WorldWideScience

Sample records for car ownership railroads

  1. Distortionary Company Car Taxation: Deadweight Losses through Increased Car Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Jos N. van Ommeren; Gutierrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This discussion paper led to a publication in Empirical Economics 2013, 45(3), 1189-1204. We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household carownership for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate thatfor about 20 percent of households company car possession increases car ownership. Theannual welfare loss of distortionary company taxation through increased car ownership isgenerally rather small, maximally €120 per compan...

  2. A model of car ownership and use incorporating quality choice and ownership of multiple cars

    OpenAIRE

    Rouwendal, Jan; Pommer, John

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop and estimate a discrete-continuous model for car ownership and use that incorporates quality choice and the decision to own multiple cars. The basic model, used for instance in De Jong (1991), treats all cars as being equal (no differences in quality) and only considers ownership of a single car. In order to introduce quality into the model we assume that the marginal utility of driving is increased by a latent variable (interpreted as quality) that is related to the ...

  3. State of dental morbidity rateamong passenger car attendant of Chernivtsi railroad centre of Lviv railroad

    OpenAIRE

    Kitsak Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    3661 railroad men are employed by Chernivtsi railroad centre of Lviv railroad, of which the car attendants constitute the largest part– 484 (13,2%). working temperature range, noise and vibration, dust content, enhanced level of air microbial contamination inside the cars, disturbance of sleep and rest schedule, physiological and neuro-emotional tension. The increase of dental morbidity rateamong people whose professional activity is connected with chronic exposure of their organs to occupati...

  4. Car Ownership and Private Car Use A Microeconometric Analysis Based on Norwegian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dag G. Wetterwald

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we analyze household's car ownership and private car use decisions in a model proposed by de Jong (1990). The model, which incorporates variable and fixed costs of car use, can be used to predict the effects of changes in policy measures on the car stock and aggregate use. The model is estimated on Norwegian household data for 1985.

  5. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... in the basement of a building under construction resulted in an explosion and fire. This incident... the LPG leak prior to the explosion. While the LPG involved in the Norfolk accident did not originate.... Facilities that load, offer, receive, or offload railroad tank cars containing LPG review their procedures...

  6. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  7. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car...... transport. To analyse the effects of such a reform it is necessary to model both long term decision like car ownership and short term decision like car usage in a combined framework. The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent Danish households change their car ownership and their car use after...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  8. Probit Model Estimation Revisited: Trinomial Models of Household Car Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Bunch, David S; Kitamura, Ryuichi

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we revisit various important issues relating to practical estimation of the multinomial probit model, using an empirical analysis of car ownership as a test case. To provide context, a brief literature review of empirical probit studies is included. Estimates are obtained for a full range of model specifications, including models with random (uncorrelated and correlated) taste variation and/or a general random error structure, and issues of estimability, specification testing, a...

  9. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to... manufactured before May 7, 1958. 4. Griffin, three-riser cast steel wheel, ball rim design, 70-ton capacity....

  11. A PANEL-DATA SWITCHING REGRESSION-MODEL OF MOBILITY AND CAR OWNERSHIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEURS, H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a panel data model of car ownership and mobility. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for by including correlated random effects in the equations describing car ownership and mobility. A mass-points approach is adopted to control for unobserved heterogene

  12. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  13. Optimizing Railroad Tank Car Safety Design to Reduce Hazardous Materials Transportation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik

    2009-01-01

    The design of railroad tank cars is subject to structural and performance requirements and constrained by weight. They can be made safer by increasing tank thickness and adding various protective features, but these increase the weight and cost of the car and reduce its capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. Aircraft, automobiles and…

  14. The Dynamics of Household Travel Time Expenditures and Car Ownership Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Thomas F.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic (panel data) structural equations model is developed that links four dependent travel behavior variables at two points in time, one year apart. The four dependent variables are: car ownership, travel time per week by car, travel time by public transit, and travel time by nonmotorized modes. Exogenous variables include 13 household characteristics and variables accounting for period effects over the 1985 to 1987 time frame in the Netherlands. The model treats car ownership as ordered...

  15. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND...; exception. Unloading any product from an officially sealed railroad car, truck, or other means of...

  16. Analysis of railroad tank car releases using a generalized binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hong, Yili

    2015-11-01

    The United States is experiencing an unprecedented boom in shale oil production, leading to a dramatic growth in petroleum crude oil traffic by rail. In 2014, U.S. railroads carried over 500,000 tank carloads of petroleum crude oil, up from 9500 in 2008 (a 5300% increase). In light of continual growth in crude oil by rail, there is an urgent national need to manage this emerging risk. This need has been underscored in the wake of several recent crude oil release incidents. In contrast to highway transport, which usually involves a tank trailer, a crude oil train can carry a large number of tank cars, having the potential for a large, multiple-tank-car release incident. Previous studies exclusively assumed that railroad tank car releases in the same train accident are mutually independent, thereby estimating the number of tank cars releasing given the total number of tank cars derailed based on a binomial model. This paper specifically accounts for dependent tank car releases within a train accident. We estimate the number of tank cars releasing given the number of tank cars derailed based on a generalized binomial model. The generalized binomial model provides a significantly better description for the empirical tank car accident data through our numerical case study. This research aims to provide a new methodology and new insights regarding the further development of risk management strategies for improving railroad crude oil transportation safety. PMID:26298272

  17. Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Steven; Stoll, Michael

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we assess whether boosting minority car-ownership rates would narrow inter-racial employment rate differentials. We pursue two empirical strategies. First, we explore whether the effect of auto ownership on the probability of being employed is greater for more segregated groups of workers. Exploiting the fact that African-Americans are considerably more segregated from whites than are Latinos, we estimate car-employment effects for blacks, Latinos, and whites and test whethe...

  18. Data on the acoustic comfort of passengers in railroad cars and soundproofing recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, C.; Vrasti, R.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustic passenger comfort in railroad cars is represented by the following values: Total noise level in db, octave sound spectrum in db, and indices of intelligibility. The noise level perceived inside the car results from two components: one due to the penetration of air noise, and another due to the transmission of vibrations through solids. Measurement results show the necessity of improving bogie and bogie-body connections, intensification of soundproofing of the floor, adaption of windows with double panes, etc.

  19. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  20. The Impact of Government Policy on Private Car Ownership in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED We construct a model of the stock of private cars in the Republic of Ireland. The model distinguishes cars by fuel, engine size and age. The modelled car stock is built up from a long history of data on sales, and calibrated to recent data on actual stock. We complement the data on the number of cars with data on fuel efficiency and distance driven ??? which together give fuel use and emissions ??? and the costs of purchase, ownership and use. We use the model to project the car ...

  1. FFTF railroad tank car Safety Evaluation for Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides evaluations considered necessary to approve transfer of the 8,000 gallon Liquid Waste Tank Car (LWTC) from Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the 200 Areas. This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the LWTC will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. This fulfills onsite transportation requirements implemented in the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, WHC-CM-2-14

  2. Productivity and foreign ownership in the UK car industry

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Many sectors of the UK economy experienced rapid productivity growth over the 1980's. This coincided with an increase in the flow of inward investment. Studies using macro data have linked these two events. This paper investigates what has happened in one industry at the microeconomic level and asks whether foreign-owned establishments in the UK car industry more productive than domestic-owned ones. Production functions are estimated using a new panel data set at the plant level. The findings...

  3. Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A.; Brown, Arleen F.; Asch, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Cens...

  4. Mode of transport to work, car ownership and CO{sub 2} emissions in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunky, V.C. (ETH Zuerich. Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Bundhoo, M.N.; Moco, S.Y. (Mauritius (Mauritius))

    2011-05-15

    Fast economical and demographic revolution in the small island developing state of Mauritius over the last decades has led to an unprecedented rise in private vehicle utilization. In this arena, the cognition of ongoing travel practices and their determinants is sine qua non. This paper examines the determinants of mode of transport, rise in car ownership and its related environmental impacts. We employ cross-section micro-data obtained from our household drop-off survey to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model of transport mode choice coupled with an exhaustive ordinary least squares analysis of carbon emissions. Empirical results indicate that factors such as travel time, expenses and time lost in traffic jam coupled with demographic and socio-economic characteristics such as age of individual and household income have profound upshots on transport mode decisions. On the other hand, fuel type, residential distance from work and age of individual displays statistically significant impacts on carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  5. Effect of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Searle, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that male attractiveness can be enhanced by manipulation of status through, for example, the medium of costume. The present study experimentally manipulated status by seating the same target model (male and female matched for attractiveness) expressing identical facial expressions and posture in either a 'high status' (Silver Bentley Continental GT) or a 'neutral status' (Red Ford Fiesta ST) motor-car. A between-subjects design was used whereby the above photographic images were presented to male and female participants for attractiveness rating. Results showed that the male target model was rated as significantly more attractive on a rating scale of 1-10 when presented to female participants in the high compared to the neutral status context. Males were not influenced by status manipulation, as there was no significant difference between attractiveness ratings for the female seated in the high compared to the neutral condition. It would appear that despite a noticeable increase in female ownership of prestige/luxury cars over recent years males, unlike females remain oblivious to such cues in matters pertaining to opposite-sex attraction. These findings support the results of previous status enhancement of attractiveness studies especially those espousing sex differences in mate preferences are due to sex-specific adaptations. PMID:19302732

  6. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  7. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  8. Car ownership motivations among undergraduate students in China, Indonesia, Japan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Taiwan, and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belgiawan, P. F.; Schmöcker, J. -D; Abou-Zeid, M.; Walker, J.; Lee, T. -C; Ettema, D. F.; Fujii, S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘‘Peak car’’ and related discussions suggest that especially younger people (age cohort until 30) have less desire to drive and purchase cars. This might though only be true for a limited range of developed countries. This study aims to understand the role of personal background and the country cont

  9. Boarding and alighting injury experience with different station platform and car entranceway designs on US commuter railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlok, Edward K; Nitzberg, Bradley F; Lai, Lee

    2004-03-01

    Commuter railroad systems in the US employ three combinations of station platforms and car entranceways. These are high-level platforms with remotely controlled doors and level entranceway (HL-RC), low-level platforms (just above the rail) with steps and remotely controlled doors (LL-RC), and a mixture of the two platform types with a correspondingly more complex, partly manual, door and entranceway arrangement (ML-MO). Much controversy exists over which type of platform/entranceway is better. This seemingly small feature significantly impacts many performance characteristics of these systems, including cost, speed, and boarding and alighting accidents. Northeastern systems are generally moving toward the mixed platform design or all high-level platforms, while systems elsewhere are generally selecting the low-level design. Data on actual accident experience for 1995-2000 are analyzed to determine the effect of platform/entranceway type on passenger and employee injuries. Passenger injury rates on systems with the HL-RC design are lowest, with LL-RC systems next, and ML-MO systems having the highest rates. Employee injury rates are the least on LL-RC systems, but higher on ML-MO and HL-RC systems. Systems with a mixture of high and low platforms (ML-MO) experience a higher overall (combined passenger and employee) injury rate than the other two designs. The implications of these results for both the modernization of existing systems and the design of new systems, in the US and abroad, are discussed. PMID:14642881

  10. Relationship between level of economic development and motorcycle and car ownerships and their impacts on fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    An increase in road vehicles secondary to economic development has strongly pushed up energy demand and adversely impact the environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and pollutants. This paper aims to analyse the relationship between motorcycle and car ownerships and level of economic development in Thailand. In addition, an overall private vehicle ownership which is a sum of both types of private vehicle ownership is also studied. An understanding of these relationships due to the economic development is a key knowledge for the sustainable transport policy in the future. The results of this study revealed that at the early stage of economic development of developing countries like Thailand, the number of motorcycles predominates over private cars. Economic development strongly affects the ownership of private vehicles in two ways: (1) overall private vehicle ownerships increase as the income levels grow and (2) after personal income grows up to a certain level, people will shift from motorcycle to car ownerships for their prestige, convenience, comfort and safety. Because of continuing economic development and population growth, the expected increase in overall private vehicle ownership is projected to push up the total private vehicle stock of Thailand in the year 2050 to about twice of the present level. This will drive fuel demands in 2050 to about 2.4 times, and the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission to about 2.5 times of the current levels. Hence, policy makers in developing countries should not overlook the impacts on the consequences of increasing overall private vehicle stock in the near future. The best and most appropriate policies should be given to the development of public transport as the first priority rather than the traditional one, which gives highest priority to traffic mobility of private vehicles by road transport neglecting the effectiveness of passengers' mobility of the public transport. In addition, policies to promote high

  11. The motivation underlying adolescents׳ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: A socio-ecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the adolescents׳ intended time-frame for obtaining a driving license and purchasing a car, as the delay of these decisions will likely affect the amount of travel and transport externalities. Semi-structured interviews with 50 Danish adolescents were analyzed by means...... of deductive–inductive thematic narrative analysis based on the socio-ecological approach. The results show three groups in line with the market-diffusion model: intended early car users, intended early license holders and later car users, and intended late license holders and car users. The first group...... are car enthusiasts who associate cars with high instrumental, affective, symbolic, and relational values, have car-oriented social networks, and imagine a car-oriented lifestyle. The second group are car pragmatists, who associate cars with high instrumental and relational values, perceive car expenses...

  12. 76 FR 4250 - Operating Certain Railroad Tank Cars in Excess of 263,000 Pounds Gross Rail Load; Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... record. 75 FR 27205 (Final Rule). The Final Rule titled, Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Special... hazardous materials such as PIH materials (HM-246; 74 FR 1770 (Jan. 13, 2009) (the ``Tank Car Rule'')), FRA... implement a crashworthiness performance standard as discussed in the Tank Car Rule. See 74 FR at 1771....

  13. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  14. Car ownership and status. Implications for fuel efficiency policies from the viewpoint of theories of happiness and welfare economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.T. [Free University Amsterdam, Department of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Wee, B. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Research on 'happiness' suggests that once an average per capita income of around US$10,000 is achieved in a country, further increases in income will not lead to a significant increase in happiness. Additional income will probably often be spent on the satisfaction of mainly 'relative' needs, of which 'status goods' would be one example. From that perspective, an overall shift to more fuel-efficient cars (i.e. smaller cars with less power) would not necessarily, or only to a limited extent, result in less happiness. From a welfare economic perspective, the satisfaction of the relative needs pertaining to consumption can be considered as a form of consumption externalities. This creates a welfare economic basis for government intervention. A model in which these consumption externalities are studied is presented here. Government intervention would include stimulating consumption of lower-status goods and discouraging consumption of higher-status ones. We speculate, however, that to achieve a significant increase in the fuel efficiency of a country's car fleet through pricing policies, huge price increases may often be needed. As acceptance of price increases as a policy instrument is often low, 'fee-bates' and tradeable permits may be more preferable instruments. 36 refs.

  15. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  17. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  18. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  19. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  20. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  1. [Effects of selected factors on the degree of psychomotor efficiency of welders in a railroad car factory with automated work stations (robots)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszkiewicz, T; Andrzejak, R; Gosk, A; Smolik, R

    1992-01-01

    The study of 64 welders employed at automated work stands in the railway car factory conducted in 1989 and 1990 has shown that the psychomotor efficiency level in the examined workers (except for a few cases) was normal. The psychomotor efficiency of the welders studied depended on their age, work day phase and, to a small degree, on the detected biochemical and toxicological disorders. PMID:1453944

  2. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  3. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  4. 49 CFR 215.9 - Movement of defective cars for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of defective cars for repair. 215.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.9 Movement of defective cars for repair. (a) A railroad freight car which has any component described as defective in...

  5. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  6. 49 CFR 231.21 - Tank cars without underframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches. (3) Location. One safety railing at each end of car shall extend horizontally across car not less... car at center. (ii) The safety railing shall enclose the operating platform, manway and fittings used... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.21 Tank cars...

  7. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  8. 76 FR 67073 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp cars that a railroad provides as sleeping quarters... hazardous material, of a camp car that is occupied exclusively by individuals employed to maintain...

  9. ESTIMATING OWNERSHIP AND USE OF OLDER CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project examines the factors affecting owners' valuations of their old vehicles using a unique longitudinal dataset that documents the actual decisions of owners of pre-1980 vehicles in Delaware. An equation is developed that explains the value of a vehicle to...

  10. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  11. Car ownership, car use and status. A consideration of policy aimed at efficient cars on the basis of happiness theories and the welfare economy; Autobezit, autogebruik en status. Een beschouwing van beleid gericht op zuiniger auto`s vanuit gelukstheorieen en de welvaartseconomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wee, G.P. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-11-01

    After a certain ceiling has been reached (i.e. around $ 10,000), an increase in average income in any one country will not lead to increased personal happiness. Such additional earnings are, in all probability, expended rather on satisfying relative needs. Cars with a low fuel efficiency (big cars, and cars with powerful engines) possibly satisfy more relative needs than absolute needs. This is why a general trend towards more economical vehicles does not or hardly leads to a reduction in contentment: relative needs satisfaction, coupled with the status aspect, does not need to suffer from this. lt is the satisfying of relative needs and the emergence of status effects in consumption that is responsible for inefficient market functioning because of the occurrence of consumption externalities. There is therefore a welfare economic argument for adhering to a regulatory policy in which the consumption of relatively low status goods is encouraged while the consumption of relatively high status goods is discouraged. In view of the sharp price increases required to make the national car volume substantially more economical and in order to survive the considerable resistance that will be put up to such price rises, it might be preferable to introduce policies like `fee-bates` or negotiable rights rather than to wield price policies directed at effecting a trend in the direction of more economical car usage. 24 refs.

  12. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 12 inches from end of car. (iv) If safety railings.... (3) Location. Safety railings shall be continuous around sides and ends of car, not less than 30 nor..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills....

  13. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... Board intends to renew the charter of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the... 14 members from the Class I railroads (one marketing and one car management representative from...

  14. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  15. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative...

  16. Electromechanical Suspension-based Energy Harvesting Systems for Railroad Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nagode, Clement Michel Jean

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the railroad industry, the lack of electrical sources in freight cars is a problem that has yet to find practical solutions. Although the locomotive generates electricity to power the traction motors and all the equipment required to operate the train, the electrical power cannot, in a practical manner, be carried out along the length of the train, leaving freight cars unpowered. While this has not been a major issue in the past, there is a strong interest in equipping modern ca...

  17. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars (1990 Guidelines), 55 FR 30892, July 27... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... is proposing to create regulations prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp...

  18. DOT Basemap Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents railroads lines within the state of Minnesota. It has its source as one of the layers in the State of Minnesota BaseMap 2001. This layer was...

  19. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main...

  20. Car Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  1. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  2. One smart card, one less car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, B.

    2003-06-30

    A system of car-sharing in Bremen, Germany, a membership-based structure of car-sharing that gives members access to a network of cars stationed throughout the city on a pay-per-trip basis, and without the hassles of car ownership, is discussed. The car-sharing scheme is combined with the city's transit system by means of a smart card that serves both as a pass for the city's transit system and as an electronic key to the cars in the car-sharing system. Future plans include to use the card also as a method of payment for taxis, and organizers are also working with the municipal government to get support for having car-sharing included in the city's official plan. At present, car-sharing stations are simply reserved parking spots for one or more cars, however, future stations are envisaged to include parking for up to five cars, a computer to book cars, direct access to keys using the smart card, parking for bicycles, and information about car-sharing stations, bus, trams, as well as bike and walking routes. Similar, if somewhat more modest, car-sharing schemes are also available in several cities in Canada, including Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver.

  3. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Share Car Sickness Page Content Article Body My child gets sick in the car quite often. How ...

  4. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  5. Unbundling Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel; Ornelas, Emanuel; Turner, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Treating control as an asset that can be bought and sold, we introduce a model of the simultaneous and separable trading of ownership and control in a private information setting. The model provides a novel explanation for the prevalence and persistence of the separation of ownership from control in modern corporations: efficiency in the market for corporate control is more easily achieved when ownership is not concentrated in the hands of the manager. The central reason is that low manageria...

  6. Employee ownership in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Panton, David.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1994, the Jamaican Parliament passed the Employee Share Ownership Plan (ESOP) Act, to facilitate widespread employee share ownership by granting tax incentives to companies that offer shares to their employees (GOJ 1994). The primary aims of the legislation were to (a) strengthen Jamaica's economy by enabling workers to acquire an ownership stake in their employer and (b) improve the economic performance of Jamaican companies by encouraging employees to identify more ...

  7. Employee Ownership Of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Henry B. Hansmann

    1998-01-01

    Once widely considered just a theoretical curiosity or an ideological aspiration, employee ownership of enterprise has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a practical matter of organization. In the West, this interest derives in considerable part from the decline of unionism and the resulting search for other means of assuring efficiency and equity in labor contracting, while in the East, interest in employee ownership has been stimulated by the rapid market-oriented ownership ...

  8. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  9. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance with...... the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii...

  10. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structure....... On the contrary, inferences based on the x-inefficiency literature suggest the highest positive effect will be experienced by companies with inappropriate ownership structure. Our empirical analysis on a panel of Czech firms shows that the former view is supported if import competition is high...

  11. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    . Cycling intentions are related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, and are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender...

  12. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...... intentions are related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions, negative attitudes towards cars, and bicycle-oriented future vision, and are negatively related to car ownership norms. Attitudinal constructs are related to individual characteristics, such as gender, residential...

  13. Firm Ownership and Philanthropy

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between firm ownership structure and corporate charitable donations. Using a panel data set of 1,017 listed Korean firms, we find that larger firms with higher advertising intensity and lower export intensity 'give' relatively more, suggesting that charitable donations are both strategic and discretionary corporate expenditures. In addition, the study explores the effects of ownership structure on corporate philanthropy. We find a positive rela...

  14. Sharing ownership via employee stock ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Sesil, James C.; Douglas L. Kruse; Joseph R. Blasi

    2001-01-01

    Increased equity participation by employees has attracted substantial interest for its potential to affect both economic outcomes (e.g., worker and firm performance) and social outcomes (e.g., wealth and income inequality). This paper summarizes the findings from over 50 large-sample empirical studies that have been done on employee ownership and broad-based stock option plans in the past 25 years, covering studies on plan adoption, employee attitudes and behaviours, firm performance, and emp...

  15. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  16. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  17. Car-to-Car Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Stephan; Schroth, Christoph; Eberspächer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Car-to-car communication aims at increased driving comfort and safety. Moreover, it changes the role of vehicles from mere transportation means to "smart objects". Despite many R&D activities in the last years, this technology still poses multiple challenges on the wireless transmission and network protocols. Aspects like efficient message dissemination, network scalability, and information security mechanisms are still major research areas in the area of vehicular ad hoc networks. In this pa...

  18. Where sustainable transport and social exclusion meet: households without cars and car dependence in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Mattioli, G.

    2014-01-01

    A secondary analysis of the British National Travel Survey for the years 2002–2010 shows that the composition of the group of carless households is a good indicator of the level of car dependence in a local area: indeed, while non-car ownership in peripheral and rural areas very often correspond to a marginal socio-demographic situation, this is less and less true as one moves towards larger urban areas. Similarly, while in sparse areas most households without cars are either virtually immobi...

  19. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  20. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  1. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Susquehanna Union Railroad Company--Control Exemption--North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad Company, Lycoming Valley Railroad Company, and Union County Industrial Railroad Company On April 12,...

  2. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  3. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlig...

  4. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  5. Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2010-01-01

    也许你需要一辆天马行空完全按自己心中所设计的车,无论是有太空感还是充满设计性,无论你希望它可以升空还是可以下水,那才是一辆真正的Dream Car!

  6. Ownership, Control, and Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    1996-01-01

    The paper addresses the effects of the separation of ownership and control on long-run competition in oligopolies. It finds that when managers have the preference for smooth time-paths of profits revealed by the evidence on "income smoothing," manager-led firms can sustain any collusive agreement at lower discount factors than owner-led ones. Most common managerial incentives - "low-powered" schemes with monetary bonuses and/or incumbency rents - make collusion supportable at any discount fac...

  7. A Method for Eletric Vehicle Ownership Forecast Considering Different Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwu Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of electric vehicles (EVs charging station needs to be planed according to the ownership of EVs, traffic condition, population etc. Therefore a BP neural network based method to forecast the EV ownership for a city is presented in the paper, which considers the influence on the EV ownership caused by many related economy factors, including GDP of a city, vehicle production, per capita crude steel production, per capita generation capacity, road passenger traffic, highway mileage and the total population.  A BP neural network is set up for the forecast of EV ownership, and the input layer contains seven neutrons, which represent different economic factors. There are three neurons in its hidden layer, and the output is the EV ownership.  Then the method to predict the EV ownership of a city is presented, which is based on the forecast of the civilian car ownership in a city and the country. The EV ownership in the city of Chongqing from the year 2013 to 2020 is predicted, and the accuracy of the model is verified firstly, then the EV ownership in Chongqing is obtained, which is helpful to make plans for the development of electric vehicle.

  8. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  9. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  10. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  11. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  12. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  13. GIS for Nevada railroads: 1993 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on a task within a large, ongoing study by the University of Nevada, Reno to examine the safety of Nevada railroads. The overall goal, of which this year's research is a middle stage, is to develop models based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS). These models are to enable the selection of the best and safest railway routes for the transport of high-level nuclear waste across Nevada to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Last year's research concluded that the databases are adequate and that GIS are feasible and desirable for displaying the multi-layered data required to reach decisions about safety. It developed several database layers. This report deals with work during 1993 on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for rail-route selection. The goal was to identify and assemble many of the databases necessary for the models. In particular, the research aimed to identify (a) any problems with developing database layers; and (b) the level of effort required. This year's effort developed database layers for two Nevada counties: Clark and Lincoln. The layers dealt with: topographic information, geologic information, and land ownership. These are among the most important database layers. The database layers were successfully created. No significant problems arose in developing them. The level of effort did not exceed the expected level. The most effective approach is by means of digital, shaded relief maps. (Sample maps appear in plates.) Therefore, future database development will be straightforward. Research may proceed on the full development of shaded relief elevation maps for Elko, White Pine, Nye and Eureka counties and with actual modeling for the selection of a route or routes between the UP/SP line in northern Nevada and Yucca Mountain

  14. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the...... firm blockholders. We also find that ownership concentrates less in larger, riskier, and better-performing firms. Multiple blockholders remain present in the firms in which the two largest owners are of the same type, which presumably makes it easier for them to control in coalition....

  15. Cars, status and welfare. A reply; Auto`s, status en welvaart. Een repliek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wee, G.P. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, E.T. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-11-01

    This article is a reply to the article of J.B. Polak in this issue, which is a response to an article of the authors, also in this issue, on the ownership and use of cars and the impact of status and welfare on the use and purchase of efficient cars

  16. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to...

  17. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  18. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  19. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jiwoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea); Jeong, Gicheol [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-402, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yeonbae [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-318, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, South Seoul, 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  20. Forest ownership in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstüner Birben

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and sustainable use of forest resources depend on various factors. However, one of the most emphasized and discussed topics among these factors is forest ownership. Comparative law is an important way of analyzing and understanding legal systems of different countries, and identifying different aspects of the current legal systems. This study tries to analyze forest ownership with regard to comparative law. France for the Continental-European legal system, Great Britain for the Anglo-Saxon legal system, and Russia Federation for the Socialist legal system are taken respectively as a base. Thus, how right to ownership is evaluated in different legal systems and what are the main features of that are indicated. As a result, private forest ownership is common in the Continental-European legal system and Anglo-Saxon legal system while state ownership is common in the Socialist legal system. Prevalence of private forest ownership in the Continental-European and the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is also closely related to the previous use rights transferred into right to ownership. In addition, it is concluded regarding the historical process that many changes occurred on forest ownership types without considering differences in legal systems.

  1. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shif...

  2. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'....

  3. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  4. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  5. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Hugh [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Tol, Richard S.J., E-mail: richard.tol@esri.ie [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Economics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-11-15

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: > Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. > These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. > Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. > Tax revenues will fall too. > The exchequer cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} avoided is very high.

  6. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: → Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. → These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. → Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. → Tax revenues will fall too. → The exchequer cost per tonne of CO2 avoided is very high.

  7. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... productivity adjustment, as measured by the average change in railroad productivity for the years 2004...

  8. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period....

  9. Executive Compensation Concentration and Institutional Ownership Power

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Tingting Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether institutional shareholders prefer concentrated or dispersed executive compensation structure. To address this question, we study the relationship between executive compensation concentration and institutional ownership power because institutional investors can influence executive compensation more when they have more power. We measure institutional ownership power using institutional ownership level and institutional ownership concentration. We find a signifi...

  10. A Nested approach to car use : from driving license to car ownership and annual mileage

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMAL, Richard

    2015-01-01

    De nombreux signes attestent d'une transition des comportements de mobilité au tournant du millénaire. Par exemple, le nombre de déplacements quotidiens par personne décroît dans les agglomérations françaises, et s'accompagne d'un report vers les moyens de transport alternatifs à la voiture (transports en commun mais aussi modes actifs tels que la marche et le vélo). De plus, le kilométrage moyen par adulte - exprimé en véhicules*km - s'est stabilisé au niveau national à partir du début des a...

  11. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  12. Economics of Road Network Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the economic impact of centralized and decentralized ownership structures and their corresponding pricing and investment strategies on transportation network performance and social welfare for travelers. In a decentralized network economic system, roads are owned by many agencies or companies that are responsible for pricing and investment strategies. The motivation of this study is two-fold. First, the question of which ownership structure, or industrial organi...

  13. Ownership, control and market liquidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Jacques; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We examine how ownership concentration and the separation of ownership and control affect secondary-market liquidity in France. We find that firms with a large insider blockholder exhibit significantly lower liquidity. However, different methods of enhancing control affect liquidity in different ways. Pyramid structures impair market liquidity. Double voting right shares, a French specific means of control enhancement rewarding long-term shareholders and restraining insiders from trading thei...

  14. Ownership structure and inventory policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tribó, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of a firm’s ownership structure on its inventory policy. We have argued that the presence of institutional investors like banks as blockholders, reduces a firm’s liquidity needs and prevents overinvestment policies. This, in turn, leads to lower inventory levels, especially for small and/or diversified firms. Also, we expect less inventory investment when bank equity financing is compared with bank debt financing. Finally, other components of ownership structure...

  15. Corporate Ownership Around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-de-Silane; Andrei Shleifer

    1998-01-01

    We present data on ownership structures of large corporations in 27 wealthy economies, making an effort to identify ultimate controlling shareholders of these firms. We find that, except in economies with very good shareholder protection, relatively few of these firms are widely-held, in contrast to the Berle and Means image of ownership of the modern corporation. Rather, these firms are typically controlled by families or the State. Equity control by financial institutions or other widely-he...

  16. Firm Ownership, FOEs, and POEs

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H.

    2009-01-01

    Where the theory of free competition reigns, developing countries should open their arms to investments from all types of enterprises in order to maximize jobs. Ownership, measured by votes of shareholders or boards of directors, is immaterial to performance. Matters change drastically, though, when competition depends on monopolistic assets and market theory no longer rigorously holds. Then, ownership matters. Foreign owned enterprises from developed countries can 'crowd out' privately owned...

  17. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY... establishing a process for the review and approval of existing industry standards. This process will...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  19. The new math of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, B

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, when the software maker Knowledge Adventure decided to spin out a new venture--Worlds, Incorporated--founder Bill Gross expected the worst. He had argued with the board that it was in KA's best interests to maintain a controlling ownership stake in Worlds, whose powerful new software technology had enormous revenue potential. But the board prevailed, and KA took only a 20% ownership in the new company, giving the rest to Worlds' employees. Within a year, the company's performance had surpassed all expectations, and instead of owning 80% of a $5 million business, KA owned 20% of a $77 million business. The arithmetic may have been counterintuitive, but the lesson was clear. When KA let go of Worlds and gave its employees near total ownership, the company unleashed a new level of employee performance. That, in turn, led to the creation of economic value that more than made up for the equity KA had surrendered. So compelling was this "new math of ownership" that Gross founded a new company, Idealab, on this principle. The company, which develops ideas for Internet-based businesses and seeds the most promising ones, takes no more than a 49% equity stake in the new ventures and gives at least 1% of ownership to each employee. For Gross, this radical approach to ownership is the key to inspiring stellar performances. In part, employee-owners are motivated by their potential to earn great financial reward. But the drama of ownership, he argues, is even more important. In that drama, employees become personally involved in the struggle to outdo the competition and emerge victorious. PMID:10187247

  20. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  1. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection...

  2. Train wrecks to typhoid fever: the development of railroad medicine organizations, 1850-World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, M

    2001-01-01

    From their beginning American railroads developed medical arrangements to care for the large number of workers and passengers they killed or injured. After the Civil War, both labor unrest and liability concerns led them to expand and formalize these arrangements, and three forms of organization arose. Western roads, facing an almost complete lack of medical facilities, developed employee-funded hospital organizations. In the east, companies created medical organizations under a salaried chief surgeon and contracted with local physicians to provide care. A third model, pioneered by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in the 1880s, devised a beneficial society that provided medical care and compensation for injured workers. Although these organizations involved both contract practice and group hospitalization, the AMA seems to have ignored them. In the 1880s railroad physicians developed their own organizations, including the National Association of Railway Surgeons, in which they discussed problems of professionalization and such medical matters as "railway spine." Concern with costs and labor turnover also led the carriers into preventive medicine. Some roads provided smallpox and typhoid vaccinations, campaigned against malaria, improved passenger-car sanitation, required physical examinations of their employees, and trained them in first aid. By World War I, railroad medical organizations provided care to nearly two million employees and employment to about 10 percent of all physicians. PMID:11423683

  3. Managerial Ownership Influencing Tunnelling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Juliarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent and the determinants of tunnelling behaviour in five ASEAN countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Related party transactions (RPTs in the form of loans to related parties are used as the proxy for tunnelling. With 200 firm-year observations over the period 2006-2009, this study finds a positive association between managerial ownership and the extent of tunnelling.The other important findings are that business environment (BE, foreign ownership, and independent directors are ineffective governance mechanisms to rein in tunnelling behaviour. This suggests that regulators need to evolve more effective governance mechanisms.

  4. Railroad Lines, Published in Not Provided, Embarq.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  5. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a Railroad... Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and (b) High speed ground transportation systems that...

  6. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  7. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  8. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  9. Intelligent Car System

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of o...

  10. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  11. Model railroad industry nuclear emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some day, perhaps soon, there will be a serious rail accident involving nuclear materials, and there will be some significant damage to the nuclear containers. There may be some release of the radioactive contents. What then. How well will be railroads be prepared to handle the many problems that will arise when that bad accident happens. How will the railroads handle the cleanup problems. How will such an accident interfere with restoring railroad operations, different from what happens in other hazardous materials accidents. How will the railroads handle the public information aspects of a nuclear accident, a whole new ball game from what is involved in other hazardous materials accidents. Should the railroads hire their own nuclear experts. Should they train and equip radiological monitoring teams of their own. Do they even have a plan of how to deal with all of these matters. An approach is discussed for dealing with these problems and what the Association of American Railroads is doing to help solve them

  12. Psychological ownership: Development of an instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Olckers

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Psychological ownership emerged recently as a positive psychological resource that could be measured and developed and that could affect the performance of organisations.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure psychological ownership in a South African context.Motivation for the study: It was found that previous instruments for the measurement of psychological ownership lacked the ability to grasp the extensive reach of psychological ownership.R...

  13. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  14. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency. ...

  15. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  16. Firm ownership structures: dynamic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Valachy, Juraj

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2002), s. 255-268. ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : ownership structure * privatized firms * industry sector Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

    The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

  18. Predicting routes of radioactive wastes moved on the U.S. railroad system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative to the use of public roads, railroads offer several advantages for the movement of radioactive wastes. These include the ability to accommodate large, heavy containers, the ability to transfer large volumes in a single movement, and the safety of a dedicated, centrally controlled right-of-way. The principal disadvantage of railroads is that the shipper has considerably less freedom to specify the route a shipment will take. The lower density of the railroad network, the need to coordinate waste shipments with other traffic in the system, and the private ownership of the US network all reduce the shippers routing power. Although the shipper can dictate an exact route, this could require the use of a special train at an increased cost. Before considering the general use of special trains to move radioactive wastes, it is first desirable to determine how these materials would move as general rail traffic. This paper describes the development of a system to predict routes of general rail traffic at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  19. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  20. ‘We are the future’: understanding adolescents’ intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults, as key elements towards promoting societal transition towards sustainable modes. The behavioral model is based on the theory of planned behavior combined with positive current travel experience, willingness...... to accept car restrictions, transport-related future vision, environmental concern and social influence. Data are retrieved from a survey among 15-years old Danish adolescents, and are analyzed with structural equation models. Results show: (i) car use intentions are positively related to positive car...... passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car-ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control; (ii) cycling intentions are positively related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions...

  1. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Swan

    2015-01-01

    The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber). The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be hel...

  2. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  3. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  4. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  5. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  6. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand

  7. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms...... important factors influencing employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long...

  8. Railroad perspective on transportation of spent fuel and high level waste and recent ICC decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to summarize some railroad viewpoints on issues concerning transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste and to outline Interstate Commerce Commission decisions arising over differing opinions about the manner of such transportation. Although the railroad position includes a number of legal arguments, it also involves operating expertise and a number of well-based questions concerning the safety of casks under actual operating conditions in regular trains. The commonly-used estimates of accident frequency and severity in regular trains are severe underestimates based on a mistake in the annual number of railroad car-miles, inadequacies in and misunderstanding of accident reporting, and invalid assumptions, especially concerning fires, which some actual data suggest are far more frequent than assumed. Thus, railroads estimate casks could be involved in at least 12 accidents involving severe fires by 1990. A number of unanswered questions about casks and perceived inadequacies in testing lead to a conservative railroad position. These include the possibility of escape routes of materials other than by breach such as weld and pressure relief valve failures and direct radiation hazards through loss of shielding. These doubts are fostered through experience with accidents more severe than those used in testing or certification as well as these questions. Also, there is doubt concerning the integrity of fuel rod cladding (used as a second level of containment) in credible accident situations. Moreover, the damage estimates of $1,000 per man rem have been shown to have no relationship to damages in a transportation accident.Added safety is expected in special trains for at least 17 reasons involving speed, transit time, routing, train consist, crew alertness, reduced slack and other reduced hazards and accident opportunities

  9. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  10. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  11. Microfluidic CARS cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Han-Wei; Bao, Ning; Le, Thuc T.; Lu, Chang; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytom...

  12. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  13. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  14. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  15. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  16. Complex ownership and capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paligorova, Teodora; Xu, Zhaoxia

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of pyramid ownership structure and multiple controlling shareholders on firm leverage. Pyramids, having at least one controlling shareholder and a subsidiary, rely significantly more on debt financing than non-pyramid firms. Moreover, higher leverage is observed in pyramids where the second controlling shareholders have more voting rights. We also find that the disparity between the voting rights of the first two controlling shareholders is negatively relate...

  17. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies...... controlled by industrial foundations are, on average, as profitable as companies with conventional patterns of investor ownership. In this article, we explore the reasons for this performance, not by comparing foundation-owned firms with conventional investor-owned firms, but rather by focusing...

  18. A multi-objective ant colony optimization method applied to switch engine scheduling in railroad yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodelson A. Sabino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an ant colony optimization algorithm to assist railroad yard operational planning staff in their daily tasks. The proposed algorithm tries to minimize a multi-objective function that considers both fixed and variable transportation costs involved in moving railroad cars within the railroad yard area. This is accomplished by searching the best switch engine schedule for a given time horizon. As the algorithm was designed for real life application, the solution must be delivered in a predefined processing time and it must be in accordance with railroad yard operational policies. A railroad yard operations simulator was built to produce artificial instances in order to tune the parameters of the algorithm. The project is being developed together with industrial professionals from the Tubarão Railroad Terminal, which is the largest railroad yard in Latin America.Este trabalho propõe um algoritmo de otimização com colônia de formigas para auxiliar a equipe de planejamento de operações de pátios ferroviários em suas tarefas diárias. O algoritmo proposto é baseado em uma função multi-objetivo que busca a redução dos custos fixo e variável de movimentação de vagões no pátio. Isto é feito através da busca da melhor programação para as locomotivas de manobra, considerando um dado horizonte de planejamento. Como o algoritmo foi desenvolvido para aplicação na vida real, a solução deve ser entregue em um tempo de processamento definido previamente e deve obedecer as políticas operacionais do pátio. Foi desenvolvido um simulador de operações de pátio que gera instâncias artificiais utilizadas para ajuste dos parâmetros do algoritmo. O projeto está sendo desenvolvido em conjunto com profissionais envolvidos na operação do Terminal Ferroviário de Tubarão, o qual é o maior pátio de manobras da América Latina.

  19. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  20. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  1. Fatigue crack initiation life prediction of railroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of multiaxial high-cycle fatigue initiation life prediction for railroad is done in this paper. Using ANSYS 11.0 software three dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model of rail/wheel contact is constructed and fine mesh technique in contact region is used to achieve both computational efficiency and accuracy. Stress analysis is performed and fatigue damage in railroad is evaluated numerically using multiaxial fatigue crack initiation model. Using the stress history during one loading cycle and fatigue damage model, the effects of vertical loading, material hardness material fatigue properties and wheel/rail contact situation on fatigue crack initiation life are investigated.

  2. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  3. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  4. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  5. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital for 2012. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2012...

  6. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad ] industry's cost of capital for 2009. The decision solicits comments on the following narrow issues: (1) The railroads'...

  7. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  8. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  9. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a... change in railroad productivity for the 2006-2010 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a...

  10. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2004-2008 (5-year) averaging period. This is...

  11. 76 FR 2748 - Competition in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Competition in the Railroad Industry AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... to explore the current state of competition in the railroad industry and possible policy alternatives... Railroad Industry and Analysis of Proposals That Might Enhance Competition (November 2009), is available...

  12. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  13. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  14. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels and Ownership, Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It is described as 'Parcels and Ownership'. This...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, LandOwnership, Published in 2007, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'LandOwnership'. Data by this publisher...

  17. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to differentstrategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable....

  18. Government Policy and Ownership of Financial Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Rydqvist; Joshua Spizman; Strebulaev, Ilya A

    2011-01-01

    Since World War II, direct stock ownership by households across the globe has largely been replaced by indirect stock ownership by financial institutions. We argue that tax policy is the driving force. Using long time-series from eight countries, we show that the fraction of household ownership decreases with measures of the tax benefits of holding stocks inside tax-deferred plans. This finding is important for policy considerations on effective taxation and for financial economics research o...

  19. The evolution of aggregate stock ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Rydqvist, Kristian; Spizman, Joshua; Strebulaev, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Since World War II, direct stock ownership by households has largely been replaced by indirect stock ownership by financial institutions. We argue that tax policy is the driving force. Using long time-series from eight countries, we show that the fraction of household ownership decreases with measures of the tax benefits of holding stocks inside a pension plan. This finding is important for policy considerations on effective taxation and for financial economics research on the long-term effec...

  20. New evidence on ownership structures in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köke, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Ownership structures are an important element of the theory explaining corporate governance. This study presents detailed descriptive evidence on the ownership structures of German manufacturing firms. It addresses several shortcomings of the previous German empirical literature: First, we study all legal forms of a Kapitalgesellschaft, firms that generally have a separation of ownership and control. We do not focus exclusively on the listed Aktiengesellschaft (AG) but include many non-listed...

  1. Commentary: Ownership Neutrality and Practical Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    In "Reconsidering the Taxation of Foreign Income," Jim Hines analyzes the consequences of taxing, as opposed to exempting, active foreign business income by comparing the expected effects on capital ownership of a "pure" worldwide income taxation system with the effects on capital ownership of a "pure" territorial taxation regime. Consistent with his earlier work, Hines asserts that a capital ownership neutrality analysis supports exempting foreign active business income from home country res...

  2. Corporate ownership structure and performance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jeremy; Kirchmaier, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that ownership structures vary considerably across Europe, and that the dominant form of ownership is not necessarily the most efficient one. These findings are in contradiction to similar research based on US samples. The results also demonstrate that firms without a dominant shareholder tend to outperform their country peer groups. We base our analysis on a new and unique dataset of uniform ownership data of the largest 100 firms in the five major European economies. ...

  3. The Equity Ownership Structure of Thai Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwattanakantang, Yupana

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the ownership structure of listed Thai firms in 1996. The ownership structure is concentrated. In 82.59 percent of the firms in the sample, the largest shareholders are also controlling shareholders. The controlling shareholders are mainly families. Foreign investors form the second largest group of controlling shareholders. More of the controlling shareholders use a simple ownership pattern to control the firms. Only in 21.27 percent of the firms, the controlling sharehol...

  4. Railroad Lines, Line feature class representing individual Railroad rail lines, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Line feature class representing individual...

  5. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom...

  6. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  7. Self-ownership and world-ownership: an egalitarian-independent argument for left-libertarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Ossenblok, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a contribution to the contemporary left-libertarian debate. Instead of arguing for left-libertarianism in a traditional way, which would mean combining the intuitively attractive ideas of self-ownership and some kind of egalitarian distribution, I primarily focus on the concept of Nozickean self-ownership as an independent moral value. Contrary to what is commonly believed, I argue that a theory of ownership rights over worldly resources can be derived from self-ownership...

  8. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  9. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  10. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Vliet, Oscar P.R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, Andre P.C. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute, Science, Technology and Society Group, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost EUR5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO{sub 2} km{sup -1} compared to reference petrol (163 g km{sup -1}) and diesel cars (156 g km{sup -1}). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO{sub 2} km{sup -1}. (author)

  11. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  12. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  13. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  14. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  15. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  16. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based on a...... do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  17. Do tax incentives affect households' adoption of ‘green’ cars? A panel study of the Stockholm congestion tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policymakers have made several attempts to introduce local and national policies to reduce CO2 emissions and stimulate the consumer adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (ethanol/E85 cars). The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a local policy measure impacts the composition of the car fleet over time. More specifically, we take advantage of the natural experiment setting caused by the introduction of the Stockholm congestion tax (2006) to analyze how the tax affected purchases of ethanol cars that were exempted from the tax. To estimate effects, we employ a Difference-in-differences methodology. By using a comprehensive database of the car fleet and car owners, sociodemographic and geographic factors are analyzed, which is unique in the existing literature. Our results suggest that the congestion tax had a significant impact on ethanol car purchases although the effect fades away over time. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between the level of education and ethanol car purchases. Previous adoption of an ethanol car is found to be the strongest predictor of ethanol car purchases. Finally, data indicate that Stockholmers substantially increased purchases of ethanol cars half a year before the introduction of the congestion tax, which we refer to as an anticipation effect. - Highlights: • Uses a database of car owners to analyze impacts of a congestion tax on car fleet. • Results show that the tax had a significant effect on ethanol car purchases. • Prior ownership of ethanol car and education correlates with ethanol car purchases

  18. Cars submerged in water.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have to assist the vehicle occupants to escape from a car submerged in water. An adequate road design, barrier constructions in road bends and shoulder surfacing, and education and information can redu...

  19. Composing for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Adam; Tanaka, Atau

    2013-01-01

    The authors report on composing a piece for RoadMusic, an interactive music project which generates and manipulates music for the passengers and driver in a car, using sensor information gathered from the surroundings and from the movements of the car. We present a literature review which brings together related works in the diverse fields of Automotive UI, musical mappings, generative music and sonification. We then describe our strategies for composing for this novel system, and the uni...

  20. Competition and Car Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Molly; Hamilton, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We examine determinants of the nearly 30 percent increase in the average age of domestically produced, registered automobiles since the mid-1960s. We find that very little of the increase in car longevity is attributable to improvements in the inherent durability of cars. Rather, we find that the temporal pattern of longevity improvement is highly correlated with the level of market concentration in the auto industry. In particular, we argue that the arrival of competition in the industry led...

  1. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market during years 2005 and 2006. We distinguish different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences...

  2. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The...

  3. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The...

  4. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  5. 47 CFR 73.855 - Ownership limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership limits. 73.855 Section 73.855 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.855 Ownership limits. (a) No authorization for an...

  6. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  7. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  8. Ownership structure and initial public offerings

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Reena; Klapper, Leora

    2003-01-01

    The authors study the relationship between ownership structure, corporate governance, and the initial public offering (IPO) process. They examine equity ownership by different institutions, such as foreign and domestic financial institutions, banks with and without lending relationships, venture capitalists, and corporations prior to an IPO. The authors also analyze the relationship betwee...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership - Volusia County Parcels (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Parcel Ownership Polygon Layer: Polygons showing property ownership created from the "master" subdivision base map for Volusia County. Multiple lots and parcels...

  10. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  11. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to... 13/4″. (C)(1) Rim thickness is 11/16″ or less; (2) Rim thickness is 5/8″ or less; (3) Rim thickness is 9/16″ or less; (D) Wheel cracked or broken in: (1) rim, (2) flange, (3) plate or (4) hub area....

  13. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  14. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  15. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  16. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  17. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  18. Railroad expansion and entrepreneurship: evidence from Meiji Japan

    OpenAIRE

    John Tang

    2013-01-01

    Railroads in Meiji Japan are credited with facilitating factor mobility as well as access to human and financial capital, but the impact on firms is unclear. Using a newly developed firm-level dataset and a difference-in-differences model that exploits the temporal and spatial variation of railroad expansion, I assess the relationship between railways and firm activity across Japan. Results indicate that railroad expansion corresponded with increased firm activity, particularly in manufacturi...

  19. Cross-ownership among firms: Some determinants of the separation of ownership from control

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzberger, Klaus; Shorish, Jamsheed

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the current literature on cross-ownership among firms underestimates the true degree of separation between cash flow rights and voting rights. We use accounting identities to define coefficients of control, such that any (direct or indirect) control of a firm may be identified using these coefficients. This procedure is sufficient to show that under cross-ownership the voting rights associated with ownership are typically underestimated. We demonstrate b...

  20. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  1. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  2. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  3. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  4. French Professional Car Language

    OpenAIRE

    Veslav Kuranovič

    2011-01-01

    In this scientific article is presented french professional car language, also it is analysed a problem of teaching professional language at the technical university. It is presented lot of methods which help student to acquire language skills and also it is presented importance of dialog between student and teacher. Psychology and pedagogy are 2 sciences strong related in teacher’s work.

  5. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  6. Autonomous Car Path Optimalization

    OpenAIRE

    Vladyka, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with path search and optimalisation of model car in unknown space. All data from sensors are processed in real-time onboard at ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller. Model’s main sensor is line-scan camera.

  7. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  8. Corporate risk taking and ownership structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paligorova, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of corporate risk taking. Shareholders with substantial equity ownership in a single company may advocate conservative investment policies due to greater exposure to firm risk. Using a large cross-country sample, I find a positive relationship between corporate risk taking and equity ownership of the largest shareholder. This result is entirely driven by investors holding the largest equity stakes in more than one company. Family shareholders avoid cor...

  9. Ownership and Control in Colombian Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Luis H. Gutiérrez; Carlos Pombo; Rodrigo Taborda

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the separation of ownership and control for an average of 140 listed non-financial corporations in Colombia during the 1996-2002 period. Breaking down the sample according to corporations` listing status and economic activity shows that voting rights are greater than cash flow rights because of the presence of indirect ownership across firms that belong mainly to pyramidal and cross-share holdings. The study sample also includes an important set of non-affiliated firms. Own...

  10. Managerial incentives, financial constraints and ownership concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Protopapa

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the role of equity ownership for the purpose of committing the management to the pursuit of shareholder value in the presence of separation between ownership and control. By rooting the conflicts of interests between managers and shareholders upon the control of internal funds, a simple model allows to analyse the link between profit uncertainty, growth options and decisional powers. Implications are derived for the optimal degree of equity concentration, the effect of ...

  11. Ownership and Control Structures: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on separation of ownership and control in Southeast Europe, and in particular it is a case study of Macedonia. For structured analysis of this case study we use the World Bank Microdata Library, specifically the Enterprise Surveys which contains firm-level data of a representative sample of economies private sectors. What we are interested in are the ties of ownership and control and whether such linkages contribute to the development of domestic firms and the overall ec...

  12. Ownership Structure, independent directors and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    KALLAMU, Basiru Salisu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The paper examined the moderating role of independent directors in the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance. Using a sample of 37 finance companies listed on the main market of Bursa Malaysia from 2007 to 2011, the result indicates a significant positive moderating effect of independent directors in the relationship between director ownership and ROA but a negative relationship based on Tobin’s Q.  The result means that in a company where directors have cont...

  13. Total Ownership Cost -- Tools and Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Mike; Naegle, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Control of total ownership cost (TOC) is a continuing initiative to manage costs over the entire life cycle of a weapon system. There are several major categories of costs that contribute to Total Ownership Cost but the principal categories are (1) R&D, (2) Production, (3) Operating and Support, and (4) Disposal. System TOC is the same as Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and must be planned and controlled from requirements definition, system develop...

  14. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  15. Ownership Structure and Corporate Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Corporate Governance deals with the issue, how suppliers of finance to corporations assure themselves of getting a return on their investment. Several Studies have examined the relationship between managerial ownership and firm performance. Using different samples most of the studies provide general support for the argument that increase in managerial ownership increases firm performance. However, these results have been questioned recently. This work examines empirically the effects of owner...

  16. Ownership structure, customer satisfaction and brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Anna; Trib??, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction between ownership structure, taken as a proxy for shareholders? commitment, and customer satisfaction - the main driver of consumer loyalty - and their impact on a firm?s brand equity. The results show that customer satisfaction has a positive direct effect on brand equity but an indirect negative one because of reductions in ownership concentration. This latter effect emerges when managers are mainly customer-oriented. Such result gives out a warning signal...

  17. The effect of managerial ownership on the demand for conservatism.

    OpenAIRE

    Eersteling, Gjalt

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the relation between managerial ownership and conservatism is examined. Managerial ownership decreases agency problems caused by the separation of ownership and control. Managerial ownership increases the time horizon of managers and decreases expropriating behaviour. Conservatism is hypothesized to have the same effect on managers due to the asymmetric timeliness of earnings. This suggest that in firms with lower managerial ownership a demand for conservatism arises to substitu...

  18. Effects of Ownership and Financial Status on Corporate Environmental Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich Earnhart; Lubomir Lizal

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of ownership structure on corporate environmental performance and examines the link between financial performance to environmental performance in a transition economy. In particular, it analyzes these ownership effects and this performance link using an unbalanced panel of Czech firms for the years 1993 to 1998. It considers state ownership and various types of private ownership, while contrasting concentrated and diffuse forms of private ownership. Additionall...

  19. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. PMID:26124073

  20. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  1. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  2. Own or share? - social science's analysis of car sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 339 page book examines the social aspects of car-sharing. Today's traffic system is not sustainable. In spite of its efforts not to restrict individual mobility, politics are showing first signs of ecological restructuring. Politics is, however, continuously trying to find the balance between acceptance and efficiency of the measures it proposes. The introduction of innovative mobility concepts can be very helpful here. These meet a wide range of consumers' wants and needs and can motivate them to change their patterns of behaviour towards a more environment-friendly direction at the same time. Car-sharing is chosen here as an example of such mobility technology. Because of its low entry costs and its fixed costs, this solution can be made use of by a large majority of the population and, according to experience already made, has a high potential for relieving the strain on the environment. It must be guaranteed, however, that a significant proportion of its users gives up ownership of their own cars and that not just 'car-less' people can be won over. The theoretical and empirical analyses of the factors that hinder or promote membership that are presented here show under which conditions this can be achieved

  3. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42 Section 408.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an...

  4. New developments in clinical CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  5. CAR ACCESS USING MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin LUPU

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of multimodal biometrics in order to identify or to verify a person that wants to start the engine of a car. First of all, a fingerprint sensor is posted on the car’s door, one on the steering wheel, a camera for iris recognition on the car's main mirror, and finally a microphone for voice recognition. There are two possibilities: if the person is identified as the car owner or a known user, then he/she can take control over the car; if it’s an intruder, the car ca...

  6. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: Optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or 'risk reduction options' (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  7. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  8. Railroad infrastructure adequacy for safe transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the railroad industry's concerns on the movement of spent nuclear fuel including the magnitude of thermal and mechanical forces in train accidents, emergency response capability, railroad's liability for non-breach-of-cask accidents, and the importance of using dedicated trains to improve public perception of these movements; summarize the current status of the condition of the American railroads' equipment, facilities, track structure, and right-of-way; outline the continuing efforts of the railroad industry to improve customer service and profitability through downsizing and shifting of branch lines to more customer-oriented and efficient short-line carriers; and discuss potential problems of government subsidization of private railroads to enable upgrading of tracks and structures to handle rights-of-way in the future

  9. Soil Contamination by a Former Railroad Shop in Mexico:Proposed Handling and Remedation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Rocha, M.

    2001-12-01

    The study deals with an area of 589,062 m2 occupied by a national railroad shop located in Aguascalientes, a city in the central part of Mexico. Since 1903, the city became a transcendental railway center in the country and a transportation route toward the United States. Main activities were maintenance and repair of railroads cars, supply of fuel, and foundry of metallic pieces. The place was contaminated for 100 years, up to the recent sale of that company. The workshop area, now surrounded by populated urban areas, is abandoned. This study presents an evaluation of a previous survey of soil contamination in the different areas of the workshop. Based on our evaluation, we are proposing an optimal handling and remediation of the area. The survey referred 19 shallow boreholes (0-12 meters). Cores and chemical samples were analyzed. We defined the most relevant characteristic and contaminants of the soil samples. In terms of health risk analysis, we conclude that the most important contaminants are hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The following areas present the most significant health risk: the fuel supply zone , the oil petroleum or tar (called in Mexico "chapopote") lagoon, the painting area and the dump of axes and wheels.

  10. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  11. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  12. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean [Economic and Social Research Institute, Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson' s Quay, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available. (author)

  13. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  14. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello; Mandrigin, Alisa; Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana; Lopez, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction...

  15. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints. PMID:24764801

  16. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  17. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  18. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220.307 Section 220.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic...

  19. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and...

  20. Ownership, Analyst Coverage, and Stock Synchronicity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xunan; Hu, Na; Johansson, Anders C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how ownership structure affects the information environment of publicly traded firms in China. We hypothesize that concentrated ownership and the associated separation of ultimate control and ownership rights create agency conflicts between controlling shareholders and minority investors leading controlling owners to withhold firm-specific information from the market. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of ultimate ownership structure and analyst coverage on st...

  1. Impact of ownership on the international involvement of SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Zulima Fernández; María Jesús Nieto

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the internationalisation strategies of SMEs and types of ownership. Different types of ownership affect firms, and this in turn will influence the internationalisation strategy adopted. Using a sample of Spanish SMEs, our results show that internationalisation is negatively related to family ownership and positively related to corporate ownership. We have also observed that the presence of a corporate blockholder in family firms encourages internat...

  2. Stock splits and changes in ownership structures : evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamson, Martin; Kalström, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Stock splits are supposed to be financial cosmetics. However, this study shows that such corporate events have impact on ownership structure. This study exploits unique data from Swedish Central Security Registration regarding ownership and analyzes the ownership structures in stock splitting firms. Our data consists of exclu-sive semi-annually reported ownership structures of companies listed on Stockholm Stock Exchange. We categorize stock owners as domestic institutional investors, foreign...

  3. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  4. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO2-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  5. Analysis of Technology Ownership and Selective Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Downs, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Extent of technology ownership and use has been documented for teens and even pre-teens. However, little is known as to whether such ownership and use patterns change over time. This study examined these issues by surveying a sample of undergraduates as to their ownership and selective use of technology. Compared to teens, undergraduates had…

  6. Beyond budgeting in Statoil : ownership towards ambition to action

    OpenAIRE

    Hjartåker, Stine; Kristiansen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Beyond Budgeting is the concept of moving away from the traditional budget, and ownership is crucial when going beyond the budget. According to Pierce, Kostova and Dirks (2001, 2003), psychological ownership is when an individual feels psychologically tied to something. This thesis aims to enrich the ownership literature, and factors influencing...

  7. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...

  8. Linguistic Analysis of Project Ownership for Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D. I.; Frederick, J.; Fotinakes, B.; Strobel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation…

  9. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...

  10. Device ownership, 'BYOD' & social media for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Grussendorf, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Report on student usage of mobile devices & social media. The 2013 Survey asked about general ownership & usage; opinion on bringing in and using personal devices for learning; familiarity with and usage of social media; and attitude towards using social media in a teaching and learning context. This report summarises the results.

  11. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are not... National Forest System after November 15, 1973, which become intermingled with wild horses or burros,...

  12. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  13. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure: the...

  14. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing... be selected as the result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The selection method must...

  15. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  16. Environmental effects of vintage cars; Milieueffecten van oldtimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, A.; Traa, M.; Geilenkirchen, G.; Hilbers, H. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Ligterink, N.; Kuiper, E. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    A quick scan has been carried out on the emissions of vintage cars and the contribution that environmental zones for oldtimers can make to achieve European air quality standards. Also, an estimate is made of the impact of the current tax exemption for oldtimers on air quality. A brief overview is given of the current policy and recent policy changes for vintage cars, trends and developments with regard to ownership and use of oldtimers. Next, the approach to arrive at a forecast for 2015 is described, as well as the approach to assess the effect of an environmental zone for vintage cars [Dutch] Er is een quick scan uitgevoerd naar de uitstoot van oldtimers en de bijdrage die milieuzones voor oldtimers kunnen leveren voor het behalen van de Europese luchtkwaliteitsnormen. Ook is een inschatting gemaakt van het effect op de luchtkwaliteit van de huidige vrijstelling van de motorrijtuigenbelasting voor oldtimers. Deze notitie betreft een quickscan. Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van het huidige beleid en de recente beleidswijzigingen voor oldtimers, trends en ontwikkelingen in het bezit en gebruik van oldtimers in de afgelopen jaren. Vervolgens wordt de aanpak beschreven om tot een prognose voor 2015 te komen, evenals de aanpak bij de inschatting van het effect van een milieuzone voor oldtimers. In hoofdstuk 5 volgen de resultaten.

  17. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  18. Chinese Sojourn Labor and the American Transcontinental Railroad

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Alan Carson

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the institutional arrangements and labor market forces that interacted in the construction of America's transcontinental railroad. The demand for Chinese laborers on the transcontinental railroad was a product of a complex set of relationships, including the transaction costs of turnover costs, labor queuing and demand-side learning. Institutions that facilitated the supply of Chinese workers included the Chinese Six Companies. The influences of external factors, such as ...

  19. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  20. Railroad Lines, To provide railroads of Louisiana, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'To provide railroads of Louisiana'. The extent of these data is...

  1. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  2. Railroad Lines, This is an ESRI feature class of Railroads within Rock County, Wisconsin., Published in 2001, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2001. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Railroads within Rock County, Wisconsin.'. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  4. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use for...

  5. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  6. Railroad Lines, Railroad Crossings: Public Roads, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as...

  7. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  8. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  9. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  10. Management of car mobility: Fact or fiction?; Beheersing van automobiliteit: Feit of fictie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priemus, H. [ed.] [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Nijkamp, P. [ed.] [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the title workshop contributions is to give background information on the subject of car mobility, and to bring together the different, varied experiences to control the mobility in the Netherlands, including their results. Attention is paid to the use of cars in relation to the environment. Background information is given of car ownership and car use. An overview of tools to reduce car use is presented. Also the present planning policy is discussed, next to the subject of the use of the infrastructure in `user charge` (chapters 1-6). The chapters 7-12 are contributions, presented in parallel sessions during the workshop, on the subjects future policy to fight the congestion, the client-oriented dynamic policy of HTM (a Dutch public transport company), distribution centres, parking policy and traffic circulation plans, living conditions in urban areas, and commuter traffic. From the different contributions it is concluded that control of car mobility in the Netherlands requires a long-term policy to realize a coordinated and consistent mobility policy. 28 tabs. 1 fig., 11 ills., refs.

  11. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km-1 (using renewables) and 155 g km-1 (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO2eq km-1. We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year-1. TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh-1, even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh-1 in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug-in hybrid cars are currently 400-1400 EUR tonne-1 CO2eq and may come down to -100 to 300 EUR tonne-1. Abatement cost using battery powered

  12. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern... Task Force is developing new industry standards for safety appliance arrangements on new car... alternative standards relating to the safety appliance arrangements on any passenger car type considered to...

  13. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  14. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,254), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC...

  15. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  16. The Systemic, Long-run Relation among Gasoline Demand, Gasoline Price, Income, and Vehicle Ownership in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Brantley

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes gasoline consumption per capita, income (GDP per capita), gasoline price, and car ownership per capita for a panel of OECD countries by employing panel unit root and cointegration testing, panel Dynamic and Fully Modified OLS estimations, and panel Granger-causality tests. The four variables are determined to be panel I(1) and cointegrated. Estimated long-run and short-run income elasticities are smaller than what typically had been found previously. Lastly, gasoline consu...

  17. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  18. Application of Monte Carlo-based statistical significance determinations to the Beta Cephei stars V400 Car, V401 Car, V403 Car and V405 Car

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbrecht, C. A.; Frescura, F. A. M.; Frank, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    We have used Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis and Monte Carlo significance tests to detect periodicities above the 3-sigma level in the Beta Cephei stars V400 Car, V401 Car, V403 Car and V405 Car. These methods produce six previously unreported periodicities in the expected frequency range of excited pulsations: one in V400 Car, three in V401 Car, one in V403 Car and one in V405 Car. One of these six frequencies is significant above the 4-sigma level. We provide statistical significances for...

  19. Compatibility of radioactive materials transportation with railroad operations: two views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has a growing need for safe, economical and efficient transport of nuclear spent fuel and similar radioactive materials. In most cases railroads are the clearly economic mode of transport. Many US rail carriers have shown an increasing reluctance - in some instances an outright refusal - to handle these commodities. This is in spite of very stringent packaging and safety regulations, and a virtually perfect accident record to date. Following several years of fruitless discussions with the railroads on this issue, the nuclear industry filed several complaints with the Interstate Commerce Commission seeking to force the railroads to handle this traffic in normal operations. The history and results of the investigations stemming from these complaints are covered in other papers. The testimony, exhibits and briefs submitted in these cases illustrate the reasons for the railroads' safety concerns and why they believe certain train operating restrictions will produce a safer transport environment. Despite the acknowledged sturdiness of spent fuel casks, the rail industry has not been convinced that the tests and model simulations used by the nuclear industry to design and certify casks adequately portrayed the forces actually generated in a railroad accident. The most significant of the operating changes proposed by the carriers in response to this concern was the requirement that spent fuel be moved only in special trains.According to the railroads, this would permit closer monitoring; reduce both the probability and consequences of accidents; permit better control of speeds; and minimize switching and terminal handling. A review of the material submitted by both the protestants and respondents in these proceedings provides a clearer understanding of the litigants' respective positions, as well as some insights into practical railroading as it pertains to the transportation of nuclear materials

  20. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  1. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  2. Ownership structure, profit maximization, and competitive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vroom, Govert; Mccann, Brian T.

    2009-01-01

    We question the broad applicability of the assumption of profit maximization as the goal of the firm and investigate how variance in objective functions across different ownership structures affects competitive behavior. While prior work in agency theory has argued that firms may fail to engage in profit maximizing behaviors due to misalignment between the goals of owners and managers, we contend that we are unlikely to observe pure profit maximizing behavior even in the case of the perfect a...

  3. Study on Foreign Property Ownership in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Esha

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about foreign property ownership in Malaysia, focusing on Malaysia My Second Home Programme. Secondary data was collected by desk study. Primary data was collected via self administered postal questionnaires. A group of 100 participants of Malaysia My Second Home Programme were randomly selected for this purpose. The findings discovered that foreign second homebuyers are mainly those who are above 45 years old and married. Three main reasons for foreigner to buy second home in M...

  4. Self-ownership, Marxism, and Egalitarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Mack

    2002-01-01

    Part I of this essay supports the anti-egalitarian conclusion that individuals may readily become entitled to substantially unequal extra-personal holdings by criticizing end-state and pattern theories of distributive justice and defending the historical entitlement doctrine of justice in holdings. Part II of this essay focuses on a second route to the anti-egalitarian conclusion. This route combines the self-ownership thesis with a contention that is especially advanced by G.A. Cohen. This i...

  5. EU Policy. Germany debates ownership unbundling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices

  6. EU Policy. Germany debates ownership unbundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, S.

    2008-01-15

    The European Commission has proposed an extensive overhaul of Europe's energy market with the aim to improve competition, spark infrastructure investments and create a cross-border European power market. However, ownership unbundling (OU), has been met with resistance, particularly in Germany, where four powerful energy companies rule over an oligopoly that many say is causing high energy prices. Several experts in this field have serious doubts if OU will drive down prices.

  7. Optimal Ownership Structures in Asymmetric Joint Ventures

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Belleflamme; Francis Bloch

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between asymmetries in the distribution of shares in joint ventures and asymmetries between the parent companies. When the joint venture and the parent companies are controlled by separate entities, we provide a simple formula to compute the optimal ownership structure. This formula is applied to various models of market interaction, showing that larger companies should have a larger fraction of shares, and so should companies whose goods are closer substi...

  8. Australian coal production marketing and ownership practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author explains his belief that instability of coal pricing has led to ownership changes and, besides high costs, is one of the contributors to that low profitability has been the low prices achieved for coal versus other energy sources. These low prices are, in turn, a reflection of the underlying supply/demand cycle. This paper examines Australia's coal performance in world markets during the 1980's and then the other marketing factors which lead to the authors' conclusion

  9. Payment method and perceptions of ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Erki, Berna

    2013-01-01

    How consumers pay influences how they feel about a transaction. In particular, paying by card has been argued to have an effect on the perception of cost; making it less salient and painful. We propose and show that payment method also influences how consumers feel about the acquired good. Specifically we focus on effects of the payment method on psychological ownership, i.e. the perception of an object as "mine". We propose that cash payment results in stronger psychological o...

  10. Ownership Structure, Board Composition and Investment Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna; Eklund, Johan; Wiberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the relation between ownership structure, board composition and firm performance is explored. A panel of Swedish listed firms is used to investigate how board composition affects firm performance. Board heterogeneity is measured as board size, age and gender diversity. The results show that Swedish board of directors have become more diversified in terms of gender. Also, fewer firms have the CEO on the board which can be interpreted as a sign of increased independency. The regre...

  11. Two Essays on Ownership and Market Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Honghui

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that ownership structure may be an important determinant of securities' market characteristics. For example, the presence of informed traders leads to greater bid-ask spreads (Copeland and Galai (1983), and Glosten and Milgrom (1985)), and strategic trading of informed and discretionary liquidity traders leads to intertemporal variation in both trading volume and trading costs (Admati and Pfleiderer (1988), and Foster and Viswanathan (1990)). However, the empirica...

  12. Commune: Shared Ownership in an Agnostic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Soriente, Claudio; Karame, Ghassan; Ritzdorf, Hubert; Marinovic, Srdjan; Capkun, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    Although cloud storage platforms promise a convenient way for users to share files and engage in collaborations, they require all files to have a single owner who unilaterally makes access control decisions. Existing clouds are, thus, agnostic to shared ownership. This can be a significant limitation in many collaborations because one owner can, for example, delete files and revoke access without consulting the other collaborators. In this paper, we first formally define a notion of shared ow...

  13. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  14. Future cars: the electric option

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Avery, NR; Muddle, BC

    1999-01-01

    Global economic, environmental and political issues are pushing car manufacturers to consider electric power systems as an alternative to the current spark ignition engine. In this article, we analyse the power and energy requirements of a modern car and conclude that a viable electric car could be operated with a 50 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack to provide power for cruising and climbing, coupled in parallel with a 30 kW supercapacitor or battery bank to supply additional sho...

  15. Our Car as Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating useful ‘waste’ products in the form of heat and fresh water. The produced electricity, heat and fresh water can be fed into the respective grids or be used directly in our house, office or the school o...

  16. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  17. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  18. Cars Are Hot in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    MANY Chinese have long dreamedabout the joy of driving. However, in thepast only professional drivers had theopportunity as most cars were stateowned and it was too expensive forindividuals to buy their own.

  19. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  20. Car Safety for Special Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Suzanne Hauser

    1983-01-01

    Various car seats, harnesses, and vests that can be used with handicapped children are described. Suggestions are also made for improvment when existing equipment is not appropriate. A list of resources on the topic is also provided. (CL)

  1. Vibration issues in passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał BURDZIK; Konieczny, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  2. Vibration issues in passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał BURDZIK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  3. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  4. INTERLINE, a railroad routing model: program description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INTERLINE is an interactive computer program that finds likely routes for shipments over the US railroad system. It is based on a shortest path algorithm modified both to reflect the nature of railroad company operations and to accommodate computer resource limitations in dealing with a large transportation network. The first section of the report discusses the nature of railroad operations and routing practices in the United States, including the tendency to concentrate traffic on a limited number of mainlines, the competition for traffic by different companies operating in the same corridors, and the tendency of originating carriers to retain traffic on their systems before transferring it to terminating carriers. The theoretical foundation and operation of shortest path algorithms are described, as well as the techniques used to simulate actual operating practices within this framework. The second section is a user's guide that describes the program operation and data structures, program features, and user access. 11 refs., 11 figs

  5. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  6. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  7. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  8. The Evolution of Aggregate Stock Ownership - A Unified Explanation

    OpenAIRE

    Rydqvist, Kristian; Spizman, Joshua; Strebulaev, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Since World War II, direct stock ownership by households has largely been replaced by indirect stock ownership by financial institutions. We argue that tax policy is the driving force. Using long time-series from eight countries, we show that the fraction of household ownership decreases with measures of the tax benefits of holding stocks inside a pension plan. This finding is important for policy considerations on effective taxation and for financial economics research on the long-term effec...

  9. The Direction of Causality between Insider Ownership and Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen; Kvist, Hans Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The causal relationship between insider ownership and market valuation is tested on a database of the largest EU and US companies. Using a Granger causality test insider ownership (measured by the fraction of closely held shares) is found to have a negative effect on market valuation (measured as the simple Tobin's Q ratio). And market valuation is found to have a negative effect on insider ownership. Consistent with an overall non-linear relationship as hypothesised by Morck e...

  10. Control Rights, Pyramids, and the Measurement of Ownership Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy S.S.; Alfons J. Weichenrieder

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The recent corporate governance literature has emphasised the distinction between control and cash-flow rights but has disregarded measurement issues. Control rights may be measured by immediate shareholder votes, the voting rights as traced through ownership chains, or voting power indices that may or may not trace ownership through chains. We compare the ability of various measures to identify the effects of ownership concentration on share valuation using a German panel...

  11. Separation between ownership and control: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle, Ariane

    2004-01-01

    Complex structure of ownership like cross-ownership, rings, and pyramids are common in Continental Europe, Eastern Europe, and in Asia. This paper aims at dissecting these complex features by a proper measurement of direct and indirect holdings. Building on Brioschi et al. (1989), we use the input-output matrix methodology and we add control considerations in the matrix calculations to derive a straightforward method of quantifying the separation between ownership and control for a firm or a ...

  12. The Influence of Employee Ownership on Intrapreneurship and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Klaneček, Alojz; Antončièč, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    Programmes of workers’ participation and profit-sharing may not be as powerful a motivation as ownership. Owners of the majority of shares might like to include managers, experts and routine workers among the shareholders. This study empirically examines the relationship between employee ownership, intrapreneurship, and firm growth. Results of the empirical analysis do not completely support the hypothesis of a positive association between employee ownership and intrapreneurship nor the hypot...

  13. Ownership Structure, Governance, and Innovation: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Raoul Minetti; Pierluigi Murro; Monica Paiella

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the impact of firms’ ownership structure on firms’ innovation decisions using a rich dataset of about 20,000 Italian manufacturers. After accounting for its possible endogeneity, we find that ownership concentration negatively affects the probability of innovation, especially by reducing firms’ R&D effort. The analysis reveals that conflicts of interest between large and minority shareholders are a determinant of the negative effect of ownership concentration on innovation. M...

  14. Ownership Structure, Corporate Governance, and Firms' Performance: Konka Group Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Dai

    2009-01-01

    Starts with the basic analysis that ownership structure determines corporate governance, which finally determines firm’s performance, and based on the up to date
    corporate governance theory, the paper investigates Shenzhen Konka’s 12 years long development of being a listed company and makes an analytic demonstration. The author discovers the truth that the ownership exchange occurred in 1997 was the turning point for Konka. The exchange not only altered the original ownership stru...

  15. Corporate Ownership, Control, and Firm Performance in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long debated whether ownership structure matters for firm performance. The standard view with respect to Victorian Britain is that family-controlled companies had a detrimental effect on operating profit and shareholder value. Here, we examine this view using a hand-collected corporate ownership dataset. Our main finding is that it was not necessarily the broad structure of corporate ownership that mattered for performance, but whether family blockholders had a governance role. ...

  16. Corporate Ownership Structure and Firm Performance: Evidence from Greek Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis Kapopoulos; Sophia Lazaretou

    2006-01-01

    The Berle-Means thesis (1932) implies that diffuse ownership adversely affects firm performance. This paper tries to investigate whether there is strong evidence to support the notion that variations across firms in observed ownership structures result in systematic variations in observed firm performance. We test this hypothesis by assessing the impact of the structure of ownership on corporate performance, measured by profitability, using data for 175 Greek listed firms. Following Demsetz a...

  17. Insider ownership and corporate performance: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kaserer, Christoph; Moldenhauer, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we address the question whether insider ownership affects corporate performance. Evidence coming from studies dealing with Anglo-Saxon countries is rather inconclusive, especially because it seems that results are significantly affected by endogeneity. Economically, this is due to the fact that in these countries insider ownership seems to be mainly driven by management's compensation contracts. We argue that Germany is different in this regard, as insider ownership often is rel...

  18. Ownership Structure, Board Characteristics and Corporate Performance in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Turki; Nadia Ben Sedrine

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon prior empirical research on the potential endogeneity of both ownership structure and firmperformance in developed markets, this study examines the reverse causations that can exist between corporateperformance and ownership structure in Tunisian listed companies. The study was extended to include boardcharacteristics as a principal internal control mechanism for monitoring managers and an assessment of itspotential effects on firm performance and ownership structure. Our finding...

  19. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may be...... large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...

  20. The railroad perspective: Issues behind the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rail transportation is a vital segment of DOE's spent fuel program. Most of the shipments from reactors to a repository or to a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility will be by rail, and essentially all of the shipments from an MRS to a repository. Casks must move economically and efficiently, while at the same time providing adequate safety to the public and transport workers, and meeting the legal/institutional constraints. Shippers are faced with the problem of procuring transportation services in a safe manner at a reasonable cost, trying to balance freight charges against cask inventory costs. Carriers are cautious about accepting potentially high hazard materials in routine service, and are worried about uninsured losses in case of accidents. Both shippers and carriers operate under different scheduling and operational criteria. Technical and institutional constraints add to the complexity of the operation. Standardization of shipping casks and rail car design will ease the resolution of the complex problems now existent. This paper discusses the economic, safety, operational, and legal issues surrounding rail transportation

  1. Foreign Ownership and Corporate Income Taxation: An Empirical Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Huizinga; Gaetan Nicodeme

    2003-01-01

    Economic integration in Europe has not led to a ‘race to the bottom' regarding corporate income taxes. This paper documents trends in the foreign ownership of companies in Europe and it examines whether foreign ownership has exerted a positive influence on corporate income tax levels. Using company-level data, we document that the foreign ownership share in Europe stood at around 21.5 percent in the year 2000. The estimation suggests that a one percentage point increase in foreign ownership...

  2. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  3. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  4. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    OpenAIRE

    Mel Slater; Daniel Pérez Marcos; Henrik Ehrsson; Maria V. Sanchez-Vives

    2009-01-01

    We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a...

  5. Ownership Concentration, Monitoring and Optimal Board Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Clara; Luporini, Annalisa

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the optimal structure of board of directors in a firm with ownership concentrated in the hands of a large shareholder who sits on the board. We focus our attention on the choice between one-tier board who performs all tasks and two-tier board where the management board is in charge of project selection and the supervisory board is in charge of monitoring. We consider the case in which the large shareholder sits on (and controls) the supervisory board but not the management ...

  6. The Social Costs of Gun Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates, and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership. The estimates utilize a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which we validate. Using county- and state-level panels for 20 years, we estimate the elasticity of homicide with respect to gun prevalence as between +.1 and +.3. All of the effect of gun prevalence is on gun homicide rates. Under ce...

  7. Ownership unbundling; Ownership unbundling. Wesen und Vereinbarkeit mit Europarecht und Verfassungsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J.F.; Pritzsche, K.U.; Klauer, S.

    2006-07-01

    After it had ushered in the liberalisation of the energy economy through its initial enactment in 1998 the Energy Economy Law was fundamentally revised to stipulate the complete unbundling of integrated power supply companies in terms of their legal status, accounting and operations, in accordance with Directives 2003/54 and 2003/55. While this amended version has yet to take effect, the European Union has already set its sights on its next unbundling project. This is the project of maximum unbundling, also referred to as ownership unbundling. Its proponents expect of it that it will eliminate all incentives that encourage network operators to discriminate against interlinked production and distributive companies. Quite apart from a political assessment of such short-sighted energy policy this raises the question as to whether the introduction of ownership unbundling by the European legislature, and consequently also by the German government, is legally admissible at all. Any answer to this question must first clarify the precise meaning of ownership unbundling. For all the support behind it there is still no clear agreement as to what this dazzling term actually stands for. Save for few exceptions no definitions have as yet been offered for this instrument from the realm of science and politics. The present article therefore attempts to approach the concept of ownership unbundling, presenting possible options for its implementation. Based on these options it then goes on to address the legality of such measures under European and German constitutional law.

  8. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  9. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  10. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines whether a pension established by a railroad employer is a private pension that will cause a reduction...

  11. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... of contractor employees at Sec. Sec. 243.1(b), 243.101(e)-(f), and 243.209. 77 FR 6453. These... Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR); Proposed Rule #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AB89 Railroad Workplace Safety;...

  12. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  13. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  14. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  15. 77 FR 25229 - Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Dallas County, TX Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company (DGNO) has filed a... from Union Pacific Railroad Company exclusive trackage rights over the Line. See Dallas,...

  16. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  17. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a) The operating rules of each railroad with respect to radio communications shall conform to the requirements of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio...

  18. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  19. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects of...... increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices are...

  1. 36 CFR 72.36 - Land ownership, control and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.36 Land ownership, control and conversion. Section 1010 of the Act provides... Acquisition Policies Act (See 41 CFR parts 114-50). ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land ownership, control...

  2. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  3. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  4. Ownership relations in the presence of cross-shareholding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Temurshoev, U.

    2008-01-01

    The direct ownership structure in a sector can be readily obtained from data on shareholding. Due to cross-shareholding, however, the true ownership structure may be hidden by a complex network of indirect relations. In studying the property structure, two important aspects are the size of the relat

  5. The Importance of Fostering Ownership During Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Fraenkel, Liana; Seng, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to consider the impact of the new resident-hours regulations on the variety of aspects of medical education and patient care. Most existing literature about this subject has focused on the role of fatigue in resident performance, education, and health care delivery. However, there are other possible consequences of these new regulations, including a negative impact on decision ownership. Our main assumption of is that increased shift work in medicine can decrease ownership of treatment decisions and impact negatively on quality of care. We review some potential components of decision ownership in treatment context and suggest possible ways in which the absence of decision ownership may decrease the quality of medical decision making. The article opens with the definition of decision ownership and the overview of some contextual factors that may contribute to the development of ownership in medical residency. The following section discusses decision ownership in medical care from the perspective of "diffusion of responsibility." We question the quality of choices made within narrow decisional frames. We also compare isolated and interrelated choices, assuming that residents make more isolated decisions during their shifts. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of decreased decision ownership impacting the delivery of health care. PMID:27471927

  6. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  7. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  8. 42 CFR 9.5 - Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. 9.5... PROVISIONS STANDARDS OF CARE FOR CHIMPANZEES HELD IN THE FEDERALLY SUPPORTED SANCTUARY SYSTEM § 9.5 Chimpanzee ownership, fees, and studies. (a) Who owns the chimpanzees in the federally supported...

  9. 12 CFR 701.36 - FCU ownership of fixed assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FCU ownership of fixed assets. 701.36 Section... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.36 FCU ownership of fixed assets. (a) Investment in Fixed Assets. (1) No Federal credit union with $1,000,000 or more in assets may invest in any...

  10. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  11. Car car cars:车库梦想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    在曾经关于南京摇滚大集合的专题中我们介绍过这支年轻而有趣的乐队,当时他们刚刚开始,最令人印象深刻是男吉他+女鼓手的车库摇滚乐队配置,今年,他们在近一年的辗转与坚持中,越来越多地参与到南京、北京和更多城市的演出中,同时独立发行了乐队的首张同名EP。Car Car Cars的名字和他们热衷的车库风格鲜明地联系在一起,而除了对于风格上的暗示,这个名字与他们最初组建时一直在一间废弃的驾校模拟器教室排练有很大关系。“里面有很多那种模驾练习机嘛,当时就想取一个和“车”有关的乐队名字应该很酷,就叫CAR CAR CARS吧!”酷的不只有名字,Car Car Cars由兄妹二人组成,主唱兼吉他手小汤是年轻的哥哥。鼓手是漂亮的妹妹,这种无意间造就的话题性让人有意无意地联系统The White Stripes。除了外型、配置上的天生抢眼,Car Car Cars这一年中的数场演出,也展示了他们凌厉的台风与属于车库的狂野,首张EP一上来就使用了同期录音的方式,展示了很多惊喜,虽然也不可避免地了一些些遗憾。在进一步的发展中。克服了创作、表现力的一些进阶困难之后,Car Car Cars完全有实力为风格趋于过份统一的国内年轻摇滚圈添上与众不同的一笔。

  12. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    concentration is positive in Scandinavia. We propose that, besides the legal protection of small investors, the differences in the impact of ownership concentration across the countries could be due to the identity of the predominant owners, i.e. financial institutions in Germany and trusts and foundations in......This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average a...... negative effect of ownership concentration on bank value, measured by Tobin's Q. However, this effect varies across different institutional settings; while higher ownership concentration results in a lower bank value particularly in the countries belonging to German legal family, the impact of ownership...

  13. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease...

  14. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  15. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  16. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  17. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  18. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  19. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  20. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  1. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  2. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly in...... Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper...

  3. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  4. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...... to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure...

  5. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  6. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  7. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  8. Determining the Air Drag on a Car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Students' cars and wristwatches are used as "apparatus" to introduce and demonstrate Newton's second law of motion. Forces acting on cars are discussed and typical student data (for different makes of cars) are provided. Data could also be used in discussions of work, horsepower, efficiency, and energy cost. (JN)

  9. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Minagawa; Xiaoou Zhou; Shin Mineishi; Antonio Di Stasi

    2015-01-01

    T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigati...

  10. Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

  11. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  12. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PERFORMANCE – RESEARCH AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Varcholova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarize the results of published researches conducted in the area of influence of ownership forms on companies and financial performance and to highlight the specifics of these relations in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  13. Railroading technique of dermal grafting for linear atrophic scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal grafting is a valuable technique in the field of dermatosurgery for the treatment of atrophic scars where the source of filler material is the patient′s own dermis. However, it is underused for the reasons being difficulties in placing the graft in the tunnel, keratin cysts and complications due to biofilms. Railroading technique used in urology for rupture urethra has been described for dermal grafts to overcome the technical difficulties of graft placement.

  14. Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Finkelstein, Murray M; Kurtz, Lawrence; Smolynec, Kathy; Eyre, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, in terms of elemental carbon, was conducted as part of a feasibility study in the Canadian railroad industry. Both personal and area samples were collected from three major operating divisions of the railways: mechanical service, transportation, and engineering. A total of 255 elemental carbon samples have been described. The results show that all but six elemental carbon concentrations, expressed as size-selective respirable air samples taken using a 10 mm nylon cyclone, are well below the 2001 proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 20 microg/m3. The concentration of diesel exhaust, expressed as elemental carbon, in the railroad industry is much lower than that in some other major industries such as mining and forklift truck operations. If the TLV is to be applicable to a broad range of workplace settings such as railroad, construction, and mining, the use of a TLV that is based on an elemental carbon measurement of size selective respirable samples, as recommended in the 2001 ACGIH proposal, would appear to be the most valid strategy for control of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:12650546

  15. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  16. ARM7 Based Smart Car Security System.

    OpenAIRE

    J.R. Shaikh, S. M. Kate

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to offer an advance security system in CAR, which consists of a face detection subsystem, a GPS module, a GSM module and a control platform. The face detection subsystem can detect faces in cars during the period in which nobody should be in the car, and make an alarm loudly or soundlessly. The other modules transmit necessary information to users and help to keep eyes on cars all the time, even when the car is lost.In todays world, many new techniques such as ...

  17. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  18. Thermoelectric Air Cooling For Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Raut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the second most populous country in the world with over 1.21billion people (estimated for April, 2011,more than sixth of the world’s population. India is projected to be world’s most populous country by 2025,surpassing china, its population exceeding 1.6 billion people by 2050.Comparing with the population there are 2.65 million cars sold in India as of march 2011.According to the society of Indian automotive manufacturer, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than a 9 million by 2020.By 2050,the country is expected to top of the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads.The above data shows that, as the population increase the no. of vehicles also increase. Today, an automobile is a necessity for everyone. For a long or short journey people need car regard to thesafety, environment and most important comfort. Owing to these reasons, many vehicles are equipped with heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. In today’s world, no one feel comfortable in a vehicle without HVAC system. Therefore, HVAC becomes an integral part of human life. Today’s present HVAC system is very efficient and reliable but it has some demerits. It has been observed during the last two decades that the O3 –layer is slowly destroyed because of the refrigerant (CFC and HFC used for the refrigeration and air –conditioning purposes. The common refrigerant used is HFC’s which are leaked and slowly climb into the atmosphere. When they reach to O3 layer they act on O3 –molecules and the layer of O3 is destroyed.

  19. Servicing a Connected Car Service

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Benjamin; Varnai, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Increased wireless connectivity to vehicles invites both existing and new digital methods of attack, requiring the high prioritisation of security throughout the development of not just the vehicle, but also the services provided for it. This report examines such a connected car service used by thousands of customers every day and evaluates it from a security standpoint. The methods used for this evaluation include both direct testing of vulnerabilities, as well as the examination of design c...

  20. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.98 and...... 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect to...

  1. Dynamic analysis of a container with a single layer of drums mounted on a railroad car suffering collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic analysis has been performed with a new Type of 20' box container qualified as an industrial package Type 2 and 3 and as a Type A container. In the model for a numerical collision experiment the container was partially loaded with 21 x 1000 kg drums, arranged along three parallel rows forming a single layer. One of the aims in the container development was to achieve a system that could transport cargoes with a variable number of drums stacked in changeable configurations, while ensuring the safety of the container for dynamic forces that could arise during normal conditions of transport. This led to the design of an interchangeable tray for the drums that can easily be handled and loaded into the container, together with passive restraining devices that prevent this assembly from moving inside the container when subjected to dynamic forces. The container system is designed to withstand accelerations of up to 6g in the longitudinal direction. One result of the calculations is that stiff support systems are not capable of absorbing the impact forces once the critical velocity of 10 km.h-1 is exceeded, since the forces quickly grow beyond even the design strength of a new 20' box container of 500 kN. In comparison the design strength of today's IP 2/IP 3 container is only approximately 80 kN. In the numerical experiments, it was observed that a soft cushioning support tray system like the one developed by CORROBESCH/STM has excellent shock absorbing characteristics. By contrast, a rigid support system, or worse, no support system at all, is likely to produce impact forces at normal conditions of transport capable of endangering the container walls. (author)

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., published at 42 CFR part 72, or is approved for drinking purposes by the State or local authority having...” occur, as defined in 49 CFR 228.101 (c)(3) and (c)(4), respectively. Every reasonable effort should be... serious physical harm. (k) Urinal means a toilet facility maintained within a toilet room for the...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Oconto County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building Permit...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in 1990, Henderson County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1990. It is described as 'Parcels'. This data...

  5. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2001, Hendricks Co. Engineering.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2001. This data set includes internal links to...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Paulding County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. Key attributes of this data set include (but are not...

  8. Yampa coal field land status and Federal mineral ownership (yamowng)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and unioned polygon ownership coverage used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Washington County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Cerro Gordo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  13. >Problems and Countermeasures of Collective Land Ownership Disputes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; QIAO; Kening; WU; Hongjuan; WANG; Qi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, No.1 document of central government demanded strengthening mediation and settlement of ownership of rural collective land, to complete confirmation of right and registration and issue of certificate of rural collective land in 3 years. However, the mediation and settlement of land ownership in China still remain at starting stage, and there are many problems in both theory and practice. In this situation, this paper summarizes current situations of disputes about ownership of collective land in Beijing, analyzes causes of disputes, introduces existing working mechanism, methods and problems of dispute mediation and settlement, and finally presents feasible recommendations, in the hope of providing guidance for mediation and settlement of land ownership disputes.

  14. 15 CFR 971.206 - Statement of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including: (i) Whether the citizen is a natural person, partnership, corporation, joint venture, or other... of the association, partnership, or joint venture, including information about the participation and/or ownership of stock of each partner or joint venturer....

  15. Recent Digital Watermarking Approaches, Protecting Multimedia Data Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Gupta

    Full Text Available As the internet networks are proliferating and diversifying across the globe, the accessibility of digital multimedia contents such as images, audios and videos become more frequent. Digital watermarking approaches ensure data authentication, ownership pr ...

  16. Mapping Strategy, Structure, Ownership and Performance in European Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin; Colli, Andrea; de Jong, Abe

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in 2007, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are...

  19. The British 'Personal Capitalism': Some Evidence on Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    1998-01-01

    By analysing the ownership and control structures of 23 Scottish textile companies of national importance this article suggests some hard evidence on the extent to )holm family influence did persist, well into the second half of the twentieth century, in both ownership and control in the British economy. The majority of the companies remained priwite• even in the companies which went public, characteristics of the private company status continued to be dominant Within these organisational f...

  20. Audit Fee Determinants in different Ownership Structures : The Swedish Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Joakim; LJ Holm, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the audit fee determinants for companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange and to examine whether the audit fee determinants diverge for ownership structures. By testing the audit fee determinants in a Swedish setting the study contributes to the research body in two ways; by testing a previously sparsely researched setting and examining the monitoring need for different ownership structures. The results indicate that audit fees are explained to a ...

  1. CREDIT CARD OWNERSHIP AND DEBT STATUS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    YIING JIA LOKE; Yen, Steven T.; ANDREW K. G. TAN

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of socio-demographic and credit consumption tendencies in affecting credit card ownership and debt status. Based on a sample of 938 individuals from three major cities in Malaysia, card holders' debt status is measured in relation to credit card expenditure, which in turn is categorized into convenience users, low-risk credit revolvers and high-risk credit revolvers. While socio-demographic factors play significant roles in determining card ownership, card holders...

  2. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ow...

  3. Body ownership and embodiment: vestibular and multisensory mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, C.; Halje, P.; O. Blanke

    2008-01-01

    Body ownership and embodiment are two fundamental mechanisms of self-consciousness. The present article reviews neurological data about paroxysmal illusions during which body ownership and embodiment are affected differentially: autoscopic phenomena (out-of-body experience, heautoscopy, autoscopic hallucination, feeling-of-a-presence) and the room tilt illusion. We suggest that autoscopic phenomena and room tilt illusion are related to different types of failures to integrate body-related inf...

  4. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial compani...

  5. Ownership Structure and Firm Performance in the Egyptian Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelgouad, Ahmed Fayez; Pfeifer, Christian; John P. Weche Gelübcke

    2014-01-01

    We use the World Bank enterprise survey for the Egyptian manufacturing sector to study the correlation between the ownership structure (private vs. public, Egyptian vs. Arab foreign vs. non-Arab foreign) and firm performance, which we measure as sales per worker, capacity utilization, and net profit rate. Our main findings indicate that (1) productivity differences between Egyptian private and public firms are not significant, but firms with public ownership have a lower capacity utilization ...

  6. Community Participation & Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...

  7. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  8. A Rent-Protection Theory of Corporate Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a rent-protection theory of corporate ownership structure - and in particular, of the choice between concentrated and dispersed ownership of corporate shares and votes. The paper analyzes the decision of a company's initial owner whether to maintain a lock on control when the company goes public. This decision is shown to be very much influenced by the size that private benefits of control are expected to have. Most importantly, when private benefits of control are large -...

  9. The Structure of Corporate ownership in Privatized Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Trillas, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Paper is to study the determinants of the concentration of ownership in a privatized, regulated firm. The discussion illustrates some aspects of the costs and benefits of different corporate systems. Privatized utilities are large firms with professional management: there is a separation between ownership and control. The agency costs of this separation interact with the regulation of the product market. The main issue to be addressed here is how the degree to which regula...

  10. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO LEFORT

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of corporate governance practices in Latin American countries, surveying the available empirical literature, reviewing the reports on the subject prepared by multinational organizations, and providing new data for ownership and control structures of companies in different Latin American economies. Like in other emerging economies corporate governance in Latin America is conditioned by the high level of ownership concentration and the profusion of industrial and...

  11. uling Elites' Rotation and Asset Ownership: Implications for Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Polishchuk; Georgiy Syunyaev

    2014-01-01

    We provide a theory and empirical evidence indicating that the rotation of ruling elites in conjunction with elites’ asset ownership could improve property rights protection in non-democracies. The mechanism that upholds property rights is based on elites’ concern about the security of their own asset ownership in the event they lose power. Such incentives provide a solution to the credible commitment problem in maintaining secure property rights when institutional restrictions on expropriati...

  12. Corporate ownership and initial training in Britain, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ryan; Karin Wagner; Silvia Teuber; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether listed companies with dispersed ownership invest less in training than do other firms, as part of a short-termist stance caused by pressure from the stock market. An analytical framework that supports the proposition involves three factors: high agency costs between the shareholders and managers of listed firms that have dispersed ownership; the use of highly geared performance-related pay to reward top managers; and accounting conventions that distort performance...

  13. THE EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PROGRAM PHENOMENA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the employee stock ownership program phenomenon in public companies in Indonesia. The ownership of companies in Indonesia is concentrated by a single controlling shareholder. Sometimes, the board of directors and board of commissioners of a company or his/her family are the controlling shareholders. This study is interested in describing the employment stock option program phenomenon. This study collects data from the Indonesian Stock Exchange databas...

  14. Agency conflicts, ownership concentration, and legal shareholder protection

    OpenAIRE

    Burkart, Mike; Panunzi, Fausto

    2001-01-01

    This Paper analyses the interaction between legal shareholder protection, managerial incentives, and ownership concentration. In our framework, blockholder and manager are distinct parties and the presence of a blockholder can both protect and hurt minority shareholders. Legal shareholder protection affects both the expropriation of shareholders and the blockholder's incentives to monitor. Because of this latter effect and its repercussion on managerial incentives, outside ownership concentra...

  15. Impact of Privatization on Employees’ Treatment towards Share Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Berķe-Berga, Anželika

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find out whether employee share ownership would have the same impact on the employees from Latvian joint stock companies that underwent privatization in the early 1990s and from the ones without such experience. For the purposes of the analysis the author uses the data from two empirical surveys. The author discovers the current situation in Latvia regarding ESO. The author finds out the opinions regarding share ownership, share purchase, change in employees’ m...

  16. Self-ownership and social justice among libertarians

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Sébastien Gharbi; Cléa Sambuc

    2012-01-01

    Faced with the well-known rightlibertarianism, a left-libertarianism has recently been developed. Advocates of the latter position share many theoretical choices with those of the former and in particular the central place given to full self-ownership. Analysis of this ownership individuals have over themselves allows to understand the diversity of libertarian conceptions of social justice. It also reveals their economic implications both in global justice and in treatment of one of the emble...

  17. Actual Versus Perceived Risk of Victimization and Handgun Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Elpi, Clara Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that perceived risk of victimization had a stronger effect than actual exposure to victimization risk on handgun ownership and that this relationship was stronger for women than men. Perceived and actual risks of victimization have been discussed with respect to handgun ownership, but a general consensus in the literature was lacking and recent empirical research was scarce. Crime rates and respondentsâ social characteristics were used as proxy measures for ...

  18. Ownership Concentration and Bank Performance: Evidence from MENA Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rim Boussaada; Majdi Karmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of ownership concentration on MENA banks’ performance over the period 2004-2011. The sample includes 38 commercial banks belonging to ten countries of the MENA region. We use an econometric method that deals with the endogeneity problems that have arisen in the corporate governance literature. We show that ownership concentration is significant in explaining performance differences between MENA banks. Our analysis shows that bank performance depends on the ident...

  19. Corruption, Networking and Foreign Ownership: Recent Evidence from CEE Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Sarmistha

    2013-01-01

    The present paper argues that the effect of corruption on foreign ownership is not necessarily linear and depends on the level of host corruption. So long as the expected returns from foreign investments exceed its expected costs, higher host corruption will be associated with higher foreign ownership. However, costs may exceed or exactly compensate the returns to foreign investment at very high level of corruption, giving rise to negative or even an insignificant relationship when positive a...

  20. Corporate Governance in Pakistan : Corporate Valuation, Ownership and Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Javid, Attiya Y.; Robina Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    In this study the relationship between corporate governance and corporate valuation, ownership structure and need of external financing for the Karachi Stock Market is examined for the period 2003 to 2008. To measure the firm- level governance a rating system is used to evaluate the stringency of a set of governance practices and cover various governance categories : such as board composition, ownership and shareholdings and transparency, disclosure and auditing. The sample consists of 60 non...

  1. Investment activity and ownership structure of Czech corporate farms

    OpenAIRE

    Curtiss, Jarmila; Latruffe, Laure; Medonos, Thomas; RATINGER Tomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the relationship between ownership structure, performance and investment activity. In particular it studies how behavioural differences between farms related to ownership structure influence farms' investment activity and thus their further development potential resulting in farm structural changes. The paper analyses a sample of corporate farms over 7 years, 1997-2003, using structural model of three equations including investment accelerator model. This model co...

  2. Does Ownership Structure Influence Firm Value? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ownership structure on the firm performance for an unbalanced panel of 2478 Indian corporate firms from 1994 to 2000. We examine the effect of interactions between corporate, foreign, institutional, and managerial ownership on firm performance. Using panel data framework, we show that a large fraction of cross- sectional variation, in firm performance can be explained by unobserved firm heterogeneity. We provide evidence that the shareholding by institutional...

  3. Corporate Ownership, Leadership and Job Charateristics in Russian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Weisberg; Moshe Banai

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the application of the Western theory of organization's ownership in Russia, suggesting that ownership types – such as state-owned and private – influence leadership style and employees' jobs characteristics. A sample of 724 Russian employees in 15 service and manufacturing companies was surveyed. The results indicate that, contrary to Western theories, the leadership in Russian state-owned enterprises tends to be perceived as being more effective than the leadership in priva...

  4. Disrupting Vestibular Activity Disrupts Body Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive at detecting asynchrony between a self-generated movement and visual feedback concerning that movement when the movement is viewed from a first-person perspective. We call this the 'self-advantage' and interpret it as an objective measure of self. Here we ask if disruption of the vestibular system in healthy individuals affects the self-advantage. Participants performed finger movements while viewing their hand in a first-person ('self') or third-person ('other') perspective and indicated which of two periods (one with minimum delay and the other with an added delay of 33-264 ms) was delayed. Their sensitivity to the delay was calculated from the psychometric functions obtained. During the testing, disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied in five-minute blocks interleaved with five minutes of no stimulation for a total of 40 min. We confirmed the self-advantage under no stimulation (31 ms). In the presence of disruptive GVS this advantage disappeared and there was no longer a difference in performance between perspectives. The threshold delay for the 'other' perspective was not affected by the GVS. These results suggest that an intact vestibular signal is required to distinguish 'self' from 'other' and to maintain a sense of body ownership. PMID:26595957

  5. Genetic resources, biotech patents and gene ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic resources are increasingly considered as ordinary commercial goods, but their value and utility go beyond the simple and immediate private profit. In contrast to other biological resources, commercial use does not focus upon the material itself but rather upon the genetic information it contains. Information goods are then usually subject to intellectual property rights, but in the biological and life science domains, property rights can have a negative influence upon the proper allocation of several goods, including genetic material or goods that are related to it. This scenario reflects the facts of recent litigations in the United States and Europe. In particular, these lawsuits have revived the debate over private ownership and control over genes. Within this context, the objective of the paper is to discuss how to recast the traditional right to access to and use of biochemical and human genetic material currently considered as part of the market framework. Looking beyond the protection of traditional public goods, the paper emphasizes the debate around the progressive commodification of human genetic resources facilitated by an improper use of intellectual property rights. Different scenarios are analyzed to evaluate alternative instruments and new regulatory approaches to avoid the private appropriation of human genetic resources and other natural assets. PMID:25845208

  6. The Moderating Effect of Ownership Structure on the Relationship between Free Cash Flow and Asset Utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Rina Br Bukit; Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi

    2012-01-01

    Based on agency theory, ownership structure plays a role in monitoring managerial opportunistic behaviour. This study examines how different forms of ownership structures including foreign ownership, government ownership, and managerial ownership moderate the relationship between free cash flow and asset utilisation. This cross-sectional study involves companies listed on Bursa Malaysia. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis show a negative relationship between free cash ...

  7. Bargaining with a Shared Interest: The Impact of Employee Stock Ownership Plans on Labor Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton; Hamid Mehran; Joseph Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Bargaining often occurs between parties with some shared interest. Partnerships, joint ventures, and cross ownership are examples. We extend standard bargaining models to allow for joint ownership. Joint ownership reduces costly bargaining disputes, as bargainers’ interests are more aligned. We then test the theory with collective bargaining data, where employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) are the source of joint ownership. The theory predicts that ESOPs will lead to a reduction in strike i...

  8. External and Internal Ownership Concentration and Debt Decisions in an Emerging Market: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab u Din; Attiya Javid; Muhammad Imran

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of concentration of ownership both external block ownership and managerial share ownership on capital structure decision of Pakistani non-financial firms. The panel data is used to investigate the relationship between capital structure with external and internal ownership structure and fixed effect model gives a better explanation of the model. The relationship suggested by analysis between external ownership concentration and leverage ratio, patronage the “pass...

  9. Impact of the Ownership Structure on Corporate Management in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieieva Nataliia E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses impact of the ownership structure on corporate management in the engineering industry of Ukraine. In order to detect impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management the article uses general scientific and special methods of study: method of critical analysis and generalisation of theoretical studies, comparison method and statistical method. Analysis of engineering enterprises confirmed availability of impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management. The article also shows that the engineering industry of Ukraine is characterised with the concentrated ownership structure, which has the following features: restriction of rights of minority shareholders with respect to management and control in a joint stock company; availability of corporate conflicts between majority and minority shareholders; availability of intense control of owners over management, which influences efficiency of making managerial decisions; hired managers and enterprise employees have no possibility to acquire stock of a joint stock company including in the form of bonuses and incentives; the controlling owner is interested in efficient activity of the enterprise and tries to create necessary conditions for this. The conducted studies give a possibility to establish that a share of stock that belongs to a hired executive body is smaller in those joint stock companies in which concentration of ownership is higher. The article also shows that the higher ownership concentration the higher is the probability that the owner would be a part of controlling bodies.

  10. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  11. History, Path Dependence and Development: Evidence from Colonial Railroads, Settlers and Cities in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Remi Jedwab; Edward Kerby; Alexander Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and forces of urban path dependence in developing countries.  Railroad construction in colonial Kenya provides a natural experiment to study the emergence and persistence of this spatial equilibrium.  Using new data at a fine spatial level over one century shows that colonial railroads causally determined the location of European settlers, which in turn decided the location of the main cities of the country at independence.  Railroads declined and settlers lef...

  12. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  13. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu; Har, Dongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative...

  14. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars-Part I: Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated

  15. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Mariner混合动力车是一款豪华紧凑型SUV,它采用混合动力发动机,无级变速和全驱动驾驶,续航里程达640公里。如果您是一位不喜欢走寻常路的人,那么这款车型先进的导航系统以及出色的稳定性控制定会给带来惊喜。

  16. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车 10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  17. CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李啸龙

    2011-01-01

    MINI COUNTRYMAN成为国内空客A380首航专用引导车10月17日,来自中国南方航空公司的国内首架空客A380于北京首都国际机场起飞,经过近2000km、3个小时的航程,成功降落在广州白云国际机场,3辆MINI COUNTRYMAN引导着这一架“空中巨无霸”精准停机入位。

  18. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  19. Driving CAR T-cells forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-06-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  20. Diesel cars in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the causes of the recent increased interest in diesel cars, thereby providing insight into the related behavior of institutions and individuals. This knowledge may improve the formulation of federal policies for diesel, electric, and other more energy-efficient car systems. The study describes developments in the diesel car field over the past few years, and discusses the present status of diesel cars. Historical data were assembled on diesel car sales and on parameters that might have affected the sales. Information is included on the following items related to diesel cars: buyers preferences and why; fuel economy and availability; energy conservation potential; and exhaust emissions, their control and air pollution effects. (LCL)

  1. Cars, corporations, and commodities: Consequences for the social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Social epidemiologists have drawn attention to health inequalities as avoidable and inequitable, encouraging thinking beyond proximal risk factors to the causes of the causes. However, key debates remain unresolved including the contribution of material and psychosocial pathways to health inequalities. Tools to operationalise social factors have not developed in tandem with conceptual frameworks, and research has often remained focused on the disadvantaged rather than on forces shaping population health across the distribution. Using the example of transport, we argue that closer attention to social processes (capital accumulation and motorisation) and social forms (commodity, corporation, and car) offers a way forward. Corporations tied to the car, primarily oil and vehicle manufacturers, are central to the world economy. Key drivers in establishing this hegemony are the threat of violence from motor vehicles and the creation of distance through the restructuring of place. Transport matters for epidemiology because the growth of mass car ownership is environmentally unsustainable and affects population health through a myriad of pathways. Starting from social forms and processes, rather than their embodiment as individual health outcomes and inequalities, makes visible connections between road traffic injuries, obesity, climate change, underdevelopment of oil producing countries, and the huge opportunity cost of the car economy. Methodological implications include a movement-based understanding of how place affects health and a process-orientated integration of material and psychosocial explanations that, while materially based, contests assumptions of automatic benefits from economic growth. Finally, we identify car and oil corporations as anti-health forces and suggest collaboration with them creates conflicts of interest. PMID:18291031

  2. Wooing the Chinese Car-Buyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; CHRISTINE TSANG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Zhu Ce is a 22-year old salesman at Beijing's largest car market, North Asia Car Market, or Beiya Cheshi (北亚车市). He has been working there a few months, and on average makes about IO sales a month. But Zhu knows next to nothing about cars. He doesn't own one himself, and his employers simply provided him with a small information pamphlet by way of training.

  3. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  4. A study of the antecedents and consequences of psychological ownership in organizational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Melissa G; Ashkanasy, Neal M; Bramble, Tom; Gardner, John

    2007-10-01

    Psychological ownership is a feeling of possession in the absence of any formal or legal claims of ownership. In this study, the authors aimed to extend previous empirical testing of psychological ownership in work settings to encompass both job-based and organization-based psychological ownership as well as related work attitudes and behavioral outcomes. Questionnaire data from 68 employees and their managers revealed that job-based psychological ownership and organization-based psychological ownership are distinct work attitudes that are distinguishable from job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Psychological ownership predicted job satisfaction and organizational commitment and mediated the relationship between autonomy and these work attitudes. There was no support for a relationship between psychological ownership and behavioral outcomes. The authors discuss the limitations of the study and the implications of psychological ownership. PMID:18225830

  5. Development of a safe car seat

    OpenAIRE

    Malnarič, Vili; Zupanc, Mirko; Drenovec, Mitja

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a list and order of actions to be taken for the successful development and industrialization of a safe car seat. During the seat's development, its safety role in the car has to be considered. With respect to this, the procedures defining the safety characteristics of the products have to be taken into account. The development stages for a safe car seat are merged within three phases, as follows: the preparation of the starting pointsfor the development of a safe car seat, the...

  6. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  7. MMS Based Car Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Sot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In This paper “MMS Based Car Security System” is being proposed to solve the issue. It introduces the integration between monitoring and tracking system. Both elements are very crucial in order to have a powerful security system. The system can send SMS and MMS to the owner to have fast response especially if the car is nearby. This paper focuses on using MMS and SMS technology. As soon as there is intrusion detected, first the SMS is sent to master user and the picture of the intruder will be sent via local GSM/GPRS service provider to user (and / or police mail ID. The implementation and testing results show the success of prototype in sending MMS to owner within 30 seconds. The timing and results are suitable to owner and police to take suitable action against intruder. User can also control the module using command. User has to send different SMS to module while configuration of module for master. Master user can be change as per need, only master user can make changes in to the module.

  8. 78 FR 26110 - Kicking Cars and Going Between Rolling Equipment During Flat Switching Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...\\ 76 FR 62894 (Oct. 11, 2011). \\3\\ See ``Findings and Recommendations of the SOFA Working Group... procedures. Support from railroad management and positive peer pressure from fellow railroad...

  9. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  10. Railroad Lines, Separate layers for active and inactive railroad lines for an eleven county region. Data is a subset from NCOneMap., Published in 2007, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Separate layers for active and inactive railroad...

  11. Car-to-car safety broadcast with interference using Raptor codes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, NF; Doufexi, A; Piechocki, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Car-to-car safety applications that demand real-time and reliable communications in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) requires a new paradigm of coding techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel coding approach using a systematic Raptor code for car-to- car post-crash warning broadcast applications. A cross-layer simulator model is developed to evaluate the performance of Raptor codes against repetition codes using also multiple antennas spatial diversity techniques. The end-to-end delay ...

  12. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered. PMID:572978

  13. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  14. An improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Huang, Mengxing; Ren, Jia; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-05-01

    To better describe car-following behaviors in the adaptive cruise control strategy and further increase roadway traffic mobility and reduce fuel consumptions, the linkage between velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car and the following car's acceleration or deceleration is explored with respect to the measured car-following data by employing the gray correlation analysis theory and then an improved car-following model considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on basis of the full velocity difference model is proposed. Numerical simulations are carried out and the effects of velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car on each car's velocity, acceleration, vehicular gap, fuel consumptions and the total fuel consumptions of the whole car-following system with different time window lengths are investigated in detail. The results show that velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car has significant effects on car-following behaviors and fuel consumptions, and that considering velocity fluctuation of the immediately ahead car in designing the adaptive cruise control system can improve traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.

  15. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  16. Emotional Intelligence and job performance: Evidence from railroad industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahmanabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in railroad industry. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring emotional intelligence adopted from Salovey and Mayer (1989 [Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3, 185-211.] and the other one for measuring job performance. The study selects 300 full time employees who work for railroad industry in city of Tehran, Iran, distributes two questionnaires among the employees and managed to collect all filled ones. Using Spearman correlation, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance (r = 0.796, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there were positive and meaningful relationships between four components of emotional intelligence, namely consciousness (r = 0.642, Sig. = 0.000, self-regulation (r = 0.41, Sig. = 0.000, self-awareness ( r = 0.552, Sig. = 0.000 and social skills (r = 0.524, Sig. = 0.000.

  17. Effect of Transportation Policies on Modal Shift from Private Car to Public Transport in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdden, Abdullah; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Ismail, Amiruddin

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. The rapid increase in the use of personal transportation has its roots in the weak Malaysian public transport system. As a result, traffic congestion, accidents, air pollution and need for parking space among other evils, have escalated. In this study, policies aimed at discouraging the use of private transportation were studied. In addition, this study sought to identify factors that prevent personal transport users from utilizing public transport so that rational policies could be formulated to encourage greater utilization of public transport. A survey was carried out on users of private and public (both bus and urban train transport) (n = 1200). A binary logit model was developed for the three alternative modes, Car, Bus and Train. This study found that age, gender, car ownership, travel time, travel cost, household size and income are significant factors in influencing the individual`s choice of transportation. The most important variables found likely to encourage the use of public transport were reduced travel time, reduce the distance from home to public transportation stations and subsidized fares. In conclusion, for the commuter to switch to public transport, proper incentives need to be provided for a successful implementation.

  18. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from passenger cars: The cases of Greece and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a decomposition analysis of the changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from passenger cars in Denmark and Greece, for the period 1990-2005. A time series analysis has been applied based on the logarithmic mean Divisia index I (LMDI I) methodology, which belongs to the wider family of index decomposition approaches. The particularity in road transport that justifies a profound analysis is its remarkably rapid growth during the last decades, followed by a respective increase in emissions. Denmark and Greece have been selected based on the challenging differences of specific socio-economic characteristics of these two small EU countries, as well as on the availability of detailed data used in the frame of the analysis. In both countries, passenger cars are responsible for half of the emissions from road transport as well as for their upward trend, which provokes the implementation of a decomposition analysis focusing exactly on this segment of road transport. The factors examined in the present decomposition analysis are related to vehicles ownership, fuel mix, annual mileage, engine capacity and technology of cars. The comparison of the results discloses the differences in the transportation profiles of the two countries and reveals how they affect the trend of CO2 emissions.

  19. Silver Cars Are the Safest on the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2007-01-01

    <正>Silver cars are much less likely to be involved in a serious crash than cars of other colours,suggests a new study of over 1,000 cars.People driving in silver cars were 50 per cent less likely to suffer serious injury in a crash compared with drivers of white cars,the research in New Zealand found.

  20. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car...

  1. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed...

  2. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.210 Classification of projects...) Pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 130(b), and 49 CFR 1.48: (1) Projects for grade crossing improvements are deemed to...) shall be based on the costs for preliminary engineering, right-of-way and construction within the...

  3. 77 FR 65446 - Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Consolidated Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc. (TCKR), a noncarrier and a wholly...

  4. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail Authority Lycoming Valley Railroad Company (LVRR), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of... Track, extending between milepost 0.0 and milepost 0.4 in Muncy, Lycoming County, Pa. The line is...

  5. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash... milepost 58.75 near Grandview, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service... to the Central Washington Railroad Company (CWRR). See Central Wash. R.R.-- Lease and...

  6. 78 FR 65422 - Notice of Funding Availability and Solicitation of Applications for Grants Under the Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... costs are generally only those associated with the purchases of land which is allowable for Federal... total cost of consultants Land, structures, rights-of-way, appraisals, and related items: List the... Under the Railroad Rehabilitation and Repair Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  7. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...). 75 FR 47906. The Final Crane Rule sets forth requirements that are designed to improve safety for... titled ``Railroad Occupational Safety and Health Standards'' (Policy Statement). 43 FR 10583. The Policy..., and 243 Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees; Proposed Rule...

  8. 76 FR 36617 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Freeborn County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Freeborn County, MN Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will...

  9. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County, Idaho Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  10. 78 FR 44190 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Miami County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Miami County, KS Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by...

  11. 75 FR 82426 - Big Four Terminal Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-RMW Ventures, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Big Four Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--RMW Ventures, LLC Big Four Terminal Railroad, LLC (BFTR), has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31...

  12. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  13. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  14. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  15. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  16. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  17. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  18. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  19. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  20. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...