the municipal government to get support for having car-sharing included in the city's official plan. At present, car-sharing stations are simply reserved parking spots for one or more cars, however, future stations are envisaged to include parking for up to five cars, a computer to book cars, direct access to keys using the smart card, parking for bicycles, and information about car-sharing stations, bus, trams, as well as bike and walking routes. Similar, if somewhat more modest, car-sharing schemes are also available in several cities in Canada, including Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver.

  8. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  9. Car car cars:车库梦想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    在曾经关于南京摇滚大集合的专题中我们介绍过这支年轻而有趣的乐队,当时他们刚刚开始,最令人印象深刻是男吉他+女鼓手的车库摇滚乐队配置,今年,他们在近一年的辗转与坚持中,越来越多地参与到南京、北京和更多城市的演出中,同时独立发行了乐队的首张同名EP。Car Car Cars的名字和他们热衷的车库风格鲜明地联系在一起,而除了对于风格上的暗示,这个名字与他们最初组建时一直在一间废弃的驾校模拟器教室排练有很大关系。“里面有很多那种模驾练习机嘛,当时就想取一个和“车”有关的乐队名字应该很酷,就叫CAR CAR CARS吧!”酷的不只有名字,Car Car Cars由兄妹二人组成,主唱兼吉他手小汤是年轻的哥哥。鼓手是漂亮的妹妹,这种无意间造就的话题性让人有意无意地联系统The White Stripes。除了外型、配置上的天生抢眼,Car Car Cars这一年中的数场演出,也展示了他们凌厉的台风与属于车库的狂野,首张EP一上来就使用了同期录音的方式,展示了很多惊喜,虽然也不可避免地了一些些遗憾。在进一步的发展中。克服了创作、表现力的一些进阶困难之后,Car Car Cars完全有实力为风格趋于过份统一的国内年轻摇滚圈添上与众不同的一笔。

  10. 49 CFR 392.10 - Railroad grade crossings; stopping required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Division 2.3 Poison gas (iv) Division 4.3 (v) Class 7 (vi) Class 3 Flammable (vii) Division 5.1 (viii... (xiii) Class 3 Combustible liquid (xiv) Division 4.1 (xv) Division 5.1 (xvi) Division 5.2 (xvii) Class 8... purposes, within a business district, as defined in § 390.5 of this chapter. (2) A railroad grade...

  11. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  12. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  13. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  14. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  15. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  16. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  17. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  18. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP have consistently demonstrated that ischemic donor organs can be recovered to a transplantable state through continuous perfusion. MP can also provide dynamic quantitative assessments of the extent of ischemia, in addition to predicting the likelihood of organ recovery. Continued endeavors to translate MP into clinical use and eventually incorporate it into routine donor organ care will have a significant impact on the quality and availability of transplantable donor organs.

  19. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  20. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980. PMID:12348868

  1. The knowledge status EFFEKT: Efficiency shortage. Basis for further research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a survey of results from the ''Norges forskningsraad'' ( The Norwegian Research Council) program EFFEKT (1996-2000) and some other relevant projects. The report focuses on areas relevant to the efficiency shortage problems and is made as a part of the foundation for the start of the competence project ''Competence Building - Capacity Shortage''. The challenge is to find adequate solutions that satisfies the demands from market participants, systems operators and market actors. This mainly contains problems of both operational and long term strategic character which primarily touches the following main areas: Peak load coverage, operating security and reserves, network capacity and environmental aspects. The results are reported under these headings from several relevant projects. The major challenges in the future will be: 1) Development of mechanisms that bring the right incentives for improved use of the flexibility in the end consumption. 2) Adaptation of the market and organisational conditions in order to improve the consumer flexibility. 3) Further development of the incentive structures for the network owners and systems operators so that the existing transferring capacity is used as well as possible and the macro economic development of the network is encouraged. 4) Profit estimations and financing of larger co-originated connections particularly across the country borders, in deregulated power markets. Particularly the first two challenges are probably a condition for the deregulated power markets as the Nordic one, shall be able to survive in the long run. In an appendix main data studied in the projects as a basis for this report, are referred

  2. The nursing shortage: part way down the slippery slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne; Jacobsson, Denise

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of nurses has reached a crisis point for health care services. A number of issues including the effects of economic rationalism, generational differences, working conditions and nurse education are revisited in a discussion that aims to refuel the debate on workplace reform for nurses. Economic rationalism has altered the healthcare service landscape. Attempts to balance service delivery with workforce resources have led to possibly unforeseen changes. Highly skilled nurses are required in acute services, however resource allocation may prevent this. The nursing workforce is aging although the current nursing workforce consists of three generations: baby boomers, generation X and generation Y. There are significant ideological and work organisational differences between these generations leading to possible conflict between nurses. The pool of available nurses to fill employment vacancies is finite. Attracting overseas nurses to fill nurse vacancies will leave vacancies elsewhere and is not a long-term solution to the nursing shortage. Moreover, if the workplace has not addressed the reasons why nurses have left the health care workplace then there is a real danger of losing those recently attracted back into the workplace. Working conditions are a critical element within the retention puzzle. Job satisfaction dimensions such as autonomy and professional relationships are key components for improving working conditions. The final issue explored is the question of whether the tertiary education system is the most appropriate place in which to develop and educate nurses. It is suggested that workplace reforms should be the target of retention strategies rather than changes in the educational process of nursing. PMID:14582950

  3. Despite Federal Legislation, Shortages Of Drugs Used In Acute Care Settings Remain Persistent And Prolonged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Serene I; Fox, Erin R; Hall, M Kennedy; Ross, Joseph S; Bucholz, Emily M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2016-05-01

    Early evidence suggests that provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012 are associated with reductions in the total number of new national drug shortages. However, drugs frequently used in acute unscheduled care such as the care delivered in emergency departments may be increasingly affected by shortages. Our estimates, based on reported national drug shortages from 2001 to 2014 collected by the University of Utah's Drug Information Service, show that although the number of new annual shortages has decreased since the act's passage, half of all drug shortages in the study period involved acute care drugs. Shortages affecting acute care drugs became increasingly frequent and prolonged compared with non-acute care drugs (median duration of 242 versus 173 days, respectively). These results suggest that the drug supply for many acutely and critically ill patients in the United States remains vulnerable despite federal efforts. PMID:27140985

  4. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  5. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  6. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  7. An ethical framework for responding to drug shortages in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jill C; Smith, Laurie D; Gordon, Bruce G; Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-06-01

    The frequency of drug shortages has increased considerably over the last decade. Important ethical issues arise whenever the supply of an effective drug is insufficient to meet demand. Using the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, institutions can guide prioritization of drug distribution before a shortage occurs to avoid unfair and unethical distribution of resources. This analysis will give a historical context for drug shortages, identify, and explore the central ethical concerns raised by drug shortages, and propose an ethical framework for addressing them in the context of pediatric oncology.

  8. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level.This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  9. Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

  10. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  11. 9 CFR 95.26 - Railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent available chlorine) in the proportion of one pound to three gallons of water; or any one of the... and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers, yards, and premises; cleaning and disinfection... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO...

  12. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  13. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  14. Vital signs: labour shortage holds drilling short of record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-11-06

    At the beginning of the year 2000 the petroleum industry expected to drill 16,000 new wells during the the year. The Petroleum Services Association of Canada is now forecasting a final year-2000 total of less than 15,500 wells. The shortfall reflects continuing difficulties with labour shortages in the field, most especially in experienced drilling personnel. For 2001, the Petroleum Services Association of Canada is forecasting 16,699 completions Canada-wide. Nearly half of Alberta's total of 11,861 are expected to be in the gas-prone southeastern and east-central regions of the province. British Columbia is expected to be up to 899 completions, about 12 per cent over 2000. Although shortage of qualified labour was the principal reason for the reduced number of completions in 2000, unfavourable weather conditions during much of the summer drilling season, plus heated merger and acquisition activity throughout the industry also played a part. Rig utilization was 63 per cent , five per cent below expectations. On the brighter side, even these lower-than-expected figures are up dramatically from 1999 when just 272 rigs in a fleet of 591 were at work, for a dismal rate of only 46 per cent. Oil completions are double of what they were in 1999 (3,304 wells against 1,538) while gas wells are up 26 per cent (at 5,263 completion compared to 4,157 in 1999). Drilling success rate in 2000 was close to 85 per cent, up from 82.4 per cent last year. Non-frontier success rate was highest in Saskatchewan, with close to 93 per cent of wells drilled finding either oil or gas. The rate of success was 83 per cent in Alberta, 78 per cent in Manitoba, and 51 per cent in British Columbia. Average depth of all wells was 1,102 metres, marginally up from 1,084 metres in 1999. Largest well depth increases were experienced in British Columbia (up to 1,583 metres from 1,276 metres) as producers chased progressively deeper natural gas horizons. 2 tabs.

  15. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  16. Towards a European definition for a drug shortage: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi eDe Weerdt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug shortages are currently on the rise. In-depth investigation of the problem is necessary, however, a variety of definitions for ‘drug shortages’ are formulated in legislations, by different organisations, authorities and other initiatives. For international comparison, the underlying definition for drug shortages is important to allow appropriate interpretation of national databases and the results of scientific studies. The objective is to identify the different elements which should be considered in a uniform definition for drug shortages in the European Union and to detect the different conditions for reporting drug shortages.Methods: Definitions of drug shortages were searched in the scientific databases as well as in the grey literature. Similar topics were identified and organisations were contacted to formulate the reasoning underlying the definitions.Results: Over 20 different definitions for drug shortages were identified. A distinction is made between general definitions of drug shortages and definitions used for the reporting of drug shortages. Differences and similarities are observed in the elements within the definitions, e.g. when does a supply problem become a drug shortage, permanent and/or temporally shortages, the typology and time frame of a drug shortage. The moment a supply problem is considered as a shortage, can be defined at four levels: (i demand side, (ii supply side, (iii delivery of a drug and (iv availability of a drug. Permanent discontinuations of drugs are not always covered in definitions for drug shortages. Some definitions only consider those drugs used for the treatment of serious diseases or drugs for which no alternative is available. Different time frames were observed, varying between one day and 20 days.Conclusion: Obtaining a uniform definition for drug shortages is important as well as identifying which conditions are preferable to report drug shortages in order to facilitate

  17. Medicine shortages in Australia: causes, impact and management strategies in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee Xi; Moles, Rebekah J; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-10-01

    Background Medicine shortages are an ongoing global problem. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) dedicated a website for monitoring of medicine shortages in Australia in May 2014, as part of the Medicine Shortage Information Initiative. This study aimed to explore the views of pharmacists regarding medicine shortages in the community setting and the impact of the TGA website in Australia. Setting Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. Method Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists. Data collected were analysed thematically utilising the framework analysis method. Main outcome measure Qualitative analysis conducted using the framework approach. Results Findings clearly indicated that medicine shortages were experienced on a regular basis, but most participants were unaware of the TGA website. Medicine shortages reportedly impacted both pharmacists and consumers; and various workarounds were undertaken to manage the issue. The "price disclosure policy" was found to be a prominent contributing factor in emerging shortages. Suggestions were made for ways to improve the growing occurrence of shortages. Conclusion Overall, the study found that there was a lack of familiarity with the TGA website, despite experiencing regular shortages of medicines in practice. Also highlighted, was the importance of pharmacists prioritising patient care over business decisions. To reduce prescribing of out-of-stock medicines notifying doctors about shortages was also considered important, to allow for early action to be taken at higher levels of the supply chain. Findings of this study may help direct future policy-making around the world, as medicine shortages is a problem shared by healthcare providers in most countries around the world. PMID:27383246

  18. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... runs through other factors, in which case a positive relationship may be expected. We apply data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist index approach to a panel of seven European railway systems to explore this relationship. Our empirical results suggest that increasing reliability does not harm...

  19. An economic order quantity model with shortage and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, Elis Ratna; Nurjaman, Wildan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of inflation has become a persistent characteristic and more significant problem of many developing economies especially in the third world countries. While making effort to achieve optimal quantity of product to be produced or purchased using the simplest and on the shelf classical EOQ model, the non-inclusion of conflicting economic realities as shortage and inflation has rendered its result quite uneconomical and hence the purpose for this study. Mathematical expression was developed for each of the cost components the sum of which become the total inventory model over the period (0,L) ((TIC(0,L)). L is planning horizon and TIC(0,L) is total inventory cost over a period of (0,L). Significant savings with increase in quantity was achieved based on deference in the varying price regime. With the assumptions considered and subject to the availability of reliable inventory cost element, the developed model is found to produce a feasible, and economic inventory stock-level with the numerical example of a material supply of a manufacturing company.

  20. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  1. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  2. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Si, M S

    2010-01-01

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4% to 72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As far as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of ...

  3. Resolving photon-shortage mystery in femtosecond magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M S; Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.ed [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    For nearly a decade, it has been a mystery why the small average number of photons absorbed per atom from an ultrashort laser pulse is able to induce a strong magnetization within a few hundred femtoseconds. Here we resolve this mystery by directly computing the number of photons per atom layer by layer as the light wave propagates inside the sample. We find that for all the 24 experiments considered here, each atom has more than one photon. The so-called photon shortage does not exist. By plotting the relative demagnetization change versus the number of photons absorbed per atom, we show that, depending on the experimental condition, 0.1 photon can induce about 4%-72% spin moment change. Our perturbation theory reveals that the demagnetization depends linearly on the amplitude of the laser field. In addition, we find that the transition frequency of a sample may also play a role in magnetization processes. As long as the intensity is not zero, the intensity of the laser field only affects the matching range of the transition frequencies, but not whether the demagnetization can happen or not.

  4. A Microeconomic Model of the Personnel Shortage in Public Rehabilitation Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jared C.; Millington, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a well-documented, growing shortage of rehabilitation counseling professionals in the public sector. Using microeconomics principles, a theoretical model is offered to account for the personnel shortage and propose potential solutions to recruit and retain rehabilitation counselors in the public sector. Suggestions for rehabilitation…

  5. 42 CFR 5.3 - Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for designation of health professional(s) shortage areas. 5.3 Section 5.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS DESIGNATION OF HEALTH PROFESSIONAL(S) SHORTAGE AREAS § 5.3 Procedures for designation of health professional(s)...

  6. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  7. 18 CFR 294.101 - Shortages of electric energy and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its firm power wholesale customers. (b) Accommodation of shortages. (1) Each public utility now... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortages of electric energy and capacity. 294.101 Section 294.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...

  8. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  9. Railroad Lines, Railroad Right 0f Way, Published in 1992, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, LaCrosse County Zoning Planning & Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1992. It is described...

  10. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Mariner混合动力车是一款豪华紧凑型SUV,它采用混合动力发动机,无级变速和全驱动驾驶,续航里程达640公里。如果您是一位不喜欢走寻常路的人,那么这款车型先进的导航系统以及出色的稳定性控制定会给带来惊喜。

  11. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车 10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  12. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  13. Emotional Intelligence and job performance: Evidence from railroad industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahmanabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in railroad industry. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring emotional intelligence adopted from Salovey and Mayer (1989 [Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3, 185-211.] and the other one for measuring job performance. The study selects 300 full time employees who work for railroad industry in city of Tehran, Iran, distributes two questionnaires among the employees and managed to collect all filled ones. Using Spearman correlation, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance (r = 0.796, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there were positive and meaningful relationships between four components of emotional intelligence, namely consciousness (r = 0.642, Sig. = 0.000, self-regulation (r = 0.41, Sig. = 0.000, self-awareness ( r = 0.552, Sig. = 0.000 and social skills (r = 0.524, Sig. = 0.000.

  14. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  15. 77 FR 51107 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pocahontas County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pocahontas County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  16. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  17. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  18. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.210 Classification of projects...) Pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 130(b), and 49 CFR 1.48: (1) Projects for grade crossing improvements are deemed to...) shall be based on the costs for preliminary engineering, right-of-way and construction within the...

  19. 77 FR 65446 - Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Consolidated Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc. (TCKR), a noncarrier and a wholly...

  20. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash... milepost 58.75 near Grandview, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service... to the Central Washington Railroad Company (CWRR). See Central Wash. R.R.-- Lease and...

  1. 77 FR 27857 - Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Kingman Airport Authority, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Kingman Airport Authority, Inc. Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC (KTRR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to operate over approximately 3 miles of track \\1\\ within the Kingman...

  2. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed...

  3. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  4. 75 FR 3523 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 22, 2009, BNSF Railway... Railroad Company (UP) over BNSF lines extending between BNSF milepost 10.2 at Tukwila, WA, and...

  5. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  6. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  7. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Central Illinois Railroad Company (CIRY) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY)...

  8. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  9. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  10. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  11. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  12. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  13. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  14. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.6 Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. The conductor...

  15. 75 FR 73161 - Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In East Carroll Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--In East Carroll Parish, LA Delta Southern Railroad, Inc. (DSR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  16. 78 FR 20714 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Dunn County, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Dunn County, WI. Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152...

  17. Flight to Freedom: One Family and the Story of the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, James Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Offers historical information on the underground railroad, a secret organization that attempted to move slaves from bondage to freedom. Focuses on William Still, one of the most effective organizers of the underground railroad, and the story of his family. Addresses the reunion between Still and his brother Peter. (CMK)

  18. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail... or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). LVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that it will...

  19. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). JVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  20. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...\\ 76 FR 62894 (Oct. 11, 2011). \\3\\ See ``Findings and Recommendations of the SOFA Working Group... procedures. Support from railroad management and positive peer pressure from fellow railroad...

  1. 75 FR 25313 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Wichita, Tillman and Jackson Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Wichita, Tillman and Jackson Railway Company, Inc., and Hollis & Eastern Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Trackage Agreement) dated January 22, 1992, Wichita, Tillman & Jackson...

  2. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment. PMID:25368982

  3. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  4. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  5. 26 CFR 31.6302(c)-2A - Use of Government depositaries in connection with the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the railroad unemployment repayment tax. 31.6302(c)-2A Section 31.6302(c)-2A Internal Revenue...) § 31.6302(c)-2A Use of Government depositaries in connection with the railroad unemployment repayment...,000,000, such employer shall (except as provided below) deposit his undeposited railroad...

  6. 76 FR 13272 - Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC (CLC) and Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC (Woods... corporate family. CLC seeks to lease and operate all of Woods' lines of railroad consisting of...

  7. 78 FR 73585 - The Three Rivers Railway Company-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Mahoning State Line Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Three Rivers Railway Company--Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Mahoning State Line Railroad Company The Three Rivers Railway Company (TRRC) and Mahoning State Line Railroad...)(3) for a corporate family transaction. According to applicants, TRRC is a Class III railroad and...

  8. 76 FR 37888 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Dawson and Richland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Dawson and Richland Counties, Mont. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ has filed a verified... Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings, Watco Companies, and Watco Transp....

  9. 78 FR 13932 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage Rights Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage... County, ND On February 11, 2013, Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ filed with the Surface... 59270. \\1\\ According to YVRR, its name was formerly Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco...

  10. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  11. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  12. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills.Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used.Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy.Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  13. Car driver casualty rates in Great Britain by type of car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2008-07-01

    Since 1989, the British STATS19 national road accident reporting system has included the Vehicle Registration Mark (VRM). This allows the basic vehicle record to be augmented with details such as the date of first registration and codes that specify the vehicle's make and model. In order to examine the influence of car type upon the driver casualty rate, this paper groups car models into six types, ranging from 'Minis and Superminis' to '4x4s and people carriers (pc)'. Exploratory analyses of data from accidents that occurred between 2001 and 2005 show that the driver casualty rate falls markedly with size of car. In car-car collisions, the rate also rises markedly with the size of the other car. The car's year of first registration also influences the casualty rate, and represents the influence of changes in the characteristics of new cars. Statistical models are fitted to identify the separate influences on a driver's risk of injury in a car-car collision of the type and registration year of the driver's car and the type and registration year of the other car in the collision. The analysis is extended to include collisions with other vehicles such as lorries and buses. PMID:18606288

  14. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  15. The influence of positionality in car-purchasing behaviour on the downsizing of new cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Anco; Geurs, Karst T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from stated choice experiments looking at the influence of positionality in peoples’ choices of passenger cars in the Netherlands. It provides evidence that cars are positional goods and that selected car attributes such as size, engine capacity and interior add to their

  16. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  17. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car...

  18. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building. PMID:21563604

  19. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building.

  20. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  1. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  3. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  4. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  5. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors. PMID:27454296

  6. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    2000-01-01

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel effi

  7. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  8. Study on Performances of Car-following Models Induced by Motions of a Leading Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the performances of a well-known car-following model with numerical simulations in describing the deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. A leading car with a pre-specified speed profile was used to test the above model. The results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing the process aforementioned. Modifications of the model to overcome these deficiencies were demonstrated and a modified car-following model was proposed accordingly. Furthermore, the delay time of car motion of the new model were studied.

  9. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  10. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti8c12+, while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  11. Allocating shortage amongst riparian and appropriative water right holders in California's drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, B.; Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Within California's water rights system, water users have different priorities to available water during drought. Higher priority users are less likely to face shortage due to the demands of other users, but may be limited by reduced availability of water. An integrated set of water right allocation models was developed to determine optimal allocation of shortage for riparian and appropriative water right holders, which also allows for including required flows for the environment and public health and safety, and operational reliability for senior water right-holders. Riparian water right holders have equal priority, with water shortage allocated as an equal proportion of normal diversions for all riparian users within each sub-basin. These proportions are determined by water availability, with downstream users likely to receive higher proportions due to downstream accumulations of streamflow. Appropriative users as a class have a lower priority than riparian users. Shortages allocated among appropriative water right holders are made strictly by water right seniority.

  12. Management of nurse shortage and its impact on pathogen dissemination in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ferrer

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Agent-based models with explicit staff management such as the model presented may prove useful to design staff management policies that mitigate the risk of healthcare-associated infections under episodes of increased nurse shortage.

  13. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, JIANPING

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation. PMID:26835010

  14. Supplement to report on water shortage [Klamath Marsh National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of photographs meant to supplement an earlier report on water shortage in the Klamath Marsh. The photographs show aerial views of the...

  15. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmann, Charles W; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Sokolov, Alexei V; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nanooptics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ...

  16. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  17. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  18. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  19. Impact of Antibiotic Shortage on H. Pylori Treatment: A Step-Wise Approach for Pharmacist Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lloyd, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current drug shortage crisis involving multiple oral antibiotics has significantly impacted preferred therapeutic options for treatment of H.pylori infection. Pharmacists may help alleviate the impact of this shortage through a proposed step-wise approach which includes proper inventory management, verification of indication, evaluation of regimen, therapeutic monitoring, and communication with patients and providers regarding alternative therapy or symptomatic relief.

  20. Successful Lung Transplant From Donor After Cardiac Death: A Potential Solution to Shortage of Thoracic Organs

    OpenAIRE

    McKellar, Stephen H.; Durham, Lucian A.; Scott, John P.; Cassivi, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Lung transplant is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease but is limited because of the shortage of acceptable donor organs. Organ donation after cardiac death is one possible solution to the organ shortage because it could expand the pool of potential donors beyond brain-dead and living donors. We report the preliminary experience of Mayo Clinic with donation after cardiac death, lung procurement, and transplant.

  1. 77 FR 1495 - Criteria for Determining Priorities Among Correctional Facility Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ...In accordance with the requirements of section 333A(b)(1) of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, as amended by the Health Care Safety Net Amendments of 2002, 42 U.S.C. 254f-1(b)(1), the Secretary of HHS shall establish the criteria which she will use to make determinations under section 333A(a)(1)(A) of the health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) with the greatest shortages. This notice......

  2. Reconsidering the Underground Railroad: Slavery and Racialization in the Making of the Canadian State

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Bakan

    2008-01-01

    The Underground Railroad is commonly understood as a defining moment in the ideology of the Canadian state regarding the legacy of racism and anti-racism. This paper attempts to recast the narrative of the Underground Railroad through the lens of an anti-imperialist, anti-racist political economy, departing from the view of Canada’s anti-racist rescue of fugitive slaves from racist America. The Underground Railroad was in fact the product primarily of the struggle for self-emancipation of Ame...

  3. Study Finds Hybrid Cars Greener Than Hydrogen Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励蓓蓓

    2003-01-01

    选注者言:最近,我也加入了“驾车一族”,我的小别克让我饱尝“飞驰”之乐。因此,我也更关心汽车的前景。本文向我们透露了许多研发新型汽车的最新消息。美国布什政府对研发氢燃料电池驱动的汽车的费用投入达12亿美元。但是,此消息刚刚宣布,MIT的研究就提出氢燃料电池驱动的汽车的不足:…uses sub-stantial energy and emits greenhouse gases.一种更环保更科学的汽车(hybrid cars/复合车)在日本的丰田和本田公司已经被投入生产。

  4. The benefits of improved car secondary safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2003-07-01

    The term 'secondary safety' refers to the protection that a vehicle provides its occupants when involved in an accident. This paper studies information from the British database of road accident reports between 1980 and 1998, to estimate the reduction in the number of occupant casualties over these years which may be attributed to improvements to secondary safety in cars. The paper shows that the proportion of driver casualties who are killed or seriously injured (KSI) is lower for modern cars than for older cars. The reduction of this proportion is used to assess the improvement in secondary safety. Statistical models are developed to represent the proportion with 'year of first registration' as one of the independent variables, although only an incomplete assessment of the benefits of improved secondary safety can be made with the available data. The assessment compares the number of casualties that would have been expected if secondary safety had remained at the level found in cars first registered in 1980 with the actual casualty numbers. It is estimated that improved secondary safety reduced the number of drivers KSI by at least 19.7% in 1998, in comparison with what might have occurred if all cars had had that lower level of secondary safety. This figure relates to all cars on the road in 1998, and rises to 33%, when confined to the most modern cars (those which were first registered in 1998).

  5. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  6. Railroad Lines, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2011. Data by this publisher are...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  8. Railroad Lines, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Eau Claire County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. Data by this publisher...

  9. Railroad Lines, Published in 1992, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1992. Data by this publisher are...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1413 - When will we certify payment to the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program With the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1413 When will we certify payment...

  11. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS IMAGINE image of Allegheny Portage Railroad NHS. Two separate photomosaics (final_alpo_a.img and final_alpo_b.img) were produced...

  12. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ] ACTION: Notice and request for...

  13. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are...

  14. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Sauk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. Data by this...

  15. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  16. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  17. Railroad Lines, Published in unknown, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Stokes County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. Data by this...

  18. Railroad Lines, Published in 2005, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Garrett County Planning & Land Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. Data by this publisher...

  19. 76 FR 50327 - Arkansas Shortline Railroads, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-North Louisiana & Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Railroad--Abandonment Exemption--in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark., AB 384 (Sub-No. 3X) (STB served Mar... Village, in Desha and Chicot Counties, Ark., subject to environmental and standard employee...

  20. THE EXPERIMENT OF THE COMPLEX INSPECTION OF THE RAILROAD BRIDGE PIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Usachenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure and results of a visual inspection and vibrosonic diagnostics of the railroad bridge pier are described. The spatial model of the pier with an arrangement of large cracks is presented.

  1. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative in the tags, power required for transmission of position information to the reader is harvested by the tags from the power wirelessly transferred from the reader. Basic mechanism in wireless power transfer is magnetic induction and power transfer efficiency according to the relative location of the reader to a tag is discussed with simulation results. Since power transfer efficiency is significantly affected by the ferromagnetic material (steel) at the bottom of the railroad vehicle and the track, magnetic beam shaping b...

  2. Railroad Lines, Published in 1995, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Greenwood County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1995. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Railroad Lines, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. Data by this publisher are...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  5. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  6. The impact of the railroad on American society: a communication perspective of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusitz, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the railroad system as a combination of humans and machines that form a symbiosis, and explains how the railroad exerted a huge effect on American life when it made irrelevant the organic – following nature – time system that existed in cities and countries where clocks were set according to weather conditions. The author makes the point that the railroad is an organ of society, that it will evolve to serve the functions we demand, that it has molded and altered – but never replaced – contact between humans, and that it will continue to enhance and facilitate it. This manuscript analyzes the social, cross-cultural, psychological, and financial impact of the railroad on American society in the past two hundred years. The measure of progress in the United States is tantamount to the mass of things that had to be sacrificed to it.

  7. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm−1–2970 cm−1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  8. Piecewise linear car-following modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, Nadir

    2011-01-01

    We present a traffic model which extends the linear car-following model as well as the min-plus traffic model (a model based on the min-plus algebra). A discrete-time car-dynamics describing the traffic on a 1-lane road without passing is interpreted as a dynamic programming equation of a stochastic optimal control problem of a Markov chain. This variational formulation permits to characterize the stability of the car-dynamics and to calculte the stationary regimes when they exist. The model is based on a piecewise linear approximation of the fundamental traffic diagram.

  9. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  10. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  11. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  12. The Stylistic Analysis of car ads languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟苹

    2014-01-01

    Automotive advertising language is mix of phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric, syntax, and discourse language etc., and owning a strong promotional effect which can functioned as a bridge between language expression and promotion system for es-sential products and consumers. As a kind of the commercial advertising, car advertising with its own unique language features not only for product considerably, but also enriches the advertising language. In order to analysis the car ads, this article draws at-tention from the aspects of the phonetics, vocabulary, rhetoric and syntax features, and aims to get a further and better analysis or understanding of the car ads Languages.

  13. Computer-Based Decision Support for Railroad Transportation Systems: an Investment Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the development of the economical and social life increased the complexity of transportation systems. In this context, the role of Decision Support Systems (DSS became more and more important. The paper presents the characteristics, necessity, and usage of DSS in transportation and describes a practical application in the railroad field. To compute the optimal transportation capacity and flow on a certain railroad, specialized decision-support software which is available on the market was used.

  14. Mesotheliomas following exposure to asbestos used in railroads: 130 Italian cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Carnuccio, R; Valenti, D; Lodi, P; Amaducci, E

    1995-01-01

    The available knowledge on the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the groups at risk due to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads were briefly reviewed. The available data on the pathological effects of such exposure, and particularly on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, were also summarized. One hundred and thirty cases of mesothelioma (122 pleural, 1 pericardial, 6 peritoneal and 1 pleuro-peritoneal), related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads, observed in various Italian regions, were reported. Fifty-three of these cases (among which 49 reported in the Emilia Romagna Region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Seventy-seven cases of mesothelioma occurred among occupationally exposed FS workers, in particular machinists; 45 cases occurred among rolling-stock machinists and workers engaged in the repair and demolition of the rails of workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock, not belonging to the FS; and 5 cases were found in family members (1 daughter, 3 wives and 1 sister) of railroad workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in railroads, and indicates its gravity. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the promotion of systematic epidemiological investigations, the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, and the automatic compensation for tumours following the exposure to the asbestos used in railroads.

  15. Political-Legal Institutions and the Railroad Financing Mix, 1885-1929

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Schiffman

    2001-01-01

    During the 19th Century, U.S. railroads relied primarily on debt issues to finance their growth. This policy contributed to major financial crises, beginning in 1857, 1873 and 1893. Nevertheless, railroads failed to reduce their leverage over 1900-1929, and suffered severe consequences during the Great Depression. In order to explain this puzzle, I focus on several key political-legal developments that originated around 1885. These are: (a) Changes in the bankruptcy process; (b) the emergence...

  16. DIAGNOSTICS OF A MODERN CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Y. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a technical diagnostics of a car as a complex of goals and tasks connected with trouble-shooting of mechanisms and systems in order to eliminate them. We have considered the stages of computer diagnostics of different automobile systems such as diagnosing the engine, the brake system, steering and suspension. We have analyzed their components, the ways of troubleshooting and elimination recommendations. The article presents the main troubles transferred from the electronic control unit. The article also presents the stages of diagnosing the engine including external examination, listening to abnormal noises, checking the operating fluids and the engine management system, diagnosing the basic engine systems and checking the cylinders being filled. The article contains the list of main troubles and their reasons. One can also see diagnosing the brake system, its defects and remedies. The article presents diagnostics and repair of the suspender and graphics describing the check of the dismantled shock strut at the stand and tests of the shock strut without being dismantled. We have analyzed computer diagnostics and the problems it solves

  17. Railroad electrification in America's future: an assessment of prospects and impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.; Yabroff, I.W.; Dickson, E.M.; Zink, R.A.; Gray, M.E.; Moon, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Such considerations as the level of traffic, the relative financial health of individual railroads, the capacity of the associated supply and engineering/construction industries, and the logical connecting points at classifying yards, as well as the national interest value of creating a continuous system, continental in scope, were used to construct a scenario for railroad electrification that closely approximates how an electrification program might be implemented. For the economic reasons cited, much of the US railroad system would remain conventionally powered. This scenario provides for an electrified network involving 14 mainlines operated by 10 companies that could transport much of the nation's rail-borne freight. Five years of planning and engineering work would be required for each link before construction could begin. With 1000 miles or less of electrified route per year, 14 years would be needed to construct the 9000-mile network of our scenario. (The scenario constructed runs from 1980 to 1998.) The analysis was aided with the construction of the SRI Railroad Industry Model. Basically a model of industry operations and finances, the model produces income statements and balance sheets at yearly intervals. Railroad energy costs, railroad freight levels, maintenance costs, purchases and leases of rooling stock, electrification facility investments, future inflation, rate setting practices, annual depreciation, taxes, and profits were calculated.

  18. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Davila, Marco L

    2016-01-01

    T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application. PMID:27231717

  19. Ultrafast CARS with Improved Spectral Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochbrunner S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular vibrations are investigated by time and frequency resolved CARS applying ultrafast excitation and picosecond probing for high spectral resolution. Enhanced spectral structure and beating phenomena are demonstrated for coalescing Raman bands.

  20. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following model is a kind of microscopic simulation model for vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of vehides in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control.Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors and feflects the real traffic sit-uation in a better way. This paper gives a systematic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introducing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disavantages of GHR model, OV model,CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptotic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  1. Binarity of the LBV HR Car

    CERN Document Server

    Rivinius, Th; de Wit, W J; Mehner, A; Martayan, Ch; Guieu, S; Bouquin, J -B Le

    2014-01-01

    VLTI/AMBER and VLTI/PIONIER observations of the LBV HR Car show an interferometric signature that could not possibly be explained by an extended wind, more or less symmetrically distributed around a single object. Instead, observations both in the Br$\\gamma$ line and the H-band continuum are best explained by two point sources (or alternatively one point source and one slightly extended source) at about 2 mas separation and a contrast ratio of about 1:5. These observations establish that HR Car is a binary, but further interpretation will only be possible with future observations to constrain the orbit. Under the assumption that the current separation is close to the maximum one, the orbital period can be estimated to be of the order of 5 years, similar as in the $\\eta$ Car system. This would make HR Car the second such LBV binary.

  2. Humanitarian reform: a view from CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Humanitarian Coordinator in the Central AfricanRepublic (CAR, it is my job to ensure that the UN andhumanitarian organisations work together to meet needsas efficiently as we can.

  3. Car-following models of vehicular traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁彦琳; 吴铁军

    2002-01-01

    The Car-following models is a kind of microscopic simulation model f or vehicular traffic, which describe the one-by-one following behaviors of v ehicles in the same traffic lane. As a common traffic phenomenon, following behavior is of great importance in the micro-study of intelligent traffic control. Compared with other traffic-flow models, car-following model embodies the human factors a nd reflects the real traffic situation in a better way. This paper gives a syste matic review of the development and actuality of car-following models by introd u cing and analyzing in detail the advantages and disadvantages of GHR model, OV m odel, CA model and fuzzy-logic model. In addition, local stability and asymptot ic stability of car-following models are discussed in this paper.

  4. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  5. Red, Yellow, and Green: A psychological perspective on car purchase and implications for subsequent car use

    OpenAIRE

    Nayum, Alim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT - Red, Yellow, and Green: A psychological perspective on car purchase and implications for subsequent car use - Research on consumer behaviors having high impact on natural resources and the environment is considered important for developing measures for a sustainable future. This thesis focuses on one of such consumer behaviors – purchases and use of new passenger cars. The primary aim of the thesis is to examine the effects of socio-psychological factors in ...

  6. Post-Car World: Why Laugh at Change? Definitions of the Car and Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Rigal, Alexandre; Rudler, Jade

    2014-01-01

    Far from the sirens of Modernism and the models founded on a standard vision of humanity, the scope of the Post-Car World research project is pluralistic. This project, funded by the Fonds National (Synergia), aims to create urban planning scenarios, focusing on the role of the car. Originally based on our investigation of people’s relationship with the car, the plurality of practices and their possible (and desired) alternatives will likewise enhance these scenarios. This plurality of views ...

  7. Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country. PMID:24688306

  8. Medical supplies shortages and burnout among greek health care workers during economic crisis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Kourousis, Christos; Kamilaraki, Maria; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Greece has been seriously affected by the economic crisis. In 2011 there were reports of 40% reduction to public hospital budgets. Occasional shortages of medical supplies have been reported in mass media. We attempted to pivotally investigate the frequency of medical supplies shortages in two Greek hospital units of the National Health System and to also assess their possible impact on burnout risk of health care workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n=303) of health care workers in two Greek hospitals who were present at the workplace during a casually selected working day (morning shift work). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used as the measure of burnout. An additional questionnaire was used about demographics, and working conditions (duration of employment, cumulative night shifts, type of hospital including medical supplies shortages and their impact on quality of healthcare. The prevalence of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment was 44.5%, 43.2% and 51.5%, respectively. Medical supply shortages were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This finding provides preliminary evidence that austerity has affected health care in Greece. Moreover, the medical supply shortages in Greek hospitals may reflect the unfolding humanitarian crisis of the country.

  9. Issue 5: High Interest in Hybrid Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Paul M.; Haselhoff, Kim

    2005-01-01

    This SCS Fact Sheet provides information on the level of interest in purchasing hybrid automobiles—vehicles that combine gasoline and electric motors to increase fuel mileage and reduce air pollution. A significant minority stated that they are willing to pay more for such a car, with the proportion varying by income and ethnicity. Not surprisingly, those drivers who commute to work and those with environmental concerns are more likely to pay the additional cost for a hybrid car.

  10. Travel Time Estimation Using Floating Car Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sevlian, Raffi

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the use of machine learning techniques to accurately predict travel times in city streets and highways using floating car data (location information of user vehicles on a road network). The aim of this report is twofold, first we present a general architecture of solving this problem, then present and evaluate few techniques on real floating car data gathered over a month on a 5 Km highway in New Delhi.

  11. Without wheels: alternatives to the private car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Alternatives to private cars are examined in a response to the need for new transportation strategies. It is believed that there is no single panacea for the problem, and both existing technologies (trains, buses, taxis, bicycles, and cars) and new technologies (driverless vehicles, electronic guidance systems, and moving sidewalks) are considered. New concepts in town planning and life style that could reduce travel needs are examined, and various current urban experiments are detailed. (PMA)

  12. Tunable narrow band filter for CARS microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter we present an approach to CARS microscopy, which compromises between fast acquisition rates and the amount of chemical information obtained. By using a light modulator as tunable filter in concert with narrowband pump and broadband Stokes pulses, we demonstrate an experimental arrangement, which allows for fast electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances without the need for any optical adjustment

  13. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Monday 30 October until the evening of Tuesday 31 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  14. Notice of car park and road closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The arrival of one of the end caps of the CMS Tracker in Building 186 will result in the temporary closure of the following car parks: Building186: south entrance Building 613 Building 28 Building181: south entrance Building 600 Building 31 Route Oppenheimer The car parks concerned will be closed from Sunday 22 October until the evening of Monday 23 October. Thank you for your cooperation. PH-CMT Group Tel. 164569

  15. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  16. Acoustic leak-detection system for railroad transportation security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, P. C.; Spadaro, J.; Harrison, M. A.; Barzilov, A.; Harper, D.; Hopper, L.; Houchins, E.; Lemoff, B.; Martin, R.; McGrath, C.; Moore, R.; Novikov, I.; Paschal, J.; Rogers, S.

    2007-04-01

    Pressurized rail tank cars transport large volumes of volatile liquids and gases throughout the country, much of which is hazardous and/or flammable. These gases, once released in the atmosphere, can wreak havoc with the environment and local populations. We developed a system which can non-intrusively and non-invasively detect and locate pinhole-sized leaks in pressurized rail tank cars using acoustic sensors. The sound waves from a leak are produced by turbulence from the gas leaking to the atmosphere. For example, a 500 μm hole in an air tank pressurized to 689 kPa produces a broad audio frequency spectrum with a peak near 40 kHz. This signal is detectable at 10 meters with a sound pressure level of 25 dB. We are able to locate a leak source using triangulation techniques. The prototype of the system consists of a network of acoustic sensors and is located approximately 10 meters from the center of the rail-line. The prototype has two types of acoustic sensors, each with different narrow frequency response band: 40 kHz and 80 kHz. The prototype is connected to the Internet using WiFi (802.11g) transceiver and can be remotely operated from anywhere in the world. The paper discusses the construction, operation and performance of the system.

  17. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  18. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability were simulated. It shows that differential brake can amend turning shortage of automobile brake and improve its braking stability, but the effect of automobile mass on its braking stability is great. So the distribution mode of braking force and the effect of mass change should be considered while differential brake is applied.

  19. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel produ

  20. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  1. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  2. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  3. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  4. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  5. REMOTE CONTROLLED CAR HEATER USING A RASPBERRY PI

    OpenAIRE

    Loukola, Petrik

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the goal was to design and implement a technology with which the user can control the car heaters and monitor the car temperature via Wi-Fi network and web browser. The idea for this project came from the Finnish cold climate. Winters in Finland can be very cold and if the car owners want to drive their cars, it is recommended to preheat the car engine and interior before driving the car. This will make driving safer, the car will make less pollution, better for the engines li...

  6. THE ROLE OF RAILROAD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN WEST--Railroad, Migration and Urban Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the role of geographical expansion of railroads, one of the most important Fransportation vehicles, in the history of American west development, analyses its implication on the unprecedentedmigration movement and the resulted urbanization in the west and concludes with the fact that the appropriate interference by the governmnet, especially in the early period, is vital to regional development practice, because of market failure at the initial stage, infrastructure construction conducted by the government always plays as the first impetus to any regional development process. Only through this bridge, can some physical factors, such as population, be attracted to feed the backward area. As a result, cities grow fast and the region develops well. The experience can be shared by all countries. Besides reviewing the history of west development in America, focusing on the relationship between railroadsexpansion and urban growth, which was realized through population migration. A comparison on the particular pattern of regional development between U. S and China is made as well at the end. It is noted that despite of the common first impetus, government subsidies and the common final result, urbanization, the path for the America is bottom-up, whereas that for China is topdown, that is to say, development should originate from big cities, then to towns, and finally radiate into rural areas.

  7. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied....... Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...... for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational...

  8. Energies: shortage coming to climate's aid?; Energies: une penurie au secours du climat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, Adolphe [Montpellier Univ. (France)

    2011-09-08

    Since the industrial revolution, energy has been the driving force of the world economic growth. While our energy consumption is increasing day after day, this book tells us that shortage will be reached sooner than announced by some economists, politicians and oil companies. According to many petroleum geologists and independent experts, the oil production peaks would be already reached and the one for coal will be reached between 2030 and 2050. Shortage would also strike several mineral resources as well (like copper). The book tries to foresee what would be the shortage consequences for our societies. From the energy side, the challenge to take up is to save energy and to develop renewable energy sources. From the environment side, the exhaustion of fossil fuels represents a chance to slow down the ambient temperature rise to less than 2 deg. C by 2100. (J.S.)

  9. Proposing an Algorithm for R&Q Inventory Control Model with Stochastic Demand Influenced by Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz fattahi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the continuous - review inventory control system has been studied. A new constraint of demand dependent on the average percent of product shortage has been added to the problem. It means that the average demand has a direct relationship with shortage in a period. This constraint, which is related to the costs of credit loss of the organization due to product shortage, has been considered in the inventory model. In this paper, the mathematical model of this problem has been presented and then, two heuristic approaches based on the genetic and simulated annealing algorithms are developed. Computational results indicate that the simulated annealing algorithm can provide better results compare to the genetic algorithm.

  10. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  11. Assessment of serious water shortage in the Icelandic water resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, H.; Eliasson, J.; Madsen, H.

    Water resources are economically important and environmentally extremely vulnerable. The electrical power system in Iceland is hydropower based and due to the country’s isolation, power import is not an option as elsewhere in Europe. In the hydropower system, a water shortage is met by flow augmentation from reservoirs. The management of these reservoirs are a human intervention in a natural flow and therefore necessarily limited by environmental regulations. During a heavy drought, the available water storage in the reservoir may not be sufficient to cater for the demand and consequently there will be a shortage of electrical power. This is politically acceptable as long as it only touches heavy industries but not power deliveries to the common market. Empty or near empty reservoirs cause power shortage that will be felt by homeowners and businesses, until spring thaw sets in and inflow to the reservoirs begins. If such a power shortage event occurs, it will cause heavy social problems and a political decision making will follow. It is commonly agreed, that management methods leading to such a disastrous event as a general power shortage in the whole country, are not acceptable. It is therefore very important to have mathematical tools to estimate the risk of water shortage in the system when searching for the best management method. In view of the fact that the subject is to estimate the risk of events that have to be very rare, i.e. with large recurrence time, stochastic simulation is used to produce synthetically run-off records with adequate length, in order to estimate very rare droughts. The method chosen is to make the run-off series stationary in the mean and the variance and simulating the resulting stationary process. When this method is chosen, future trends in the run-off from climate change and glacier reduction can easily be incorporated in the model. The probabilities of extreme droughts are calculated and their frequencies are compared to

  12. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  13. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter for a DOT-113C120W tank car apply to a DOT-113D120W tank car. (49 U.S.C. 1803, 1804, 1808; 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section... cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not...

  14. Deterministic inventory model for items with Time varying demand, weibull distribution deterioration and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kun-Shan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an EOQ inventory model is depleted not only by time varying demand but also by Weibull distribution deterioration, in which the inventory is permitted to start with shortages and end without shortages. A theory is developed to obtain the optimal solution of the problem; it is then illustrated with the aid of several numerical examples. Moreover, we also assume that the holding cost is a continuous, non-negative and non-decreasing function of time in order to extend the EOQ model. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal solution to changes in the values of different system parameters is also studied.

  15. Are word-of-mouth communications contributing to a shortage of nephrology nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William A

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurse shortages have historically been viewed as a subset of the overall nursing supply in the United States. Not-here-to-fore considered as a contributing factor are the effects of word-of-mouth and Internet-based word-of-mouth communications from nurses who have had disappointing work experiences in hemodialysis clinics. This article discusses the potential effects of word-of-mouse communications and posits that negative word-of-mouse communications may discourage new and experienced nurses from considering the specialty of nephrology nursing, thus contributing to a nephrology nursing shortage.

  16. The Effectiveness of South Africa’s Immigration Policy for Addressing Skills Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is presently experiencing a serious shortage of skilledworkers. This situation is negatively influencing the economicprospects and global participation of the country. The primary purposeof the study was to determine the effectiveness of sa’s immigrationpolicy to support skills immigration. The outcome of this studyindicated that South Africa’s immigration policy is restrictive and hasundoubtedly influenced the shortage of skills in the country. This studyhas confirmed the findings of similar studies undertaken by the Centrefor Development and Enterprise that South Africa’s skills immigrationpolicy is very restrictive and is thus not helpful in addressing the skillsshortages of the country

  17. Consequences of a global enzyme shortage of agalsidase beta in adult Dutch Fabry patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollak Carla EM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzyme replacement therapy is currently the only approved therapy for Fabry disease. From June 2009 on, viral contamination of Genzyme's production facility resulted in a worldwide shortage of agalsidase beta leading to involuntary dose reductions (approved dose 1 mg/kg/eow, reduced dose 0.5 mg/kg/m, or switch to agalsidase alpha (administered dose 0.2 mg/kg/eow. An assessment report from the European Medicines Agency (EMA raised serious concerns about an increase in adverse events at lower dosages of agalsidase beta. We determined the influence of the shortage on clinical event incidence and the most sensitive biochemical marker (lysoGb3 in Dutch Fabry patients. Methods The incidence of clinical events per person per year was calculated from start of agalsidase beta treatment until the shortage, and was compared to the incidence of clinical events during the shortage period. In addition, plasma lysoGb3, eGFR, quality of life (SF-36 and brief pain inventory (BPI questionnaires were analysed. Results All thirty-five Dutch Fabry patients using agalsidase beta (17 males were included. Mean clinical event incidence was unchanged: 0.15 events per person per year before versus 0.15 during the shortage (p = 0.68. In total 28 clinical events occurred in 14 patients during 4.6 treatment years, compared to 7 events in 6 patients during the 1.3 year shortage period. eGFR and BPI scores were not significantly altered. Two SF-36 subscales were significantly but minimally reduced in females. In males, lysoGb3 increased with a median of 8.1 nM (range 2.5 - 29.2 after 1 year of shortage (p = 0.001. Increases in lysoGb3 were found in both patients switching to agalsidase alpha and on a reduced agalsidase beta dose. Antibody status, treatment duration or clinical event incidence showed no clear correlation to lysoGb3 increases. Conclusions No increase in clinical event incidence was found in the adult Dutch Fabry cohort during the agalsidase

  18. Multi-criteria power and energy shortage allocation in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eke, Petr Ya.; Popov, Vladimir A.; Junges, Marcio F.D.; Moraes, Marcos A. de [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Prakhovnik, Arthur V.; Razumovsky, Oleg V. [National Technichal Univ. (KPI), Kiev (Ukraine).Research Inst. of Automation and Energetics

    1997-12-31

    The problems of power and energy shortage (natural or associated with the efficiency of load management) allocation are formulated as multi criteria optimization problems to consider and to minimize diverse negative consequences of limiting consumers. Their solution is based on the Bellman-Zadeh approach to decision making in a fuzzy environment. The advantages and capacities opened by its application are discussed. The results realized as an adaptive interactive decision making system which can be used in allocating diverse types of resources or their shortages. (author) 19 refs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: ekel at super.ufsm.br

  19. Approaches to tenofovir and abacavir drug shortages in South Africa: A guide for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Schowalter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortages of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI abacavir and tenofovir have been reported recently at health facilities across South Africa. The Society issued the following clinical advice to healthcare providers experiencing shortages on 29 March 2012. These recommendations are intended only as a guide to clinical therapy, based on expert consensus and best available evidence. Treatment decisions for patients should be made by their responsible clinicians, with due consideration for individual circumstances. S Afr J HIV Med 2012;13(2:56-57.

  20. Addressing Canada's Commercialization Crisis and Shortage of Venture Capital: Will the Federal Government’s Solution Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Hurwitz

    2013-01-01

    Lack of funding is a major challenge to innovation in Canada’s emerging technology industry. This article will focus on this supply-side challenge within the complex venture capital ecosystem and discuss: i) the current shortage of venture capital available to commercialize Canada’s R&D; ii) the causes and consequences of that venture capital shortage; iii) how the federal government will address this shortage through its innovative 2013 Venture Capital Action Plan, which commits $400 million...

  1. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  2. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  3. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  4. China's large-scale power shortages of 2004 and 2011 after the electricity market reforms of 2002: Explanations and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the electricity market reforms of 2002, two large-scale power shortages, one occurring in 2004 and one in 2011, exerted a tremendous impact on the economic development of China and also gave rise to a fierce discussion regarding electricity system reforms. In this paper, the background and the influence scale of the two power shortages are described. Second, reasons for these two large-scale power shortages are analyzed from the perspectives of power generation, power consumption and coordination of power sources and grid network construction investments. Characteristics of these two large-scale power shortages are then summarized by comparatively analyzing the performance and the formation of the reasons behind these two large-scale power shortages. Finally, some effective measures that take into account the current status of electricity market reforms in China are suggested. This paper concludes that to eliminate power shortages in China, both the supply and the demand should be considered, and these considerations should be accompanied by supervisory policies and incentive mechanisms. - Highlights: • Reasons of these two large-scale power shortages are analyzed. • Characteristics of these two large-scale power shortages are summarized. • Some effective measures to eliminate power shortage are suggested

  5. Power harvesting for railroad track safety enhancement using vertical track displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl A.; Platt, Stephen R.; Hansen, Sean E.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    A significant portion of railroad infrastructure exists in areas that are relatively remote. Railroad crossings in these areas are typically only marked with reflective signage and do not have warning light systems or crossbars due to the cost of electrical infrastructure. Distributed sensor networks used for railroad track health monitoring applications would be useful in these areas, but the same limitation regarding electrical infrastructure exists. This motivates the search for a long-term, low-maintenance power supply solution for remote railroad deployment. This paper describes the development of a mechanical device for harvesting mechanical power from passing railcar traffic that can be used to supply electrical power to warning light systems at crossings and to remote networks of sensors via rechargeable batteries. The device is mounted to and spans two rail ties such that it directly harnesses the vertical displacement of the rail and attached ties and translates the linear motion into rotational motion. The rotational motion is amplified and mechanically rectified to rotate a PMDC generator that charges a system of batteries. A prototype was built and tested in a laboratory setting for verifying functionality of the design. Results indicate power production capabilities on the order of 10 W per device in its current form. This is sufficient for illuminating high-efficiency LED lights at a railroad crossing or for powering track-health sensor networks.

  6. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  7. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  8. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nano-optics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ultrafast energy and electron transfer dynamics in real space with nanometre resolution. (paper)

  9. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  10. Emigration and labour shortages: an opportunity for trade unions in new member states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Kaminska; M. Kahancová

    2011-01-01

    Emigration from the post-socialist states which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 has reduced unemployment rates and created shortages of some skills. This should provide opportunities for trade unions to improve their situation, by facilitating union organizing and strengthening their bargaining posit

  11. An Analysis of Medicare's Incentive Payment Program for Physicians in Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Ricketts III, Thomas C.; Beaver, Shelli K.

    2004-01-01

    Medicare's Incentive Payment (MIP) program provides a 10% bonus payment to providers who treat Medicare patients in rural and urban areas where there is a shortage of generalist physicians. Purpose: To examine the experience of Alaska, Idaho, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington with the MIP program. We determined the program's…

  12. An EOQ Model for Time Dependent Weibull Deterioration with Linear Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of control and maintenance of production inventories of deteriorating items with and without shortages  has grown in its importance recently. The effect of deterioration is very important in many inventory systems. Deterioration is defined as decay or damage such that the item cannot be used for its original purpose. Methods: In this article order level inventory models have been developed for deteriorating items with linear demand and Weibull deterioration.  In developing the model we have assumed that the production rate and the demand rate are time dependent. The unit production cost is inversely proportional to demand. Inventory-production system has two parameters Weibull deterioration.  Results and conclusions:  Two models have been developed considering without shortage cases and with shortage case where the shortages are completely backlogged. The objective of the model is to develop an optimal policy that minimizes the total average cost. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out to show the effect of changes in the parameter on the optimum total average cost.  

  13. Shanxi Huaze Aluminium & Power Co.,Ltd.Intends to Cut Production Because of Power Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Located in Shanxi Province,Huaze Aluminium & Power Co.,Ltd.is facing the challenge of power shortage in an era of rising cost in coal and power."We began to cut production as early as in late June,"an insider from the com- pany said on later July.

  14. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... Benner, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  15. Applying the International Medical Graduate Program Model to Alleviate the Supply Shortage of Accounting Doctoral Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie

    2012-01-01

    Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…

  16. Dental School Faculty Shortages Increase: An Update on Future Dental School Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haden, N. Karl; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Weaver, Richard G.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    Gathered information about the shortage of dental school faculty through a survey of dental school deans. Respondents identified retirement and entry into private practice as the leading reasons for leaving faculty positions, and indicated that offering a salary competitive with private practice was the most critical factor in recruiting future…

  17. Heroin shortage in Coastal Kenya: A rapid assessment and qualitative analysis of heroin users’ experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Sasha; Miles, Gillian; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Muthui, Mercy; Needle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While relatively rare events, abrupt disruptions in heroin availability have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality risk among those who are heroin dependent. A heroin shortage occurred in Coast Province, Kenya from December 2010 to March 2011. This qualitative analysis describes the shortage events and consequences from the perspective of heroin users, along with implications for health and other public sectors. Methods As part of a rapid assessment, 66 key informant interviews and 15 focus groups among heroin users in Coast Province, Kenya were conducted. A qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken in Atlas.ti. to identify salient themes related to the shortage. Results Overall, participant accounts were rooted in a theme of desperation and uncertainty, with emphasis on six sub-themes: (1) withdrawal and strategies for alleviating withdrawal, including use of medical intervention and other detoxification attempts; (2) challenges of dealing with unpredictable drug availability, cost, and purity; (3) changes in drug use patterns, and actions taken to procure heroin and other drugs; (4) modifications in drug user relationship dynamics and networks, including introduction of risky group-level injection practices; (5) family and community response; and (6) new challenges with the heroin market resurgence. Conclusions The heroin shortage led to a series of consequences for drug users, including increased risk of morbidity, mortality and disenfranchisement at social and structural levels. Availability of evidence-based services for drug users and emergency preparedness plans could have mitigated this impact. PMID:26470646

  18. An Evaluation of Skilled Labour shortage in selected construction firms in Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseghale, B.O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated skilled labour requirement in the construction industry of Edo State. The study aimed at assessing the current state of the construction industry’s skilled workforce, causes and prevalence of skilled labour shortage and the effect of skilled labour shortage in construction project delivery. The method employed for collection of data includes distribution of structured questionnaires. The data collected were analyzed using Frequency tables, percentages, mean response analysis, relative importance index and cross tabulation. The research identified the most severe factors responsible for labour shortage to include; no clear carrier path, high mobility of construction workers and low wages. The study found that construction firms are not sending their skilled workforce for training, and that the skilled workers are unwilling to recommend the profession to their children. The research revealed that the construction firms were paying extra money for labour, and Schedule delay in their construction programmes as a result of skilled labour shortage. The study found aging workforce in the construction trades sampled, and that the entrance of young people into the construction trades was very low

  19. The Nursing Shortage Impact on Job Outcome (The Case in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Shammika Senani Mudihanselage Hellerawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The nursing shortage is a common problem throughout the world. Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nursing shortage effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction and their work stress. A study was conducted to investigate the correlation between these at the Polonnaruwa District General Hospital in Sri Lanka with a random sample of nurses working in the hospital and using a self-administered questionnaire. This study uses an explanatory research design. The statistical analysis confirmed a positive relationship between nurse shortage and workload. It also shows a significant positive relationship between workload and the quality of patient care. Furthermore, a negative relationship was observed between workload and the quality of patient care. In addition, this study calculates the mean effect of emotional intelligence of these factors, and a significant correlation is found between emotional intelligence and workload as well as work stress. There is a firm evidence that in Sri Lanka, nursing shortage influences the workload of the employee, finally affecting the quality of patient care. In addition, the study recognized the capability of nurses to manage their emotions as well as emotions of others, which has increased their tolerance to control psychological stress in performing their duty. This study confirms that nurse’s emotional intelligence act as a partial oderating variable for job outcomes of nurses.

  20. 42 CFR 414.67 - Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments for Health Professional Shortage Areas. 414.67 Section 414.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners...