WorldWideScience

Sample records for car pooling

  1. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  2. CHANGE TRENDS IN THE USE OF PASSENGER CARS ON URBAN TRIPS: CAR-POOLING IN GDYNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna HEBEL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide accessibility of European citizens to cars results in problems caused by their excessive use as a means of urban transport. Given this situation, it is necessary to find new solutions for the more efficient use of passenger cars in cities. This problem affects almost all European cities, including those in Poland. The paper analyses the level of motorization and modal split in Polish cities with county status, while selected European cities serve as a background to determine the scale of the problem. In the search of solutions in relation to Poland, an analysis of different documents outlining the directions of urban mobility was conducted. One of these documents concerned the promotion of car-pooling, the history of which dates back to the Second World War and the 1950s. Initially introduced in the USA, its increasing development in European cities has been witnessed in recent years. Research on the evaluation of real car-pooling in Polish cities was conducted in Gdynia by the authors of this study. The results of marketing research presented in the article have determined the degree to which participants in urban mobility are inclined to take part in car-pooling schemes in Polish cities.

  3. Closure of the Car Pool in building 130 until 6 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Car Pool, Building 130, will be closed from Friday, 9 October until Friday, 6 November for renovation.   All activities, such as SIXT rental cars and maintenance of the CERN car fleet, will be temporarily transferred to the Car Pool at Building 124. Mobile phone: 161113 (+41 75 411 1113). Thank you in advance for your understanding. GS-IS Group

  4. A Mobile, Dynamic, and Privacy-Preserving Matching System for Car and Taxi Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rates of vehicle ownership have risen globally, exacerbating problems including air pollution, lack of parking, and traffic congestion. While many solutions to these problems have been proposed, carpooling remains one of the most effective approaches. Recently, several carpooling platforms have been built on cloud computing systems, with originators posting online list of departure/arrival points and schedules from which participants can search for rides that match their needs. However, it can be difficult to make matches quickly and the systems are subject to privacy concerns in that they may disclose private information such as names, registration data, and departure/arrival schedules. This paper proposes a dynamic matching method for car/taxi pools for use in mobile devices via ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. The proposed method also preserves user privacy including names and departure/arrival schedules. Moreover, the system does not require the user to register any personal data, so such data cannot be leaked. The system was implemented on the Android mobile platform, allowing users to immediately and securely access the system via their smart phones.

  5. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  6. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  7. Cash pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lozovaya, Karina

    2009-01-01

    This work makes a mention of cash management. At next chapter describes two most known theoretical models of cash management -- Baumol Model and Miller-Orr Model. Principal part of work is about cash pooling, types of cash pooling, cash pooling at Czech Republic and influence of cash pooling over accounting and taxes.

  8. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  9. Car sick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission

  10. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  11. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  12. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  13. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  14. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  15. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  16. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  17. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  18. CERN car sharing scheme now open to everyone

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The CERN car sharing service is a self-service scheme providing a pool of 30 CERN cars available for pick-up free of charge from 13 points around the Meyrin and Prévessin sites. From Thursday, 1st December 2011, the service will be open to all members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel, in the framework of their professional activities at CERN only. The conditions of use can be consulted at: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/Mobility/Car_sharing To be able to use the service, members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel must: have a contractual link to CERN, possess an e-mail address registered in the CERN databases; hold an RFID access card, which can be obtained from the CERN Car Pool on presentation of a valid CERN access card. Car Pool, Building 130-R-012, open Monday-Friday, 8.00 a.m.-12.00 noon/1.00 p.m.-5.00 p.m. https://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/en/content/car-pool GS-IS

  19. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  20. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  1. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  2. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  3. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  4. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  5. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  6. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  7. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  8. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  9. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  10. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  11. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  12. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  13. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  14. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  15. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  16. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  17. Experience with solar and electric cars. Erfahrungen mit Solar- und Elektroautomobilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissmueller, G [Stadtwerke Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience with electric vehicles is promising. It is desirable that innovative designers should produce a reasonably-priced safe small car orientated towards the demand, optimized for electric drive and which can be produced by mass-production, using new materials and fashionable design, so that the electric car will become the first vehicle in each family or in a car-sharing pool. Long distance traffic will be reserved for other vehicles until the distant future. (orig.)

  18. NREL Model Car Competitions | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    work together building cars with guidance from a parent, teacher, or coach to compete in race and Solar and Lithium Ion model car races in Colorado. Building solar- and battery-powered cars requires listPDF for Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium-Ion Battery model cars. Junior Solar Sprint Solar Made Pitsco

  19. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  20. Solar swimming pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar collectors to heat the water in a previously unheated outdoor swimming pool. The solar system is used in conjunction with a pool blanket, to conserve heat when the pool is not in use. Energy losses through evaporation can be reduced by as much as 70% by a pool blanket. A total of 130 m{sup 2} of highly durable black synthetic collectors were installed on a support structure at a 30{degree} angle from the horizontal, oriented to the south. Circulation of pool water though the collectors, which is controlled by a differential thermostat, was done with the existing pool pump. Before installation the pool temperature averaged 16{degree}C; after installation it ranged from 20{degree} to 26{degree}C. It was hard to distinguish how much pool heating was due to the solar system and how much heat was retained by the pool blanket. However, the pool season was extended by five weeks and attendance tripled. 2 figs.

  1. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  2. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  3. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  4. Household choices of car-use reduction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerling, T. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Gaerling, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Road and Traffic Planning; Johannsson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Road and Traffic Planning

    2000-07-01

    The present research investigated what car-use reduction measures are perceived by households to be feasible if their goal is to reduce car driving. In Study 1 a number of such measures were included in a survey questionnaire requesting a total of 770 randomly selected respondents to rate how likely they would be to choose the different measures. The ratings suggested that for shopping trips choosing closer stores and trip chaining are more likely to be chosen than any other measure. A similar pattern was observed for leisure trips. Switching to public transport was the most. likely choice for work trips. Women were more likely than men to choose public transport and trip chaining, whereas men were more likely than women to choose motorbike/moped. Choices of car pooling, biking. and motorbike/moped decreased with age. In Study 2 it was determined in interviews what choices households would make in forming car-use reduction intentions, then 1-week travel diaries were collected to assess whether their car-use intentions were implemented. A random sample of 113 multiperson households participated. They expected to he able to change approximately 10% of their car trips. However they made many more trips than they had expected. Constraints, perceived costs, and preferences for different car-use reduction measures may all play a role for the choices. Further research needs to disentangle these roles since their implications for policies are different. (Author)

  5. Swimming-pool piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trioulaire, M.

    1959-01-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10 13 . This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [fr

  6. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  7. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  8. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  9. Race Car Rally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  10. Lego Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Familiar toys can be used to scaffold young children's learning about basic physics as well as guide scientific inquiry. Teachers looking for resources to engage young children and develop science inquiry skills need look no further than the toy box. In this two-part activity, children first construct a Lego® car and use it to explore the effects…

  11. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  12. A new look for the CERN car sharing service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-IS

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 2 June 2015 onwards, the CERN car sharing service will have a new service provider.   Two information days will be organised with the new provider – Mobility – in the Main Building (501) on 28 and 29 May. This will be an opportunity for us to present to you this new service and to distribute cards to current users. Please make sure you bring along the “Mobility number” that you received by e-mail. After this date, you can still pick up your card at the Car Pool (Building 130). For technical reasons, car sharing will be out of service on 1 June and we apologise for any inconvenience this might cause. New users should contact the Car Pool from 2 June onwards. Please be reminded that this service is available to CERN and contractor personnel in the pursuit of their professional activities, exclusively at CERN. The conditions of use can be consulted at the Car Sharing website. *A 35-strong fleet of ready-to-use CER...

  13. Spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Naoshi.

    1996-01-01

    Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.)

  14. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  15. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  16. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating

  17. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  18. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  19. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  20. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  1. CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...

  2. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  3. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  4. Swimming pool special; Zwembadspecial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This issue includes a few articles and messages on the use of heat pump systems in swimming pools. [Dutch] Dit nummer bevat onder meer een paar artikelen over het gebruik van warmtepompsystemen in zwembaden.

  5. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  6. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  7. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  8. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  9. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  10. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  11. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  12. Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the

  13. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  14. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  15. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  16. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  17. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  18. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  19. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  20. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  2. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...

  3. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  4. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  5. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebert, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  6. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  8. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  9. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  10. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  11. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  12. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  13. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  14. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  15. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  16. Adaptation Model for Corporate Car Sharing in the Car Rental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was on developing an adaption model for implementing a corporate car sharing service within the existing infrastructure of a car rental company. The investigated case companies were a leading Finnish car rental franchisee and an international car sharing subsidiary, largely owned by the car rental franchisor, which offers corporate car sharing solutions in major European countries. Adapting this new service in Finland will help the car rental franchisee to assert its ...

  17. Pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a pool nuclear reactor fitted with a perfected system to raise the buckets into a vertical position at the bottom of a channel. This reactor has an inclined channel to guide a bucket containing a fuel assembly to introduce it into the reactor jacket or extract it therefrom and a damper at the bottom of the channel to stop the drop of the bucket. An upright vertically movable rod has a horizontally articulated arm with a hook. This can pivot to touch a radial lug on the bucket and pivot the bucket around its base in a vertical position, when the rod moves up [fr

  18. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  19. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  20. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  1. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  2. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  3. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  4. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 179 - Procedures for Simulated Pool and Torch-Fire Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the plate. (4) The bare plate holder must be constructed in such a manner that the only heat transfer...) The bare plate holder must be constructed in such a manner that the only heat transfer to the back... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Pt. 179, App. B Appendix B to Part 179—Procedures for Simulated Pool and Torch-Fire...

  6. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  7. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  8. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  9. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  10. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  11. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  12. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  13. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  14. Model of large pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: jfay@mit.edu

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  15. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  16. Design of hydrotherapy exercise pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, R F; Abidin, M R; Becker, D G; Pavlovich, L J; Dang, M T

    1988-01-01

    Several hydrotherapy pools have been designed specifically for a variety of aquatic exercise. Aqua-Ark positions the exerciser in the center of the pool for deep-water exercise. Aqua-Trex is a shallow underwater treadmill system for water walking or jogging. Swim-Ex generates an adjustable laminar flow that permits swimming without turning. Musculoskeletal conditioning can be accomplished in the above-ground Arjo shallow-water exercise pool. A hydrotherapy pool also can be custom designed for musculoskeletal conditioning in its shallow part and cardiovascular conditioning in a deeper portion of the pool. Regardless of the type of exercise, there is general agreement that the specific exercise conducted in water requires significantly more energy expenditure than when the same exercise is performed on land.

  17. Transit Car Performance Comparison, State-of-the-Art Car vs. PATCO Transit Car, NYCTA R-46, MBTA Silverbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...

  18. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  19. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  20. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  1. Active deceleration support in car following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A haptic gas pedal feedback system is developed that provides car-following information via haptic cues from the gas pedal. During normal car-following situations, the haptic feedback (HF) cues were sufficient to reduce control activity and improve car-following performance. However, in more

  2. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  3. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A; Hatakeyama, S; Sugiura, S; Shinoda, S; Daigo, Y; Fujihara, Y; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  4. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  5. SMART SECURITY SYSTEM FOR CARS

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay V. Balki*, Ankit A. Ramteke, Akshay Dhankar, Prof. Nilesh S. Panchbudhe

    2017-01-01

    This propose work is an attempt to model design an smart advance vehicle security system that uses biometric scanner and RFID card reader to give ignition pulse using two main module and to prevent theft. The system contains biometric scanner, RFID card reader, alcohol sensor, vibration sensor, GSM module, microcontroller (8051), relay switch, high voltage mesh..The safety of car is exceptionally essential. It provides pulse to ignition system by synchronizing driver’s data from license and t...

  6. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  7. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  8. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  10. Pooling and correlated neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosenbaum

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spike trains can strongly modulate neuronal activity and affect the ability of neurons to encode information. Neurons integrate inputs from thousands of afferents. Similarly, a number of experimental techniques are designed to record pooled cell activity. We review and generalize a number of previous results that show how correlations between cells in a population can be amplified and distorted in signals that reflect their collective activity. The structure of the underlying neuronal response can significantly impact correlations between such pooled signals. Therefore care needs to be taken when interpreting pooled recordings, or modeling networks of cells that receive inputs from large presynaptic populations. We also show that the frequently observed runaway synchrony in feedforward chains is primarily due to the pooling of correlated inputs.

  11. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  12. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  13. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  14. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  15. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  16. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of...

  17. Cloning and characterization of an 11S legumin, Car i 4, a major allergen in pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-09-14

    Among tree nut allergens, pecan allergens remain to be identified and characterized. The objective was to demonstrate the IgE-binding ability of pecan 11S legumin and characterize its sequential IgE-binding epitopes. The 11S legumin gene was amplified from a pecan cDNA library and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The native 11S legumin in pecan extract was identified by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three serum pools prepared from different patients' sera. A three-dimensional model was generated using almond legumin as a template and compared with known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot blot, 16 (57%) bound to 11S legumin, designated Car i 4. MS/MS sequencing of native 11S legumin identified 33 kDa acidic and 20-22 kDa basic subunits. Both pecan and walnut seed protein extracts inhibited IgE binding to recombinant Car i 4, suggesting cross-reactivity with Jug r 4. Sequential epitope mapping results of Car i 4 revealed weak, moderate, and strong reactivity of serum pools against 10, 5, and 4 peptides, respectively. Seven peptides were recognized by all three serum pools, of which two were strongly reactive. The strongly reactive peptides were located in three discrete regions of the Car i 4 acidic subunit sequence (residues 118-132, 208-219, and 238-249). Homology modeling of Car i 4 revealed significant overlapping regions shared in common with other tree nut legumins.

  18. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  19. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  20. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  1. Driving CAR T-cells forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J.; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2017-01-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  2. Research of braking peculiarities of used cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mitunevičius

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes some analysis of a car braking process - the peculiarities of car wheel-to-road adhesion, the influence of distribution of braking forces on car stability between front and rear axles. The requirements of EU Directive 71/320/EEC to braking force coefficients of car front and rear axles are exposed. Structural designs of braking systems are analyzed with respect to their meeting the EU standards. Experimental measurements of braking force coefficients for some models of cars which are used in Lithuania, are presented with the analysis how these coefficients meet the EU standards. The analysis of test results, suggestions for the ratio of braking forces of car front and rear axles are presented.

  3. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  4. Benefits of magnesium wheels for consumer cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishfelds, Vilnis; Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis

    2018-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of magnesium wheels are considered based on a mechanical model of a car. Magnesium wheels are usually applied to racing cars as they provide slightly better strength/weight ratio than aluminum alloys. Do they provide notable benefits also for the everyday user when the car speeds do not exceed allowed speed limit? Distinct properties of magnesium rims are discussed. Apart from lighter weight of magnesium alloys, they are also good in dissipating the energy of vibrations. The role of energy dissipation in the rim of a wheel is estimated by a quarter car model. Improvements to safety by using the magnesium wheels are considered. Braking distance and responsiveness of the car is studied both with and without using an Anti Blocking System (ABS). Influence of rim weight on various handling parameters of the car is quantitatively tested.

  5. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  6. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  7. 76 FR 22444 - Privacy Act; System of Records: State-52, Parking Permit and Car Pool Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...; bureau; office telephone number and e-mail address; and type of parking permit and desired [[Page 22445... authentication and time out function. All Department of State employees and contractors with authorized access...

  8. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  9. Air quality inside passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Faber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs, may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ. Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human health, some of them may be toxic, and this is the reason for increasing concern of vehicle manufacturers and users recently. The level of contamination varies from one vehicle to another and may be influenced by atmospheric conditions, external pollution, user habits, quality of materials used and others. The main aim of this paper was to present current knowledge status on VIAQ, with indication of main air pollutants and their concentrations. Vehicle interior air quality is discussed on the basis of studies on new and used cars in different conditions and locations. Main sources of VOCs presence inside car cabin are discussed in this paper with additional information regarding materials emissions. Differences in sampling and analytical methodologies were not debated, however, since the results differs largely in the scope of both number and amount of VOCs, a need of testing methods harmonization is indicated. Presented data may be helpful for legislative requirements introduction.

  10. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  11. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  12. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall be...

  13. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  14. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  15. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  16. Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Gina; Wolfe, Kim; Dupree, Alan; Young, Sheila; Caver, Jessica; Quintanilla, Ruby; Thornton, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) takes student engagement to a higher level through reflective collaboration, inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and personal relevance. This article explains how six high school teachers developed an interconnected, interdisciplinary STEM-focused PBL called "Sculpting the Barnyard Gene Pool." The…

  17. Car allocation between household heads in car deficient households : A decision model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, Renni; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers car allocation choice behaviour in car-deficient households explicitly in the context of an activity-scheduling process, focusing on work activities. A decision tree induction method is applied to derive a decision tree for the car allocation decision in automobile deficient

  18. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  19. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used...

  20. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  1. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Guo, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti 8 c 12 + , while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  2. Vibration in car repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E

    1987-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.

  3. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  4. Gates Auto Door Car With Lights Modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Carolina; Luyung Dinani, Skom, MMSi

    2002-01-01

    In scientific writing wi ll be explained about automatic gates with modulated headlights, where to find the car lights were adjusted by the relative frequency darker because of this background that the author alleviate human task in performing daily activities by using an automatic gate with the car lights modulated.

  5. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  6. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  7. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  8. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  10. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  11. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  12. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  13. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. The Green City Car. A holistic approach for NVH abatement of city cars

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thilo; Mayer, Dirk; Elliott, Steve; Ferrali, Leonardo; Casella, Mauro; Saemann, Ernst-Ulrich; Kropp, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Finn Kryger; Meschke, Jens; Pisano, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the different passive and active concepts in a holistic approach, the FP7 project Green City Car demonstrates the feasibility of applying active systems to NVH-related problems light city cars from a system point-of view. During the project, a city car equipped with a small engine has been considered equipped with the latest technology in terms of safety aspects related to pedestrian’s impact and car-to-car compatibility, which are of major importance in an urban environment. The noi...

  15. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  16. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  17. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  18. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  19. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2017-10-23

    Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  20. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  1. Nord Pool wants to be the leader in CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellander, Dag

    2004-01-01

    In the beginning of 2005 Nord Pool introduces standard contracts for European emission rights for carbon dioxide. It is currently too early to speak of a global market for emission rights for greenhouse gases. The problem is not the attitude of the U.S.A., as is often said, but what road is taken by the so-called third world. The acceptance of the Kyoto Protocol by the Russians means that the agreement will come into force in 2005. It is much more important, however, what is going to happen after the first implementation period 2008 - 2012. In that process those countries that strive for one car per household must also be engaged. In particular the giant nations China and India must join the agreement if it is to be a notable climatic agreement of global scope

  2. First results from car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure radio channel measurements at 5.2GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Paier, Alexander; Kåredal, Johan; Czink, Nicolai; Hofstetter, Helmut; Dumard, Charlotte; Zemen, Thomas; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph; Molisch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure (henceforth called C2X) communications are constantly gaining importance for road-safety and other applications. In order to design efficient C2X systems, an understanding of realistic C2X propagation channels is required, but currently, only few measurements have been published. This paper presents a description of an extensive measurement campaign recently conducted in an urban scenario, a rural scenario, and on a highway. We focused on 4 ÿ 4 multiple-in...

  3. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  4. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  5. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  6. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  7. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  8. Emergency information systems for cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Vani Manasa, N.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Sundar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this work is to create a Health Care monitoring and Guidance system for persons who are travelling in outdoor environments like cars. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies are separately and combined today in many applications in our day to day life. The GSM module will send a message along with the GPS location to the end user through text, and a call is initiated to the user for further instructions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will give the location of the interested vehicle. This system helps the doctor or anyone to monitor the accident who is outdoor and has less help. This will help the hospital to monitor the accident as well as guide the injured through difficult situations. Using a buzzer, the persons nearby will come to know that the person is in danger or in poor health conditions. This project provides a good two-way communication with the injured and the hospital to assist them to give first aid before an ambulance arrives. So, this paper devices a novel technique to assist the people who just met with accident through GPS and GSM.

  9. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  10. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  11. Will Brazil's cars go on the wagon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homewood, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel for cars in Brazil, may shortly be reduced. Falling world oil prices have meant that ethanol, derived from sugar cane, following a fourteen year research program, has ceased to be a financially viable replacement for petrol. Although about a third of Brazil's cars are at present powered by ethanol, only substantial government subsidies could reinstate this fuel despite its reduced pollutant status. Government officials now predict that ethanol will become merely a petrol additive and production of ethanol cars will have stopped by the year 2000. (UK)

  12. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  13. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  14. Density and temperature measurement using CARS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, A.; Vollrath, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) a technique derived from nonlinear optics offers two major advantages compared with the spontaneous Raman method: improved scattering efficiency and spatial coherence of the scattered signal. The theory of the coherent mixing in resonant media serves as a quantitative background of the CARS technique. A review of several applications on plasma physics and gasdynamics is given, which permits to consider the CARS spectroscopy as a potential method for nonintrusive measurement of local concentration and temperature in gas flows and reactive media. (Auth.)

  15. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  16. Clinical blood pool MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Tim [Maastrich University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Goyen, Martin [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Rohrer, Mathias [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany). European Business Unit Diagnostic Imaging; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (eds.) [University Hospital Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2008-07-01

    Clinical Blood Pool MR Imaging - This excellent treatise on Vasovist {sup registered} created by a team of exceptional faculty who are pioneers in MR Angiography covers the basic techniques, safety, efficacy, image processing and pharmaco-economic details to successfully implement a new level of MRA image quality with this new contrast agent. Martin Prince, Cornell University, New York The editors and authors have made groundbreaking contributions towards establishing MR angiography in various investigative settings, rendering it more precise and applying it for diverse indications. The work presented here is founded upon the extensive experience of the editors, as well as the broad range of experience from other scientific working groups. Maximilian Reiser, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich Vasovist {sup registered} (Gadofosveset), worldwide the first blood pool agent, has only recently become available for clinical use, but has already gained wide acceptance as a tool to improve magnetic resonance angiography. This book presents the first in-depth introduction to the basic physicochemical aspects of the agent, the application of Vasovist {sup registered} in clinical MRA, as well as potential clinical applications beyond MRA and patient management-related aspects. The first part of the book explains basic and technical properties of the agent and the differences of Vasovist {sup registered} compared to currently available extracellular agents. The second part contains detailed chapters on safety and efficacy. In the third part the focus is on MR angiographic applications, and in the fourth part of the book potential clinical fields beyond MRA are explored. All clinical chapters feature ready-to-use clinical protocols and a series of take home messages that concisely summarize the current role of blood pool imaging for each specific indication. (orig.)

  17. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abate-Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application.

  18. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  19. Design of two wheel self balancing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-hong; Ren, Bin

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a design scheme of the two-wheel self-balancing dolly, the integration of the gyroscope and accelerometer MPU6050 constitutes the car position detection device.System selects 32-bit MCU stmicroelectronics company as the control core, completed the processing of sensor signals, the realization of the filtering algorithm, motion control and human-computer interaction. Produced and debugging in the whole system is completed, the car can realize the independent balance under the condition of no intervention. The introduction of a suitable amount of interference, the car can adjust quickly to recover and steady state. Through remote control car bluetooth module complete forward, backward, turn left and other basic action..

  20. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  1. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent clinical success of CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in chronic and acute leukemia has led to increased interest in broadening this technology to other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Now, advances are being made using CAR T cell technology...... to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...... summarize the recently reported results of clinical trials conducted utilizing CAR T cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM)....

  2. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  3. Design consideration of solar powered cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment, it is important to develop new technologies that reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. Using solar energy is a good solution which could meet the world's energy needs. The aim of this study is to present the design process in the production of a solar powered car. Designing a solar powered car is a difficult task as there are strict requirements in term of efficiency: the car must have low drag resistance, be light-weight, and have low rolling resistance. In addition this paper presents the use of the solar powered Stirling engine technology rather than a photovoltaic conversion system for vehicle propulsion. This study presented a design process in the construction of a solar powered car and is expected to provide a new topic of research in the transportation field.

  4. SODA-IIoT4ConnectedCars: Spread updates between cars with limited Internet access

    OpenAIRE

    Boudguiga , Aymen; Quesnel , Flavien; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A blockchain infrastructure, combined with cryptographic signatures, can improve availability and accountability for the deployment of IoT updates.However, cars with limited or intermittent Internet access may have difficulties in downloading full updates fromthe blockchain. Therefore, we allow cars that successfully downloaded updates to share them with other cars by means of a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) mechanism.

  5. Uncertainty quantification and race car aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, J; Montomoli, F; D'Ammaro, A

    2014-01-01

    28.04.15 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral, embargo expired Car aerodynamics are subjected to a number of random variables which introduce uncertainty into the downforce performance. These can include, but are not limited to, pitch variations and ride height variations. Studying the effect of the random variations in these parameters is important to predict accurately the car performance during the race. Despite their importance the assessment of these variations is difficult and it...

  6. Driving Cars by Means of Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Achaerandio, Yago; Pérez, Diego; Sanjuan, Óscar; Isasi Viñuela, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of: 10th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, PPSN 2008. Dortmund, Germany, September 13-17, 2008 The techniques and the technologies supporting Automatic Vehicle Guidance are an important issue. Automobile manufacturers view automatic driving as a very interesting product with motivating key features which allow improvement of the safety of the car, reducing emission or fuel consumption or optimizing driver comfort during long journeys. Car raci...

  7. GLYCAN-DIRECTED CAR-T CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Migliorini, Denis; King, Tiffany R; Mandel, Ulla; June, Carl H; Posey, Avery D

    2018-01-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth, and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  9. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  10. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  11. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  12. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  13. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  14. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  15. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  16. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  17. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of tank cars. 173.31 Section 173.31... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a) General. (1) No person may offer a hazardous material for transportation in a tank car unless the tank car...

  18. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled to...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  20. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  1. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars. ...

  2. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  4. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  5. Influence in the car taxation system. Henkiloeautojen vermuutosten vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Kallberg, H; Pekki, M

    1986-06-01

    In Finland the car prices are exeptionally high due to car taxes included in the new car prices. The gasoline price, which is at international leve, includes also taxes. The aim of this study was to calculate the effects of reducing the car taxes and correspondingly rising fuel taxes so that the state income car taxation does not change. The study was performed in two stages: an interview and a simulation study. The interview was aimed at the general public (postal poll) and at experts in car trade (personal interview). The aim was to reveal the parameters in the economic models explaining the behaviour of the public in car purchasing and car use. The simulation study was performed to calculate quantitative changes in, e.g. car park, traffic volumes and energy consumption caused by supposed changes in the taxation. One of the main results was that unchanged taxation is leading to rapidly increasing traffic volumes and total taxes for car use.

  6. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  7. Cloning and characterization of 2S albumin, Car i 1, a major allergen in pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-04-27

    Although pecans are associated with IgE-mediated food allergies, the allergens responsible remain to be identified and characterized. The 2S albumin gene was amplified from the pecan cDNA library. Dot-blots were used to screen the recombinant protein with pecan allergic patients' serum. The affinity purified native protein was analyzed by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Cross-reactivity with walnut was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three different patients' serum pool. The 3-dimensional homology model was generated, and the locations of the pecan epitopes were compared with those of known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot-blot, 22 (79%) bound to 2S albumin, designated as Car i 1. Edman sequencing and the MS/MS sequencing of native 2S albumin confirmed the identity of recombinant (r) Car i 1. Both pecan and walnut protein extracts inhibited the IgE-binding to rCar i 1. Sequential epitope mapping indicated weak, moderate, and strong reactivity against 12, 7, and 5 peptides, respectively. Of the 11 peptides recognized by all serum pools, 5 peptides were strongly reactive and located in 3 discrete regions of the Car i 1 (amino acids 43-57, 67-78, and 106-120). Three-dimensional modeling revealed IgE-reactive epitopes to be solvent accessible and share significant homology with other tree nuts providing a possible basis for previously observed cross-reactivity.

  8. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G

    1981-07-30

    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  9. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  10. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  11. Arc-weld pool interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.

    1978-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in arc-weld pool interactions are extremely complex and no complete theory is presently available to describe much of the phenomena observed during welding. For the past several years, experimental and analytical studies have been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to increase basic understanding of the gas tungsten arc welding process. These studies have included experimental spectral analysis of the arc in order to determine arc temperature and analytical modeling of the arc and weld puddle. The investigations have been directed toward determining the cause and effects of variations in the energy distribution incident upon the weldment. In addition, the effect of weld puddle distortion on weld penetration was investigated, and experimental and analytical studies of weld process variables have been undertaken to determine the effects of the variables upon weld penetration and configuration. A review of the results and analysis of these studies are presented

  12. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  13. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  14. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  15. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or secondary Division 2.1 (flammable gas) hazard. For single unit tank cars, interior pipes of... lading exceeding 1.52 mm (0.060 inch) diameter must be equipped with excess flow valves. For single unit... inches) glass fiber placed over 5.08 cm (2 inches) of ceramic fiber. Tank cars must have excess flow...

  16. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  17. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  18. Consumer demand for cars in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R P

    1975-01-01

    Since the Second World War the American public has bought almost two hundred million cars, and the abrupt year to year variations in the number of new cars sold have had a substantial impact on the level of activity of the U.S. economy. This book examines the factors that determine the demand for cars and suggests an explanation for the large fluctuations in their sales. A wide variety of information, including data from market research, surveys of industry and consumer opinion, cross section studies and aggregate time series, is used to construct and estimate econometric models that will explain consumer decisions about the ownership, purchase and replacement of cars. This quantitative analysis is supplemented by information of a more qualitative nature on the significance for the car market of such factors as model changes, the oil crisis, and the prevailing social climate. One of the main conclusions of the book is that traditional neo-classical models of consumer behavior do not provide a satisfactory explanation of observed market behavior, and that account has to be taken of the role of variations in consumer confidence and expectations in determining demand. The study will be of interest to students and teachers of economics and business studies as well as to those concerned with the motor industry. (50 references) (from publisher's description)

  19. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  20. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  1. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  2. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Shimpei; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Ryo; Takano, Takao; Seko, Noriaki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Kuroki, Ryota; Saegusa, Jun

    2012-07-15

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  3. Structure for nuclear fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae; Nichiei, Shinji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable leak detection in nuclear fuel storage pools, as well as prevent external leakages while keeping the strength of the constructional structures. Constitution: Protection plates are provided around pool linear plates and a leak reception is provided to the bottom. Leakages are detected by leak detecting pipeways and the external leakages are prevented by collecting them in a detection area provided in the intermediate layer. Since ferro-reinforcements at the bottom wall of the pool are disconnected by the protection plate making it impossible to form the constructional body, body hunches are provided to the bottom wall of the pool for processing the ferro-reinforcements. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  5. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  6. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  7. Analysis of a model race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    We analyze the motion of a gravity powered model race car on a downhill track of variable slope. Using a simple algebraic function to approximate the height of the track as a function of the distance along the track, and taking account of the rotational energy of the wheels, rolling friction, and air resistance, we obtain analytic expressions for the velocity and time of the car as functions of the distance traveled along the track. Photogates are used to measure the time at selected points along the track, and the measured values are in excellent agreement with the values predicted from theory. The design and analysis of model race cars provides a good application of principles of mechanics and suggests interesting projects for classes in introductory and intermediate mechanics.

  8. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  9. BilBooking CarAdmin

    OpenAIRE

    Ensrud, Marius; Gjerde, Ketil; Solberg, Yngve

    2005-01-01

    ETC CarAdmin er en biladministreringsløsning utviklet for å effektivisere og lette kostnadene ved den interne biladministrasjonen i kommuner og bedrifter. Det var her to hovedoppdrag vi fikk av oppdragsgiver. Det ene var å bruke Microsoft Outlook sin kalender mot Microsoft Exchange, som har mulighet for ressursreservering, til å gi brukere av CarAdmin-løsningen mulighet til å reservere biler. Oppdrag to, var å bygge opp en webside som kunne gi en kalender visning til bruker og også gi m...

  10. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  11. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  12. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.

  13. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  14. Development of RaRaII solar car. Solar car RaRaII no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1991-05-31

    A solar car was developed to be able to travel, by utilizing solar energy, as a guiding car for the marathon race in the public road. That car is 210kg in weight, 1 in number of riding persons and 4.8m in smallest rotating radius. Its traveling performance is 44km h in highest speed, 10{degree} in hill-climbing ability and 0.6m s{sup 2} in acceleration. Those principal particulars satisfied the required condition of guiding car for the marathon race. That car was equipped with a polycrystalline silicon type solar cell, 6m{sup 2} in area to generate 870Wp power. A silver oxide-zinc battery, used as a secondary battery to secure traveling in case of rain, is of a performance to travel twice the marathon race road through. To satisfy the public road traveling in safety standard, that car was equipped with head lamps, wiper, direction winkers, rear-view mirrors, etc. As material of the body, aramid fiber and carbon fiber were adopted for securing the rigidity to cover the lightening in weight. That car, as used at an opportunity of intercollegiate marathon relay race, traveled a distance of about 30km which was its entire public road portion of course. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  16. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  17. The development of CAR design for tumor CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Jin, Guoliang; Chai, Dafei; Zhou, Xiaowan; Gu, Weiyu; Chong, Yanyun; Song, Jingyuan; Zheng, Junnian

    2018-03-02

    In recent years, the chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, CAR-T) immunotherapy has developed rapidly, which has been considered the most promising therapy. Efforts to enhance the efficacy of CAR-based anti-tumor therapy have been made, such as the improvement of structures of CAR-T cells, including the development of extracellular antigen recognition receptors, intracellular co-stimulatory molecules and the combination application of CARs and synthetic small molecules. In addition, effects on the function of the CAR-T cells that the space distance between the antigen binding domains and tumor targets and the length of the spacer domains have are also being investigated. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, it is necessary to make a summary of the development of CAR-T cells. In this review, we mainly focus on the present design strategies of CAR-T cells with the hope that they can provide insights to increase the anti-tumor efficacy and safety.

  18. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  19. Development, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Racing Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, motor car racing has developed rapidly in China. However, under the background of maximum vehicle production and car ownership in China, the racing car industry has a long way compared with that of the developed countries. The paper analyzes the current situation and summarizes the problems of Chinese racing car industry with supporting documentation and review of the literature. The future trend of the development of car industry in China is discussed. On the basis of the analysis and prediction, the strategies to respond to the future racing car industry in China are presented.

  20. Increase of child car seat temperature in cars parked in the outpatient parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Suzue, Junji; Kamada, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Maeno, Yasuki; Ito, Shinichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Noriko; Yamakawa, Rumi

    2011-12-01

    A guideline for the safe use of child car seats (CS) was published by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2008. There have been few studies of the increase of temperature of a CS in parked cars. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the temperature of the CS in cars parked in full sun. The temperature of CS was measured during summer (July and August) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The CS used in this study (n= 50) were for children (≤ 6 years old) who were taken by car to Sugimura Children's Medical Clinic. Temperatures were only measured on sunny days. Measurements were performed from 09.00 to 17.00 hours. Thermochron (Thermochron i-Button: G type, Maxim Integrated Products, CA, USA) was used to measure the temperatures. The maximum temperatures of CS were compared in time at the clinic, taking into consideration seat colors, and car colors. Of the 50 cars, three cars were excluded due to being in the shade while the temperature was measured. A total of 47 cars were used for this study. The temperature of the CS ranged from 38.0 to 65.5°C (47.8 ± 5.8°C). Eighteen CS (38.3%) reached a temperature of 50°C or above. The maximum temperature of the 13.00-15.00-hours group was significantly higher than that of the 09.00-11.00-hours group (P= 0.035). The CS temperatures in the black car group were significantly higher than those of the white car group (P= 0.013). CS may become very hot while a car is parked in sun, especially if the car and the CS are black, so the CS should be cooled before a young child is placed in it. Guardians of small children should be aware of this risk. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. 13 CFR 120.1708 - Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States. (c) SBA purchase of a Loan Interest. SBA will determine whether to purchase a Loan... reserves the right to purchase a Loan Interest from a Pool at any time. (d) Self-liquidating. A Pool... market conditions and program experience, and will publish any such change in the Federal Register. (h...

  2. Compact fuel storage rack for fuel pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parras, F.; Louvat, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    ETS LEMER and FRAMATOME propose a new compact storage rack. This rack permits a considerable increase of the storage capacity of cooling pools. A short description of the structure and the components is presented, to propose racks that are: . Inalterable, . Compact, . Insensitive to earthquakes. Installation in pools already in operation is simplified by their light structure and the bearing device [fr

  3. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  4. Shedding Light on Dark Liquidity Pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments on dark liquidity pools starting from the theoretical and empirical academic literature. The number of dark liquidity pools as well as their trading volume has grown substantially in the last couple of years. We highlight the incentives of providers as

  5. Big city consultants shut down our pool : a shocking community pool gets checked for stray voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P. [Power Line Systems Engineering Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This article discussed an investigation conducted at a community pool where swimmers complained of receiving electrical shocks both in the pool and on the pool's deck area. Electrical measurements taken at the pool revealed current flows from the pool water to various points around the deck area. Measured current flow in the pool area was 30 amps even when the main pool service breaker was opened to shut off power to the entire facility. Thirty amps of primary neutral current was then measured on the primary side aerial neutral in front of the pool. A 10 amp primary feeder from the pool joined up with the complex's primary neutral wire to increase the neutral current to 40 amps. The combined 40 amps current then returned to the secondary side of a nearby utility transformer substation. The study showed that the underground wet low-resistance grounded surface area of the pool was attracting the 30 amps of utility current from the surrounding ground area. The local utility disconnected the primary and secondary neutral interconnection at the pool's main 600-volt step-down transformer. The pool deck was removed in order to install additional copper bonding grounds. In order to avert serious injuries, many experts propose that all electric utilities should be required by law to reconfigure their power systems to prevent primary power neutral currents from entering private buildings. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  7. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, M.; Brunsting, S.

    2012-01-01

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars. [nl

  8. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  9. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  10. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  11. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  12. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  13. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  14. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  15. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  16. Anastomose carótido-basilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  17. Markov chain of distances between parked cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    We describe the distribution of distances between parked cars as a solution of certain Markov processes and show that its solution is obtained with the help of a distributional fixed point equation. Under certain conditions the process is solved explicitly. The resulting probability density is compared with the actual parking data measured in the city. (fast track communication)

  18. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  19. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  20. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door.

  1. Design and Construction of Pool Door for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Lee, Sangjin; Choi, Jinbok; Oh, Jinho; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    The pool door is a structure to isolate the reactor pool from the service pool for maintenance. The pool door is installed before the reactor pool is drained. The pool door consists of structural component and sealing component. The main structures of the pool door are stainless steel plates and side frames. The plates and frames are assembled by welded joints. Lug is welded at the top of the plate. The pool door is submerged in the pool water when it is used. Materials of the pool door should be resistive to corrosion and radiation. Stainless steel is used in structural components and air nozzle assemblies. Features of design and construction of the pool door for the research reactor are introduced. The pool door is designed to isolate the reactor pool for maintenance. Structural analysis is performed to evaluate the structural integrity during earthquake. Tests and inspections are also carried out during construction to identify the safety and function of the pool door

  2. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  3. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  4. Can a road-driven car outrace a free-falling car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Diego J.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by an advertising scenario in which a luxury sports sedan races against a similar car falling under the influence of gravity, a calculation using undergraduate physics and calculus is performed to theoretically predict the outcome.

  5. A longitudinal analysis of cars, transit, and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Access to cars and transit can influence individuals ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important : activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations...

  6. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  7. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  8. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  9. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs

  11. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    GANDZHA S.A.; KIESSH I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  12. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  13. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  14. Parents smoking in their cars with children present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Ossip, Deborah; Rigotti, Nancy; Hipple, Bethany; Dempsey, Janelle; Hall, Nicole; Friebely, Joan; Weiley, Victoria; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2012-12-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents. As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a "strictly enforced smoke-free car policy" if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months. Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.

  15. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bingshan Liu; Yongping Song; Delong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous...

  16. Transient Heat Transfer Model for Car Body Primer Curing

    OpenAIRE

    D. Zabala; N. Sánchez; J. Pinto

    2010-01-01

    A transient heat transfer mathematical model for the prediction of temperature distribution in the car body during primer baking has been developed by considering the thermal radiation and convection in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the car framework. The car cockpit is considered like a structure with six flat plates, four vertical plates representing the car doors and the rear and front panels. The other two flat plates are the...

  17. National car and customer loyalty: the Malaysian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md Isa, Mohd Azwardi

    2017-01-01

    The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has facilitated the entrance of foreign cars into Malaysia’s passenger car market and consequently imported cars are posing a serious threat to domestic automotive companies. This can be seen by decreasing sales figures and the deteriorating market share for the Proton and Perodua (companies partly-owned by government). Driven by this situation, this study examines customer satisfaction and loyalty for the consumers who have purchased these cars. ...

  18. Swimming pool hydraulics and their significance for public pools. Bedeutung der Beckenhydraulik in oeffentlichen Schwimmbaedern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gansloser, G

    1989-11-01

    The term of swimming pool hydraulics means the process of letting in and drawing off water to and from the pool while ensuring that no inadmissible water-borne contaminant concentrations will occur anywhere within the pool. Measurements were performed on a pool to study the significance of correct pool hydraulics. The author points out that a wrong water recirculation design will bring to nought the effects of an elaborate water treatment system; by contrast, poor pool water quality can be greatly improved by redesigning the pool water hydraulics approach. In principle, systems with with water inlet at one side and water outlet at the far side will fall short of hygienic requirements. (BWI).

  19. Studies of thermal stratification in water pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.K.; Chandraker, D.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Large water pools are used as a heat sink for various cooling systems used in industry. In context of advance nuclear reactors like AHWR, it is used as ultimate heat sink for passive systems for decay heat removal and containment cooling. This system incorporates heat exchangers submerged in the large water pool. However, heat transfer by natural convection in pool poses a problem of thermal stratification. Due to thermal stratification hot layers of water accumulate over the relatively cold one. The heat transfer performance of heat exchanger gets deteriorated as a hot fluid envelops it. In the nuclear reactors, the walls of the pool are made of concrete and it may subject to high temperature due to thermal stratification which is not desirable. In this paper, a concept of employing shrouds around the heat source is studied. These shrouds provide a bulk flow in the water pool, thereby facilitating mixing of hot and cold fluid, which eliminate stratification. The concept has been applied to the a scaled model of Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) of AHWR in which Isolation Condensers (IC) tubes are submerged for decay heat removal of AHWR using ICS and thermal stratification phenomenon was predicted with and without shrouds. To demonstrate the adequacy of the effectiveness of shroud arrangement and to validate the simulation methodology of RELAP5/Mod3.2, experiments has been conducted on a scaled model of the pool with and without shroud. (author)

  20. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  1. Distributed Technologies in a Data Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, K.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; He, Y.; Regner, K.; Smith, M.

    2004-12-01

    A Data Pool is an on-line repository providing interactive and programmatic access to data products through a variety of services. The University of Alabama in Huntsville has developed and deployed such a Data Pool in conjunction with the DISCOVER project, a collaboration with NASA and Remote Sensing Systems. DISCOVER provides long-term ocean and climate data from a variety of passive microwave satellite instruments, including such products as sea-surface temperature and wind, air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, cloud water and rain rate. The Data Pool provides multiple methods to access and visualize these products, including conventional HTTP and FTP access, as well as data services that provide for enhanced usability and interoperability, such as GridFTP, OPeNDAP, OpenGIS-compliant web mapping and coverage services, and custom subsetting and packaging services. This paper will focus on the distributed service technologies used in the Data Pool, which spans heterogeneous machines at multiple locations. For example, in order to provide seamless access to data at multiple sites, the Data Pool provides catalog services for all data products at the various data server locations. Under development is an automated metadata generation tool that crawls the online data repositories regularly to dynamically update the Data Pool catalog with information about newly generated data files. For efficient handling of data orders across distributed repositories, the Data Pool also implements distributed data processing services on the file servers where the data resides. Ontologies are planned to support automated service chaining for custom user requests. The UAH Data Pool is based on a configurable technology framework that integrates distributed data services with a web interface and a set of centralized database services for catalogs and order tracking. While this instantiation of the Data Pool was implemented to meet the needs of the DISCOVER project, the framework was

  2. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  3. The Antifouling of ACLW-CAR Based on Ultrasonic Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Liu, Shixuan; Qin, Qingliang

    2017-10-01

    Equipped with ACLW-CAR, the buoy provided effective technical platform for on-site rapid monitoring of the chlorophyll and turbidity. Performance index and usage in the ocean buoy of ACLW-CAR was introduced. Ultrasonic cleaning method in seawater was developed for preventing ACLW-CAR from biofouling. Marine chlorophyll and turbidity data can serve for oceanographic research and marine resource exploitation.

  4. Students to Race Solar-Powered Model Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    race model solar cars on Saturday, May 12. The cars, designed to tap into energy from the sun, are than 12 inches wide, 24 inches long and 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five fastest cars. Five design awards also will be given out for

  5. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at minimum...

  6. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative to...

  7. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to...

  8. 49 CFR 238.413 - End structures of trailer cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End structures of trailer cars. 238.413 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.413 End structures of trailer cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the end structure of a trailer car shall be designed to include the following...

  9. CAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPETE WITH THE PRIVATE CAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is often perceived to be a poor alternative for car use. This paper describes who may be open to use public transport more often, and how people might be persuaded to use it. A computerised questionnaire study was conducted among 1,803 Dutch respondents in May 2001. Results revealed that especially fervent car users disliked public transport. For them, the car outperformed public transport not only because of its instrumental function, but also because the car represents cultural and psychological values, e.g. the car is a symbol of freedom and independence, a status symbol and driving is pleasurable. So, for fervent car users, car use is connected with various important values in modern society. Infrequent car users judged less positively about the car and less negatively about public transport. Consequently, they may be open to use public transport more regularly. In contrast, many efforts are needed to stimulate fervent car users to travel by public transport, because in their view, public transport cannot compete with their private car. In this case, policies should be aimed at reducing the functional, psychological and cultural values of private cars, as well as increasing the performance of public transport and other (more environmentally sound modes of transport on these aspects.

  10. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  11. Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Gijs; Tensen, Tim; van Goeverden, Tom; van den Hoed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of two new developments: electrification and ‘free floating’ car sharing and their impact on public space. Contrary to station based shared cars, free floating cars do not have dedicated parking or charging stations. They therefore park at public parking spots and

  12. Modal analysis of pool door in water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Park, Chan Gook; Koo, In Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A pool door is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. The pool door consists of stainless steel plates supported by structural steel frames and sealing components. The pool door is equipped with double inflatable gaskets. The configuration of the pool door is shown in Figure 1. The FEM analysis and theoretical calculation by the formula were performed to evaluate the natural frequency for the pool door in the water. The results from the two methods were compared.

  13. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  14. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  15. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  16. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1...

  17. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  18. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  19. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  20. Investigation of factors that stimulate car drivers to change from car to carpooling in city center oriented work trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waerden, P.J.H.J.; Lem, A.; Schaefer, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to get more insight into the attributes that stimulate car drivers to use carpool as an alternative for their commuting trips in which the car is still the most used travel mode. The study was set up as a stated choice experiment. In the experiment, car drivers were asked to

  1. Car Builder: Design, Construct and Test Your Own Cars. School Version with Lesson Plans. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, Joni Bitman

    Car Builder is a scientific CD-ROM-based simulation program that lets students design, construct, modify, test, and compare their own cars. Students can design sedans, four-wheel-drive vehicles, vans, sport cars, and hot rods. They may select for aerodynamics, power, and racing ability, or economic and fuel efficiency. It is a program that teaches…

  2. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  3. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  4. A Bumpy Ride for Electric Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue, first through this article by Pierre Bonnaure that assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process, and then with an article by Veronique Lamblin offering a general overview of electric road vehicles. (author)

  5. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja-Gonzalez, L. F.; Barbes-Fernandez, M. F.; Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Castillo, G. A.; Colas, R.

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions whiting the different parts that constitute the systems, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air) is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convention and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporate of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm''-2K''-1. (Author) 11 refs

  6. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  7. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  8. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  9. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  10. AE/VCE Confirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  11. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Tide Pool Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Students investigated the salinity of tide pools at different levels in the intertidal zone. Data are analyzed collectively. Students graphed and discussed data. Included are suggestions for evaluation and further study. (Author)

  12. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the percentages in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of... plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order. [64 FR 47954, Sept. 1, 1999, as...

  14. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  15. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  16. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  17. Spectral analysis of Floating Car Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gössel, F.; Michler, E.; Wrase, B.

    2003-01-01

    Floating Car Data (FCD) are one important data source in traffic telematic systems. The original variable in these systems is the vehicle velocity. The paper analyses the measured value “vehicle velocity" by methods of information technology. Consequences for processing, transmission and storage of FCD under condition of limited resources are discussed. Starting point of the investigation is the analysis of spectral characteristics of velocity-time-profiles. The spectra are determined by...

  18. How energy efficient is your car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Pere; Oliu, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    A detailed energy balance indicating how fuel energy is transferred from the engine to the wheels of a commercial car is obtained using non-specialized experiments that can be readily understood using elementary mechanics. These experiments allow us to determine the engine's thermal efficiency, its mechanical losses, and the rolling (friction) and aerodynamic (drag) coefficients. We find that approximately 28% of the fuel energy is transferred to the wheels.

  19. Reclaiming Pedestrian Space from Car Dominated Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas L. Savvides

    2012-01-01

    For a long time as a result of accommodating car traffic, planning ideologies in the past put a low priority on public space, pedestrianism and the role of city space as a meeting place for urban dwellers. In addition, according to authors such as Jan Gehl, market forces and changing architectural perceptions began to shift the focus of planning practice from the integration of public space in various pockets around the contemporary city to individual buildings. Eventuall...

  20. Country watch: Central African Republic (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubel, J; Sobela, F; Voga, P

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the Community Peer AIDS Education Project, initiated in 1995 in the Central African Republic (CAR). The CAR project was created by the National AIDS Committee (NAC) and the US Peace Corps. A 4-day workshop was held at the onset for project staff and consultants. Staff developed a simple monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system that emphasizes "learning." M&E schemes measure project outputs, expenditures, and other measures of program implementation in order to help staff gradually improve implementation. M&E helps staff document activities, share information, and learn from the implementation process. Project activities are documented by maintaining community logbooks, taking photos of significant aspects of the educational activities, and leading informal discussion groups. The CAR project engaged in sharing and learning activities by holding meetings with peer leaders, team meetings, meetings with project managers, and meetings with the NAC. Once a month, peer field coordinators conducted a structured exercise with peer leaders. One aim was to gain their feedback on the successes and constraints of activities. Another was to make suggestions on how to improve activities. These structured exercises are recorded as lessons learned in a project book. Team meetings are held periodically. During meetings, staff review project books and photos and discuss successes and problems encountered. Project manager meetings provide time to share lessons learned and to suggest project strengthening options. NAC meetings between the project manager and field coordinators allow for a bottom-up learning process. CAR project staff were receptive to M&E efforts.

  1. Heterogeneous car buyers: a stylized fact

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Aizcorbe; Benjamin Bridgman; Jeremy J. Nalewaik

    2009-01-01

    Using a new dataset, we document a systematic pattern in the demographic characteristics of car buyers over the model year: as vehicle prices fall over the model year, so do buyer incomes. This pattern is consistent with price-insensitive buyers purchasing early in the year, while others wait until prices decline, and suggests price skimming (i.e. intertemporal price discrimination). Such consumer heterogeneity over the model year raises questions for measuring quality improvements in new goods.

  2. Archetypes and Mythical Narratives in Car Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara LÄMMLEIN

    2014-01-01

    This article represents an excerpt of the PhD thesis Branding & Advertising and Communication Strategies by the author. Within this thesis inter - disciplinary approaches for deciphering messages of selected car advertising were used. Multiple methods and paradigms such as cultural studies, media communication, sociology, anthropology, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, were applied in order to analyze TV spots and print advertisements from a variety of angles. The purpose of this strategy was to...

  3. Possible use of electric cars as balancing instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirez, Andreas; Luickx, Patrick; Woitrin, Dominique

    2010-09-15

    A massive introduction of electric cars is foreseeable in the mid to long term. Implementing a 'vehicle-to-grid' setting makes it possible to use these cars to deliver ancillary services to the electricity system. In this paper, the possibility of delivering active reserves in the Belgian control area is analyzed. We assume one million electric cars that can be connected to the Belgian grid. Based on our simulation, electric cars could be used for delivering all primary, all secondary and part of the tertiary reserves. Using electric cars as a balancing instrument would facilitate absorbing intermittent energy into the electricity system.

  4. Car Deceleration Considering Its Own Velocity in Cellular Automata Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton model, which is based on NaSch traffic model. In our method, when a car has a larger velocity, if the gap between the car and its leading car is not enough large, it will decrease. The aim is that the following car has a buffer space to decrease its velocity at the next time, and then avoid to decelerate too high. The simulation results show that using our model, the car deceleration is realistic, and is closer to the field measure than that of NaSch model.

  5. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  6. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  7. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Tremblay, G.; Davis, T.; Busch, G.; McElroy, R.; Neumann, J.; Urrutia, T.; Krumpe, M.; Scharwächter, J.; Powell, M.; Perez-Torres, M.; The CARS Team

    2017-09-01

    The role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the evolution of galaxies remains a mystery. The energy released by these accreting supermassive black holes can vastly exceed the entire binding energy of their host galaxies, yet it remains unclear how this energy is dissipated throughout the galaxy, and how that might couple to the galaxy's evolution. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is a multi-wavelength survey of a representative sample of luminous Type I AGN at redshifts 0.01 connection. These AGN are more luminous than very nearby AGN but are still close enough for spatially resolved mapping at sub-kpc scales with various state- of-the art facilities and instruments, such as VLT-MUSE, ALMA, JVLA, Chandra, SOFIA, and many more. In this article we showcase the power of CARS with examples of a multi-phase AGN outflow, diverse views on star formation activity and a unique changing-look AGN. CARS will provide an essential low-redshift reference sample for ongoing and forthcoming AGN surveys at high redshift.

  8. Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.

  9. CARS microscopy of Alzheimer's diseased brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejder, Annika; Kiskis, Juris; Fink, Helen; Nyberg, Lena; Thyr, Jakob; Li, Jia-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder currently without cure, characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques surrounded by dystrophic neurites. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms, biochemical analysis (protein immunoblot) of plaque extracts reveals that they consist of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides assembled as oligomers, protofibrils and aggregates. Their spatial distribution has been confirmed by Thioflavin-S or immuno-staining with fluorescence microscopy. However, it is increasingly understood that the protein aggregation is only one of several mechanism that causes neuronal dysfunction and death. This raises the need for a more complete biochemical analysis. In this study, we have complemented 2-photon fluorescence microscopy of Thioflavin-S and Aβ immuno-stained human AD plaques with CARS microscopy. We show that the chemical build-up of AD plaques is more complex and that Aβ staining does not provide the complete picture of the spatial distribution or the molecular composition of AD plaques. CARS images provide important complementary information to that obtained by fluorescence microscopy, motivating a broader introduction of CARS microscopy in the AD research field.

  10. Backset-stationary and during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Bertil; Stenlund, Hans; Björnstig, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to measure and analyze backset, defined as the horizontal distance between the back of the occupant's head and a point located on the ventral/top aspect of the sewn rim of the head restraint, with the car stationary and during driving, in the driver's position in a modern car. A population of 65 subjects, 35 males and 30 females, was studied in a Volvo V70 car, model year 2007. The subjects were studied in the driver's position, in a self-selected posture. Stationary backset was measured with the technique described by Jonsson et al. (2007) and backset during driving with video analysis. Descriptive data were calculated, and variability and correlation analyses were performed. A t-test was used to test differences of means. Significance level was set to 0.05. In comparison to stationary backset, mean backset during driving was 43 mm greater in males and 41 mm greater in females. Driving backset was 44 mm larger in males than in females. Driving backset was moderately correlated (0.37-0.43) to stature, seated height, and seat back angle in males and moderately correlated (0.44-0.52) to hip width, waist circumference, and weight in females. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient for backset during driving was 0.81 (CI: 0.75-0.86). These results may be of use in designing future updates of test protocols/routines for geometric backset, such as RCAR and RCAR-IIWPG.

  11. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Bessel beam CARS of axially structured samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuke, Sandro; Zheng, Juanjuan; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    We report about a Bessel beam CARS approach for axial profiling of multi-layer structures. This study presents an experimental implementation for the generation of CARS by Bessel beam excitation using only passive optical elements. Furthermore, an analytical expression is provided describing the generated anti-Stokes field by a homogeneous sample. Based on the concept of coherent transfer functions, the underling resolving power of axially structured geometries is investigated. It is found that through the non-linearity of the CARS process in combination with the folded illumination geometry continuous phase-matching is achieved starting from homogeneous samples up to spatial sample frequencies at twice of the pumping electric field wave. The experimental and analytical findings are modeled by the implementation of the Debye Integral and scalar Green function approach. Finally, the goal of reconstructing an axially layered sample is demonstrated on the basis of the numerically simulated modulus and phase of the anti-Stokes far-field radiation pattern.

  13. Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.

  14. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  16. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  17. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  18. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  20. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy.

  1. CARS 2009. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The CARS 2009 proceedings include contributions and poster sessions concerning different conferences and workshops: computer assisted radiology, 23rd international congress and exhibition, CARS clinical day, 13th annual conference of the international society for computer aided surgery, 10th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, 11th international workshop on computer-aided diagnosis, 15th computed maxillofacial imaging congress, CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery, 1st EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT, JICARS - Japanese institutes of CARS, 1st EuroNotes/CTAC/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge, 13th annual conference for computer aided surgery, 27th international EuroPACS meeting.

  2. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  3. External exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroto; Yamada, Norikazu; Sasaki, Satoru; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters, JNES has estimated the effective external exposure dose of car mechanics during the maintenance of the cars from the risk cautionary area. JNES investigated the contamination of the cars from the risk cautionary area and of the average cars at Fukushima city cooperated by the Japan Automobile Dealers Association. Data of screed cars by the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters is also considered in. Effective external exposure dose of car mechanics treating the cars screened with the emergency situation screening level is estimated to be less than 1 mSv/y under the conservative conditions. This result shows that particular health concern isn't necessary for them. (author)

  4. ADULTEROUS BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CAR-OWNER COUPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis PAPON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyse two activities: who rents a car and why? Which households share the driving of their cars? In order to do that, the Parc-Auto (Car-Fleet database, built from annual postal surveys conducted with a panel of 10,000 French households, has been processed. Among approximately one hundred questions in the survey, two key questions have been crossed against many social, economic, demographic, geographic or time variables. KQ1: “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purposes?” KQ2: “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” Here are the main findings. Renting households are mainly working, high income households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have two wage-sheets and two cars, one of which is generally a recent, high power, high quality car. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit. Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Household car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Household car sharing is mainly a regular practice. Finally, without diminishing the merits of innovative transport solutions proposed here and there, it is not a waste of time to give some insight on self established behaviour within households. This reveals that complex patterns have been built over time by the people themselves, to cope with diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications. The car cannot be reduced to a personal object. Household car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency. Sifting car

  5. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  6. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  7. Self-formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Lo, Daniel Y.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock. We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self-formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor. Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams. Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.

  8. Structure of pool in reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shigeki.

    1997-01-01

    Shielding walls made of iron-reinforced concrete having a metal liner including two body walls rigidly combined to the upper surface of a reactor container are disposed at least to one of an equipment pool or spent fuel storage pool in a reactor building. A rack for temporarily placing an upper lattice plate is detachably attached at least above one of a steam dryer or a gas/liquid separator temporarily placed in the temporary pool, and the height from the bottom portion to the upper end of the shielding wall is determined based on the height of an upper lattice plate temporary placed on the rack and the water depth required for shielding radiation from the upper lattice plate. An operator's exposure on the operation floor can be reduced by the shielding wall, and radiation dose from the spent fuels is reduced. The increase of the height of a pool guarder enhances bending resistance as a ceiling. In addition, the total height of them is made identical with the depth of the spent fuel storage pool thereby enabling to increase storage area for spent fuels. (N.H.)

  9. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  10. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases

  11. Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Eckard; Marx, Patrick [Trier University of Applied Sciences, Birkenfeld (Germany). Institut fuer Angewandtes Stoffstrommanagement (IfaS)

    2012-12-15

    Electric vehicles have been identified as being a key technology in reducing future emissions and energy consumption in the mobility sector. The focus of this article is to review and assess the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of battery electric cars (BEV), which is the only technical alternative on the market available today to vehicles with internal combustion engine (ICEV). Electricity onboard a car can be provided either by a battery or a fuel cell (FCV). The technical structure of BEV is described, clarifying that it is relatively simple compared to ICEV. Following that, ICEV can be 'e-converted' by experienced personnel. Such an e-conversion project generated reality-close data reported here. Practicability of today's BEV is discussed, revealing that particularly small-size BEVs are useful. This article reports on an e-conversion of a used Smart. Measurements on this car, prior and after conversion, confirmed a fourfold energy efficiency advantage of BEV over ICEV, as supposed in literature. Preliminary energy efficiency data of FCV are reviewed being only slightly lower compared to BEV. However, well-to-wheel efficiency suffers from 47% to 63% energy loss during hydrogen production. With respect to energy efficiency, BEVs are found to represent the only alternative to ICEV. This, however, is only true if the electricity is provided by very efficient power plants or better by renewable energy production. Literature data on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by ICEV compared to BEV suffer from a 25% underestimation of ICEV-standardized driving cycle numbers in relation to street conditions so far. Literature data available for BEV, on the other hand, were mostly modeled and based on relatively heavy BEV as well as driving conditions, which do not represent the most useful field of BEV operation. Literature data have been compared with measurements based on the converted Smart, revealing a distinct GHG emissions

  12. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  13. Creative use of plastics in cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The increasing use being made of plastics in vehicle construction is due to the concerted efforts made to apply the results of research and development work on raw materials and use these for large-scale production. This is important, since material costs account for more than 50% of production costs. In new and important areas however, car developers are lagging behind or are proposing solutions hardly likely to effect a real breakthrough. People should get out of this rut. What we need is innovation and creativity - and this is also the slogan of the 1984 Annual Conference on April 4 and 5 at Mannheim.

  14. Wireless vehicular networks for car collision avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Vehicular Networks for Car Collision Avoidance focuses on the development of the ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) in order to minimize vehicular accidents. The book presents and analyses a range of concrete accident scenarios while examining the causes of vehicular collision and proposing countermeasures based on wireless vehicular networks. The book also describes the vehicular network standards and quality of service mechanisms focusing on improving critical dissemination of safety information. With recommendations on techniques and protocols to consider when improving road safety policies in order to minimize crashes and collision risks.

  15. Dealing with dirt : servicing and repairing cars.

    OpenAIRE

    Dant, Tim; Bowles, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of dirt in the work of technicians who service and repair private cars. Rather than being useful in understanding how dirt is dealt with, the historical and anthropological analyses of dirt are shown to be overly concerned with cultural significance and the idea that dirt is no more than ‘matter out of place’. Such accounts suppress the more common sense approach that dirt is unpleasant to human beings and is to be avoided if possible. In work such as gara...

  16. 13 CFR 120.1706 - Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool Originator's retained interest in Pool. 120.1706 Section 120.1706 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan...

  17. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...... of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...

  18. Simulation of pool scrubbing experiments using BUSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, A.; Guentay, S.

    1994-01-01

    BUSCA-PSI is a computer code which predicts the aerosol scrubbing taking place when gas bubbles containing fission products rise through stagnant pools of water after a postulated severe accident. A Lagrangian formulation is adopted to follow the path of a bubble as it rises toward the surface of the pool. The BUSCA model includes most aerosol removal mechanisms which are thought to be significant, namely: Jet Impaction at tile orifice, Convection/Diffusiophoresis during steam condensation, Thermophoresis, Sedimentation, Centrifugal Impaction during bubble rise, and Brownian Diffusion. The hydraulic modelling offers a variety of options for the initial globule volume, the stable bubble size, tile bubble rise velocity, and the bubble shape. The heat and mass transfer part of tile model uses correlations found in the relevant literature. BUSCA simulations were performed to determine the decontamination factor (DF) dependence on key aerosol and thermal hydraulic parameters. The decontamination factor increases with height, pool temperature subcooling, and steam content. The decontamination factor exhibits a parabolic dependence on the particle radius. At low particle sizes, the DF is high due to Brownian Diffusion which is the dominant removal mechanism. The DF hits a minimum and then increases with particle size as Centrifugal Impaction and Sedimentation become important. In separate calculations, BUSCA was used to the simulate the aerosol scrubbing experiments performed by EPRI. For cold pool tests, the predicted scrubbing efficiencies were in a good, conservative agreement with the data for both Tin and CsI, and the discrepancies were within the reported measurement errors. For hot pool tests, the code systematically underpredicted the scrubbing DF's; this is potentially due to condensation in the gas space above the pool, a situation not currently modelled by BUSCA. The code was also tested against data produced by the Tepco-Toshiba-Hitachi experiments. The

  19. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  20. Modelling of Fire in an Open Car Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Timea; Dederichs, Anne Simone; Giuliani, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Steel car parks exhibit high vulnerability to fire, as a consequence of the degradation of the steel mechanical properties at high temperatures and of the combustible type and amount. Real fire accidents in open car parks demonstrated a much faster and extended fire spread than predictions......, assuming that a fire spread rate of 12 min and consider at most 3-4 vehicles on fire at the same time. Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) is applied in this current paper to study fire spread between cars. The outcomes of the investigations show that the fire spread is strongly influenced by the geometrical...... layout and that the distance between cars plays a determinant role on the fire spread rate and ignition of adjacent cars. In particular it was found that the fire spread can be faster than 12 minutes in the case of the cars parked 40 and 60 cm from each other....

  1. A FPGA Implementation of the CAR-FAC Cochlear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a digital implementation of the Cascade of Asymmetric Resonators with Fast-Acting Compression (CAR-FAC cochlear model. The CAR part simulates the basilar membrane's (BM response to sound. The FAC part models the outer hair cell (OHC, the inner hair cell (IHC, and the medial olivocochlear efferent system functions. The FAC feeds back to the CAR by moving the poles and zeros of the CAR resonators automatically. We have implemented a 70-section, 44.1 kHz sampling rate CAR-FAC system on an Altera Cyclone V Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA with 18% ALM utilization by using time-multiplexing and pipeline parallelizing techniques and present measurement results here. The fully digital reconfigurable CAR-FAC system is stable, scalable, easy to use, and provides an excellent input stage to more complex machine hearing tasks such as sound localization, sound segregation, speech recognition, and so on.

  2. A FPGA Implementation of the CAR-FAC Cochlear Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Thakur, Chetan S; Singh, Ram K; Hamilton, Tara Julia; Wang, Runchun M; van Schaik, André

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a digital implementation of the Cascade of Asymmetric Resonators with Fast-Acting Compression (CAR-FAC) cochlear model. The CAR part simulates the basilar membrane's (BM) response to sound. The FAC part models the outer hair cell (OHC), the inner hair cell (IHC), and the medial olivocochlear efferent system functions. The FAC feeds back to the CAR by moving the poles and zeros of the CAR resonators automatically. We have implemented a 70-section, 44.1 kHz sampling rate CAR-FAC system on an Altera Cyclone V Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with 18% ALM utilization by using time-multiplexing and pipeline parallelizing techniques and present measurement results here. The fully digital reconfigurable CAR-FAC system is stable, scalable, easy to use, and provides an excellent input stage to more complex machine hearing tasks such as sound localization, sound segregation, speech recognition, and so on.

  3. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  4. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  5. Automobile scrap regulation. Give-away presents. Polluting cars and trade-in for cleaner cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annema, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A scrap regulation for old vehicles has been in place in the Netherlands for almost one year now. Has it been an effective instrument? What are the societal costs and benefits? Is it a fair regulation? Was it a good idea to introduce the car scrap regulation? The answer to all these questions is: doubtful. [nl

  6. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written

  8. Lateral car collisions : characteristics of lateral car collisions based on SWOV accident investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1979-01-01

    During 1976 and part of 1977 the Dutch institute for road safety research SWOV carried out the field work for an accident study involving passenger cars. The purpose of this crash injury investigation was to evaluate the influence of relevant crash safety factors (like safety belts and head

  9. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  10. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  11. 13 CFR 120.1705 - Pool formation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. SBA may adjust the Pool characteristics periodically based on program experience and market... a Pool involving a Pool Loan it does not own, it must purchase the Loan Interest it proposes to pool... purchase the Loan Interest and take it into inventory or settle the purchase of the Loan Interest through...

  12. Delineating probabilistic species pools in ecology and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Cord, Anna F; Kessler, Michael; Kreft, Holger; Kühn, Ingolf; Pompe, Sven; Sandel, Brody; Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Smith, Adam B; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Tuomisto, Hanna; Weigelt, Patrick; Wesche, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide a mechanistic and probabilistic framework for defining the species pool based on species-specific probabilities of dispersal, environmental suitability and biotic interactions within a specific temporal extent, and to show how probabilistic species pools can help disentangle the geographical structure of different community assembly processes. Innovation Probabilistic species pools provide an improved species pool definition based on probabilities in conjuncti...

  13. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  14. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a train or when placed on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a); (2) A car is on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a), for any reason and has not received a single car air... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232...

  15. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hadryś; M. Miros

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...

  16. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ridwan Arief; Hartanto, Agus; Susanti, Vita

    2012-01-01

    The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the probl...

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  18. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Borowiec, Marek; Hunicz, Jacek; Koszalka, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  19. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars. [T.D. 70-121, 35 FR 8215, May 26, 1970, as amended by T.D. 82-145, 47 FR 35478, Aug. 16, 1982] ...

  20. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another poss...

  1. Prototipe Critting Badot (Car Security System Monitoring Based On STNK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruloh, Agan; Kurniawan, Deny; Subekti, Massus

    2017-01-01

    The crime of burglary vehicle accompanied also by forgery vehicle registration certificate of vehicle number.For it, needed CRITING BADOT (Car Security System Monitoring Based On Stnk), an apparatus capable of preventing motor vehicle theft by means of technology RFID and SMS Gateway, blends the ignition and vehicle registration into a single entity, change the key of the car being contact id card, capable of being on the monitoring of the position the car.This tool requires the driver to be ...

  2. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís dos Santos Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  3. Car and motorcycle deaths: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, André Luís Dos Santos; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess differences between men and women in the likelihood of exposure to traffic as drivers of cars and motorcycles, and in the risk of dying from a car or a motorcycle crash, in order to verify the extent to which Darwin's Sexual Selection Theory could have predicted the findings and can help to interpret them. Study population was composed of men and women aged 18 to 60 years residents in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2010, and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2001 and 2010. We built frequency distribution tables and drew bar charts in order to check whether there were differences between the sexes and interactions of sex with age. More men exposed themselves to and died in traffic than women, especially the young. Society should have an especially vigilant attitude towards men on the wheel due to their increased innate tendency to exposure to risk. Darwin's sexual selection theory can be an important ally when postulating hypotheses and interpreting epidemiological findings aiming at improving public policies to reduce the excessive number of traffic deaths, especially in societies where machismo is strong or the stimulus to masculinity is exaggerated.

  4. Product declaration for cars; Warendeklaration fuer Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-07-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO{sub 2}-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed.

  5. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdeja-Gonzalez, L. F.; Barbes-Fernandez, M. F.; Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Castillo, G. A.; Colas, R.

    2005-07-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions whiting the different parts that constitute the systems, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air) is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convention and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporate of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm''-2K''-1. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  7. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-01-01

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car -/- ) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car -/- livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: → The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. → OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. → OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. → OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

  8. Comparative analysis of used car price evaluation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuancan; Hao, Lulu; Xu, Cong

    2017-05-01

    An accurate used car price evaluation is a catalyst for the healthy development of used car market. Data mining has been applied to predict used car price in several articles. However, little is studied on the comparison of using different algorithms in used car price estimation. This paper collects more than 100,000 used car dealing records throughout China to do empirical analysis on a thorough comparison of two algorithms: linear regression and random forest. These two algorithms are used to predict used car price in three different models: model for a certain car make, model for a certain car series and universal model. Results show that random forest has a stable but not ideal effect in price evaluation model for a certain car make, but it shows great advantage in the universal model compared with linear regression. This indicates that random forest is an optimal algorithm when handling complex models with a large number of variables and samples, yet it shows no obvious advantage when coping with simple models with less variables.

  9. Analysis of Flexible Car Body of Straddle Monorail Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanmu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the finite element model of straddle monorail vehicle, a rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model considering vehicle body’s flexibility is established. The influence of vertical stiffness and vertical damping of the running wheel on the modal parameters of the car body is analyzed. The effect of flexible car body on modal parameters and vehicle ride quality is also studied. The results show that when the vertical stiffness of running wheel is less than 1 MN / m, the car body bounce and pitch frequency increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel, when the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1MN / m or more, car body bounce and pitch frequency remained unchanged; When the vertical stiffness of the running wheel is below 1.8 MN / m, the vehicle body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical stiffness of the running wheel; When the running wheel vertical stiffness is 1.8MN / m or more, the car body bounce and pitch damping ratio remained unchanged; The running wheel vertical damping on the car body bounce and pitch frequency has no effect; Car body bounce and pitch damping ratio increase with the increasing of the vertical damping of the running wheel. The flexibility of the car body has no effect on the modal parameters of the car, which will improve the vehicle ride quality index.

  10. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-04-13

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car.

  11. A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling

    OpenAIRE

    Krishn A. Goyal; A. Sadasivam

    2010-01-01

    A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy sp...

  12. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car. PMID:28406426

  13. Modelling future private car energy demand in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted measures influencing vehicle technology are increasingly a tool of energy policy makers within the EU as a means of meeting energy efficiency, renewable energy, climate change and energy security goals. This paper develops the modelling capacity for analysing and evaluating such legislation, with a focus on private car energy demand. We populate a baseline car stock and car activity model for Ireland to 2025 using historical car stock data. The model takes account of the lifetime survival profile of different car types, the trends in vehicle activity over the fleet and the fuel price and income elasticities of new car sales and total fleet activity. The impacts of many policy alternatives may only be simulated by such a bottom-up approach, which can aid policy development and evaluation. The level of detail achieved provides specific insights into the technological drivers of energy consumption, thus aiding planning for meeting climate targets. This paper focuses on the methodology and baseline scenario. Baseline results for Ireland forecast a decline in private car energy demand growth (0.2%, compared with 4% in the period 2000–2008), caused by the relative growth in fleet efficiency compared with activity. - Highlights: ► Bottom-up private car energy forecasting model developed. ► The demographic and technological distribution of vehicle activity is a key veriable. ► Irish car energy demand growth predicted to slow steadily. ► Change in vehicle taxation forecast to save 10% energy.

  14. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  15. Public Swimming Pools | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illness Disease Reporting and Surveillance Bureau of Public Health Laboratories Environmental Health Air Air Monitoring Carbon Monoxide Indoor Air Quality Mold Radon Water Aquatic Toxins Beach Water Quality purification, testing, treatment, and disinfection procedures. To ensure that the pool technicians are

  16. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  17. Stein's neuronal model with pooled renewal input

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajdl, K.; Lánský, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 3 (2015), s. 389-399 ISSN 0340-1200 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Stein’s model * Poisson process * pooled renewal processes * first-passage time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2015

  18. Phase analysis in gated blood pool tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Nanbu, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis of gated blood pool study has been applied to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) in the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome; however, there was a limitation to detect the precise location of ACP by phase analysis alone. In this study, we applied phase analysis to gated blood pool tomography using seven pin hole tomography (7PT) and gated emission computed tomography (GECT) in 21 patients with WPW syndrome and 3 normal subjects. In 17 patients, the sites of ACPs were confirmed by epicardial mapping and the result of the surgical division of ACP. In 7PT, the site of ACP grossly agreed to the abnormal initial phase in phase image in 5 out of 6 patients with left cardiac type. In GECT, phase images were generated in short axial, vertical and horizontal long axial sections. In 8 out of 9 patients, the site of ACP was correctly identified by phase images, and in a patient who had two ACPs, initial phase corresponded to one of the two locations. Phase analysis of gated blood pool tomography has advantages for avoiding overlap of blood pools and for estimating three-dimensional propagation of the contraction, and can be a good adjunctive method in patients with WPW syndrome. (author)

  19. Swimming-pool piles; Piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trioulaire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In France two swimming-pool piles, Melusine and Triton, have just been set in operation. The swimming-pool pile is the ideal research tool for neutron fluxes of the order of 10{sup 13}. This type of pile can be of immediate interest to many research centres, but its cost must be reduced and a break with tradition should be observed in its design. It would be an advantage: - to bury the swimming-pool; - to reject the experimental channel; - to concentrate the cooling circuit in the swimming-pool; - to carry out all manipulations in the water; - to double the core. (author) [French] En France, deux piles piscines, Melusine et Triton, viennent d'entrer en service. La pile piscine est l'outil de recherche ideal pour des flux de neutrons de l'ordre de 10{sup 13}. Ce type de pile peut interesser des maintenant de nombreux centres de recherches mais il faut reduire son prix de revient et rompre avec le conformisme de sa conception. Il y a avantage: - a enterrer la piscine; - a supprimer les canaux experimentaux; - a concentrer le circuit de refrigeration dans la piscine; - a effectuer toutes les manipulations dans l'eau; - a doubler le coeur. (auteur)

  20. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess...

  1. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  2. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  3. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  4. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  5. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  6. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association and it fulfills the following conditions: (1) The aggregate monthly quantity supplied by all... or aseptically-processed fluid milk products. (c) A supply plant from which the quantity of bulk... operator of a supply plant located within the marketing area may include deliveries to pool distributing...

  7. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  8. Comfortable car interiors: Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with another important aspect of car-sales; comfort. In this PhD thesis five experiments are presented proving that weight reduction and comfort improvement can go hand in hand. In these studies specif...

  9. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  10. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO 2 , 16% ZrO 2 , and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m 2 and 3.7 MW/m 2 , respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  11. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  12. DISTRIBUTED EXTERNAL SURFACE HARDENING OF CAR DESIGN BY WINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves coverage of features and results of the research conducted by the authors to determine the feasibility and establishment of pre-stressed-strained state of freight cars by winding in order to improve their strength characteristics. It is also necessary to present the theoretical justification for the effectiveness of the application of this method for car designs and an appropriate example for the tank-car. Methodology. The conducted study is based on an analysis of known works on the subject, mathematical justification and computer modeling. At the calculations of rolling stock components contemporary conventional techniques were used. Findings. Authors found that the winding method for pre-stressed-strained state is effective and appropriate for use in the construction of railway rolling stock and, in particular freight cars. Freight car designs with the pre-stressed-strained state are characterized by a number of strength advantages, among which there is an improvement of the work on the perception of operational loads and resource conservation. Originality. For the first time it is proposed the improvement of bearing capacity of freight car constructions through the creation of its component in the directed stress-strained state. It is also for the first time proposed the use of distributed external surface hardening by the method of winding to create a pre-stress-strained state of structural components of freight cars. The methods for winding designs of freight cars and their implementation were considered. Practical value. The studies developed a number of technical solutions for improving the design of freight cars and tank-container, which has been patented. Corresponding solutions for the tank-car are partially presented. Practical implementation of such solutions will significantly improve the technical, economic and operational performances of car designs.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GONDOLA CARS ON PERSPECTIVE BOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper, it is necessary to examine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies, model 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of a track. Methodology. The calculations were performed using the object-oriented programming on the program "Dynamics of Rail Vehicles" ("DYNRAIL" Myamlin S.V. registered 20.03.2003. Mathematical models of a gondola car and bogies 18-100 and 18-711 were created for the calculations. Findings. Dynamic performances comparison of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 and the gondola car with bogies 18-100, obtained by calculation method was carried out. Originality. Firstly calculations in order to determine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of track were performed. At the same time an assessment of the dynamic characteristics of the gondola car was made. The following dynamic standards were determined: the coefficient of vertical dynamics (Cdv, the coefficient of horizontal dynamics (Cdh, and the safety factor against derailment (SFd. Track irregularities in vertical and horizontal transverse planes were assigned as perturbations. They should be so that the dynamic indexes of the widely used in operation gondola car on bogies model 18-100 keep in admissible range of speeds up to 80km / h for the empty gondola car and at speeds up to 90km / h for the loaded gondola cars. Practical value. As a result of the calculations and comparisons of their results, we have findings that the use of bogies with bilinear characteristic of the central suspension will improve the dynamic performances of gondola cars, currently operating on bogies, model 18-100. And by improving the dynamic performances it is possible to increase the permissible speeds of these cars motion.

  14. 49 CFR 179.4 - Changes in specifications for tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes in specifications for tank cars. 179.4... TANK CARS Introduction, Approvals and Reports § 179.4 Changes in specifications for tank cars. (a...—Tank Car Safety, AAR, for consideration by its Tank Car Committee. An application for construction of...

  15. Ellipsoidal fuzzy learning for smart car platoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Julie A.; Kosko, Bart

    1993-12-01

    A neural-fuzzy system combined supervised and unsupervised learning to find and tune the fuzzy-rules. An additive fuzzy system approximates a function by covering its graph with fuzzy rules. A fuzzy rule patch can take the form of an ellipsoid in the input-output space. Unsupervised competitive learning found the statistics of data clusters. The covariance matrix of each synaptic quantization vector defined on ellipsoid centered at the centroid of the data cluster. Tightly clustered data gave smaller ellipsoids or more certain rules. Sparse data gave larger ellipsoids or less certain rules. Supervised learning tuned the ellipsoids to improve the approximation. The supervised neural system used gradient descent to find the ellipsoidal fuzzy patches. It locally minimized the mean-squared error of the fuzzy approximation. Hybrid ellipsoidal learning estimated the control surface for a smart car controller.

  16. Tickover speed controller for car engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, R L

    1980-05-22

    In general, the tickover speed of a car engine is made sufficiently high, in order to permit an assumed maximum load to be taken from the engine at tickover. This setting of the tickover speed is usually done by stops in the fuel supply. Matching the actual load would lead to lower fuel consumption, without any danger of the engine stalling. The purpose of the invention is to provide a tickover speed controller, so that the tickover speed is adjusted by electronic control equipment, independently of the machine load. The fuel consumption on tickover is reduced and the emission of noxious substances is decreased. The electro-magnetic control of the throttle valve tickover setting is explained by extensive section drawings of the system. This process dispenses with the special tickover cams for a cold start.

  17. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO 2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  18. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  19. SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF THE ELECTRONIC CAR SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz KĄDZIOŁKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During every day activities related with performed work or homework duties we meet a lot of equipment and we don't realize about their complex construction. This can be different type of equipment making every day work easier, such as food processors, dishwashers, ecologic furnaces, gas stoves or mechanisms, which are intended for protection against rain, which are personal umbrellas or devices ensuring higher safety such as ABS in a car or equipment used for measuring different values such as thermometers, barometers and finally scales. Scales due to performed tasks should be rated to measuring equipment which in metrology for example are used to specify linear and angular dimensions or deviations from nominal dimensions. In this article we present results of electronic scales sensitivity tests. For comparison of test results two electronic scales with different measuring range were analyzed

  20. Trajectory generation for car-like robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, H.A.; Pin, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Autonomous robots or remotely operated vehicles have raised high hopes in the military and industrial communities because of the potential safety improvement and gain of productivity they may provide. Waste management on nuclear sites, pallet manipulation in factories, interventions on battlefields, etc., are actively studied. A lot of these applications require powerful four-wheel vehicles, the kinematics of which is similar to that of a car. Such vehicles have three degrees of freedom: the (x,y) positions in a plane and the orientation of the vehicle. Path planning is often understood as only changing the position of the vehicle, whereas the tasks performed by this kind of robot require a perfect orientation of the vehicle: forklifting a pallet or docking at a loading or unloading station requires accuracy in the orientation of the vehicle. It is this requirement and the kinematic constraints of the motion mode that have led to the path-planning algorithm presented in this paper

  1. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    of the oligopticon and on Foucault’s notion of the panopticon. The analysis shows that tax inspectors produce oligoptic and panoptic visions when they account for taxpayers’ economic activities and that tax inspectors’ visions are received differently by the represented taxpayers. Some taxpayers fall out of sight......, whereas others are highly visible and are interrogated in detail. Using the concepts of the oligopticon and the panopticon to analyse the tax audit process is significant for interpretative tax and accounting studies, because this theoretical approach represents an original method of conceptualising......The empirical focus of this article is a ten-month ethnography of a tax audit process led by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration. The tax audit concerns a number of shady car dealings from which taxable income is not reported. This article focuses on the process whereby the tax administration...

  2. A drive through cellular therapy for CLL in 2015: allogeneic cell transplantation and CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mato, Anthony; Porter, David L

    2015-07-23

    Over the past decade the development of safer reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, expanded donor pools, advances in supportive care, and prevention/management of graft-versus-host disease have expanded stem cell transplantation (SCT) availability for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. However, there are now increasingly active treatment options available for CLL patients with favorable toxicity profiles and convenient administration schedules. This raises the critical issue of whether or not attainment of cure remains a necessary goal. It is now less clear that treatment with curative intention and with significant toxicity is required for long-term survival in CLL. In addition, the demonstrated safety and activity of genetically modified chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells present the opportunity of harnessing the power of the immune system to kill CLL cells without the need for SCT. We attempt to define the role of SCT in the era of targeted therapies and discuss questions that remain to be answered. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for exciting new cellular therapy using genetically modified anti-CD19 CAR T cells and discuss its potential to alter treatment paradigms for CLL. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. The car and fuel of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romm, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on a review of the technical literature on alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and discussions with experts in vehicle technology and energy analysis. It is derived from analysis provided to the bipartisan National Commission on Energy Policy. The urgent need to reverse the business-as-usual growth path in global warming pollution in the next two decades to avoid serious if not catastrophic climate change necessitates action to make our vehicles far less polluting. In the near-term, by far the most cost-effective strategy for reducing emissions and fuel use is efficiency. The car of the near future is the hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle, because it can reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions 30 to 50% with no change in vehicle class and hence no loss of jobs or compromise on safety or performance. It will likely become the dominant vehicle platform by the year 2020. Ultimately, we will need to replace gasoline with a zero-carbon fuel. All AFV pathways require technology advances and strong government action to succeed. Hydrogen is the most challenging of all alternative fuels, particularly because of the enormous effort needed to change our existing gasoline infrastructure. The most promising AFV pathway is a hybrid that can be connected to the electric grid. These so-called plug-in hybrids or e-hybrids will likely travel three to four times as far on a kilowatt-hour of renewable electricity as fuel cell vehicles. Ideally these advanced hybrids would also be a flexible fuel vehicle capable of running on a blend of biofuels and gasoline. Such a car could travel 500 miles on 1 gal of gasoline (and 5 gal of cellulosic ethanol) and have under one-tenth the greenhouse gas emissions of current hybrids

  4. Rational-driver approximation in car-following theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubashevsky, Ihor; Wagner, Peter; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2003-11-01

    The problem of a car following a lead car driven with constant velocity is considered. To derive the governing equations for the following car dynamics a cost functional is constructed. This functional ranks the outcomes of different driving strategies, which applies to fairly general properties of the driver behavior. Assuming rational-driver behavior, the existence of the Nash equilibrium is proved. Rational driving is defined by supposing that a driver corrects continuously the car motion to follow the optimal path minimizing the cost functional. The corresponding car-following dynamics is described quite generally by a boundary value problem based on the obtained extremal equations. Linearization of these equations around the stationary state results in a generalization of the widely used optimal velocity model. Under certain conditions (the “dense traffic” limit) the rational car dynamics comprises two stages, fast and slow. During the fast stage a driver eliminates the velocity difference between the cars, the subsequent slow stage optimizes the headway. In the dense traffic limit an effective Hamiltonian description is constructed. This allows a more detailed nonlinear analysis. Finally, the differences between rational and bounded rational driver behavior are discussed. The latter, in particular, justifies some basic assumptions used recently by the authors to construct a car-following model lying beyond the frameworks of rationality.

  5. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  6. RESONANCE CARS IN BR2 MOLECULES AND BR-ATOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aben, I.; Levelt, P.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1991-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced CARS processes were studied in molecular bromine. On the basis of the known spectroscopic constants of the two electronic states involved, the features in the spectra could be identified. CARS signals from Br-atoms produced from dissociation of Br2 were obtained by tuning (omega-1

  7. Panorama 2015 - The global market for compact cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon; Ivanic, Tanja

    2014-12-01

    The search for fuel-saving solutions has led to a trend for acquiring smaller and lighter cars. Small compact cars, whether powered by internal combustion or electric engines, have gained and are continuing to gain market share, in both mature automobile markets such as Europe or Japan and emerging markets such as India. (authors)

  8. Walking frequency, cars, dogs, and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    This report explains ways to reduce car usage in order to meet climate targets and how to analyze these effects. Much of : the analysis has focused on differences between more compact areas that are more walkable versus more extensive car-dependent :...

  9. The Physics of Bump Drafting in Car Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…

  10. Femtosecond spectral phase shaping for CARS spectroscopy and imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; van Rhijn, A.C.W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Corkum, P.; de Silvestri, S.; Nelson, K.A.; Riedle, E.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) is a third-order non-linear optical process that provides label-free, chemically selective microscopy by probing the internal vibrational structure of molecules. Due to the resonant enhancement of the CARS process, faster imaging is possible compared to

  11. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  12. 78 FR 59866 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... further commented that additional consideration should be given to autonomous vehicle controls that may... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0076] New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... Car Assessment Program (NCAP) that the agency announced in its June 26, 2013 request for comments (78...

  13. Students To Compete in Model Solar Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    cars in the 1998 Junior Solar Sprint. The race will be held at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE Compete in Model Solar Car Race For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo ., May 8, 1998 — Middle school students from across Colorado will design, build and race model solar

  14. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  15. Energy consumption of auxiliary systems of electric cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtimov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the power demand of the auxiliary systems of electric cars. On the basis of existing electric cars an analysis of energy consumption of different auxiliary systems is done. As a result possibilities for rational use of these systems have been proposed, which can increase the mileage per one charge of the battery.

  16. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  17. Spring-Wound Toy Cars--Experiments in Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Charles

    1983-01-01

    Use of spring-wound toy cars in kinematics experiments is described. The cars, used in place of traditional dynamics carts rolling down an inclined plane, are inexpensive, motivational, and give reproducible results. Details of acceleration experiments and suggestions for additional experiments are provided. (JN)

  18. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    that can be used as an alternative input in the multimodal interaction context. Two approaches are described for using this method for interaction with objects inside or outside the car. Some application examples are described where the discrete or continuous head movements in combination with the driver......’s visual attention can be used for controlling the objects inside the car....

  19. Performance-based standards for South African car-carriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, car-carriers in South Africa operated under abnormal load permits allowing a finite relaxation of legal height and length limits. This practice is being phased out, and exemption will only be granted if a car-carrier complies...

  20. Do We Blindly Trust Self-Driving Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal Andersen, Kamilla; Köslich, Simon; Pedersen, Bjarke Maigaard Kjær

    2017-01-01

    - to-day activities, such as driving a car, we carried out a series of experiments with an autonomous car simulator. Partici- pants (N=73) engaged in a scenario with no, correct or false audible information regarding the state of traffic around the self-driving vehicle, and were told they could assume...

  1. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  2. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the... solutions and recommendations to the STB on matters affecting grain transportation. The NGCC functions...

  3. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the... grain transportation. The NGCC functions solely as an advisory body, and complies with the provisions of...

  4. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  5. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. California Dreaming - Sustaining American Lifestyle and the Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2001-01-01

    California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years.......California has for several years supported new innovation in zero-emission and low emission cars and set measures for the reduction of emissions in the state for the coming years....

  7. Car-following Behavior Model Learning Using Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yihuan; Lin, Q.; Wang, Jun; Verwer, S.E.; Dochain, D.; Henrion, D.; Peaucelle, D.

    Learning driving behavior is fundamental for autonomous vehicles to “understand” traffic situations. This paper proposes a novel method for learning a behavioral model of car-following using automata learning algorithms. The model is interpretable for car-following behavior analysis. Frequent common

  8. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008 ...

  9. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2...

  10. Can privacy concerns for insurance of connected cars be compensated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, S; de Reuver, G.A.; Kroesen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-of-things technologies enable service providers such as insurance companies to collect vast amounts of privacy-sensitive data on car drivers. This paper studies whether and how privacy concerns of car owners can be compensated by offering monetary benefits. We study the case of usage based

  11. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  12. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed.

  13. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  14. Temperature rise and Heat build up inside a parked Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Rose; Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2001-11-01

    We have studied the heat build up inside a parked car under the hot summer Sun. Inside and outside temperatures were monitored every ten seconds from 9 AM to about 4 PM for a 2000 Toyota Camry parked in a Winthrop University parking lot without any shades or trees. Two PASCO temperature sensors, one inside the car and the other outside the car, are used along with PASCO-750 interface to collect the data. Data were collected under the following conditions while keeping track of the outside weather: fully closed windows, slightly open windows, half way open windows, fully open windows, and with window shades inside and outside. Inside temperatures reached as high as 150 degrees Fahrenheit on a sunny day with outside high temperature of about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. These results will be presented along with results from car cover and window tint manufacturers and suggestions to keep your car cool next time you park it under the Sun.

  15. Dynamic imaging for CAR-T-cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Shahri, Nia; Papa, Sophie

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is entering the mainstream for the treatment of CD19(+)cancers. As is does we learn more about resistance to therapy and the role, risks and management of toxicity. In solid tumour CAR therapy research the route to the clinic is less smooth with a wealth of challenges facing translating this, potentially hugely valuable, therapeutic option for patients. As we strive to understand our successes, and navigate the challenges, having a clear understanding of how adoptively transferred CAR-T-cells behavein vivoand in human trials is invaluable. Harnessing reporter gene imaging to enable detection and tracking of small numbers of CAR-T-cells after adoptive transfer is one way by which we can accomplish this. The compatibility of certain reporter gene systems with tracers available routinely in the clinic makes this approach highly useful for future appraisal of CAR-T-cell success in humans. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. New development in CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Han, Weidong

    2017-02-21

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells) have yielded unprecedented efficacy in B cell malignancies, most remarkably in anti-CD19 CAR-T cells for B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with up to a 90% complete remission rate. However, tumor antigen escape has emerged as a main challenge for the long-term disease control of this promising immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. In addition, this success has encountered significant hurdles in translation to solid tumors, and the safety of the on-target/off-tumor recognition of normal tissues is one of the main reasons. In this mini-review, we characterize some of the mechanisms for antigen loss relapse and new strategies to address this issue. In addition, we discuss some novel CAR designs that are being considered to enhance the safety of CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors.

  17. University of Calgary solar car set for American solar challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This article described a solar car designed by a team from the University of Calgary for the 2010 American Solar Challenge, a 1100 mile race that starts in Tulsa, Oklahoma and ends 5 days later in Chicago, Illinois. The Shulich Axiom car is comprised of 2000 solar cells with batteries that can store enough power to drive the car for a 4-hour period. The car has a top speed of 140 km per hour and is totally powered by solar energy. The team has taken the car on a 5-day tour of Alberta, stopping in 7 communities across the province before heading back to Calgary. The team is one of only 2 Canadian teams competing in the challenge this year. 1 fig.

  18. New development in CAR-T cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguang Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells have yielded unprecedented efficacy in B cell malignancies, most remarkably in anti-CD19 CAR-T cells for B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL with up to a 90% complete remission rate. However, tumor antigen escape has emerged as a main challenge for the long-term disease control of this promising immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. In addition, this success has encountered significant hurdles in translation to solid tumors, and the safety of the on-target/off-tumor recognition of normal tissues is one of the main reasons. In this mini-review, we characterize some of the mechanisms for antigen loss relapse and new strategies to address this issue. In addition, we discuss some novel CAR designs that are being considered to enhance the safety of CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors.

  19. Modeling the number of car theft using Poisson regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Malina; Ling, Agnes Beh Yen; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ismail, Noriszura

    2016-10-01

    Regression analysis is the most popular statistical methods used to express the relationship between the variables of response with the covariates. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors that influence the number of car theft using Poisson regression model. This paper will focus on the number of car thefts that occurred in districts in Peninsular Malaysia. There are two groups of factor that have been considered, namely district descriptive factors and socio and demographic factors. The result of the study showed that Bumiputera composition, Chinese composition, Other ethnic composition, foreign migration, number of residence with the age between 25 to 64, number of employed person and number of unemployed person are the most influence factors that affect the car theft cases. These information are very useful for the law enforcement department, insurance company and car owners in order to reduce and limiting the car theft cases in Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  1. Who are the early adopters of car sharing? A brief history and an analysis of the early adoption of car sharing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Norre, Lise

    1999-01-01

    After briefly outlining the context, focusing primarily on the economic conditions for car sharing and on the history of the first car sharing initiatives in Denmark, this paper presents results from a study of the early adopters of the car sharing idea in Denmark and some speculations about...... the future of car sharing in this country....

  2. Horizontal above-rack pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes a unique method for storing spent, six year out of core, fuel at a prototypical PWR nuclear power station. The study describes a conceptual design, with favorable structural, thermal and criticality technical evaluations. However, economic considerations and licensing risks are judged to be less favorable. The concept study prescribes a fuel over fuel arrangement in an existing Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) with full maintenance of ALARA principles. This concept study is specific to a prototypical pool design, but may easily be projected to other nuclear facilities with other SFP conditions. For the prototypical PWR, the conceptual fuel bridge design will store over 200 additional fuel assemblies without significant facility modifications and for an indefinite time period

  3. Sodium pool fire model for CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The modeling of sodium pool fires constitutes an important ingredient in conducting LMFBR accident analysis. Such modeling capability has recently come under scrutiny at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) within the context of developing CONACS, the Containment Analysis Code System. One of the efforts in the CONACS program is to model various combustion processes anticipated to occur during postulated accident paths. This effort includes the selection or modification of an existing model and development of a new model if it clearly contributes to the program purpose. As part of this effort, a new sodium pool fire model has been developed that is directed at removing some of the deficiencies in the existing models, such as SOFIRE-II and FEUNA

  4. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  5. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC andBUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B.As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have beenassessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified.(Author) 73 refs

  6. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs

  7. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  8. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...... represents the clearing of the market and the second stage models the system operation under a number of plausible wind production realizations. This formulation co-optimizes energy and reserve, and allows deriving both pool energy prices and balancing energy prices. These prices result in both cost recovery...... for producers and revenue reconciliation. A case study of realistic size is used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed pricing scheme....

  9. THEORETICAL BASIS OF PARAMETRIC SYNTHESIS FOR CARRYING SYSTEMS OF CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to systematize and structure representation of theoretical grounds for the optimization designing of railway car components and practical ways of its implementation. Methodology. The study is based on analysis of several well-known articles on the subject, as well as on authors' researches, some mathematical foundations and computer modeling. The rolling stock components structural analysis was made by applying modern and acknowledged methods. Findings. In the study the authors systematized the set of methodological approaches to the freight car design processes; they also analyzed every application phase of the designing process and its conditions. The article presents the developed mathematical model of the car component implementation. This model takes into account all the calculated cases of the car life cycle. Moreover, the model also can be applied to other transport modes accounting their specific operation modes. The possibility to generate different construction options for equally strong car component with minimum material intensity was also shown in the article. There were several methods developed for finding optimal solutions that make it possible to calculate the sought characteristics of construction elements with the reliable accuracy. The presented variety of different approaches significantly extends engineering apparatus by increasing the synthesis and analysis abilities of the car design. Originality. The authors proposed the methodological foundations of the car components design aimed at creating their optimal structural parameter execution and the operating features based on the results of the detailed research. Practical value. Expediency and effectiveness of the presented methods has been confirmed by positive experience of its application when constructing the general-purpose gondola cars, models 12-9904 and 12-9904-01, as well as when upgrading existing constructions of freight cars, model

  10. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  11. Comfortable car interiors : Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with

  12. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  13. Gene pool conservation of teak in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Tun

    1995-01-01

    Myanmar with an area of 261, 228 Sq. miles is endowed with various types of forests which occupied nearly 50% of the country. Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) is one of the most valuable timber species for its excellent wood quality and properties which are not observed with other timbers. Gene pool can be defined as a group of individual trees growing over a wide range of environmental conditions, and constituting different genetic complexes which can be transmitted to the offsprings. Topics such as: objectives of gene pool conservation, genetically improved seeds for large scale forest plantations, methodology of conservation, are discussed in the article. Myanmar teak dominates the world's teak market, and thus it is crucial to maintain the superiority in the conservation of gene complexes of teak. To some extent, the conservation of gene pools of teak and tree improvements are being undertaken by the Forest Research Institute of Myanmar. It is felt that the dissemination of the philosophy and concept of gene conservation to the personal involved in the forestry activities of the country are still inadequate

  14. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  15. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja-González, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions within the different parts that constitute the system, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convection and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporation of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm-2K-1.

    En este trabajo se describe un modelo bidimensional basado en el método del elemento finito para calcular la distribución de temperaturas en un carro torpedo lleno de arrabio. El modelo determina los gradientes térmicos en condiciones estacionarias y transitorias dentro de las partes que constituyen el sistema considerado, como son cubierta de acero, recubrimientos refractarios, arrabio líquido, escoria y aire. La transferencia de calor en las fases fluidas (arrabio y aire se calcula suponiendo un coeficiente de conductividad térmica aparente que incorpora las contribuciones por convección y radiación y está afectado por las dimensiones del recipiente. El conocimiento de los gradientes térmicos permite calcular las pérdidas de calor durante la operación del carro. Se encontró que el modelo requiere de la incorporación de una región en la intercara hierro-refractario para reproducir la información termográfica recopilada durante pruebas en planta. El

  16. Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Home Infections Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... included below. Infections Unlikely to be Spread by Swimming Pools Head Lice Head lice are unlikely to ...

  17. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  18. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  19. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  20. Advantages and Applications of CAR-Expressing Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eGlienke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to donor T cells, natural killer (NK cells are known to mediate anti-cancer effects without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In order to improve cytotoxicity against resistant cancer cells, auspicious efforts have been made with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR expressing T- and NK cells. These CAR-modified cells express antigen receptors against tumor-associated surface antigens, thus redirecting the effector cells and enhancing tumor-specific immunosurveillance. However, many cancer antigens are also expressed on healthy tissues, potentially leading to off tumor/ on target toxicity by CAR-engineered cells. In order to control such potentially severe side effects, the insertion of suicide genes into CAR-modified effectors can provide a means for efficient depletion of these cells. While CAR-expressing T cells have entered successfully clinical trials, experience with CAR-engineered NK cells is mainly restricted to pre-clinical investigations and predominantly to NK cell lines. In this review we summarize the data on CAR expressing NK cells focusing on the possible advantage using these short-lived effector cells and discuss the necessity of suicide switches. Furthermore, we address the compliance of such modified NK cells with regulatory requirements as a new field in cellular immunotherapy.