WorldWideScience

Sample records for car ownership railroads

  1. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  2. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  3. A PANEL-DATA SWITCHING REGRESSION-MODEL OF MOBILITY AND CAR OWNERSHIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEURS, H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a panel data model of car ownership and mobility. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for by including correlated random effects in the equations describing car ownership and mobility. A mass-points approach is adopted to control for unobserved heterogene

  4. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  5. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  7. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  8. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car...

  9. Mode of transport to work, car ownership and CO{sub 2} emissions in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunky, V.C. (ETH Zuerich. Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Bundhoo, M.N.; Moco, S.Y. (Mauritius (Mauritius))

    2011-05-15

    Fast economical and demographic revolution in the small island developing state of Mauritius over the last decades has led to an unprecedented rise in private vehicle utilization. In this arena, the cognition of ongoing travel practices and their determinants is sine qua non. This paper examines the determinants of mode of transport, rise in car ownership and its related environmental impacts. We employ cross-section micro-data obtained from our household drop-off survey to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model of transport mode choice coupled with an exhaustive ordinary least squares analysis of carbon emissions. Empirical results indicate that factors such as travel time, expenses and time lost in traffic jam coupled with demographic and socio-economic characteristics such as age of individual and household income have profound upshots on transport mode decisions. On the other hand, fuel type, residential distance from work and age of individual displays statistically significant impacts on carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  10. Mind shift, mode shift: a lifestyle approach to reducing car ownership and use based on behavioural economics and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen; Caisey, Vivienne

    2010-05-01

    This paper sets out a new approach to the Wicked Problems of obesity and climate change, and the linked and causative Wicked Problem of increasing car ownership and use. Policies to bring about modal shift from car dependence to forms of transport that cause lower emissions, and are less obesogenic, are conventionally based on framing car use as an externality to be addressed by policies such as taxation or regulation. These policies have been hampered by the reluctance of politicians and policymakers to countenance electoral risk by impinging on the individual's perceived right to personal mobility. This paper's approach combines insights and methods from behavioural economics and social marketing: it shifts the focus by considering car ownership and use not as an externality to be addressed in the aggregate, but as the product of individual behaviours and lifestyle choices. Behavioural economics can help to uncover the motivations, heuristics and cognitive biases behind such behaviours. Social marketing builds on the premise that people will only change their behaviour if they are sufficiently motivated to do so. It can be used to design interventions which help sectors of the population make transport choices that are more optimal--both for the individuals concerned and for all of us who are affected by these Wicked Problems.

  11. 上海市有轨电车系统布局规划研究%Research on Shanghai Railroad Car System Distribution Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安锋; 李东屹; 马士江

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, the railroad car system plays a role in the rail transport system. Focusing on the railroad car system, the paper analyzes its development history and requirements, functional orientation, technical features, and also its adaptability in urban area. Besides, combining with case studies both inside China and abroad and also according to the idea “3 merge into 1” of the Shanghai Prospective Planning of Rail Transport Network, the planning of railroad car in Shanghai is researched. Thirdly, associated with the railroad network planning in Songjiang, Jiading and Nanqiao new cities, the paper analyzes the development orientation and scale of railroad car system in public transport system in new cities.%现代有轨电车系统是轨道交通系统的组成部分。通过对现代有轨电车的发展历程、发展需求、功能定位以及技术性能特征和在城市中的适应性分析,结合国内外应用案例分析,按照上海市远景轨道交通网络发展规划提出的“三网融合”的规划理念,对全市现代有轨电车布局规划进行研究。并以松江新城、嘉定新城和南桥新城现代有轨电车网络规划和示范线工作为契机,对现代有轨电车在新城公共交通体系中的发展导向和发展规模进行分析。

  12. 78 FR 13747 - Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity of Underground Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety: Advisory Notice Related to Railroad Accidents in Vicinity... operators of rail accidents occurring in railroad rights-of-way where pipelines are present and the need to... 114 cars, 19 of which derailed. All of the derailed cars were tank cars carrying denatured...

  13. Car ownership motivations among undergraduate students in China, Indonesia, Japan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Taiwan, and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belgiawan, P. F.; Schmöcker, J. -D; Abou-Zeid, M.; Walker, J.; Lee, T. -C; Ettema, D. F.; Fujii, S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘‘Peak car’’ and related discussions suggest that especially younger people (age cohort until 30) have less desire to drive and purchase cars. This might though only be true for a limited range of developed countries. This study aims to understand the role of personal background and the country cont

  14. Relationship between level of economic development and motorcycle and car ownerships and their impacts on fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    An increase in road vehicles secondary to economic development has strongly pushed up energy demand and adversely impact the environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and pollutants. This paper aims to analyse the relationship between motorcycle and car ownerships and level of economic development in Thailand. In addition, an overall private vehicle ownership which is a sum of both types of private vehicle ownership is also studied. An understanding of these relationships due to the economic development is a key knowledge for the sustainable transport policy in the future. The results of this study revealed that at the early stage of economic development of developing countries like Thailand, the number of motorcycles predominates over private cars. Economic development strongly affects the ownership of private vehicles in two ways: (1) overall private vehicle ownerships increase as the income levels grow and (2) after personal income grows up to a certain level, people will shift from motorcycle to car ownerships for their prestige, convenience, comfort and safety. Because of continuing economic development and population growth, the expected increase in overall private vehicle ownership is projected to push up the total private vehicle stock of Thailand in the year 2050 to about twice of the present level. This will drive fuel demands in 2050 to about 2.4 times, and the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission to about 2.5 times of the current levels. Hence, policy makers in developing countries should not overlook the impacts on the consequences of increasing overall private vehicle stock in the near future. The best and most appropriate policies should be given to the development of public transport as the first priority rather than the traditional one, which gives highest priority to traffic mobility of private vehicles by road transport neglecting the effectiveness of passengers' mobility of the public transport. In addition, policies to promote high

  15. The motivation underlying adolescents׳ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: A socio-ecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    of deductive–inductive thematic narrative analysis based on the socio-ecological approach. The results show three groups in line with the market-diffusion model: intended early car users, intended early license holders and later car users, and intended late license holders and car users. The first group...

  16. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  17. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  18. Car ownership and status. Implications for fuel efficiency policies from the viewpoint of theories of happiness and welfare economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Free University Amsterdam, Department of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Wee, B. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Research on 'happiness' suggests that once an average per capita income of around US$10,000 is achieved in a country, further increases in income will not lead to a significant increase in happiness. Additional income will probably often be spent on the satisfaction of mainly 'relative' needs, of which 'status goods' would be one example. From that perspective, an overall shift to more fuel-efficient cars (i.e. smaller cars with less power) would not necessarily, or only to a limited extent, result in less happiness. From a welfare economic perspective, the satisfaction of the relative needs pertaining to consumption can be considered as a form of consumption externalities. This creates a welfare economic basis for government intervention. A model in which these consumption externalities are studied is presented here. Government intervention would include stimulating consumption of lower-status goods and discouraging consumption of higher-status ones. We speculate, however, that to achieve a significant increase in the fuel efficiency of a country's car fleet through pricing policies, huge price increases may often be needed. As acceptance of price increases as a policy instrument is often low, 'fee-bates' and tradeable permits may be more preferable instruments. 36 refs.

  19. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  20. 城市空气质量与汽车保有量的相关性分析%The Analysis on Correlation for Urban Air Quality and Car Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盛强; 刘世婧; 刘志敏

    2011-01-01

    中国汽车产业面临着如何处理产业发展与环境保护的关系。通过搜集、整理、分析国内外相关数据,对城市空气质量与汽车保有量是否存在相关关系进行定量和定性分析,并提出建议。分析结果表明,中国汽车保有量与城市空气质量不存在相关关系,城市空气质量受汽车保有量的影响度较弱。%China's auto industry is confronting with how to deal with the relationship between industrial development and environmental protection.Analyzing domestic and overseas data quantitatively and qualitatively to confirm whether there is correlativity between car ownership and urban air quality and make suggestions.Analysis' result shows that there is no correlativity between car ownership and urban air quality in China.Car ownership has a weaker influence on urban air quality.

  1. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    , especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  2. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  3. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... technological advancements and ergonomic design standards for new ] car construction and ensuring that modern... incorporating modern ergonomic design standards and technological advancements in construction. II. Statutory... railroad. Many of the modern railcar types that are presently being built to handle railroad traffic do...

  4. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  5. [Effects of selected factors on the degree of psychomotor efficiency of welders in a railroad car factory with automated work stations (robots)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszkiewicz, T; Andrzejak, R; Gosk, A; Smolik, R

    1992-01-01

    The study of 64 welders employed at automated work stands in the railway car factory conducted in 1989 and 1990 has shown that the psychomotor efficiency level in the examined workers (except for a few cases) was normal. The psychomotor efficiency of the welders studied depended on their age, work day phase and, to a small degree, on the detected biochemical and toxicological disorders.

  6. Employee ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview over some theory and empirical evidence on employee ownership and other forms of employee financial participation and answers the following questions: What is employee ownership and what is the relation to other forms of financial participation? Why is employee ownership widespread in some developed market economies like US and in Italy, France and Spain, while it has a quite rare occurrence in the Scandinavian countries? What are the conditions favouring and what...

  7. Otomobil Sahipliğini Etkileyen Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi: Tokat İli Kentsel Alanda Bir Uygulama(Identifying the Factors Affecting the Car Ownership: A Case Study in Urban Areas of the Province of Tokat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüştü YAYAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beğenmeli mal kapsamında ifade edilen otomobillerin tüketiciler tarafından satın alınma evresi uzun bir dönemi kapsayabilmektedir. Otomobil satın alımının yüksek maliyet içermesi, tüketiciler tarafından dikkat edilen en önemli risk unsurlarından birisidir. Küreselleşen dünya ile birlikte otomotiv sektörü günden güne gelişim göstermektedir. Yine Türkiye’de otomotiv sektörü yıllar itibariyle değişim göstermiş ve güçlü bir evrim geçirmiştir. Otomobil markaları, Türkiye’deki otomobil kullanıcılarına yönelik en uygun otomobilleri üretme çabasına girmişlerdir. Türkiye’de ekonominin büyümesine paralel olarak otomobile olan talebin artması sebebiyle otomobil sahipliğinin hangi değişkenlere göre farklılık göstereceği araştırılmak istenmiştir. Bu nedenle Tokat ili kentsel alanda ikamet eden 438 ailenin otomobil sahibi olup olmadıkları incelenmiştir. Otomobil sahipliğini belirleyen sosyoekonomik ve demografik faktörlerin neler olduğu ve bu faktörlerin tüketicilerin otomobil sahibi olup olmamalarını etkileme dereceleri araştırılmıştır. Çalışmada Binary Logit Modeli kullanılmıştır. Modelde aile reisinin erkek, esnaf, yüksek gelirli, ev sahibi ve kredi kartının bulunması değişkenleri istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olup otomobil sahipliğini olumlu yönde etkilediği bulunmuştur. The purchase period of cars expressed within the scope of preferred goods can involve a long period. Car purchase’s including high cost is one of the most important risk factors considered by the consumers. Along with the globalizing world, automotive sector has been developing day by day. In Turkey, the automotive sector has changed in years, and has had an influential evolution. The automobile brands have led to drive for producing the most appropriate cars for the automobile users. In parallel to the growth of economy in Turkey, it was aimed to investigate according to what reasons

  8. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... advancements and ergonomic design standards for new car construction and ensure that modern rail equipment... incorporating modern ergonomic design standards and technological advancements in construction. II. Statutory... railroad. Many of the modern railcar types that are presently being built to handle railroad traffic do...

  9. 78 FR 60375 - Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rogue Valley Terminal Railroad Corporation--Corporate Family..., has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for a corporate family transaction in which Rogue Valley will transfer ownership of track and right-of-way of a line of railroad...

  10. 78 FR 54849 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... existing general service tank cars authorized for transportation of denatured fuel ethanol and crude oil in... standard for tank cars used to transport crude oil, denatured alcohol and ethanol/gasoline mixtures as well... Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  11. Car ownership, car use and status. A consideration of policy aimed at efficient cars on the basis of happiness theories and the welfare economy; Autobezit, autogebruik en status. Een beschouwing van beleid gericht op zuiniger auto`s vanuit gelukstheorieen en de welvaartseconomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wee, G.P. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-11-01

    After a certain ceiling has been reached (i.e. around $ 10,000), an increase in average income in any one country will not lead to increased personal happiness. Such additional earnings are, in all probability, expended rather on satisfying relative needs. Cars with a low fuel efficiency (big cars, and cars with powerful engines) possibly satisfy more relative needs than absolute needs. This is why a general trend towards more economical vehicles does not or hardly leads to a reduction in contentment: relative needs satisfaction, coupled with the status aspect, does not need to suffer from this. lt is the satisfying of relative needs and the emergence of status effects in consumption that is responsible for inefficient market functioning because of the occurrence of consumption externalities. There is therefore a welfare economic argument for adhering to a regulatory policy in which the consumption of relatively low status goods is encouraged while the consumption of relatively high status goods is discouraged. In view of the sharp price increases required to make the national car volume substantially more economical and in order to survive the considerable resistance that will be put up to such price rises, it might be preferable to introduce policies like `fee-bates` or negotiable rights rather than to wield price policies directed at effecting a trend in the direction of more economical car usage. 24 refs.

  12. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  13. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  14. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  15. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  16. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital; (2) The evacuation of a passenger train; (3) Damage to a tank car or container resulting in...) Accidents involving joint operations must be reported by the railroad that controls the track and directs... is required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section occurs in a remote area, the time limits...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  18. Railroad Lines, Railroads, Published in 2007, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroads'. Data by this publisher are often...

  19. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  20. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  1. 基于道路容量、建筑量、汽车保有量的拥堵指数敏感性分析%Congestion Index Sensitivity Analysis Based on Road Network Capacity, Building Volume and Car Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文; 高洪振; 张铁岩; 胡倩

    2015-01-01

    为研究道路容量、建筑量及汽车保有量对交通拥堵的敏感程度,提出以拥堵指数作为评价敏感程度的指标。以青岛市东岸城区为例,根据行政区划及功能布局将东岸城区划分为12个中区,依托EMME4软件平台,以土地利用资料和道路网为基础,对每个中区的道路容量、建筑量和汽车保有量的现状及发展趋势进行统计分析,得出这3个因素同拥堵指数的内在关系。分别进行单一因素及不同组合因素下不同程度的增量变化,得到不同条件下的拥堵指数变化率。结果表明,三者对道路拥堵的敏感性强弱顺序依次为:汽车增量、道路容量增量、建筑增量。采取单一措施,路网拥堵情况改善不明显,采取组合措施后的路网拥堵改善效果优于采取单一措施。因此,通过合理控制汽车和建筑规模增长,同时改善道路交通设施,增加道路容量,可以有效改善道路拥堵状况。%In order to study the sensitivity of road network capacity, building volume and car ownership to traffic congestion, the congestion index was put forward as the evaluation index of sensitivity. The east⁃ern district in Qingdao was divided into twelve medium-sized traffic zones according to the administra⁃tive division and the layout of urban functions. Relied on EMME4 software platform, based on the data of land use and road network, the present situation and development trend of road network capacity, build⁃ing volume and car ownership in each medium-sized traffic zone were subjected to statistical analysis and their inherent relations with congestion index were concluded. The corresponding change rate of con⁃gestion index under different conditions became clear after the incremental changes of single factor as well as different combination of factors were analyzed respectively. The study indicates that the sensitivi⁃ty to congestion increase gradually in the sequence

  2. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  3. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  4. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  5. ‘We are the future’: understanding adolescents’ intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car-ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control; (ii) cycling intentions are positively related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions...

  6. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    and age are found to influence ownership status. Furthermore, some support is found for financial motives outweighing non-financial motives behind share purchases in minority employee-owned firms relative to majority employee-owned firms. Internal barriers to ownership, together with a lack of funds....... This work sets the stage for a focus on this form of ownership at the individual level of analysis, involving both conceptual and empirical explorations. Together, this constitutes three papers, put together with introductory and concluding chapters. The first thesis paper identifies the drivers of...... surrounding share acquisition, are less common at this level of analysis and this is the where the paper contributes to the literature. In order to conduct the empirical analysis, original material is gathered from six case study firms, the details of which are presented within the paper. Income, tenure...

  7. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  8. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before...

  9. Psychological Ownership and Ownership Markers in Collaborative Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Ying

    2010-01-01

    Ownership is a fundamental human concern. It has been explored by various disciplines and within a variety of contexts. However, previous ownership researches focus primarily on physical objects such as toys, houses and stamps, while almost no research has been conducted about the psychological ownership toward digital entities. This dissertation…

  10. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  11. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... when injected at standard industry rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's..., allergies, head colds, smoking, or the recent use of alcohol or drugs. Colorimetric tube testing and the...

  12. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult...

  13. Ownership as a Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  14. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  15. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  16. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  17. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  18. A Method for Eletric Vehicle Ownership Forecast Considering Different Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwu Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of electric vehicles (EVs charging station needs to be planed according to the ownership of EVs, traffic condition, population etc. Therefore a BP neural network based method to forecast the EV ownership for a city is presented in the paper, which considers the influence on the EV ownership caused by many related economy factors, including GDP of a city, vehicle production, per capita crude steel production, per capita generation capacity, road passenger traffic, highway mileage and the total population.  A BP neural network is set up for the forecast of EV ownership, and the input layer contains seven neutrons, which represent different economic factors. There are three neurons in its hidden layer, and the output is the EV ownership.  Then the method to predict the EV ownership of a city is presented, which is based on the forecast of the civilian car ownership in a city and the country. The EV ownership in the city of Chongqing from the year 2013 to 2020 is predicted, and the accuracy of the model is verified firstly, then the EV ownership in Chongqing is obtained, which is helpful to make plans for the development of electric vehicle.

  19. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  20. Is employee ownership so senseless ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Nicolas; Bernard, Grand; Lapied, André; Rousseau, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Since Enron and the ruin of thousands of its employees, employee ownership is harshly criticized. Investing savings in employer's stock would be equivalent to bet on only one asset. Moreover, employee ownership's debated efficiency would not justify employers to grant company stock to their employees. Still, employee ownership is put in place by thousands of companies and withhold by millions of employees throughout the world. This paper considers a moral hazard setting where a risk neutral e...

  1. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  2. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  3. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  4. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  5. Railroad Lines, Railroads, Published in 2007, Not Applicable scale, Dunn County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroads'....

  6. Railroad Lines, Railroad ROW, Published in 2009, Polk County Assessor's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroad ROW'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Albers...

  7. Railroad Lines, Railroads (vacated also), Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroads (vacated also)'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  8. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  9. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, wherein R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company) seeks to lease from RJC Railroad Property and to operate...

  10. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  11. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.17 - Railroad facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad facilities. 1917.17 Section 1917.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.17 Railroad facilities. (a) Work shall...

  13. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... .02 or greater but less than .04. (12) Information concerning the effects of alcohol misuse on an..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must...

  14. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...... to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...... or family ownership. The paper considers and tests alternative explanations of this paradox. Explanations based on tax incentives, alternative control mechanisms and product-market advantages are rejected, but some support is found for performance advantages related to family control and long term business...

  15. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  16. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels (Generalized)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  17. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  18. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  19. Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Jackman, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Throughout the United States, the probability of home ownership is considerably lower for Blacks than for Whites who are comparable in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, family composition, and location. Outside the South, Black owner-occupied homes are worth considerably less than the homes of comparable Whites. (Author/GC)

  20. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  1. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... on Mack H. Shumate, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad Company, Law Department, 101 North Wacker Drive, Room... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice...

  2. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R... acquisition transaction is related to the notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35364, R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-- Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC, in which R....

  3. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  4. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  5. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  6. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  7. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg...... effect and result in lower earnings management or cause entrenchment effect and result in higher earnings management....... of the largest shareholder and identity of the largest shareholder) on earnings management in Morocco. Using annual estimates of discretionary accruals, we document that the presence of institutions as the largest shareholder has a negative impact on earnings management. Our results show that firms with foreign...... or local institutions as the largest shareholders engage in significantly lower earnings management than other firms. Our results are consistent with prior literature that considers institutions – which have greater resources, more sophistication than individual investors, and more relevant expertise...

  8. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  9. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  10. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad... from R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and operate approximately 42...

  11. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  12. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  13. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  14. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  15. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  16. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, LandOwnership, Published in 2004, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'LandOwnership'. Data by this publisher...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels and Ownership, Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It is described as 'Parcels and Ownership'. This data...

  19. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  20. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  1. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  2. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  3. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  4. Railroad Lines, Railroad-The data set is a line feature representing railroad tracks. It was created to maintain the location of the railroad., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1991. It is described as 'Railroad-The data set is a line feature...

  5. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  6. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  7. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  8. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... indexing methodology insures that railroads are classified based on real business expansion and not...

  9. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland-Munch, Jakob; Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  10. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  11. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences...

  12. 47 CFR 73.855 - Ownership limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership limits. 73.855 Section 73.855 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.855 Ownership limits. (a) No authorization for an...

  13. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    differential. Both white and blue collar workers as well as skilled and unskilled employees obtain a foreign ownership wage premium. Foreign ownership premia are more prevalent in older and less technologically advanced firms. Joint estimation of productivity and wage equations show that, controlling for human...

  14. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  15. Ownership and Control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Abe; Kabir, Rezaul; Marra, Teye; Röell, Ailsa

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership and control structures of Dutch listed companies. Legislation effective since 1992 mandates all shareholders with holdings of 5 percent or more in Dutch companies to disclose their holdings. Our analysis shows that the average ownership stakes of the largest and the thr

  16. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2009 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2009 cost...

  17. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  18. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  19. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital for 2012. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2012...

  20. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  1. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  2. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) at milepost 426.88 in Gurdon, Ark. and milepost 429.5 north of... transaction from those listed in the emergency service proceeding involving the same line. See Ark. Midland...

  3. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom (city),...

  4. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  5. Soviet Railroad Troops: An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Lecture presented at the United States Army Russian Institute, 6 December 1979. 39S. Troyan , "Baikal-Amur Railroad, A Road of Courage", Soviet Military...34. (Bridges On The BAM) Tyl i Snabzheniye, No. 9, 1979, pp.27-28. "Transport zimoy". (Transport In Winter) Pravda, 24 January 1978, p.1 . Troyan , S

  6. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  7. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  8. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  9. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  10. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  11. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  12. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  13. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  14. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  15. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  16. Mental activity and the sense of ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2015-01-01

    I introduce and defend the notion of a cognitive account of the sense of ownership. A cognitive account of the sense of ownership holds that one experiences something as one's own only if one thinks of something as one's own. By contrast, a phenomenal account of the sense of ownership holds...... that one can experience something as one's own without thinking about anything as one's own. I argue that we have no reason to favour phenomenal accounts over cognitive accounts, that cognitive accounts are plausible given that much of our mental activity has unnoticed effects on our mental life......, and that certain illusory experiences of body ownership sometimes described as thought-independent may be best explained as imaginative perceptual experiences....

  17. Employee Ownership, Employee Attitudes, and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Kruse; Joseph Blasi

    1995-01-01

    Employee ownership in U.S. companies has grown substantially in the past 20 years. This paper reviews and provides some meta-analyses on the accumulated evidence concerning the prevalence, causes, and effects of employee ownership, covering 25 studies of employee attitudes and behaviors, and 27 studies of productivity and profitability (with both cross-sectional and pre/post comparisons). Attitudinal and behavioral studies tend to find higher employee commitment among employee-owners but mixe...

  18. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  19. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA.

  20. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  1. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  2. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  3. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  4. Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

    The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and

  5. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  6. 75 FR 4904 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  7. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: FRA is updating its announcement of the RSAC Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR FURTHER...

  8. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  9. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  10. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  11. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  12. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  13. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  14. 49 CFR 1.49 - Delegations to Federal Railroad Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in freight rates and passenger fares for the Alaska Railroad, without power to redelegate authority for general changes in freight rates and passenger fares. (j) Promote and undertake research and... by the Crime Control Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-647) as it relates to a railroad police...

  15. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  16. 42 CFR 405.2444 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporation into the center corporation does not constitute change of ownership.) (3) Leasing. The lease of... applicable health and safety standards. (2) Compliance with the ownership and financial interest...

  17. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  18. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  19. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  20. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  1. 77 FR 73461 - Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... concerning ownership of commercial television, radio, Class A television, and low-power television stations... the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations, which provides detailed information by race, ethnicity, and gender concerning ownership of commercial...

  2. Analysis of Technology Ownership and Selective Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Downs, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Extent of technology ownership and use has been documented for teens and even pre-teens. However, little is known as to whether such ownership and use patterns change over time. This study examined these issues by surveying a sample of undergraduates as to their ownership and selective use of technology. Compared to teens, undergraduates had…

  3. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the sor

  4. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...

  5. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in particula

  6. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...

  7. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  8. Exploring Ownership in a Developmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Keil, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Ownership and economic behaviors are highly salient elements of the human social landscape. Indeed, the human world is literally constructed of property. Individuals perceive and manipulate a complex web of people and property that is largely invisible and abstract. In this chapter, the authors focus on drawing together information from a variety…

  9. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  10. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  11. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

  12. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...... region during the period between 2004 and 2008, we document that ownership concentration, as itself, may not have a significant impact on firm performance. It is, rather, the way concentrated firms govern themselves that determine their performance. We argue that concentrated ownership firms, being aware...... of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We...

  13. Railroad Lines, Railroads within Sedgwick County. Primary attribute is railroad name. Names are provided as annotation also., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Railroads...

  14. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a)...

  15. 20 CFR 330.4 - Last railroad employment in the base year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Last railroad employment in the base year. 330.4 Section 330.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.4 Last railroad employment in the...

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  17. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  18. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello;

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body...... conclude by providing a preliminary synthesis of the data on bodily self-consciousness and its neural correlates.......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction...

  19. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  20. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  1. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  2. PTSD in railroad drivers under the Federal employers' liability act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Farrell, J Michael

    2006-01-01

    Railroad and subway drivers can experience psychological trauma when trains strike or nearly miss other trains, motor vehicles, or persons or become instruments of death. Derailments, collisions, and suicides on the tracks can induce feelings of helplessness, horror, guilt, and anxiety in the drivers. Although some drivers experience acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their conditions are not always acknowledged within the occupational setting. The world literature suggests that PTSD has been an increasing focus of concern, giving rise to detailed intervention protocols. In the United States, the Federal Employers' Liability Act (FELA) governs the adjudication of work-related injuries among railroad employees. In practice, it is difficult for railroad drivers with PTSD to receive benefits if there was no "direct impact" linked to the employer's negligence. In this article, the authors review the literature on PTSD among railroad drivers, discuss relevant case law, and explain how the FELA militates against some employees with PTSD.

  3. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  4. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  5. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  6. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  7. Cars Spectroscopy of Propellant Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Harris, K. Aron, and J. Fendell "N2 and 00 Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational CARS Spectroscopy of CHI/N20 Flames," Proceedings of the Nineteenth...JANNAF Combustion Meeting, CIIA Publication No. 366, 1982, p 123. 21. K. Aron, L. E. Harris, and J. Fendell , "N and CO Vibrational CARS and H2 Rotational...9 6 5 . p 3 8 4 . . . . . 23. J. Fendell , L. E, Harris, and K. Aron, "Theoretical Calculation of 11 CARS S-Branches for Propellant Flames

  8. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  9. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  10. Environmental effects of vintage cars; Milieueffecten van oldtimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, A.; Traa, M.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Hilbers, H. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Ligterink, N.; Kuiper, E. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    A quick scan has been carried out on the emissions of vintage cars and the contribution that environmental zones for oldtimers can make to achieve European air quality standards. Also, an estimate is made of the impact of the current tax exemption for oldtimers on air quality. A brief overview is given of the current policy and recent policy changes for vintage cars, trends and developments with regard to ownership and use of oldtimers. Next, the approach to arrive at a forecast for 2015 is described, as well as the approach to assess the effect of an environmental zone for vintage cars [Dutch] Er is een quick scan uitgevoerd naar de uitstoot van oldtimers en de bijdrage die milieuzones voor oldtimers kunnen leveren voor het behalen van de Europese luchtkwaliteitsnormen. Ook is een inschatting gemaakt van het effect op de luchtkwaliteit van de huidige vrijstelling van de motorrijtuigenbelasting voor oldtimers. Deze notitie betreft een quickscan. Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van het huidige beleid en de recente beleidswijzigingen voor oldtimers, trends en ontwikkelingen in het bezit en gebruik van oldtimers in de afgelopen jaren. Vervolgens wordt de aanpak beschreven om tot een prognose voor 2015 te komen, evenals de aanpak bij de inschatting van het effect van een milieuzone voor oldtimers. In hoofdstuk 5 volgen de resultaten.

  11. The Systemic, Long-run Relation among Gasoline Demand, Gasoline Price, Income, and Vehicle Ownership in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Brantley

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes gasoline consumption per capita, income (GDP per capita), gasoline price, and car ownership per capita for a panel of OECD countries by employing panel unit root and cointegration testing, panel Dynamic and Fully Modified OLS estimations, and panel Granger-causality tests. The four variables are determined to be panel I(1) and cointegrated. Estimated long-run and short-run income elasticities are smaller than what typically had been found previously. Lastly, gasoline consu...

  12. Railroad Lines, Railroad Lines, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Columbia County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000. It is described as...

  13. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  14. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  15. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  16. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  17. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  18. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michel G.; Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J 73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  19. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  20. The social disutility of software ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David M

    2011-09-01

    Software ownership allows the owner to restrict the distribution of software and to prevent others from reading the software's source code and building upon it. However, free software is released to users under software licenses that give them the right to read the source code, modify it, reuse it, and distribute the software to others. Proponents of free software such as Richard M. Stallman and Eben Moglen argue that the social disutility of software ownership is a sufficient justification for prohibiting it. This social disutility includes the social instability of disregarding laws and agreements covering software use and distribution, inequality of software access, and the inability to help others by sharing software with them. Here I consider these and other social disutility claims against withholding specific software rights from users, in particular, the rights to read the source code, duplicate, distribute, modify, imitate, and reuse portions of the software within new programs. I find that generally while withholding these rights from software users does cause some degree of social disutility, only the rights to duplicate, modify and imitate cannot legitimately be denied to users on this basis. The social disutility of withholding the rights to distribute the software, read its source code and reuse portions of it in new programs is insufficient to prohibit software owners from denying them to users. A compromise between the software owner and user can minimise the social disutility of withholding these particular rights from users. However, the social disutility caused by software patents is sufficient for rejecting such patents as they restrict the methods of reducing social disutility possible with other forms of software ownership.

  1. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  2. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  3. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  4. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  5. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  6. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may...... be large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...... is discussed and the nonlinear aspects are emphasized. The author explains why it is necessary to reformulate the mathematical problem for calculation of the critical speed due to the nonlinear character of the modelling. It is suggested that another critical speed be defined for a railroad vehicle. It can...

  7. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  8. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  9. Effects of Ownership Rights on Conflicts between Toddler Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined property conflicts in thirty-two 20-and 30-month-old peer dyads during eighteen 40-min play sessions. Ownership influenced conflicts. Both 20- and 30-month-old owners claimed ownership ("mine") and instigated and won property conflicts more often than non-owners. At 30 months, owners also resisted peers' instigations more often…

  10. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  11. 26 CFR 1.468B-9 - Disputed ownership funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not a transferor-claimant uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting and transfers... transferor-claimant using the cash receipts and disbursements method, however, the disputed ownership fund... of a transfer of disputed property to the disputed ownership fund. However, the accrual or receipt...

  12. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  13. "Is This Okay?" Developing Student Ownership in Artmaking through Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sok Hui

    2015-01-01

    When used effectively, feedback promotes student ownership in artmaking by encouraging students to inject originality, persist, and improve. Feedback from teacher, self, and peers can also provide students with motivation. In this article, the author explores her students' understanding of the idea of ownership, observes how feedback…

  14. Ownership of Stocks and Mutual Funds : A Panel Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    In many industrial countries, ownership rates of risky assets have risen substantially over the past decade.This trend has potentially wide-ranging implications for the intertemporal and cross-sectional allocation of risk, and for the macro economy, establishing the need for understanding ownership

  15. 13 CFR 120.475 - Change of ownership or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 120.475 Section 120.475 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.475 Change of ownership or control. (a) Any change... ownership or control is subject to the approval of any State or Federal chartering, licensing, or...

  16. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  17. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-12-31

    The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

  18. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  19. Marketized State Ownership and Foreign Expansion of Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2017-01-01

    direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However......The emergence of marketized shareholders through corporate ownership reform and their impact on the foreign entry of emerging market firms is a critical but understudied issue. Our study investigates the effect of marketized state ownership on emerging market firms' propensity to engage in foreign......, such advantages are likely to vary in magnitude for firms with marketized state ownership at central and local levels of government due to different patterns of corporate restructuring. We predict that such ownership effects are contingent on firms' affiliation to meso-level institutional structures such as state...

  20. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... requirements, either to remedy perceived shortcomings in the railroads' rules to emphasize the importance of... Railroad Passengers (NARP); National Association of Railway Business Women;* National Conference of Firemen... Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc.; Transport Canada;* Transport Workers Union of...

  1. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  2. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  3. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  4. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  5. 78 FR 65422 - Notice of Funding Availability and Solicitation of Applications for Grants Under the Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... estimate total project costs and explain how the affected Class II and Class III railroad will finance the... reporting (described in Appendices 1 and 2). 8. For the railroad(s) operating on the infrastructure proposed... estimate site and right(s)-of-way acquisition costs (this includes purchase, lease, and/or easements)....

  6. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  7. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  8. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  9. 78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco Holdings), Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc. (Watco Railroad), and Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc. (Merger Sub), all noncarriers, have filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) for...

  10. 75 FR 27112 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for the FRA Railroad System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., Attention: Melissa Shurland, Office of Research and Development, Mail Stop 20, Room W36-429, 1200 New Jersey... alternatives to these products. Currently in the railroad industry petroleum-based fuel and lubricants are used... FRA Railroad System Issues Research and Development Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad...

  11. The consumption values' influence on smartphone's ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovcikova, Katarina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to analyze impact of factors on adoption of smartphones using the Theory of Consumption Values framework. The Theory of Consumption Values provides a framework to categorize customer's motives for buying; it divides them into five groups: functional values, social values......, epistemic values, hedonic values and conditional values. This theory was used to investigate the adoption of smartphones among target groups of consumers. Factor analysis was used to generate one factor for each value. The factors were used as independent variables in binary logistic regression, alongside...... age and gender to predict dependent variable The results showed that functional and social values significantly influenced ownership of smartphones. Although in many technology studies, men are found to be higher adopters, impact of gender was not significant in the presented research....

  12. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure......: the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  13. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  14. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  15. The Old Railroad Right-of-Way Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a classroom challenge involving an old railroad right-of-way. Using the knowledge gained via research into what others may have done with utilizing old rail lines, along with team creative efforts, students should begin generating ideas for how to use these land areas. The students might suggest the land areas be used for:…

  16. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  17. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... the productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Deduction From Monthly Benefits § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee... benefits or a civil service annuity, or both. (b) Action when benefits are suspended. If the...

  19. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Equipment and Operation of Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.51 Railroad conveyances... servicing area, toilets shall be kept locked unless means are provided to prevent contamination of the area... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-627), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  1. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  2. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  3. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  4. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  5. Land market in Albania: Unresolved property ownership rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Independence of Albania in 1912, property ownership has gone through major reforms. During communism many agricultural lands were seized by the Agrarian Reform Law. In 1990, with the fall of communism there was a huge demographic movement of people from villages to urban areas, where they settled in lands that were used by the Cooperatives. This created a lot of problems with previous land owners whose land was seized and given to the Cooperativa. Today there is a problem with the rights to property ownership, and legal certificates of ownership.

  6. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease agreement... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35217, must be filed with...

  7. 76 FR 28850 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Operation Exemption-Mohall Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... milepost 67.5, near Calvin. NPR, MHC, and a third Class III rail carrier, Mohall Railroad, Inc., are... segment of its line between milepost 67.5, near Calvin, N.D., and milepost 72.9, at Sarles) and...

  8. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    This paper explores the experiences of different emotions that develop during commuting practices between home and the workplace. In an explorative form, the analyses will elucidate on the various emotional states of the drivers as they drive through different urban and rural landscapes and manages...... different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...

  9. Corporate boards and ownership structure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munisi, Gibson; Hermes, Niels; Randoy, Trond

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure and ownership structure for firms listed on the stock exchanges of twelve Sub-Saharan African countries, using data for the period 2006–2009. We find that ownership concentration, foreign ownership and managerial ownership are negatively a

  10. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  11. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  12. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 237 - Supplemental Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety of Railroad Bridges A Appendix A to Part 237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS... Railroad Bridges A Statement of Agency Policy on the Safety of Railroad Bridges was originally published...

  14. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Evans County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Evans County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gilpin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Gilpin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Mecosta County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Mecosta County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Saginaw County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Saginaw County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kenosha County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kenosha County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rutherford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rutherford County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-03-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ownership of the fake hand and illusory location of touch. We propose that these changes are due to vestibular interference with spatial and/or temporal mechanisms of visual-tactile integration leading to an enhancement of visual capture. As only left anodal GVS lead to such changes, and based on neurological data on body part ownership, we suggest that this vestibular interference is mediated by the right temporo-parietal junction and the posterior insula.

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Howell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Howell County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Slop County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phillips County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phillips County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Humboldt County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Humphreys County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Prowers County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Prowers County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Buffalo County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Buffalo County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Sheridan County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, WY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sheridan County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sherburne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Itawamba County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Izard County, AR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Knott County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Knott County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Pasco County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Pasco County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pasco County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pasquotank County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, SD. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Porter County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Porter County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Story County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Story County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Winnebago County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Winnebago County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Madison County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Madison County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Mineral County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Mineral County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Mineral County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Mineral County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Taos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tate County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Weld County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Webster County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lucas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lowndes County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Loving County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Love County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Love County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Klickitat County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Klickitat County, WA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hoke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hoke County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pulaski County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pulaski County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Sanpete County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Sanpete County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. 15 CFR 971.206 - Statement of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including: (i) Whether the citizen is a natural person, partnership, corporation, joint venture, or other... of the association, partnership, or joint venture, including information about the participation and/or ownership of stock of each partner or joint venturer....

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Lamar County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lamar County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Wheeler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Wheeler County, OR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Campbell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Campbell County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Campbell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Campbell County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Colbert County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Colbert County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Walker County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Cerro Gordo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to...

  19. >Problems and Countermeasures of Collective Land Ownership Disputes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; QIAO; Kening; WU; Hongjuan; WANG; Qi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, No.1 document of central government demanded strengthening mediation and settlement of ownership of rural collective land, to complete confirmation of right and registration and issue of certificate of rural collective land in 3 years. However, the mediation and settlement of land ownership in China still remain at starting stage, and there are many problems in both theory and practice. In this situation, this paper summarizes current situations of disputes about ownership of collective land in Beijing, analyzes causes of disputes, introduces existing working mechanism, methods and problems of dispute mediation and settlement, and finally presents feasible recommendations, in the hope of providing guidance for mediation and settlement of land ownership disputes.

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sampson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sampson County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Schuyler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Schuyler County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sabine Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sabine Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sabine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sabine County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Huntington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Huntington County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, OBrien County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally O'brien County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hancock County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hancock County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Montgomery County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Montgomery County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Lee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lee County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greene County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greene County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Carroll County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Carroll County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Calhoun County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Calhoun County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Warren County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Warren County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Coles County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coles County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cole County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cole County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limestone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limstone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gentry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally George County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gentry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Gentry County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Becker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Becker County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Hernando County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Hernando County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conejos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conejos County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Crawford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Crawford County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Shelby County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Shelby County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pocahontas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pocahontas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Scott County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Scott County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Madison County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Madison County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ida County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ida County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Johnson County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Poweshiek County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Poweshiek County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Henry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Henry County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Codington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coffee County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Christian County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Christian County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Christian County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Christian County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Esmeralda City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Esmeralda County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Macon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Macon County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Tangipahoa Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tangipahoa Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pitkin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pitkin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Armstrong County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Armstrong County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Honolulu County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Honolulu County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kauai County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kauai County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Maui County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Maui County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Churchill County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Churchill County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kent County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kent County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Kent County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Kent County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ritchie County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ritchie County, WV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jasper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jasper County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Andrew County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Andrew County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Harper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Harper County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Newton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Newton County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Benson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Benson County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Darke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Darke County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Garfield County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Garfield County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Yampa coal field land status and Federal mineral ownership (yamowng)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and unioned polygon ownership coverage used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conway County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conway County, AR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Parke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Parke County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Otoe County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Otoe County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Washington County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Texas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Texas County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greer County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greer County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Norton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Norton County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Norton City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Norton City County, VA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ow...

  12. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  13. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women

    OpenAIRE

    Mwabu Germano M; Nganda Benjamin; Sambo Luis G; Kirigia Joses M; Chatora Rufaro; Mwase Takondwa

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-secti...

  14. Mapping Strategy, Structure, Ownership and Performance in European Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin; Colli, Andrea; de Jong, Abe

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the histo......This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes...

  15. Robust copyright protection using multiple ownership watermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Lee, In-Kwon

    2015-02-01

    Generally, conventional transform (DWT and DFT, etc.) -based watermarking techniques provide only one spectrum plane for embedding the watermark, thus the embedding watermark information can be easily removed. To solve this problem, we propose an efficient cellular automata (CA) based watermarking method that CA transform (CAT) with various gateway values can provide many transform planes for watermark embedding according to various CA rules. In this paper, multiple ownership watermarks are first recorded in the form of an elemental image array (EIA), simultaneously, and then the recorded EIA as the watermark data is embedded into the CAT coefficient. An additional advantage of this proposed method is that EIA is composed of many elemental images and each elemental image has its own property of watermarks. Even though most data of elemental images are lost, the watermarks can be reconstructed from the remaining elemental images successfully. Experimental results show that the proposed technique provides good image quality and is robust in varying degree to some image processing attacks.

  16. Impact of the Ownership Structure on Corporate Management in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieieva Nataliia E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses impact of the ownership structure on corporate management in the engineering industry of Ukraine. In order to detect impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management the article uses general scientific and special methods of study: method of critical analysis and generalisation of theoretical studies, comparison method and statistical method. Analysis of engineering enterprises confirmed availability of impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management. The article also shows that the engineering industry of Ukraine is characterised with the concentrated ownership structure, which has the following features: restriction of rights of minority shareholders with respect to management and control in a joint stock company; availability of corporate conflicts between majority and minority shareholders; availability of intense control of owners over management, which influences efficiency of making managerial decisions; hired managers and enterprise employees have no possibility to acquire stock of a joint stock company including in the form of bonuses and incentives; the controlling owner is interested in efficient activity of the enterprise and tries to create necessary conditions for this. The conducted studies give a possibility to establish that a share of stock that belongs to a hired executive body is smaller in those joint stock companies in which concentration of ownership is higher. The article also shows that the higher ownership concentration the higher is the probability that the owner would be a part of controlling bodies.

  17. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  18. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  19. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  20. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  1. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  2. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  3. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  4. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also included in this article.

  5. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also incl...

  6. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  7. 上海市小客车管理政策研究%Policies on Passenger Car Management in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛美根; 程杰; 朱洪; 邵丹

    2014-01-01

    Managing passenger car ownership is one of key elements of urban transportation policies. With the new edition of“Shanghai Metropolitan Transportation White Paper”, this paper discusses car man-agement policies in Shanghai. By briefly reviewing the policy evolution process of the city’s license plate auctions, the paper analyzes the implementation results of related policies on car management, and particu-larly examines several problems facing the car management policies. Based on the survey on the potential car ownership growth, and a study on urban roadway network as well as the environment tolerance in Shanghai, the paper proposes a cap on the car ownership growth. Finally, the paper provides suggestions on the car management policies and development in several aspects:adjustments on auction quota system, non-local vehicle travel control, parking demand management, and economic and environmental strategies.%小客车管理政策是城市交通政策的核心内容之一,结合上海市新一轮交通发展白皮书的编制对相关政策进行研究。简要回顾了上海市小客车额度拍卖政策的演进历程,在综合分析小客车管理相关政策实施效果基础上,重点分析了小客车管理政策面临的问题。对上海市小客车增长的潜在需求进行调查和分析,结合城市路网容量和环境容量研究,提出上海市小客车的增长容量限制。最后,从额度拍卖政策调整、外省市号牌车辆通行管理、停车需求管理、经济和环境策略等方面提出上海市小客车管理政策的优化建议和发展方向。

  8. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  9. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  10. 9 CFR 71.6 - Carrier responsible for cleaning and disinfecting of railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate transportation of cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, or other animals affected with, or..., bovine foot rot, brucellosis, ram epididymitis, ringworm, infectious keratitis, and arthritis...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shared facilities. 8. Showering facilities. (a) Showering facilities should be provided in the following.... Consumption of food and beverages on the premises. (a) Application. This paragraph should apply only...

  12. 9 CFR 95.26 - Railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent available chlorine) in the proportion of one pound to three gallons of water; or any one of the... and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers, yards, and premises; cleaning and disinfection... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO...

  13. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  14. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  15. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  16. Coal-bed methane in Alberta : ownership and incidental production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A.

    2006-04-05

    Some of the challenges facing the emerging coal-bed methane (CBM) industry in Alberta include concerns regarding water protection, compression noise, well spacing and fracturing issues. One of the most fundamental questions regarding CBM is who in fact owns the resource and what rules oversee its production. The characteristics, development potential and origins of split title ownership of CBM in North America were examined in this paper. The history of freehold and Crown-owned land and the law regarding ownership and incidental production of petroleum, natural gas and bitumen in split-title situations were reviewed. The legal status of CBM in other jurisdictions was also examined. The issues of ownership and incidental production in Alberta were also discussed. The basic common law ownership principles regarding mineral ownership were applied to the characteristics of CBM in situ to conclude its possible owner in Alberta. The extension of established incidental mineral production principles to CBM were examined in the context of its characteristics. The official governmental position on CBM issues and the prospect of future legislative intervention were identified and the implications for industry and resource companies were also presented. The paper presented several recommendations including that Alberta should legislate to eliminate any right of recovery for historical or current venting of CBM during coal mining in order to remove a cloud of uncertainty over the industry. refs.

  17. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  18. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  19. The Impact of Employer Attitude to Green Commuting Plans on Reducing Car Driving: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing car trips and promoting green commuting modes are generally considered important solutions to reduce the increase of energy consumption and transportation CO2 emissions. One potential solution for alleviating transportation CO2 emissions has been to identify a role for the employer through green commuter programs. This paper offers an approach to assess the effects of employer attitudes towards green commuting plans on commuter mode choice and the intermediary role car ownership plays in the mode choice decision process. A mixed method which extends the traditional discrete choice model by incorporating latent variables and mediating variables with a structure equation model was used to better understand the commuter mode choice behaviour. The empirical data were selected from Washington-Baltimore Regional Household Travel Survey in 2007-2008, including all the trips from home to workplace during the morning hours. The model parameters were estimated using the simultaneous estimation approach and the integrated model turns out to be superior to the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model accounting for the impact of employer attitudes towards green commuting. The direct and indirect effects of socio-demographic attributes and employer attitudes towards green commuting were estimated. Through the structural equation modelling with mediating variable, this approach confirmed the intermediary nature of car ownership in the choice process. The results found in this paper provide helpful information for transportation and planning policymakers to test the transportation and planning policies effects and encourage green commuting reducing transportation CO2 emissions.

  20. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars-Part I: Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michel G. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J 73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J 73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: peter.dehaan@env.ethz.ch

    2009-03-15

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated.

  1. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: Cbarros@iseg.utl.pt [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); UECE - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Sequeira Antunes, Olinda, E-mail: sequeira-antunes@sapo.pt [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); UECE - Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research Highlights: > Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. > Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. > Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  2. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence...... of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial companies a statistically significant, negative relationship is found between personal ownership and the likelihood...... that the aim of risk management is to satisfy shareholders in particular. No significant relationship is found for foundation-owned companies. Furthermore, a positive relationship is found between the size of the company and the tendency to satisfy shareholders in particular. The finding in relation...

  3. Institutional Environment, Blockholder Characteristics and Ownership Concentration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingqiang Du; Zongfeng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of China’s A-share listed companies for the period 2001-2004,this paper investigates the influence of institutional environment variables,including the process of marketization,level of local government intervention,and local legal environment,on blockholder characteristics and ownership concentration,and the relation between the endogeneity of ownership structure and institutional environment.Our results indicate that the effects of these variables on ownership concentration are(1)positive for listed companies controlled by state asset management bureaus affiliated with local governments,(2)negative for listed companies controlled by state-owned enterprises affiliated with local governments and(3)unclear for listed private companies.These variables also positively affect the degree of privatization of listed companies in China.

  4. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average...... concentration is positive in Scandinavia. We propose that, besides the legal protection of small investors, the differences in the impact of ownership concentration across the countries could be due to the identity of the predominant owners, i.e. financial institutions in Germany and trusts and foundations...

  5. Deposit Insurance and Bank Liquidity: Does Ownership Structure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Trinugroho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine how the level deposit insurance coverage affects bank liquidity. We also test the role of ownership in the relationship between deposit insurance coverage and bank liquidity. This study uses quarterly data of Indonesian banks from Q1:2002 - Q2:2008. We argue that the presence of explicit deposit insurance changes a bank‘s behavior in liquidity management in the form of decreasing asset liquidity. We find some evidence on the negative impact of deposit insurance coverage on bank liquidity. However, little is found on the role of ownership structure. The credibility of deposit insurance system and implicit guarantee are the main policy implications.

  6. Corporate Ownership, Leadership and Job Charateristics in Russian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Weisberg

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the application of the Western theory of organization's ownership in Russia, suggesting that ownership types – such as state-owned and private – influence leadership style and employees' jobs characteristics. A sample of 724 Russian employees in 15 service and manufacturing companies was surveyed. The results indicate that, contrary to Western theories, the leadership in Russian state-owned enterprises tends to be perceived as being more effective than the leadership in private enterprises. Similarly, jobs in state-owned enterprises are more enriched than in private companies. Explanations and implications are provided.

  7. 13 CFR 107.750 - Conditions for financing a change of ownership of a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including contingent liabilities, but excluding accounts payable, operating leases, letters of credit... of ownership of a Small Business. You may finance a change of ownership of a Small Business...

  8. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  9. Railroad Lines, Separate layers for active and inactive railroad lines for an eleven county region. Data is a subset from NCOneMap., Published in 2007, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Separate layers for active and inactive railroad...

  10. Cars, corporations, and commodities: consequences for the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-02-21

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest.

  11. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  12. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  13. Railroad Bridges and Culverts, All railroad bridges for the state of Michigan, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Bridges and Culverts dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is...

  14. Railroad Lines, Effingham County Railroad Lines, Published in 1997, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 1997. It is described...

  15. Railroad Lines, Lyon County Railroads, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2010. It is described...

  16. Railroad Lines, Tiger 2000 Railroad layer for the counties we serve., Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Prairie Land Electric COOP, Inc..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2000. It is described...

  17. Emotional Intelligence and job performance: Evidence from railroad industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahmanabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in railroad industry. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring emotional intelligence adopted from Salovey and Mayer (1989 [Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3, 185-211.] and the other one for measuring job performance. The study selects 300 full time employees who work for railroad industry in city of Tehran, Iran, distributes two questionnaires among the employees and managed to collect all filled ones. Using Spearman correlation, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance (r = 0.796, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there were positive and meaningful relationships between four components of emotional intelligence, namely consciousness (r = 0.642, Sig. = 0.000, self-regulation (r = 0.41, Sig. = 0.000, self-awareness ( r = 0.552, Sig. = 0.000 and social skills (r = 0.524, Sig. = 0.000.

  18. 77 FR 24233 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... hold a meeting on May 30, 2012, at 9:30 a.m. at the office of the Chief Actuary of the U.S. Railroad... communications or notices to the RRB Actuarial Advisory Committee, c/o Chief Actuary, U.S. Railroad...

  19. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  20. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  1. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  2. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  3. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  4. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  5. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  6. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  7. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  8. 77 FR 51107 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pocahontas County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pocahontas County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  9. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  10. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  11. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines... the employee's supplemental annuity. A private pension for purposes of this subpart is a plan that: (1... pension plan under this section. (d) Effective date of private railroad pension for supplemental...

  12. 76 FR 25588 - Hours of Service Exception for Railroad Signal Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Railroad Signal Employees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Final... employees operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in connection with railroad signal work. This is in... statutory exemption applicable to signal employees and eliminate the potential for issuance of...

  13. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). JVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  14. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail... or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). LVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that it will...

  15. 77 FR 25910 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... property for restoration or reconstruction of rail service. 49 CFR 1152.29(c)(2), (d)(2); Birt, 90 F.3d at....3d 580, 582-83 (DC Cir. 1996). Under 16 U.S.C. 1247(d), the STB must ``preserve established railroad... that, if such interim use is subject to restoration or reconstruction for railroad purposes,...

  16. 78 FR 46682 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Joint Use-Louisville & Indiana Railroad Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... jointly use the Line with L&I, CSXT seeks to acquire and use a perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad... perpetual, non-exclusive freight railroad operating easement over the Line. In order to accomplish this... arrangement is perpetual and is based on the Transaction Agreement. L&I would also be charged for...

  17. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm−1–3400 cm−1), together with the comm...

  18. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  19. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  20. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  1. 48 CFR 904.7003 - Disclosure of foreign ownership, control, or influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ownership, control, or influence. 904.7003 Section 904.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ownership, control, or influence. (a) If a contract requires a contractor to have a Facility Clearance, DOE must determine whether the contractor is or may be subject to foreign ownership, control or...

  2. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(c)-1 Constructive ownership of stock. (a) In general. (1) The determination of stock ownership for purposes of section 267(b) shall be...

  3. 42 CFR 420.206 - Disclosure of persons having ownership, financial, or control interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section shall be subject to public disclosure as specified in 20 CFR part 422. ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure of persons having ownership, financial... of Ownership and Control Information § 420.206 Disclosure of persons having ownership, financial,...

  4. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  5. As American as Apple Inc.: International tax and ownership nationality

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Sanchirico

    2014-01-01

    The ownership nationality of large US multinational companies plays an implicit but important role in the current debate over how such companies should be taxed. This paper identifies that role and investigates what is actually known about where these companies’ shareholders reside.

  6. Bank efficiency and foreign ownership : Do good institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Meesters, Aljar; Naaborg, Ilko

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on foreign ownership and bank efficiency by examining whether the efficiency of foreign banks depends on the institutional quality of the host country and on institutional differences between the home and host country. Using stochastic frontier analysis for a

  7. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have ...

  8. Borrowing Others' Words: Text, Ownership, Memory, and Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    1996-01-01

    Considers some of the complexities of text, ownership, memorization, and plagiarism. The article suggests that plagiarism needs to be understood in terms of complex relationships between text, memory, and learning as part of an undertaking to explore different relationships between learning, literacy, and cultural difference. (49 references)…

  9. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  10. Rural land ownership reform in China's property law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liming

    2006-01-01

    With regard to rural land ownership,there exist many problems,such as absence of the subject of right,ambiguity of the def'mition of right quality,and imperfection of the taking system.To perfect the rural land ownership system in China,we should continuously take villagers' groups and villages as the subject of collective ownership and affirm the right of the members of collective organizations.In order to promote the development of the rural economy and realize the value of land,the contractual management right should be deemed as a property right and allowed to be transferred.The transferability of collective land ownership should be gradually established and the process of taking should be further normalized.Meanwhile,the farmers must receive sufficient compensation.The house site usage right is a special form of right of usufruct.To follow the principle that property should be made best use of,the house site usage right should also be transferable.

  11. Dimensions of Corporate Ownership in For-Profit Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The recent growth of for-profit higher education has been marked by the rising importance of institutional ownership by publicly traded corporations. This paper looks at 13 publicly traded corporations that own degree-granting for-profit institutions of higher education in the United States, examining corporate growth strategies and their…

  12. Tunneling and propping : A justification for pyramidal ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riyanto, Y.E.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This paper links existence of the pyramidal ownership structure to tunneling and propping. Tunneling refers to a transfer of resources from a lower-level firm to a higher-level firm in the pyramidal chain, whereas propping concerns a transfer in the opposite direction intended to bail out the receiv

  13. Total Cost of Ownership and Cost-to-Serve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen reviewer den eksisterende litteratur vedrørende økonomistyringsværktøjerne Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) og Cost-to-Serve (CtS). Herefter kortlægges det, hvordan TCO og CtS bidrager til en identificering af direkte omkostninger såvel som indirekte omkostninger henholdsvis up-stream og down...

  14. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  15. Effect of Transportation Policies on Modal Shift from Private Car to Public Transport in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdden, Abdullah; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Ismail, Amiruddin

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. The rapid increase in the use of personal transportation has its roots in the weak Malaysian public transport system. As a result, traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and need for parking space among other evils, have escalated. In this study, policies aimed at discouraging the use of private transportation were studied. In addition, this study sought to identify factors that prevent personal transport users from utilizing public transport so that rational policies could be formulated to encourage greater utilization of public transport. A survey was carried out on users of private and public (both bus and urban train transport) (n = 1200). A binary logit model was developed for the three alternative modes, Car, Bus and Train. This study found that age, gender, car ownership, travel time, travel cost, household size and income are significant factors in influencing the individual`s choice of transportation. The most important variables found likely to encourage the use of public transport were reduced travel time, reduce the distance from home to public transportation stations and subsidized fares. In conclusion, for the commuter to switch to public transport, proper incentives need to be provided for a successful implementation.

  16. Santa Fe Indian Camp, House 21, Richmond, California: Persistence of Identity among Laguna Pueblo Railroad Laborers, 1945-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kurt

    1995-01-01

    In 1880 the Laguna people and the predecessor of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad reached an agreement giving the railroad unhindered right-of-way through Laguna lands in exchange for Laguna employment "forever." Discusses the Laguna-railroad relationship through 1982, Laguna labor camps in California, and the persistence of…

  17. 78 FR 13932 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage Rights Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage... County, ND On February 11, 2013, Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ filed with the Surface... 59270. \\1\\ According to YVRR, its name was formerly Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco...

  18. 76 FR 37888 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Dawson and Richland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Dawson and Richland Counties, Mont. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ has filed a verified... Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings, Watco Companies, and Watco Transp....

  19. 78 FR 73585 - The Three Rivers Railway Company-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Mahoning State Line Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Three Rivers Railway Company--Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Mahoning State Line Railroad Company The Three Rivers Railway Company (TRRC) and Mahoning State Line Railroad...)(3) for a corporate family transaction. According to applicants, TRRC is a Class III railroad and...

  20. 76 FR 13272 - Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC (CLC) and Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC (Woods... corporate family. CLC seeks to lease and operate all of Woods' lines of railroad consisting of...

  1. 76 FR 26682 - Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of..., list, or data compiled or collected for the purpose of evaluating, planning, or implementing a...

  2. 75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis, Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division, Fortress... Company of Indianapolis (CERA); Chicago Ft. Wayne and Eastern Railroad Division (CFE); Fortress Investment... Louis E. Gitomer, Esq., Law Offices of Louis E. Gitomer, 600 Baltimore Avenue, Suite 301, Towson,...

  3. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  4. The influence of positionality in car-purchasing behaviour on the downsizing of new cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Anco; Geurs, Karst T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from stated choice experiments looking at the influence of positionality in peoples’ choices of passenger cars in the Netherlands. It provides evidence that cars are positional goods and that selected car attributes such as size, engine capacity and interior add to their

  5. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  6. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  7. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 44 / Monday, March 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48 CFR Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  8. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  10. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  11. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less...

  12. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  13. CRISPR Meets CAR T-cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, researchers have devised a method to deliver a CAR gene to a specific locus, TRAC, in T cells. This targeted approach yielded therapeutic cells that were more potent even at low doses; in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, they outperformed CAR T cells created with a randomly integrating retroviral vector.

  14. Study on Performances of Car-following Models Induced by Motions of a Leading Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the performances of a well-known car-following model with numerical simulations in describing the deceleration process induced by the motion of a leading car. A leading car with a pre-specified speed profile was used to test the above model. The results show that this model is to some extent deficient in performing the process aforementioned. Modifications of the model to overcome these deficiencies were demonstrated and a modified car-following model was proposed accordingly. Furthermore, the delay time of car motion of the new model were studied.

  15. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building.

  16. Energy use, cost and CO{sub 2} emissions of electric cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Vliet, Oscar [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Kuramochi, Takeshi; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, Andre [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km{sup -1} (using renewables) and 155 g km{sup -1} (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO{sub 2} {sub eq} km{sup -1}. We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year{sup -1}. TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh{sup -1}, even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh{sup -1} in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug

  17. Dual-tip-enhanced ultrafast CARS nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmann, Charles W; Sinyukov, Alexander M; Sokolov, Alexei V; Voronine, Dmitri V

    2013-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and, in particular, femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques (FAST CARS) have been successfully used for molecular spectroscopy and microscopic imaging. Recent progress in ultrafast nanooptics provides flexibility in generation and control of optical near fields, and holds promise to extend CARS techniques to the nanoscale. In this theoretical study, we demonstrate ultrafast subwavelentgh control of coherent Raman spectra of molecules in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanostructure excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The simulated nanostructure design provides localized excitation sources for CARS by focusing incident laser pulses into subwavelength hot spots via two self-similar nanolens antennas connected by a waveguide. Hot-spot-selective dual-tip-enhanced CARS (2TECARS) nanospectra of DNA nucleobases are obtained by simulating optimized pump, Stokes and probe near fields using tips, laser polarization- and pulse-shaping. This technique may be used to explore ...

  18. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  19. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  20. Bicycle and Car Share Schemes as Inclusive Modes of Travel? A Socio-Spatial Analysis in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Clark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.