WorldWideScience

Sample records for car ownership railroads

  1. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... odorant during the transportation cycle (commonly known as ``odorant fade''). This safety advisory... odorization standards and procedures, and take appropriate actions to guard against odorant fade in...

  2. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  3. Probit Model Estimation Revisited: Trinomial Models of Household Car Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Bunch, David S; Kitamura, Ryuichi

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we revisit various important issues relating to practical estimation of the multinomial probit model, using an empirical analysis of car ownership as a test case. To provide context, a brief literature review of empirical probit studies is included. Estimates are obtained for a full range of model specifications, including models with random (uncorrelated and correlated) taste variation and/or a general random error structure, and issues of estimability, specification testing, a...

  4. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  5. A PANEL-DATA SWITCHING REGRESSION-MODEL OF MOBILITY AND CAR OWNERSHIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEURS, H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a panel data model of car ownership and mobility. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled for by including correlated random effects in the equations describing car ownership and mobility. A mass-points approach is adopted to control for unobserved heterogene

  6. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  7. Optimizing Railroad Tank Car Safety Design to Reduce Hazardous Materials Transportation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik

    2009-01-01

    The design of railroad tank cars is subject to structural and performance requirements and constrained by weight. They can be made safer by increasing tank thickness and adding various protective features, but these increase the weight and cost of the car and reduce its capacity and consequent transportation efficiency. Aircraft, automobiles and…

  8. The Dynamics of Household Travel Time Expenditures and Car Ownership Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Thomas F.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic (panel data) structural equations model is developed that links four dependent travel behavior variables at two points in time, one year apart. The four dependent variables are: car ownership, travel time per week by car, travel time by public transit, and travel time by nonmotorized modes. Exogenous variables include 13 household characteristics and variables accounting for period effects over the 1985 to 1987 time frame in the Netherlands. The model treats car ownership as ordered...

  9. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception. 325.17 Section 325.17 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... TRANSPORTATION § 325.17 Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route...

  10. Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Steven; Stoll, Michael

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we assess whether boosting minority car-ownership rates would narrow inter-racial employment rate differentials. We pursue two empirical strategies. First, we explore whether the effect of auto ownership on the probability of being employed is greater for more segregated groups of workers. Exploiting the fact that African-Americans are considerably more segregated from whites than are Latinos, we estimate car-employment effects for blacks, Latinos, and whites and test whethe...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203 of... with letters “RJ” stamped on the end of the journal. C.Couplers: 1. AAR type “D”, top or bottom.... 2. Farlow draft attachment. E.Plain journal bearings: Cartridge type. F.Roller bearings: 1....

  12. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  13. The Impact of Government Policy on Private Car Ownership in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED We construct a model of the stock of private cars in the Republic of Ireland. The model distinguishes cars by fuel, engine size and age. The modelled car stock is built up from a long history of data on sales, and calibrated to recent data on actual stock. We complement the data on the number of cars with data on fuel efficiency and distance driven ??? which together give fuel use and emissions ??? and the costs of purchase, ownership and use. We use the model to project the car ...

  14. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car tran...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  15. Productivity and foreign ownership in the UK car industry

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Many sectors of the UK economy experienced rapid productivity growth over the 1980's. This coincided with an increase in the flow of inward investment. Studies using macro data have linked these two events. This paper investigates what has happened in one industry at the microeconomic level and asks whether foreign-owned establishments in the UK car industry more productive than domestic-owned ones. Production functions are estimated using a new panel data set at the plant level. The findings...

  16. Body Mass Index, Neighborhood Fast Food and Restaurant Concentration, and Car Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A.; Brown, Arleen F.; Asch, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Cens...

  17. Mode of transport to work, car ownership and CO{sub 2} emissions in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunky, V.C. (ETH Zuerich. Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Bundhoo, M.N.; Moco, S.Y. (Mauritius (Mauritius))

    2011-05-15

    Fast economical and demographic revolution in the small island developing state of Mauritius over the last decades has led to an unprecedented rise in private vehicle utilization. In this arena, the cognition of ongoing travel practices and their determinants is sine qua non. This paper examines the determinants of mode of transport, rise in car ownership and its related environmental impacts. We employ cross-section micro-data obtained from our household drop-off survey to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model of transport mode choice coupled with an exhaustive ordinary least squares analysis of carbon emissions. Empirical results indicate that factors such as travel time, expenses and time lost in traffic jam coupled with demographic and socio-economic characteristics such as age of individual and household income have profound upshots on transport mode decisions. On the other hand, fuel type, residential distance from work and age of individual displays statistically significant impacts on carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  18. Effect of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Searle, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that male attractiveness can be enhanced by manipulation of status through, for example, the medium of costume. The present study experimentally manipulated status by seating the same target model (male and female matched for attractiveness) expressing identical facial expressions and posture in either a 'high status' (Silver Bentley Continental GT) or a 'neutral status' (Red Ford Fiesta ST) motor-car. A between-subjects design was used whereby the above photographic images were presented to male and female participants for attractiveness rating. Results showed that the male target model was rated as significantly more attractive on a rating scale of 1-10 when presented to female participants in the high compared to the neutral status context. Males were not influenced by status manipulation, as there was no significant difference between attractiveness ratings for the female seated in the high compared to the neutral condition. It would appear that despite a noticeable increase in female ownership of prestige/luxury cars over recent years males, unlike females remain oblivious to such cues in matters pertaining to opposite-sex attraction. These findings support the results of previous status enhancement of attractiveness studies especially those espousing sex differences in mate preferences are due to sex-specific adaptations. PMID:19302732

  19. Mind shift, mode shift: a lifestyle approach to reducing car ownership and use based on behavioural economics and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen; Caisey, Vivienne

    2010-05-01

    This paper sets out a new approach to the Wicked Problems of obesity and climate change, and the linked and causative Wicked Problem of increasing car ownership and use. Policies to bring about modal shift from car dependence to forms of transport that cause lower emissions, and are less obesogenic, are conventionally based on framing car use as an externality to be addressed by policies such as taxation or regulation. These policies have been hampered by the reluctance of politicians and policymakers to countenance electoral risk by impinging on the individual's perceived right to personal mobility. This paper's approach combines insights and methods from behavioural economics and social marketing: it shifts the focus by considering car ownership and use not as an externality to be addressed in the aggregate, but as the product of individual behaviours and lifestyle choices. Behavioural economics can help to uncover the motivations, heuristics and cognitive biases behind such behaviours. Social marketing builds on the premise that people will only change their behaviour if they are sufficiently motivated to do so. It can be used to design interventions which help sectors of the population make transport choices that are more optimal--both for the individuals concerned and for all of us who are affected by these Wicked Problems.

  20. 上海市有轨电车系统布局规划研究%Research on Shanghai Railroad Car System Distribution Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安锋; 李东屹; 马士江

    2014-01-01

    In modern society, the railroad car system plays a role in the rail transport system. Focusing on the railroad car system, the paper analyzes its development history and requirements, functional orientation, technical features, and also its adaptability in urban area. Besides, combining with case studies both inside China and abroad and also according to the idea “3 merge into 1” of the Shanghai Prospective Planning of Rail Transport Network, the planning of railroad car in Shanghai is researched. Thirdly, associated with the railroad network planning in Songjiang, Jiading and Nanqiao new cities, the paper analyzes the development orientation and scale of railroad car system in public transport system in new cities.%现代有轨电车系统是轨道交通系统的组成部分。通过对现代有轨电车的发展历程、发展需求、功能定位以及技术性能特征和在城市中的适应性分析,结合国内外应用案例分析,按照上海市远景轨道交通网络发展规划提出的“三网融合”的规划理念,对全市现代有轨电车布局规划进行研究。并以松江新城、嘉定新城和南桥新城现代有轨电车网络规划和示范线工作为契机,对现代有轨电车在新城公共交通体系中的发展导向和发展规模进行分析。

  1. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  2. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  3. Car ownership motivations among undergraduate students in China, Indonesia, Japan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Taiwan, and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belgiawan, P. F.; Schmöcker, J. -D; Abou-Zeid, M.; Walker, J.; Lee, T. -C; Ettema, D. F.; Fujii, S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘‘Peak car’’ and related discussions suggest that especially younger people (age cohort until 30) have less desire to drive and purchase cars. This might though only be true for a limited range of developed countries. This study aims to understand the role of personal background and the country cont

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad... EMPLOYEES Pt. 228, App. C Appendix C to Part 228—Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided..., medical services, dressing, showering, toilet use, washing, and eating. (g) Potable water means water...

  5. Car Ownership Intention of City Residents Considering Conformist Mentality%考虑从众心理的城市居民购车意愿分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申翔浩; 冯树民

    2016-01-01

    正确并充分了解城市居民购车意愿,对于引导合理的私人小汽车需求,继而缓解道路交通压力具有重要意义。基于城市居民购车意愿问卷调查数据,将购车意愿分为3个等级。考虑从众心理因素,运用多元Logistic回归分析方法,分析比较不同类型城市居民购车意愿特性。结果表明,总体上从众心理、收入因素对购车意愿产生显著影响,年龄、性别、家至单位是否有地铁等因素影响不显著;通过对比有无小汽车限购政策城市,发现限购政策的实施会刺激24-45周岁年龄段2年内购车意愿,指出相比强制性措施,应倡导引导型策略,即通过发展公共交通来抑制购车意愿。%Correctly and fully understand the car ownership intention of city residents has a great significance on guiding reasonable needs of private cars and then alleviating the pressure of the road traffic. Based on the survey data of urban residents, divide the car ownership intention into three levels, then considering conformity factor, using multinomial Logistic regression, analysis and comparison are carried out for the car ownership intention of residents in different city categories. The results show that overall factors of conformity and income have a significant impact on car ownership intention of residents, however, factors of age, gender and whether a subway is possible from home to working place have no significance impact. Through comparing cities with and without the policy curbing the purchase of private cars, it finds out that for residents' age from 24 to 45 years old, the curbing policy will stimulate the intention of buying a car in two years, it points out rather than mandatory measures, guiding strategy should be promoted by developing public transportation.

  6. Relationship between level of economic development and motorcycle and car ownerships and their impacts on fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha-Uthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    An increase in road vehicles secondary to economic development has strongly pushed up energy demand and adversely impact the environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and pollutants. This paper aims to analyse the relationship between motorcycle and car ownerships and level of economic development in Thailand. In addition, an overall private vehicle ownership which is a sum of both types of private vehicle ownership is also studied. An understanding of these relationships due to the economic development is a key knowledge for the sustainable transport policy in the future. The results of this study revealed that at the early stage of economic development of developing countries like Thailand, the number of motorcycles predominates over private cars. Economic development strongly affects the ownership of private vehicles in two ways: (1) overall private vehicle ownerships increase as the income levels grow and (2) after personal income grows up to a certain level, people will shift from motorcycle to car ownerships for their prestige, convenience, comfort and safety. Because of continuing economic development and population growth, the expected increase in overall private vehicle ownership is projected to push up the total private vehicle stock of Thailand in the year 2050 to about twice of the present level. This will drive fuel demands in 2050 to about 2.4 times, and the greenhouse gases (GHG) emission to about 2.5 times of the current levels. Hence, policy makers in developing countries should not overlook the impacts on the consequences of increasing overall private vehicle stock in the near future. The best and most appropriate policies should be given to the development of public transport as the first priority rather than the traditional one, which gives highest priority to traffic mobility of private vehicles by road transport neglecting the effectiveness of passengers' mobility of the public transport. In addition, policies to promote high

  7. Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The first car In 1885,German mechanical engineer,Karl Benz designed and built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine(内燃机).On January 29,1886,Benz received the first patent(专利)for a gas-fueled car.It was a three- wheeler;Benz built his first four-wheeled car in 1891.Benz & Company,the company started by the inventor,became the world’s largest manufacturer of automobiles by 1900.

  8. Modeling the Dynamic Failure of Railroad Tank Cars Using a Physically Motivated Internal State Variable Plasticity/Damage Nonlocal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazle R. Ahad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.

  9. The motivation underlying adolescents׳ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: A socio-ecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the adolescents׳ intended time-frame for obtaining a driving license and purchasing a car, as the delay of these decisions will likely affect the amount of travel and transport externalities. Semi-structured interviews with 50 Danish adolescents were analyzed by means...

  10. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  11. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  12. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    , especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  13. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  14. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  15. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  16. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  17. Otomobil Sahipliğini Etkileyen Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi: Tokat İli Kentsel Alanda Bir Uygulama(Identifying the Factors Affecting the Car Ownership: A Case Study in Urban Areas of the Province of Tokat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüştü YAYAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beğenmeli mal kapsamında ifade edilen otomobillerin tüketiciler tarafından satın alınma evresi uzun bir dönemi kapsayabilmektedir. Otomobil satın alımının yüksek maliyet içermesi, tüketiciler tarafından dikkat edilen en önemli risk unsurlarından birisidir. Küreselleşen dünya ile birlikte otomotiv sektörü günden güne gelişim göstermektedir. Yine Türkiye’de otomotiv sektörü yıllar itibariyle değişim göstermiş ve güçlü bir evrim geçirmiştir. Otomobil markaları, Türkiye’deki otomobil kullanıcılarına yönelik en uygun otomobilleri üretme çabasına girmişlerdir. Türkiye’de ekonominin büyümesine paralel olarak otomobile olan talebin artması sebebiyle otomobil sahipliğinin hangi değişkenlere göre farklılık göstereceği araştırılmak istenmiştir. Bu nedenle Tokat ili kentsel alanda ikamet eden 438 ailenin otomobil sahibi olup olmadıkları incelenmiştir. Otomobil sahipliğini belirleyen sosyoekonomik ve demografik faktörlerin neler olduğu ve bu faktörlerin tüketicilerin otomobil sahibi olup olmamalarını etkileme dereceleri araştırılmıştır. Çalışmada Binary Logit Modeli kullanılmıştır. Modelde aile reisinin erkek, esnaf, yüksek gelirli, ev sahibi ve kredi kartının bulunması değişkenleri istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olup otomobil sahipliğini olumlu yönde etkilediği bulunmuştur. The purchase period of cars expressed within the scope of preferred goods can involve a long period. Car purchase’s including high cost is one of the most important risk factors considered by the consumers. Along with the globalizing world, automotive sector has been developing day by day. In Turkey, the automotive sector has changed in years, and has had an influential evolution. The automobile brands have led to drive for producing the most appropriate cars for the automobile users. In parallel to the growth of economy in Turkey, it was aimed to investigate according to what reasons

  18. 49 CFR 215.9 - Movement of defective cars for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of defective cars for repair. 215.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS General § 215.9 Movement of defective cars for repair. (a) A railroad freight car which has any component described as defective in...

  19. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  20. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  1. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  2. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    -government workshop in January 2001 to gauge industry interest. As a result, the railroads, their suppliers, and the federal government5 have embarked on a cooperative effort to further improve railroad fuel efficiency--by 25% between now and 2010 and by 50% by 2020, on an equivalent gallon per revenue ton-mile basis, while meeting emission standards, all in a cost-effective, safe manner. This effort aims to bring the collaborative approaches of other joint industry-government efforts, such as FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck partnership, to the problem of increasing rail fuel efficiency. Under these other programs, DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies has supported research on technologies to reduce fuel use and air emissions by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. DOE plans to bring similar efforts to bear on improving locomotives. The Department of Transportation's Federal Railroad Administration will also be a major participant in this new effort, primarily by supporting research on railroad safety. Like FreedomCAR and the 21st Century Truck program, a joint industry-government research effort devoted to locomotives and railroad technology could be a 'win' for the public and a 'win' for industry. Industry's expertise and in-kind contributions, coupled with federal funding and the resources of the DOE's national laboratories, could make for an efficient, effective program with measurable energy efficiency targets and realistic deployment schedules. This document provides the necessary background for developing such a program. Potential R&D pathways to greatly improve the efficiency of freight transportation by rail, while meeting future emission standards in a cost-effective, safe manner, were developed jointly by an industry-government team as a result of DOE's January 2001 Workshop on Locomotive Emissions and System Efficiency and are presented here. The status of technology, technical targets, barriers, and technical

  3. ESTIMATING OWNERSHIP AND USE OF OLDER CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project examines the factors affecting owners' valuations of their old vehicles using a unique longitudinal dataset that documents the actual decisions of owners of pre-1980 vehicles in Delaware. An equation is developed that explains the value of a vehicle to...

  4. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars...

  5. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative...

  6. Electromechanical Suspension-based Energy Harvesting Systems for Railroad Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nagode, Clement Michel Jean

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the railroad industry, the lack of electrical sources in freight cars is a problem that has yet to find practical solutions. Although the locomotive generates electricity to power the traction motors and all the equipment required to operate the train, the electrical power cannot, in a practical manner, be carried out along the length of the train, leaving freight cars unpowered. While this has not been a major issue in the past, there is a strong interest in equipping modern ca...

  7. DOT Basemap Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents railroads lines within the state of Minnesota. It has its source as one of the layers in the State of Minnesota BaseMap 2001. This layer was...

  8. 49 CFR 840.3 - Notification of railroad accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital; (2) The evacuation of a passenger train; (3) Damage to a tank car or container resulting in...) Accidents involving joint operations must be reported by the railroad that controls the track and directs... is required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section occurs in a remote area, the time limits...

  9. 78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Robert C. Lauby, Deputy Associate Administrator for Regulatory and Legislative... Federal Railroad Administration Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In... the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake...

  10. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main...

  11. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  12. One smart card, one less car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, B.

    2003-06-30

    A system of car-sharing in Bremen, Germany, a membership-based structure of car-sharing that gives members access to a network of cars stationed throughout the city on a pay-per-trip basis, and without the hassles of car ownership, is discussed. The car-sharing scheme is combined with the city's transit system by means of a smart card that serves both as a pass for the city's transit system and as an electronic key to the cars in the car-sharing system. Future plans include to use the card also as a method of payment for taxis, and organizers are also working with the municipal government to get support for having car-sharing included in the city's official plan. At present, car-sharing stations are simply reserved parking spots for one or more cars, however, future stations are envisaged to include parking for up to five cars, a computer to book cars, direct access to keys using the smart card, parking for bicycles, and information about car-sharing stations, bus, trams, as well as bike and walking routes. Similar, if somewhat more modest, car-sharing schemes are also available in several cities in Canada, including Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver.

  13. Employee ownership in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Panton, David.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1994, the Jamaican Parliament passed the Employee Share Ownership Plan (ESOP) Act, to facilitate widespread employee share ownership by granting tax incentives to companies that offer shares to their employees (GOJ 1994). The primary aims of the legislation were to (a) strengthen Jamaica's economy by enabling workers to acquire an ownership stake in their employer and (b) improve the economic performance of Jamaican companies by encouraging employees to identify more ...

  14. Employee Ownership Of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Henry B. Hansmann

    1998-01-01

    Once widely considered just a theoretical curiosity or an ideological aspiration, employee ownership of enterprise has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a practical matter of organization. In the West, this interest derives in considerable part from the decline of unionism and the resulting search for other means of assuring efficiency and equity in labor contracting, while in the East, interest in employee ownership has been stimulated by the rapid market-oriented ownership ...

  15. Unbundling Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel; Ornelas, Emanuel; Turner, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Treating control as an asset that can be bought and sold, we introduce a model of the simultaneous and separable trading of ownership and control in a private information setting. The model provides a novel explanation for the prevalence and persistence of the separation of ownership from control in modern corporations: efficiency in the market for corporate control is more easily achieved when ownership is not concentrated in the hands of the manager. The central reason is that low manageria...

  16. 基于道路容量、建筑量、汽车保有量的拥堵指数敏感性分析%Congestion Index Sensitivity Analysis Based on Road Network Capacity, Building Volume and Car Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文; 高洪振; 张铁岩; 胡倩

    2015-01-01

    为研究道路容量、建筑量及汽车保有量对交通拥堵的敏感程度,提出以拥堵指数作为评价敏感程度的指标。以青岛市东岸城区为例,根据行政区划及功能布局将东岸城区划分为12个中区,依托EMME4软件平台,以土地利用资料和道路网为基础,对每个中区的道路容量、建筑量和汽车保有量的现状及发展趋势进行统计分析,得出这3个因素同拥堵指数的内在关系。分别进行单一因素及不同组合因素下不同程度的增量变化,得到不同条件下的拥堵指数变化率。结果表明,三者对道路拥堵的敏感性强弱顺序依次为:汽车增量、道路容量增量、建筑增量。采取单一措施,路网拥堵情况改善不明显,采取组合措施后的路网拥堵改善效果优于采取单一措施。因此,通过合理控制汽车和建筑规模增长,同时改善道路交通设施,增加道路容量,可以有效改善道路拥堵状况。%In order to study the sensitivity of road network capacity, building volume and car ownership to traffic congestion, the congestion index was put forward as the evaluation index of sensitivity. The east⁃ern district in Qingdao was divided into twelve medium-sized traffic zones according to the administra⁃tive division and the layout of urban functions. Relied on EMME4 software platform, based on the data of land use and road network, the present situation and development trend of road network capacity, build⁃ing volume and car ownership in each medium-sized traffic zone were subjected to statistical analysis and their inherent relations with congestion index were concluded. The corresponding change rate of con⁃gestion index under different conditions became clear after the incremental changes of single factor as well as different combination of factors were analyzed respectively. The study indicates that the sensitivi⁃ty to congestion increase gradually in the sequence

  17. Carros jaula ferroviarios: determinación de un escalón en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento de sus ejes//Railroad cars for sugar cane transportation: determination of a new level of reconditioning to extend its life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlando Martín-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El transporte por ferrocarril de caña constituye una variante económica y Cuba cuenta con la infraestructura vial para este fin. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil del eje de los carros jaula, usados en el transporte de la caña de azúcar, a partir de escalones en diámetro para el reacondicionamiento en sus muñones. Se determinó el diámetro mínimo permisible en la zona del muñónpara las condiciones más severas de explotación a las que se expone el eje. El cálculo se realizó según las normas ferroviarias, basado en las ecuaciones clásicas de resistencia de los materiales, además del cálculo de tensional y deformacional utilizando el Método de Elementos Finitos. Los resultados permiten concluir que la propuesta de establecer el diámetro mínimo de 95,25 mm cumple con las condiciones necesarias de resistencia, obteniéndose un coeficiente de reserva dentro del rango establecido por las normas ferroviarias.Palabras claves: ferrocarril, eje, muñón, elementos finitos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe railway transportation of sugar cane is an economic variant and Cuba has the railroad infrastructure for this purpose. This paper deals with the shaft exploitation period increasing for the sugar cane cars, by obtaining a new reduced dimension in the stump diameter, under the most hard exploitation conditions.The calculation was carried out according to the railway standards, based on the Strength of Materials classic equations. The tensional and deformational level was also obtained, by using the Finite Element Method. The authors conclude that the minimal proposed diameter 95,25 mm responds to the necessary strength conditions, with a security coefficient, according to the required railway standards.Key words: railroad, shaft, stump, finite element.

  18. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  19. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structure....... On the contrary, inferences based on the x-inefficiency literature suggest the highest positive effect will be experienced by companies with inappropriate ownership structure. Our empirical analysis on a panel of Czech firms shows that the former view is supported if import competition is high...

  20. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related......African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...

  1. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before...

  2. Firm Ownership and Philanthropy

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between firm ownership structure and corporate charitable donations. Using a panel data set of 1,017 listed Korean firms, we find that larger firms with higher advertising intensity and lower export intensity 'give' relatively more, suggesting that charitable donations are both strategic and discretionary corporate expenditures. In addition, the study explores the effects of ownership structure on corporate philanthropy. We find a positive rela...

  3. Sharing ownership via employee stock ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Sesil, James C.; Douglas L. Kruse; Joseph R. Blasi

    2001-01-01

    Increased equity participation by employees has attracted substantial interest for its potential to affect both economic outcomes (e.g., worker and firm performance) and social outcomes (e.g., wealth and income inequality). This paper summarizes the findings from over 50 large-sample empirical studies that have been done on employee ownership and broad-based stock option plans in the past 25 years, covering studies on plan adoption, employee attitudes and behaviours, firm performance, and emp...

  4. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  5. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  6. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  7. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  8. Psychological Ownership and Ownership Markers in Collaborative Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Ying

    2010-01-01

    Ownership is a fundamental human concern. It has been explored by various disciplines and within a variety of contexts. However, previous ownership researches focus primarily on physical objects such as toys, houses and stamps, while almost no research has been conducted about the psychological ownership toward digital entities. This dissertation…

  9. Ownership Structure in Agrifood Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); W.J.J. Bijman (Jos)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses the impact of ownership structure on investments in a three-party supply chain from an incomplete contracting perspective. Circumstances are determined in which a marketing cooperative is the unique first-best ownership structure.

  10. Car-to-Car Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Stephan; Schroth, Christoph; Eberspächer, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Car-to-car communication aims at increased driving comfort and safety. Moreover, it changes the role of vehicles from mere transportation means to "smart objects". Despite many R&D activities in the last years, this technology still poses multiple challenges on the wireless transmission and network protocols. Aspects like efficient message dissemination, network scalability, and information security mechanisms are still major research areas in the area of vehicular ad hoc networks. In this pa...

  11. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  12. Introduction: issue ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lefevere; A. Tresch; S. Walgrave

    2015-01-01

    Although issue ownership theory - the idea that voters consider specific parties to be better able to deal with some issues - had already emerged in the 1980s, it is only in the past 10 years that the theory has gained prominence in the study of voter and party behaviour. Despite the steep increase

  13. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult...

  14. Car Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    历史悠久的意大利制鞋商Car Shoe为日本爱知世界博览会意大利展团迎宾小姐设计的两款皮鞋,轻松休闲又不失高雅,完美再现Car Shoe的设计理念,其中一款舒适大方“Driving”软底鞋,白1963年上市至今,始终风靡全球,成为一代经典。布满黑色胶皮钉的鞋底,是Car Shoe鞋子的标志性特点,另有一款3.5厘米的矮跟 鞋,尽显女性独特魅力。

  15. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...... disintegration of agricultural markets, ultimately as a consequence of the 1920 Transportation Act. We argue that this benefited railroad companies in the 1920s and workers in the 1930s, and we put forward an estimate of the welfare losses for the consumers of railroad services (i.e. agricultural producers...

  16. 77 FR 64185 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2011 Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2011 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... the 2011 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  17. 78 FR 62940 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2012 Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2012 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2012 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  18. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified ...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model.......This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...

  19. Ownership, Control, and Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    1996-01-01

    The paper addresses the effects of the separation of ownership and control on long-run competition in oligopolies. It finds that when managers have the preference for smooth time-paths of profits revealed by the evidence on "income smoothing," manager-led firms can sustain any collusive agreement at lower discount factors than owner-led ones. Most common managerial incentives - "low-powered" schemes with monetary bonuses and/or incumbency rents - make collusion supportable at any discount fac...

  20. Understanding adolescents' intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults. The behavioral model is based on intrapersonal and interpersonal constructs from the theory of planned behavior extended to include constructs from the institutional, community and policy domains. Data from...... a survey among Danish adolescents is analyzed. It is found that car use intentions are related to positive car passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control. Cycling...

  1. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  2. A Method for Eletric Vehicle Ownership Forecast Considering Different Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwu Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of electric vehicles (EVs charging station needs to be planed according to the ownership of EVs, traffic condition, population etc. Therefore a BP neural network based method to forecast the EV ownership for a city is presented in the paper, which considers the influence on the EV ownership caused by many related economy factors, including GDP of a city, vehicle production, per capita crude steel production, per capita generation capacity, road passenger traffic, highway mileage and the total population.  A BP neural network is set up for the forecast of EV ownership, and the input layer contains seven neutrons, which represent different economic factors. There are three neurons in its hidden layer, and the output is the EV ownership.  Then the method to predict the EV ownership of a city is presented, which is based on the forecast of the civilian car ownership in a city and the country. The EV ownership in the city of Chongqing from the year 2013 to 2020 is predicted, and the accuracy of the model is verified firstly, then the EV ownership in Chongqing is obtained, which is helpful to make plans for the development of electric vehicle.

  3. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  4. Dream Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2010-01-01

    也许你需要一辆天马行空完全按自己心中所设计的车,无论是有太空感还是充满设计性,无论你希望它可以升空还是可以下水,那才是一辆真正的Dream Car!

  5. Car ownership and the Labor Market of Ethnic Minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Zenou, Yves

    2008-01-01

    We show how small initial wealth differences between low skilled black and white workers can generate large differences in their labor-market outcomes. This even occurs in the absence of a taste for discrimination against blacks or exogenous differences in the distance to jobs. Because of the initia

  6. GIS for Nevada railroads: 1993 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on a task within a large, ongoing study by the University of Nevada, Reno to examine the safety of Nevada railroads. The overall goal, of which this year's research is a middle stage, is to develop models based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS). These models are to enable the selection of the best and safest railway routes for the transport of high-level nuclear waste across Nevada to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Last year's research concluded that the databases are adequate and that GIS are feasible and desirable for displaying the multi-layered data required to reach decisions about safety. It developed several database layers. This report deals with work during 1993 on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for rail-route selection. The goal was to identify and assemble many of the databases necessary for the models. In particular, the research aimed to identify (a) any problems with developing database layers; and (b) the level of effort required. This year's effort developed database layers for two Nevada counties: Clark and Lincoln. The layers dealt with: topographic information, geologic information, and land ownership. These are among the most important database layers. The database layers were successfully created. No significant problems arose in developing them. The level of effort did not exceed the expected level. The most effective approach is by means of digital, shaded relief maps. (Sample maps appear in plates.) Therefore, future database development will be straightforward. Research may proceed on the full development of shaded relief elevation maps for Elko, White Pine, Nye and Eureka counties and with actual modeling for the selection of a route or routes between the UP/SP line in northern Nevada and Yucca Mountain

  7. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  8. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...... by the Weyl van der Pol solution with the single parameter model of the ground impedance. The method of determining of the referenced A-weighted power spectrum is presented....

  9. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  10. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jiwoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea); Jeong, Gicheol [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-402, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yeonbae [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-318, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, South Seoul, 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  11. Railroad Lines, Railroad ROW, Published in 2009, Polk County Assessor's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2009. It is described as 'Railroad ROW'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Albers...

  12. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'....

  13. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  14. 75 FR 18253 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc. R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a... concurrently filed notice of exemption in STB Finance Docket No. 35364, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  15. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shif...

  16. 76 FR 68830 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2010 Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2010 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2010 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. One carrier, Union Pacific Railroad Company, was found to be revenue adequate. DATES: Effective Date: This decision...

  17. Executive Compensation Concentration and Institutional Ownership Power

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Tingting Guo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether institutional shareholders prefer concentrated or dispersed executive compensation structure. To address this question, we study the relationship between executive compensation concentration and institutional ownership power because institutional investors can influence executive compensation more when they have more power. We measure institutional ownership power using institutional ownership level and institutional ownership concentration. We find a signifi...

  18. 49 CFR 219.23 - Railroad policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... .02 or greater but less than .04. (12) Information concerning the effects of alcohol misuse on an..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE General § 219.23 Railroad policies. (a) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee under this part, the railroad must...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  20. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  1. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  2. Economics of Road Network Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the economic impact of centralized and decentralized ownership structures and their corresponding pricing and investment strategies on transportation network performance and social welfare for travelers. In a decentralized network economic system, roads are owned by many agencies or companies that are responsible for pricing and investment strategies. The motivation of this study is two-fold. First, the question of which ownership structure, or industrial organi...

  3. Corporate Ownership Around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael La Porta; Florencio Lopez-de-Silane; Andrei Shleifer

    1998-01-01

    We present data on ownership structures of large corporations in 27 wealthy economies, making an effort to identify ultimate controlling shareholders of these firms. We find that, except in economies with very good shareholder protection, relatively few of these firms are widely-held, in contrast to the Berle and Means image of ownership of the modern corporation. Rather, these firms are typically controlled by families or the State. Equity control by financial institutions or other widely-he...

  4. Reduction of total ownership cost

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Michael; Naegle, Brad R.

    2003-01-01

    Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy) Total Ownership Cost (TOC) is the current initiative to manage costs over the entire life cycle of a weapon system. There are several major categories of costs that contribute to Total Ownership Cost but the principal categories are (1) R&D, (2) Production, (3) Operating and Support, and (4) Disposal. System TOC is the same as Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and has implications for Cost As an Independent Variable (CAIV), cost-per...

  5. Ownership, control and market liquidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamon, Jacques; Ginglinger, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We examine how ownership concentration and the separation of ownership and control affect secondary-market liquidity in France. We find that firms with a large insider blockholder exhibit significantly lower liquidity. However, different methods of enhancing control affect liquidity in different ways. Pyramid structures impair market liquidity. Double voting right shares, a French specific means of control enhancement rewarding long-term shareholders and restraining insiders from trading thei...

  6. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Hugh [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Tol, Richard S.J., E-mail: richard.tol@esri.ie [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Economics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-11-15

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: > Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. > These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. > Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. > Tax revenues will fall too. > The exchequer cost per tonne of CO{sub 2} avoided is very high.

  7. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... technological advancements and ergonomic design standards for new ] car construction and ensuring that modern... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. ] Because modern... car type. Problems arise because modern designs are often combinations of multiple car types, and...

  8. A Nested approach to car use : from driving license to car ownership and annual mileage

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMAL, Richard

    2015-01-01

    De nombreux signes attestent d'une transition des comportements de mobilité au tournant du millénaire. Par exemple, le nombre de déplacements quotidiens par personne décroît dans les agglomérations françaises, et s'accompagne d'un report vers les moyens de transport alternatifs à la voiture (transports en commun mais aussi modes actifs tels que la marche et le vélo). De plus, le kilométrage moyen par adulte - exprimé en véhicules*km - s'est stabilisé au niveau national à partir du début des a...

  9. Women and Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    JUST a decade ago, private cars were far too luxurious for Chinese people; most of them never even dreamed of having a car. In the Chinese language, a car is called "jiao che", which literally means "sedan automobile." The fact that a car is referred to as a sedan, a luxury only available to officials in old China, reveals Chinese people’s idea that cars are separated by an impassable gulf from ordinary people.

  10. 76 FR 68523 - Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC-Change in Operators Exemption-Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC--Change in Operators Exemption--Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC (USRC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iron Bull Railroad Company (IBRC) to...

  11. 76 FR 39155 - R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-NC Railroad, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,253), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--NC Railroad, Inc R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), a Class III rail carrier, filed a...

  12. 77 FR 55268 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-San Pedro Railroad Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... on Mack H. Shumate, Jr., Union Pacific Railroad Company, Law Department, 101 North Wacker Drive, Room... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--San Pedro Railroad Operating Company, LLC Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice...

  13. 25 CFR 169.23 - Railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is made. (d) Plats of railroad station grounds shall be drawn on a scale of 400 feet to an inch, and... on a scale sufficiently large to show clearly their dimensions and relative positions. (e) If...

  14. Managerial Ownership Influencing Tunnelling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Juliarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent and the determinants of tunnelling behaviour in five ASEAN countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Related party transactions (RPTs in the form of loans to related parties are used as the proxy for tunnelling. With 200 firm-year observations over the period 2006-2009, this study finds a positive association between managerial ownership and the extent of tunnelling.The other important findings are that business environment (BE, foreign ownership, and independent directors are ineffective governance mechanisms to rein in tunnelling behaviour. This suggests that regulators need to evolve more effective governance mechanisms.

  15. ‘We are the future’: understanding adolescents’ intentions to commute by car or bicycle as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette;

    This study focuses on the intentions of adolescents to commute by car or bicycle as adults, as key elements towards promoting societal transition towards sustainable modes. The behavioral model is based on the theory of planned behavior combined with positive current travel experience, willingness...... passenger experience, general interest in cars, and car-ownership norms, and are negatively related to willingness to accept car restrictions and perceived lack of behavioral control; (ii) cycling intentions are positively related to positive cycling experience, willingness to accept car restrictions...

  16. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels (Generalized)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  17. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  18. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  19. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  20. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  1. Predicting routes of radioactive wastes moved on the U.S. railroad system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative to the use of public roads, railroads offer several advantages for the movement of radioactive wastes. These include the ability to accommodate large, heavy containers, the ability to transfer large volumes in a single movement, and the safety of a dedicated, centrally controlled right-of-way. The principal disadvantage of railroads is that the shipper has considerably less freedom to specify the route a shipment will take. The lower density of the railroad network, the need to coordinate waste shipments with other traffic in the system, and the private ownership of the US network all reduce the shippers routing power. Although the shipper can dictate an exact route, this could require the use of a special train at an increased cost. Before considering the general use of special trains to move radioactive wastes, it is first desirable to determine how these materials would move as general rail traffic. This paper describes the development of a system to predict routes of general rail traffic at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  2. Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

    The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

  3. Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Jackman, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Throughout the United States, the probability of home ownership is considerably lower for Blacks than for Whites who are comparable in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, family composition, and location. Outside the South, Black owner-occupied homes are worth considerably less than the homes of comparable Whites. (Author/GC)

  4. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...

  5. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  6. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  7. Intelligent Car System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Siddique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  8. Intelligent Car System

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Qasim

    2012-01-01

    In modern life the road safety has becomes the core issue. One single move of a driver can cause horrifying accident. The main goal of intelligent car system is to make communication with other cars on the road. The system is able to control to speed, direction and the distance between the cars the intelligent car system is able to recognize traffic light and is able to take decision according to it. This paper presents a framework of the intelligent car system. I validate several aspect of our system using simulation.

  9. Railroad perspective on transportation of spent fuel and high level waste and recent ICC decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to summarize some railroad viewpoints on issues concerning transportation of spent fuel and high-level waste and to outline Interstate Commerce Commission decisions arising over differing opinions about the manner of such transportation. Although the railroad position includes a number of legal arguments, it also involves operating expertise and a number of well-based questions concerning the safety of casks under actual operating conditions in regular trains. The commonly-used estimates of accident frequency and severity in regular trains are severe underestimates based on a mistake in the annual number of railroad car-miles, inadequacies in and misunderstanding of accident reporting, and invalid assumptions, especially concerning fires, which some actual data suggest are far more frequent than assumed. Thus, railroads estimate casks could be involved in at least 12 accidents involving severe fires by 1990. A number of unanswered questions about casks and perceived inadequacies in testing lead to a conservative railroad position. These include the possibility of escape routes of materials other than by breach such as weld and pressure relief valve failures and direct radiation hazards through loss of shielding. These doubts are fostered through experience with accidents more severe than those used in testing or certification as well as these questions. Also, there is doubt concerning the integrity of fuel rod cladding (used as a second level of containment) in credible accident situations. Moreover, the damage estimates of $1,000 per man rem have been shown to have no relationship to damages in a transportation accident.Added safety is expected in special trains for at least 17 reasons involving speed, transit time, routing, train consist, crew alertness, reduced slack and other reduced hazards and accident opportunities

  10. An Amusing Car Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ It was about midnight. My son was riding in the back seat with a friend of his in a car driven by a Chinese schoolmate, when a police car suddenly approached from behind with its siren sounding ominously. The driver immediately stopped his car by the roadside and stepped out to see what was happening. Just at that moment, he seemed to hear a policeman shouting to him: “Back your car!” (Actually, his order was: “Go back into your car!”) Then the student set about backing his car. In a flurry, he went so far as to bump into the police car, which made the cops very much alarmed.

  11. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand

  12. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  13. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  14. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Swan

    2015-01-01

    The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber). The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be hel...

  15. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  16. Self-Brand Personality Differences and Attitudes towards Electric Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two representative Belgian samples, by means of an online survey, we investigate the effect of self-brand personality differences on car brand evaluation, the evaluation of an eco-friendly branded electric car extension and the evaluation of car brands after electric extension. We show that self-brand personality differences influence the attitude towards car brands. The relative importance of personality dimensions that drive extension judgment and parent brand attitudes after electric extension is different from that of brand evaluation without extension. More particularly, perceptions of a brand being more responsible than one’s self is a much more important driver of brand evaluation after electric extension than without extension. Car personality characteristics, such as activity and sophistication, drive brand evaluations before, as well as after electric extension. These effects are moderated by brand ownership in that the relative importance of brand personality dimensions is different for brand owners than for consumers who do not own a specific brand. Car manufacturers can fine-tune their marketing approach when launching eco-friendly extensions, taking into account that, in this context, partly different self-brand personality fit considerations are used by consumers than for car brands without electric extension.

  17. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    of the largest shareholder and identity of the largest shareholder) on earnings management in Morocco. Using annual estimates of discretionary accruals, we document that the presence of institutions as the largest shareholder has a negative impact on earnings management. Our results show that firms with foreign...... or local institutions as the largest shareholders engage in significantly lower earnings management than other firms. Our results are consistent with prior literature that considers institutions – which have greater resources, more sophistication than individual investors, and more relevant expertise...... – as important monitoring device. Interestingly, our results show that ownership concentration – percentage shareholding of the largest shareholder – has no significant impact on earnings management. The result is in contrast to prior literature that suggests ownership concentration to either cause alignment...

  18. A multi-objective ant colony optimization method applied to switch engine scheduling in railroad yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodelson A. Sabino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an ant colony optimization algorithm to assist railroad yard operational planning staff in their daily tasks. The proposed algorithm tries to minimize a multi-objective function that considers both fixed and variable transportation costs involved in moving railroad cars within the railroad yard area. This is accomplished by searching the best switch engine schedule for a given time horizon. As the algorithm was designed for real life application, the solution must be delivered in a predefined processing time and it must be in accordance with railroad yard operational policies. A railroad yard operations simulator was built to produce artificial instances in order to tune the parameters of the algorithm. The project is being developed together with industrial professionals from the Tubarão Railroad Terminal, which is the largest railroad yard in Latin America.Este trabalho propõe um algoritmo de otimização com colônia de formigas para auxiliar a equipe de planejamento de operações de pátios ferroviários em suas tarefas diárias. O algoritmo proposto é baseado em uma função multi-objetivo que busca a redução dos custos fixo e variável de movimentação de vagões no pátio. Isto é feito através da busca da melhor programação para as locomotivas de manobra, considerando um dado horizonte de planejamento. Como o algoritmo foi desenvolvido para aplicação na vida real, a solução deve ser entregue em um tempo de processamento definido previamente e deve obedecer as políticas operacionais do pátio. Foi desenvolvido um simulador de operações de pátio que gera instâncias artificiais utilizadas para ajuste dos parâmetros do algoritmo. O projeto está sendo desenvolvido em conjunto com profissionais envolvidos na operação do Terminal Ferroviário de Tubarão, o qual é o maior pátio de manobras da América Latina.

  19. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  20. Complex ownership and capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paligorova, Teodora; Xu, Zhaoxia

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of pyramid ownership structure and multiple controlling shareholders on firm leverage. Pyramids, having at least one controlling shareholder and a subsidiary, rely significantly more on debt financing than non-pyramid firms. Moreover, higher leverage is observed in pyramids where the second controlling shareholders have more voting rights. We also find that the disparity between the voting rights of the first two controlling shareholders is negatively relate...

  1. Debt shifting and ownership structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  2. Fatigue crack initiation life prediction of railroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of multiaxial high-cycle fatigue initiation life prediction for railroad is done in this paper. Using ANSYS 11.0 software three dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model of rail/wheel contact is constructed and fine mesh technique in contact region is used to achieve both computational efficiency and accuracy. Stress analysis is performed and fatigue damage in railroad is evaluated numerically using multiaxial fatigue crack initiation model. Using the stress history during one loading cycle and fatigue damage model, the effects of vertical loading, material hardness material fatigue properties and wheel/rail contact situation on fatigue crack initiation life are investigated.

  3. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment....

  4. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment....

  5. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment....

  6. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In...

  7. Railroad Lines, Railroad-The data set is a line feature representing railroad tracks. It was created to maintain the location of the railroad., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1991. It is described as 'Railroad-The data set is a line feature...

  8. Microfluidic CARS cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Han-Wei; Bao, Ning; Le, Thuc T.; Lu, Chang; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytom...

  9. Buying a New Car?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; Maghielse

    2000-01-01

    You read it here first, folks: a car buying processthat first counsels its readers not to buy a car! Why?Because, no matter what mystical incantations a carsalesperson may whisper in your ear, cars are notinvestments. Certainly, there are a few exceptions to that rule,but in general. vehicles are what the accountantsamong us call depreciating assets. Think of a vehiclepurchase in comparison with the other big-ticketpurchases we make during our lifetimes. Buying a

  10. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  11. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  12. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  13. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  14. Railroad Lines, DASC railroad centerline layer, Published in 2003, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'DASC railroad...

  15. 76 FR 2748 - Competition in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Competition in the Railroad Industry AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... to explore the current state of competition in the railroad industry and possible policy alternatives... Railroad Industry and Analysis of Proposals That Might Enhance Competition (November 2009), is available...

  16. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  17. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... 2010. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2010 current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2010 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any); (3) the... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board....

  18. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... current cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2009 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2009 cost...

  19. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2012 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any); (3... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2012 cost...

  20. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... cost of debt capital; (2) the railroads' 2011 current cost of preferred equity capital (if any); (3... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of...

  1. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  2. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom...

  3. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) at milepost 426.88 in Gurdon, Ark. and milepost 429.5 north of... transaction from those listed in the emergency service proceeding involving the same line. See Ark. Midland...

  4. Railroad Lines, Line feature class representing individual Railroad rail lines, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Line feature class representing individual...

  5. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, LandOwnership, Published in 2004, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'LandOwnership'. Data by this publisher...

  7. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  8. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to differentstrategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable....

  9. The Equity Ownership Structure of Thai Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwattanakantang, Yupana

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the ownership structure of listed Thai firms in 1996. The ownership structure is concentrated. In 82.59 percent of the firms in the sample, the largest shareholders are also controlling shareholders. The controlling shareholders are mainly families. Foreign investors form the second largest group of controlling shareholders. More of the controlling shareholders use a simple ownership pattern to control the firms. Only in 21.27 percent of the firms, the controlling sharehol...

  10. Commentary: Ownership Neutrality and Practical Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    In "Reconsidering the Taxation of Foreign Income," Jim Hines analyzes the consequences of taxing, as opposed to exempting, active foreign business income by comparing the expected effects on capital ownership of a "pure" worldwide income taxation system with the effects on capital ownership of a "pure" territorial taxation regime. Consistent with his earlier work, Hines asserts that a capital ownership neutrality analysis supports exempting foreign active business income from home country res...

  11. New evidence on ownership structures in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köke, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Ownership structures are an important element of the theory explaining corporate governance. This study presents detailed descriptive evidence on the ownership structures of German manufacturing firms. It addresses several shortcomings of the previous German empirical literature: First, we study all legal forms of a Kapitalgesellschaft, firms that generally have a separation of ownership and control. We do not focus exclusively on the listed Aktiengesellschaft (AG) but include many non-listed...

  12. Corporate ownership structure and performance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jeremy; Kirchmaier, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we show that ownership structures vary considerably across Europe, and that the dominant form of ownership is not necessarily the most efficient one. These findings are in contradiction to similar research based on US samples. The results also demonstrate that firms without a dominant shareholder tend to outperform their country peer groups. We base our analysis on a new and unique dataset of uniform ownership data of the largest 100 firms in the five major European economies. ...

  13. 47 CFR 1.919 - Ownership information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vertical ownership chain and application of the relevant attribution benchmark to the resulting product... marketing arrangements with a cellular licensee, or its affiliate, shall be considered to have...

  14. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  15. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  16. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  17. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  18. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  19. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  20. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  1. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  2. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  3. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is hardl

  4. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  5. Ownership and Control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Abe; Kabir, Rezaul; Marra, Teye; Röell, Ailsa

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership and control structures of Dutch listed companies. Legislation effective since 1992 mandates all shareholders with holdings of 5 percent or more in Dutch companies to disclose their holdings. Our analysis shows that the average ownership stakes of the largest and the thr

  6. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  7. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership - Volusia County Parcels (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Parcel Ownership Polygon Layer: Polygons showing property ownership created from the "master" subdivision base map for Volusia County. Multiple lots and parcels...

  9. Do tax incentives affect households' adoption of ‘green’ cars? A panel study of the Stockholm congestion tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policymakers have made several attempts to introduce local and national policies to reduce CO2 emissions and stimulate the consumer adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (ethanol/E85 cars). The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a local policy measure impacts the composition of the car fleet over time. More specifically, we take advantage of the natural experiment setting caused by the introduction of the Stockholm congestion tax (2006) to analyze how the tax affected purchases of ethanol cars that were exempted from the tax. To estimate effects, we employ a Difference-in-differences methodology. By using a comprehensive database of the car fleet and car owners, sociodemographic and geographic factors are analyzed, which is unique in the existing literature. Our results suggest that the congestion tax had a significant impact on ethanol car purchases although the effect fades away over time. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between the level of education and ethanol car purchases. Previous adoption of an ethanol car is found to be the strongest predictor of ethanol car purchases. Finally, data indicate that Stockholmers substantially increased purchases of ethanol cars half a year before the introduction of the congestion tax, which we refer to as an anticipation effect. - Highlights: • Uses a database of car owners to analyze impacts of a congestion tax on car fleet. • Results show that the tax had a significant effect on ethanol car purchases. • Prior ownership of ethanol car and education correlates with ethanol car purchases

  10. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  11. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  12. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  13. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    of a foundation-owned company -- focuses on the company’s profitability. In effect, a substantial degree of distance puts members of the foundation board in the position of “virtual owners,” in the sense that information and decisions are framed for the board in roughly the way they would be framed for profit......Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies...... controlled by industrial foundations are, on average, as profitable as companies with conventional patterns of investor ownership. In this article, we explore the reasons for this performance, not by comparing foundation-owned firms with conventional investor-owned firms, but rather by focusing...

  14. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  15. Competition and Car Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Molly; Hamilton, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We examine determinants of the nearly 30 percent increase in the average age of domestically produced, registered automobiles since the mid-1960s. We find that very little of the increase in car longevity is attributable to improvements in the inherent durability of cars. Rather, we find that the temporal pattern of longevity improvement is highly correlated with the level of market concentration in the auto industry. In particular, we argue that the arrival of competition in the industry led...

  16. Composing for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Adam; Tanaka, Atau

    2013-01-01

    The authors report on composing a piece for RoadMusic, an interactive music project which generates and manipulates music for the passengers and driver in a car, using sensor information gathered from the surroundings and from the movements of the car. We present a literature review which brings together related works in the diverse fields of Automotive UI, musical mappings, generative music and sonification. We then describe our strategies for composing for this novel system, and the uni...

  17. Psychological ownership: Development of an instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Olckers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological ownership emerged recently as a positive psychological resource that could be measured and developed and that could affect the performance of organisations.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure psychological ownership in a South African context.Motivation for the study: It was found that previous instruments for the measurement of psychological ownership lacked the ability to grasp the extensive reach of psychological ownership.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted on a non-probability convenience sample of 713 skilled, highly-skilled and professional employees from various organisations in both the private and public sectors in South Africa.Main findings: Although a 69-item measurement instrument was developed in order to capture the proposed seven-dimensional psychological ownership construct, it became evident when analysing the data that a four-factor model comprising 35 items was suitable.Practical/managerial implications: If a sense of psychological ownership toward an organisation could be established amongst its employees by addressing the factors as measured by the South African Psychological Ownership Questionnaire, organisations could become enhanced workplaces and, as a result, sustainable performance could be promoted and staff could be retained.Contribution/value-add: The instrument for measuring psychological ownership in a South African context could serve as a diagnostic tool that would allow human resource professionals and managers to determine employees’ sense of psychological ownership regarding their organisation and to focus specifically on weak dimensional areas that could be improved.

  18. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  19. Corporate Ownership and Control in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D.; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Using ownership and control data for 890 firm‐years, this article examines the concentration of capital and voting rights in British companies in the second half of the nineteenth century. We find that both capital and voting rights were diffuse by modern‐day standards. However, this does not necessarily mean that there was a modern‐style separation of ownership from control in Victorian Britain. One major implication of our findings is that diffuse ownership was present in the UK much earlie...

  20. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  1. Cross-ownership among firms: Some determinants of the separation of ownership from control

    OpenAIRE

    Ritzberger, Klaus; Shorish, Jamsheed

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper demonstrates that the current literature on cross-ownership among firms underestimates the true degree of separation between cash flow rights and voting rights. We use accounting identities to define coefficients of control, such that any (direct or indirect) control of a firm may be identified using these coefficients. This procedure is sufficient to show that under cross-ownership the voting rights associated with ownership are typically underestimated. We demonstrate b...

  2. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  3. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  4. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  5. Mental activity and the sense of ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2015-01-01

    I introduce and defend the notion of a cognitive account of the sense of ownership. A cognitive account of the sense of ownership holds that one experiences something as one's own only if one thinks of something as one's own. By contrast, a phenomenal account of the sense of ownership holds...... that one can experience something as one's own without thinking about anything as one's own. I argue that we have no reason to favour phenomenal accounts over cognitive accounts, that cognitive accounts are plausible given that much of our mental activity has unnoticed effects on our mental life......, and that certain illusory experiences of body ownership sometimes described as thought-independent may be best explained as imaginative perceptual experiences....

  6. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  7. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  8. Asset Ownership and Foreign-Market Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Horst; Ryan, Michael; Stähler, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the link between a firm's ownership of productive assets and its choice of foreign-market entry strategy. We find that, controlling for industry- and country-specific characteristics, the most productive firms (i.e., those owning the most assets) will enter through greenfield investment, less productive ones will choose M&A, and the least productive ones will export. In addition, the most productive firms are shown to prefer whole ownership to a joint venture. These predic...

  9. Managerial incentives, financial constraints and ownership concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Protopapa

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the role of equity ownership for the purpose of committing the management to the pursuit of shareholder value in the presence of separation between ownership and control. By rooting the conflicts of interests between managers and shareholders upon the control of internal funds, a simple model allows to analyse the link between profit uncertainty, growth options and decisional powers. Implications are derived for the optimal degree of equity concentration, the effect of ...

  10. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. Overall, results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  11. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. The results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  12. Ownership structure, customer satisfaction and brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Anna; Trib??, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction between ownership structure, taken as a proxy for shareholders? commitment, and customer satisfaction - the main driver of consumer loyalty - and their impact on a firm?s brand equity. The results show that customer satisfaction has a positive direct effect on brand equity but an indirect negative one because of reductions in ownership concentration. This latter effect emerges when managers are mainly customer-oriented. Such result gives out a warning signal...

  13. Ownership Structure, independent directors and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    KALLAMU, Basiru Salisu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The paper examined the moderating role of independent directors in the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance. Using a sample of 37 finance companies listed on the main market of Bursa Malaysia from 2007 to 2011, the result indicates a significant positive moderating effect of independent directors in the relationship between director ownership and ROA but a negative relationship based on Tobin’s Q.  The result means that in a company where directors have cont...

  14. Corporate risk taking and ownership structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paligorova, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of corporate risk taking. Shareholders with substantial equity ownership in a single company may advocate conservative investment policies due to greater exposure to firm risk. Using a large cross-country sample, I find a positive relationship between corporate risk taking and equity ownership of the largest shareholder. This result is entirely driven by investors holding the largest equity stakes in more than one company. Family shareholders avoid cor...

  15. Ownership and Control in Colombian Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Luis H. Gutiérrez; Carlos Pombo; Rodrigo Taborda

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the separation of ownership and control for an average of 140 listed non-financial corporations in Colombia during the 1996-2002 period. Breaking down the sample according to corporations` listing status and economic activity shows that voting rights are greater than cash flow rights because of the presence of indirect ownership across firms that belong mainly to pyramidal and cross-share holdings. The study sample also includes an important set of non-affiliated firms. Own...

  16. Ownership and Control Structures: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on separation of ownership and control in Southeast Europe, and in particular it is a case study of Macedonia. For structured analysis of this case study we use the World Bank Microdata Library, specifically the Enterprise Surveys which contains firm-level data of a representative sample of economies private sectors. What we are interested in are the ties of ownership and control and whether such linkages contribute to the development of domestic firms and the overall ec...

  17. Ownership Structure and Corporate Performance: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Fishman; Gerard Gannon; Russell Vinning

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ownership structure and corporate performance for fifty firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange during 2002-2003. The study initially tests a two equation model similar to that in the existing literature, but is distinguished from prior literature by subsequently reclassifying leverage. By categorising leverage as an endogenous variable, an examination of the relationship between ownership and performance is undertaken through ordinar...

  18. Ownership Structure and Corporate Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Corporate Governance deals with the issue, how suppliers of finance to corporations assure themselves of getting a return on their investment. Several Studies have examined the relationship between managerial ownership and firm performance. Using different samples most of the studies provide general support for the argument that increase in managerial ownership increases firm performance. However, these results have been questioned recently. This work examines empirically the effects of owner...

  19. Total Ownership Cost -- Tools and Discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Mike; Naegle, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Control of total ownership cost (TOC) is a continuing initiative to manage costs over the entire life cycle of a weapon system. There are several major categories of costs that contribute to Total Ownership Cost but the principal categories are (1) R&D, (2) Production, (3) Operating and Support, and (4) Disposal. System TOC is the same as Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and must be planned and controlled from requirements definition, system develop...

  20. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  1. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA.

  2. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. PMID:26124073

  3. The effect of managerial ownership on the demand for conservatism.

    OpenAIRE

    Eersteling, Gjalt

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the relation between managerial ownership and conservatism is examined. Managerial ownership decreases agency problems caused by the separation of ownership and control. Managerial ownership increases the time horizon of managers and decreases expropriating behaviour. Conservatism is hypothesized to have the same effect on managers due to the asymmetric timeliness of earnings. This suggest that in firms with lower managerial ownership a demand for conservatism arises to substitu...

  4. Effects of Ownership and Financial Status on Corporate Environmental Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich Earnhart; Lubomir Lizal

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of ownership structure on corporate environmental performance and examines the link between financial performance to environmental performance in a transition economy. In particular, it analyzes these ownership effects and this performance link using an unbalanced panel of Czech firms for the years 1993 to 1998. It considers state ownership and various types of private ownership, while contrasting concentrated and diffuse forms of private ownership. Additionall...

  5. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  6. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  7. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  8. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads The Surface... used by the railroads to adjust their gross annual operating revenues for classification purposes. This... Labor Statistics (BLS). The STB's deflator factor is used to deflate revenues for comparison...

  9. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  10. Cars submerged in water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Crashes in which cars are submerged in deep water or in a ditch are often complicated and serious. Considering their severity and the fact that approximately half the fatalities in this crash type are not due to drowning but to injury, preventive measures are to be preferred above measures that have

  11. French Professional Car Language

    OpenAIRE

    Veslav Kuranovič

    2011-01-01

    In this scientific article is presented french professional car language, also it is analysed a problem of teaching professional language at the technical university. It is presented lot of methods which help student to acquire language skills and also it is presented importance of dialog between student and teacher. Psychology and pedagogy are 2 sciences strong related in teacher’s work.

  12. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  13. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  14. Soil Contamination by a Former Railroad Shop in Mexico:Proposed Handling and Remedation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Rocha, M.

    2001-12-01

    The study deals with an area of 589,062 m2 occupied by a national railroad shop located in Aguascalientes, a city in the central part of Mexico. Since 1903, the city became a transcendental railway center in the country and a transportation route toward the United States. Main activities were maintenance and repair of railroads cars, supply of fuel, and foundry of metallic pieces. The place was contaminated for 100 years, up to the recent sale of that company. The workshop area, now surrounded by populated urban areas, is abandoned. This study presents an evaluation of a previous survey of soil contamination in the different areas of the workshop. Based on our evaluation, we are proposing an optimal handling and remediation of the area. The survey referred 19 shallow boreholes (0-12 meters). Cores and chemical samples were analyzed. We defined the most relevant characteristic and contaminants of the soil samples. In terms of health risk analysis, we conclude that the most important contaminants are hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The following areas present the most significant health risk: the fuel supply zone , the oil petroleum or tar (called in Mexico "chapopote") lagoon, the painting area and the dump of axes and wheels.

  15. Ownership Structure and Earnings Management: Evidence from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between corporate ownership structure in Portugal and earnings management. The Portuguese governance structure is characterised by the dominance ofthe largest shareholder who typically exercises significant influences on management decisions directly or indirectly. Existing literature suggests that ownership structure decreases the incentive to manage earnings but also provides the opportunity and incentive to manipulate earnings. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a firm’s ownership structure (measured with three variables: managerial ownership, ownership concentration and institutional ownershipexacerbate or alleviate earnings management. Using a sample of 34 non-financial listed Portuguese firms for years from 2002 to 2007, we find that discretionary accruals as a proxy for earnings management is negatively related both to managerial ownership and to ownership concentration. The study’s results suggest that both managerial ownership and ownership concentration improvethe quality of annual earnings by reducing the levels of earnings management.

  16. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  17. Car boots: layers and drawers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The car boot of practically any car appears to be pretty low on the list of items the manufacturer considers important.The world of glossy, state of the art and high-tech design seems to come to a halt behind the rear seat. Designers at Audi, the German car manufacturers, were well aware that this p

  18. Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

    The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and

  19. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  20. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  1. New developments in clinical CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  2. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... on a survey undertaken in the Copenhagen area. The study reveals that a relatively low percentage of drivers (10-20%) consider commuting by public transportation in the near future, which is hardly a surprise. A hierarchical analysis, where reported use of public transportation is regressed on intentions...

  3. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  4. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  5. Usability of car stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.

  6. Railroad Lines, Railroads within Sedgwick County. Primary attribute is railroad name. Names are provided as annotation also., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Railroads...

  7. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints. PMID:24764801

  8. Investor Protection, Ownership Structure and Corporate Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pei-tang; WU Chong-feng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between investor protection, ownership structure and corporate valuation. La Porta showed that there existed a simple linear relationship between corporate valuation and the holding percentage of controlling shareholders. But recent empirical evidence does not support it. A nonlinear relationship is proved between ownership structure and corporate valuation by relaxing the assumption of La Porta's model in this paper. There exists a positive relation between investor protection and corporate valuation. Our empirical research shows that this relation is significantly positive indeed.

  9. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... may use a railroad-supplied electronic device only for an authorized business purpose as specified by... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices §...

  10. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and the... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration...

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  12. Stock splits and changes in ownership structures : evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamson, Martin; Kalström, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Stock splits are supposed to be financial cosmetics. However, this study shows that such corporate events have impact on ownership structure. This study exploits unique data from Swedish Central Security Registration regarding ownership and analyzes the ownership structures in stock splitting firms. Our data consists of exclu-sive semi-annually reported ownership structures of companies listed on Stockholm Stock Exchange. We categorize stock owners as domestic institutional investors, foreign...

  13. Ownership, Analyst Coverage, and Stock Synchronicity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xunan; Hu, Na; Johansson, Anders C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how ownership structure affects the information environment of publicly traded firms in China. We hypothesize that concentrated ownership and the associated separation of ultimate control and ownership rights create agency conflicts between controlling shareholders and minority investors leading controlling owners to withhold firm-specific information from the market. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of ultimate ownership structure and analyst coverage on st...

  14. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  15. 78 FR 66987 - Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., the railroad environment; and perceived likelihood of technical and practical success. 4. Key Personnel and Supporting Organization (15%): The technical qualifications and demonstrated experience of key... in the following order: Projects that: ] 1. Facilitate sharing of PTC communications...

  16. Liquid filtration properties in gravel foundation of railroad tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, A.; Teplykh, S.; Bukhman, N.

    2016-08-01

    Railway bed gravel foundation has a constant permanent impact on urban ecology and ground surface. It is only natural that larger objects, such as railway stations, make broader impact. Surface run-off waters polluted by harmful substances existing in railroad track body (ballast section) flow along railroad tracks and within macadam, go down into subterranean ground flow and then enter neighbouring rivers and water basins. This paper presents analytic calculations and characteristics of surface run-off liquid filtration which flows through gravel multiple layers (railroad track ballast section). The authors analyse liquids with various density and viscosity flowing in multi-layer porous medium. The paper also describes liquid stationary and non-stationary weepage into gravel foundation of railroad tracks.

  17. Ownership reasoning in children across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Philippe; Robbins, Erin; Passos-Ferreira, Claudia; Donato Oliva, Angela; Dias, Maria D G; Guo, Liping

    2014-09-01

    To what extent do early intuitions about ownership depend on cultural and socio-economic circumstances? We investigated the question by testing reasoning about third party ownership conflicts in various groups of three- and five-year-old children (N=176), growing up in seven highly contrasted social, economic, and cultural circumstances (urban rich, poor, very poor, rural poor, and traditional) spanning three continents. Each child was presented with a series of scripts involving two identical dolls fighting over an object of possession. The child had to decide who of the two dolls should own the object. Each script enacted various potential reasons for attributing ownership: creation, familiarity, first contact, equity, plus a control/neutral condition with no suggested reasons. Results show that across cultures, children are significantly more consistent and decisive in attributing ownership when one of the protagonists created the object. Development between three and five years is more or less pronounced depending on culture. The propensity to split the object in equal halves whenever possible was generally higher at certain locations (i.e., China) and quasi-inexistent in others (i.e., Vanuatu and street children of Recife). Overall, creation reasons appear to be more primordial and stable across cultures than familiarity, relative wealth or first contact. This trend does not correlate with the passing of false belief theory of mind. PMID:24955501

  18. Device ownership, 'BYOD' & social media for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Grussendorf, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Report on student usage of mobile devices & social media. The 2013 Survey asked about general ownership & usage; opinion on bringing in and using personal devices for learning; familiarity with and usage of social media; and attitude towards using social media in a teaching and learning context. This report summarises the results.

  19. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the sor

  20. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are not... National Forest System after November 15, 1973, which become intermingled with wild horses or burros,...

  1. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  2. Analysis of Technology Ownership and Selective Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Downs, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Extent of technology ownership and use has been documented for teens and even pre-teens. However, little is known as to whether such ownership and use patterns change over time. This study examined these issues by surveying a sample of undergraduates as to their ownership and selective use of technology. Compared to teens, undergraduates had…

  3. 7 CFR 4290.150 - Management and ownership diversity requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management and ownership diversity requirement. 4290... Management and ownership diversity requirement. (a) Diversity requirement. You must have diversity between management and ownership in order to be licensed as a RBIC and to maintain your license. To...

  4. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  5. Railroad Lines, To provide railroads of Louisiana, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'To provide railroads of Louisiana'. The extent of these data is...

  6. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  7. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  8. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  9. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  10. Railroad Lines, Railroad Crossings: Public Roads, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as...

  11. Railroad Lines, Adams Co Railroads, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is described...

  12. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  13. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,254), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC...

  14. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity. PMID:20738388

  15. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

  16. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... advancements and ergonomic design standards for new car construction and ensure that modern rail equipment... ambiguities sometimes arise regarding the placement of safety appliances on these car types. Because modern.... Problems arise because modern designs are often combinations of multiple car types, and the design of...

  17. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...... region during the period between 2004 and 2008, we document that ownership concentration, as itself, may not have a significant impact on firm performance. It is, rather, the way concentrated firms govern themselves that determine their performance. We argue that concentrated ownership firms, being aware...... of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We...

  18. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  19. The Systemic, Long-run Relation among Gasoline Demand, Gasoline Price, Income, and Vehicle Ownership in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Brantley

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes gasoline consumption per capita, income (GDP per capita), gasoline price, and car ownership per capita for a panel of OECD countries by employing panel unit root and cointegration testing, panel Dynamic and Fully Modified OLS estimations, and panel Granger-causality tests. The four variables are determined to be panel I(1) and cointegrated. Estimated long-run and short-run income elasticities are smaller than what typically had been found previously. Lastly, gasoline consu...

  20. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb. P

  1. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  2. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  3. Management of car mobility: Fact or fiction?; Beheersing van automobiliteit: Feit of fictie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priemus, H. [ed.] [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Nijkamp, P. [ed.] [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    The aim of the title workshop contributions is to give background information on the subject of car mobility, and to bring together the different, varied experiences to control the mobility in the Netherlands, including their results. Attention is paid to the use of cars in relation to the environment. Background information is given of car ownership and car use. An overview of tools to reduce car use is presented. Also the present planning policy is discussed, next to the subject of the use of the infrastructure in `user charge` (chapters 1-6). The chapters 7-12 are contributions, presented in parallel sessions during the workshop, on the subjects future policy to fight the congestion, the client-oriented dynamic policy of HTM (a Dutch public transport company), distribution centres, parking policy and traffic circulation plans, living conditions in urban areas, and commuter traffic. From the different contributions it is concluded that control of car mobility in the Netherlands requires a long-term policy to realize a coordinated and consistent mobility policy. 28 tabs. 1 fig., 11 ills., refs.

  4. Optimization Of Car Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sushant K. Bawne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential of car wheel rim is to provide a firm base on which to fit the tyre. Its dimensions, shape should be suitable to adequately accommodate the particular tyre required for the vehicle. In this project a tyre of car wheel rim belonging to the disc wheel category is considered. Design is an important industrial activity which influences the quality of the product. The wheel rim is modeled by using modeling software catiav5r17. By using this software the time spent in producing the complex 3- D models and the risk involved in the design and manufacturing process can be easily minimized. So the modeling of the wheel rim is made by using CATIA. Later this CATIA modal is imported to ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 for analysis work. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 is the latest software used for simulating the different forces, pressure acting on the component and also calculating and viewing the results. By using ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 software reduces the time compared with the method of mathematical calculations by a human. ANSYS WORKBENCH 14.5 static structural analysis work is carried out by considered three different materials namely aluminum alloy ,magnesium alloy and structural steel and their relative performances have been observed respectively. In addition to wheel rim is subjected to modal analysis, a part of dynamic analysis is carried out its performance is observed. In this analysis by observing the results of both static and dynamic analysis obtained magnesium alloy is suggested as best material.

  5. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  6. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  7. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate of EV and household peak load by 54%, which may exceed the capacity of existing electricity distribution infrastructure. At 30% penetration of EV, off-peak charging would result in a 20% higher, more stable base load and no additional peak load at the national level and up to 7% higher peak load at the household level. Therefore, if off-peak charging is successfully introduced, electric driving need not require additional generation capacity, even in case of 100% switch to electric vehicles. GHG emissions from electric driving depend most on the fuel type (coal or natural gas) used in the generation of electricity for charging, and range between 0 g km-1 (using renewables) and 155 g km-1 (using electricity from an old coal-based plant). Based on the generation capacity projected for the Netherlands in 2015, electricity for EV charging would largely be generated using natural gas, emitting 35-77 g CO2eq km-1. We find that total cost of ownership (TCO) of current EV are uncompetitive with regular cars and series hybrid cars by more than 800 EUR year-1. TCO of future wheel motor PHEV may become competitive when batteries cost 400 EUR kWh-1, even without tax incentives, as long as one battery pack can last for the lifespan of the vehicle. However, TCO of future battery powered cars is at least 25% higher than of series hybrid or regular cars. This cost gap remains unless cost of batteries drops to 150 EUR kWh-1 in the future. Variations in driving cost from charging patterns have negligible influence on TCO. GHG abatement costs using plug-in hybrid cars are currently 400-1400 EUR tonne-1 CO2eq and may come down to -100 to 300 EUR tonne-1. Abatement cost using battery powered

  8. Institutional Ownership Composition and Earnings Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Lin; Pavinee Manowan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of outside block-holders on earnings management, using discretionary accounting accruals as the measure of earnings management. For the income-decreasing earnings management scenario, we do not find significant results. This may be attributable to the different natures and time horizons of outside block-holders. Since the majority of outside block-holders are institutional investors, we then investigate the relationship between ownership by institutional investo...

  9. Commune: Shared Ownership in an Agnostic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Soriente, Claudio; Karame, Ghassan; Ritzdorf, Hubert; Marinovic, Srdjan; Capkun, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    Although cloud storage platforms promise a convenient way for users to share files and engage in collaborations, they require all files to have a single owner who unilaterally makes access control decisions. Existing clouds are, thus, agnostic to shared ownership. This can be a significant limitation in many collaborations because one owner can, for example, delete files and revoke access without consulting the other collaborators. In this paper, we first formally define a notion of shared ow...

  10. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil...... advantage appears to be eroded by globalization, it decreases over time and disappears at the end of the century....

  11. Two Essays on Ownership and Market Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Honghui

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that ownership structure may be an important determinant of securities' market characteristics. For example, the presence of informed traders leads to greater bid-ask spreads (Copeland and Galai (1983), and Glosten and Milgrom (1985)), and strategic trading of informed and discretionary liquidity traders leads to intertemporal variation in both trading volume and trading costs (Admati and Pfleiderer (1988), and Foster and Viswanathan (1990)). However, the empirica...

  12. Australian coal production marketing and ownership practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author explains his belief that instability of coal pricing has led to ownership changes and, besides high costs, is one of the contributors to that low profitability has been the low prices achieved for coal versus other energy sources. These low prices are, in turn, a reflection of the underlying supply/demand cycle. This paper examines Australia's coal performance in world markets during the 1980's and then the other marketing factors which lead to the authors' conclusion

  13. Payment method and perceptions of ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Erki, Berna

    2013-01-01

    How consumers pay influences how they feel about a transaction. In particular, paying by card has been argued to have an effect on the perception of cost; making it less salient and painful. We propose and show that payment method also influences how consumers feel about the acquired good. Specifically we focus on effects of the payment method on psychological ownership, i.e. the perception of an object as "mine". We propose that cash payment results in stronger psychological o...

  14. Ownership Structure, Board Composition and Investment Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna; Eklund, Johan; Wiberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the relation between ownership structure, board composition and firm performance is explored. A panel of Swedish listed firms is used to investigate how board composition affects firm performance. Board heterogeneity is measured as board size, age and gender diversity. The results show that Swedish board of directors have become more diversified in terms of gender. Also, fewer firms have the CEO on the board which can be interpreted as a sign of increased independency. The regre...

  15. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  16. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michel G.; Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstr. 22, CHN J 73.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  17. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 1. Model structure, simulation of bounded rationality, and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an agent-based microsimulation capable of forecasting the effects of policy levers that influence individual choices of new passenger cars. The fundamental decision-making units are households distinguished by sociodemographic characteristics and car ownership. A two-stage model of individual decision processes is employed. In the first stage, individual choice sets are constructed using simple, non-compensatory rules that are based on previously owned cars. Second, decision makers evaluate alternatives in their individual choice set using a multi-attributive weighting rule. The attribute weights are based on a multinomial logit model for cross-country policy analysis in European countries. Additionally, prospect theory and the notion of mental accounting are used to model the perception of monetary values. The microsimulation forecasts actual market observations with high accuracy, both on the level of aggregate market characteristics as well as on a highly resolved level of distributions of market shares. The presented approach is useful for the assessment of policies that influence individual purchase decisions of new passenger cars; it allows accounting for a highly resolved car fleet and differentiated consumer segments. As a result, the complexity of incentive schemes can be represented and detailed structural changes can be investigated. (author)

  18. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  19. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  20. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may...... be large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...... is discussed and the nonlinear aspects are emphasized. The author explains why it is necessary to reformulate the mathematical problem for calculation of the critical speed due to the nonlinear character of the modelling. It is suggested that another critical speed be defined for a railroad vehicle. It can...

  1. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  2. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  3. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  4. Mesotheliomas due to asbestos used in railroads in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, C; Pinto, C; Mobiglia, A

    1991-12-31

    The available knowledge of the oncogenic risks of asbestos, the presentation of some data on the uses of asbestos in railroads, with particular regard to the Italian State Railroads (Ferrovie dello Stato = FS), and the identification of groups at risk because of exposure to asbestos used in railroads are briefly reviewed. The available data in the literature on the pathologic effects of such exposure, and in particular on the onset of mesotheliomas among machinists and other railroad workers, are also summarized. Eighty-three cases, in various Italian regions, of mesothelioma (78 pleural, 4, peritoneal, and 1 pericardial) are reported that are related to the exposure to asbestos used in railroads. Twenty-six of these cases (among which 25 were reported in the Emilia-Romagna region) were submitted to a detailed study at the Bologna Institute of Oncology. Forty-nine cases of mesothelioma occurred among FS workers, in particular machinists; 29 cases occurred among machinists of rolling-stock workshops not belonging to the FS; 3 cases occurred among travelling workers of rolling-stock not belonging to the FS; 2 cases were found in members of the family (a daughter and a wife) of FS workers. This series of cases, together with similar data from the literature, proves the existence and gravity of an actual health risk due to asbestos used in the railroads. On the basis of the available data, the following steps are considered necessary: the adoption of preventive measures, the performance of medical oncological surveillance, the promotion of systematic epidemiologic investigations, and, finally, the placement of greater emphasis on basic research, aimed at generating information on the biological events taking place during the incubation period of the tumors. This information, hopefully, could be used to reduce the biological effect of exposure, and therefore for controlling the neoplastic process before onset of the disease in those who, having been exposed, although

  5. Future cars: the electric option

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Avery, NR; Muddle, BC

    1999-01-01

    Global economic, environmental and political issues are pushing car manufacturers to consider electric power systems as an alternative to the current spark ignition engine. In this article, we analyse the power and energy requirements of a modern car and conclude that a viable electric car could be operated with a 50 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack to provide power for cruising and climbing, coupled in parallel with a 30 kW supercapacitor or battery bank to supply additional sho...

  6. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  7. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  8. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  9. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  10. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  11. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  12. The Influence of Employee Ownership on Intrapreneurship and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Klaneček, Alojz; Antončièč, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    Programmes of workers’ participation and profit-sharing may not be as powerful a motivation as ownership. Owners of the majority of shares might like to include managers, experts and routine workers among the shareholders. This study empirically examines the relationship between employee ownership, intrapreneurship, and firm growth. Results of the empirical analysis do not completely support the hypothesis of a positive association between employee ownership and intrapreneurship nor the hypot...

  13. Ownership Structure, Governance, and Innovation: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Raoul Minetti; Pierluigi Murro; Monica Paiella

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the impact of firms’ ownership structure on firms’ innovation decisions using a rich dataset of about 20,000 Italian manufacturers. After accounting for its possible endogeneity, we find that ownership concentration negatively affects the probability of innovation, especially by reducing firms’ R&D effort. The analysis reveals that conflicts of interest between large and minority shareholders are a determinant of the negative effect of ownership concentration on innovation. M...

  14. Ownership Concentration, Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Attiya Y. Javid; Robina Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the determinants of ownership concentration, the effect of ownership concentration on the firm’s performance with the sample of sixty representativ e firms from different manufacturing sectors of the Pakistan’s economy during 2003 to 2008. The results suggest that firms where ownership is concentrated they do not adopt better governance practices and disclose less, however board composition has posit ive and significant role. The firm specific factors affect the concent...

  15. Control Rights, Pyramids, and the Measurement of Ownership Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jeremy S.S.; Alfons J. Weichenrieder

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The recent corporate governance literature has emphasised the distinction between control and cash-flow rights but has disregarded measurement issues. Control rights may be measured by immediate shareholder votes, the voting rights as traced through ownership chains, or voting power indices that may or may not trace ownership through chains. We compare the ability of various measures to identify the effects of ownership concentration on share valuation using a German panel...

  16. Separation between ownership and control: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle, Ariane

    2004-01-01

    Complex structure of ownership like cross-ownership, rings, and pyramids are common in Continental Europe, Eastern Europe, and in Asia. This paper aims at dissecting these complex features by a proper measurement of direct and indirect holdings. Building on Brioschi et al. (1989), we use the input-output matrix methodology and we add control considerations in the matrix calculations to derive a straightforward method of quantifying the separation between ownership and control for a firm or a ...

  17. Ownership Structure, Corporate Governance, and Firms' Performance: Konka Group Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Dai

    2009-01-01

    Starts with the basic analysis that ownership structure determines corporate governance, which finally determines firm’s performance, and based on the up to date
    corporate governance theory, the paper investigates Shenzhen Konka’s 12 years long development of being a listed company and makes an analytic demonstration. The author discovers the truth that the ownership exchange occurred in 1997 was the turning point for Konka. The exchange not only altered the original ownership stru...

  18. Corporate Ownership, Control, and Firm Performance in Victorian Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Graeme G.; Campbell, Gareth; Turner, John D; Vanteeva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long debated whether ownership structure matters for firm performance. The standard view with respect to Victorian Britain is that family-controlled companies had a detrimental effect on operating profit and shareholder value. Here, we examine this view using a hand-collected corporate ownership dataset. Our main finding is that it was not necessarily the broad structure of corporate ownership that mattered for performance, but whether family blockholders had a governance role. ...

  19. Corporate Ownership Structure and Firm Performance: Evidence from Greek Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis Kapopoulos; Sophia Lazaretou

    2006-01-01

    The Berle-Means thesis (1932) implies that diffuse ownership adversely affects firm performance. This paper tries to investigate whether there is strong evidence to support the notion that variations across firms in observed ownership structures result in systematic variations in observed firm performance. We test this hypothesis by assessing the impact of the structure of ownership on corporate performance, measured by profitability, using data for 175 Greek listed firms. Following Demsetz a...

  20. Insider ownership and corporate performance: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kaserer, Christoph; Moldenhauer, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we address the question whether insider ownership affects corporate performance. Evidence coming from studies dealing with Anglo-Saxon countries is rather inconclusive, especially because it seems that results are significantly affected by endogeneity. Economically, this is due to the fact that in these countries insider ownership seems to be mainly driven by management's compensation contracts. We argue that Germany is different in this regard, as insider ownership often is rel...

  1. Ownership Structure, Board Characteristics and Corporate Performance in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Turki; Nadia Ben Sedrine

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon prior empirical research on the potential endogeneity of both ownership structure and firmperformance in developed markets, this study examines the reverse causations that can exist between corporateperformance and ownership structure in Tunisian listed companies. The study was extended to include boardcharacteristics as a principal internal control mechanism for monitoring managers and an assessment of itspotential effects on firm performance and ownership structure. Our finding...

  2. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  3. Plastic cars for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plastic automobiles may have passed a milestone on the long road to commercial reality with the development of Composite Concept Vehicle (CCV) from Chrysler Corp. in Auburn Hills, Mich. This basic compact car--so basic it could be called bare bones--is built by attaching an injection-molded thermoplastic polyester body onto a tubular steel chassis. The 1,200-pound CCV, which is expected to require one-third the labor and investment needed to build a conventional small car, was designed for new buyers in the emerging economies of China, India, and Southeast Asia. If commercialized, the car would likely cost about $6,000--halfway between a motorcycle and an entry-level auto. The small car was unveiled in September 1996 at the Frankfurt Auto Show in Germany.

  4. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  5. Cars Are Hot in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    MANY Chinese have long dreamedabout the joy of driving. However, in thepast only professional drivers had theopportunity as most cars were stateowned and it was too expensive forindividuals to buy their own.

  6. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ..., and 243 Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees; Proposed Rule #0... Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees AGENCY: Federal Railroad... employee to develop and submit a training program to FRA for approval and to designate the qualification...

  7. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines whether a pension established by a railroad employer is a private pension that will cause a reduction...

  8. 77 FR 25229 - Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Dallas County, TX Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company (DGNO) has filed a... from Union Pacific Railroad Company exclusive trackage rights over the Line. See Dallas,...

  9. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  10. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  11. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  12. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... of contractor employees at Sec. Sec. 243.1(b), 243.101(e)-(f), and 243.209. 77 FR 6453. These... Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR); Proposed Rule #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AB89 Railroad Workplace Safety;...

  13. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  14. Ownership Concentration, Monitoring and Optimal Board Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Clara; Luporini, Annalisa

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the optimal structure of board of directors in a firm with ownership concentrated in the hands of a large shareholder who sits on the board. We focus our attention on the choice between one-tier board who performs all tasks and two-tier board where the management board is in charge of project selection and the supervisory board is in charge of monitoring. We consider the case in which the large shareholder sits on (and controls) the supervisory board but not the management ...

  15. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    . We found that the raw difference in average firm wages between foreign and domestically owned firms is around 25 per cent, respectively. Accounting for differences in the compositions in firms' workforces, as measured by firm means of human capital variables, for regions and industries firm size....... The unconditional foreign ownership premium is considerably  smaller than for firm average wage, around 6 per cent for year 2006. Secondly, and more importantly, when we add human capital variables, region and industry dummies and firm size to the wage regression, the differential surprisingly even increases...

  16. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    OpenAIRE

    Mel Slater; Daniel Pérez Marcos; Henrik Ehrsson; Maria V. Sanchez-Vives

    2009-01-01

    We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a...

  17. The Social Costs of Gun Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides new estimates of the effect of household gun prevalence on homicide rates, and infers the marginal external cost of handgun ownership. The estimates utilize a superior proxy for gun prevalence, the percentage of suicides committed with a gun, which we validate. Using county- and state-level panels for 20 years, we estimate the elasticity of homicide with respect to gun prevalence as between +.1 and +.3. All of the effect of gun prevalence is on gun homicide rates. Under ce...

  18. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...

  19. Ownership unbundling; Ownership unbundling. Wesen und Vereinbarkeit mit Europarecht und Verfassungsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J.F.; Pritzsche, K.U.; Klauer, S.

    2006-07-01

    After it had ushered in the liberalisation of the energy economy through its initial enactment in 1998 the Energy Economy Law was fundamentally revised to stipulate the complete unbundling of integrated power supply companies in terms of their legal status, accounting and operations, in accordance with Directives 2003/54 and 2003/55. While this amended version has yet to take effect, the European Union has already set its sights on its next unbundling project. This is the project of maximum unbundling, also referred to as ownership unbundling. Its proponents expect of it that it will eliminate all incentives that encourage network operators to discriminate against interlinked production and distributive companies. Quite apart from a political assessment of such short-sighted energy policy this raises the question as to whether the introduction of ownership unbundling by the European legislature, and consequently also by the German government, is legally admissible at all. Any answer to this question must first clarify the precise meaning of ownership unbundling. For all the support behind it there is still no clear agreement as to what this dazzling term actually stands for. Save for few exceptions no definitions have as yet been offered for this instrument from the realm of science and politics. The present article therefore attempts to approach the concept of ownership unbundling, presenting possible options for its implementation. Based on these options it then goes on to address the legality of such measures under European and German constitutional law.

  20. Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Ommeren, van Jos

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated an

  1. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  2. 21 CFR 1250.51 - Railroad conveyances; discharge of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVEYANCE SANITATION Equipment and Operation of Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.51 Railroad conveyances... servicing area, toilets shall be kept locked unless means are provided to prevent contamination of the area... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-627), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

  3. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  4. The Old Railroad Right-of-Way Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a classroom challenge involving an old railroad right-of-way. Using the knowledge gained via research into what others may have done with utilizing old rail lines, along with team creative efforts, students should begin generating ideas for how to use these land areas. The students might suggest the land areas be used for:…

  5. 49 CFR 1.49 - Delegations to Federal Railroad Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by the Crime Control Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-647) as it relates to a railroad police officer's authority to enforce the laws of any jurisdiction in which the police officer's rail carrier employer owns... intervene and present evidence concerning applicants' fitness in Commission proceedings under 49 U.S.C....

  6. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  7. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease...

  8. 13 CFR 120.475 - Change of ownership or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 120.475 Section 120.475 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.475 Change of ownership or control. (a) Any change... ownership or control is subject to the approval of any State or Federal chartering, licensing, or...

  9. The Importance of Fostering Ownership During Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Fraenkel, Liana; Seng, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to consider the impact of the new resident-hours regulations on the variety of aspects of medical education and patient care. Most existing literature about this subject has focused on the role of fatigue in resident performance, education, and health care delivery. However, there are other possible consequences of these new regulations, including a negative impact on decision ownership. Our main assumption of is that increased shift work in medicine can decrease ownership of treatment decisions and impact negatively on quality of care. We review some potential components of decision ownership in treatment context and suggest possible ways in which the absence of decision ownership may decrease the quality of medical decision making. The article opens with the definition of decision ownership and the overview of some contextual factors that may contribute to the development of ownership in medical residency. The following section discusses decision ownership in medical care from the perspective of "diffusion of responsibility." We question the quality of choices made within narrow decisional frames. We also compare isolated and interrelated choices, assuming that residents make more isolated decisions during their shifts. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of decreased decision ownership impacting the delivery of health care. PMID:27471927

  10. Ownership Structure and Voluntary Disclosure in Annual Reports of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rouf (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between ownership structure and voluntary disclosure levels in the 2007 annual report of 94 samples of Bangladeshi listed companies. Ownership structure is provided by management ownership and institutional ownership. Using agency theory, it is argued that firms with higher management ofownership structure may disclose less information and higher institutional of ownership structure may disclose more information to shareholders through voluntary disclosure. It is because the determined ownership structure provides firms lower incentives tovoluntarily disclose information to meet the needs of non-dispersed shareholders .Agency theory is utilized as the underlying theoretical framework of voluntary disclosure. Using a unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure. The extent of voluntary disclosure level is measured using 68 items recommended by those who have professional qualifications. The result shows that the extent of corporate voluntary disclosures is negatively associated with a higher management of ownership structure and the extent of corporate voluntary disclosures is positively associated with a higher institutional ownership structure.

  11. 36 CFR 72.36 - Land ownership, control and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.36 Land ownership, control and conversion. Section 1010 of the Act provides... Acquisition Policies Act (See 41 CFR parts 114-50). ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land ownership, control...

  12. The reversal of agricultural reform in Uganda: ownership and values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Joughin, James

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of ownership in a reform of the multi-donor-funded agricultural advisory service in Uganda. We argue that although there was a long process of programme formulation in which all stakeholders were heard, ownership was not as encompassing as it first appeared...

  13. 26 CFR 53.4943-8 - Business holdings; constructive ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business holdings; constructive ownership. 53... Business Holdings § 53.4943-8 Business holdings; constructive ownership. (a) Constructive ownership—(1) In general. For purposes of section 4943, in computing the holdings in a business enterprise of a...

  14. 27 CFR 40.512 - Change in ownership or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control. 40.512 Section 40.512 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Change in ownership or control. (a) Fiduciary successor. If an administrator, executor, receiver, trustee... occurrence that results in a person acquiring ownership or control of more than ten percent in aggregate...

  15. 27 CFR 41.252 - Change in ownership or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... control. 41.252 Section 41.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... § 41.252 Change in ownership or control. (a) Fiduciary successor. If an administrator, executor... any occurrence that results in a person acquiring ownership or control of more than ten percent...

  16. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  17. Effects of Ownership Rights on Conflicts between Toddler Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined property conflicts in thirty-two 20-and 30-month-old peer dyads during eighteen 40-min play sessions. Ownership influenced conflicts. Both 20- and 30-month-old owners claimed ownership ("mine") and instigated and won property conflicts more often than non-owners. At 30 months, owners also resisted peers' instigations more often…

  18. 42 CFR 423.892 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Change of ownership. 423.892 Section 423.892 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... change of ownership: (1) Partnership. The removal, addition, or substitution of a partner, unless...

  19. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  20. Ownership relations in the presence of cross-shareholding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Temurshoev, U.

    2008-01-01

    The direct ownership structure in a sector can be readily obtained from data on shareholding. Due to cross-shareholding, however, the true ownership structure may be hidden by a complex network of indirect relations. In studying the property structure, two important aspects are the size of the relat

  1. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  2. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  3. Marketized State Ownership and Foreign Expansion of Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of marketized shareholders through corporate ownership reform and their impact on the foreign entry of emerging market firms is a critical but understudied issue. Our study investigates the effect of marketized state ownership on emerging market firms’ propensity to engage in foreign...... direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However......, such advantages are likely to vary in magnitude for firms with marketized state ownership at central and local levels of government due to different patterns of corporate restructuring. We predict that such ownership effects are contingent on firms’ affiliation to meso-level institutional structures such as state...

  4. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  5. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  6. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  7. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  8. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  9. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  10. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  11. Car car cars:车库梦想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    在曾经关于南京摇滚大集合的专题中我们介绍过这支年轻而有趣的乐队,当时他们刚刚开始,最令人印象深刻是男吉他+女鼓手的车库摇滚乐队配置,今年,他们在近一年的辗转与坚持中,越来越多地参与到南京、北京和更多城市的演出中,同时独立发行了乐队的首张同名EP。Car Car Cars的名字和他们热衷的车库风格鲜明地联系在一起,而除了对于风格上的暗示,这个名字与他们最初组建时一直在一间废弃的驾校模拟器教室排练有很大关系。“里面有很多那种模驾练习机嘛,当时就想取一个和“车”有关的乐队名字应该很酷,就叫CAR CAR CARS吧!”酷的不只有名字,Car Car Cars由兄妹二人组成,主唱兼吉他手小汤是年轻的哥哥。鼓手是漂亮的妹妹,这种无意间造就的话题性让人有意无意地联系统The White Stripes。除了外型、配置上的天生抢眼,Car Car Cars这一年中的数场演出,也展示了他们凌厉的台风与属于车库的狂野,首张EP一上来就使用了同期录音的方式,展示了很多惊喜,虽然也不可避免地了一些些遗憾。在进一步的发展中。克服了创作、表现力的一些进阶困难之后,Car Car Cars完全有实力为风格趋于过份统一的国内年轻摇滚圈添上与众不同的一笔。

  12. 49 CFR 392.10 - Railroad grade crossings; stopping required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Division 2.3 Poison gas (iv) Division 4.3 (v) Class 7 (vi) Class 3 Flammable (vii) Division 5.1 (viii... (xiii) Class 3 Combustible liquid (xiv) Division 4.1 (xv) Division 5.1 (xvi) Division 5.2 (xvii) Class 8... purposes, within a business district, as defined in § 390.5 of this chapter. (2) A railroad grade...

  13. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  14. Big Car,More Costly?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiangwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Latest story Current story on car consumption tax is performing in China.Consumption tax is levied on goods on the basis of value-added tax (VAT).A small number of commodities are chosen to impose consumption tax.which is usually seen in the production sector.

  15. About Oil, Cars and Comrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The last century was the century of oil, cars and electricity. Crude oil was probably the critical raw material for the industrial development of the United States, England, Germany and the like from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 21 st. Amazing amounts of riches were made. Those who called

  16. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  17. Recharging Emission-Free Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    New York dealership begins sales of China-made electric vehicles In the 2006 documentary Who Killed the Electric Car?, Director Chris Paine showed how auto manufacturers, the oil industry, government officials and consumers suppressed the development of allelectric, emission-free vehicles. Now, with

  18. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  19. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  20. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have...... been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again...

  1. Land market in Albania: Unresolved property ownership rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Independence of Albania in 1912, property ownership has gone through major reforms. During communism many agricultural lands were seized by the Agrarian Reform Law. In 1990, with the fall of communism there was a huge demographic movement of people from villages to urban areas, where they settled in lands that were used by the Cooperatives. This created a lot of problems with previous land owners whose land was seized and given to the Cooperativa. Today there is a problem with the rights to property ownership, and legal certificates of ownership.

  2. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  3. Corporate boards and ownership structure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munisi, Gibson; Hermes, Niels; Randoy, Trond

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure and ownership structure for firms listed on the stock exchanges of twelve Sub-Saharan African countries, using data for the period 2006–2009. We find that ownership concentration, foreign ownership and managerial ownership are negatively a

  4. ANALYSIS OF MODERN CAR BODY STRAIGHTENING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhun, Sch.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern car body panels straightening methods is carried out. There have been described both traditional and alternative methods of car body panels straightening. The urgency of magnetic pulse teсhnology dignment is grounded. The main advantages of magnetic pulse teсhno-logy of car body straightening are defernined.

  5. Bayesian calibration of car-following models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.IJ.; Van Lint, H.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that there exist large inter-driver differences in car-following behavior such that different car-following models may apply to different drivers. This study applies Bayesian techniques to the calibration of car-following models, where prior distributions on each model p

  6. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  7. 上海市小客车管理政策研究%Policies on Passenger Car Management in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛美根; 程杰; 朱洪; 邵丹

    2014-01-01

    Managing passenger car ownership is one of key elements of urban transportation policies. With the new edition of“Shanghai Metropolitan Transportation White Paper”, this paper discusses car man-agement policies in Shanghai. By briefly reviewing the policy evolution process of the city’s license plate auctions, the paper analyzes the implementation results of related policies on car management, and particu-larly examines several problems facing the car management policies. Based on the survey on the potential car ownership growth, and a study on urban roadway network as well as the environment tolerance in Shanghai, the paper proposes a cap on the car ownership growth. Finally, the paper provides suggestions on the car management policies and development in several aspects:adjustments on auction quota system, non-local vehicle travel control, parking demand management, and economic and environmental strategies.%小客车管理政策是城市交通政策的核心内容之一,结合上海市新一轮交通发展白皮书的编制对相关政策进行研究。简要回顾了上海市小客车额度拍卖政策的演进历程,在综合分析小客车管理相关政策实施效果基础上,重点分析了小客车管理政策面临的问题。对上海市小客车增长的潜在需求进行调查和分析,结合城市路网容量和环境容量研究,提出上海市小客车的增长容量限制。最后,从额度拍卖政策调整、外省市号牌车辆通行管理、停车需求管理、经济和环境策略等方面提出上海市小客车管理政策的优化建议和发展方向。

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Crawford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Crawford County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lucas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lowndes County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Loving County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Love County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Love County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Klickitat County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Klickitat County, WA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hoke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hoke County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Walker County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Yampa coal field land status and Federal mineral ownership (yamowng)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and unioned polygon ownership coverage used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ritchie County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ritchie County, WV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Macon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Macon County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Tangipahoa Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tangipahoa Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  1. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average...... a negative effect of ownership concentration on bank value, measured by Tobin's Q. However, this effect varies across different institutional settings; while higher ownership concentration results in a lower bank value particularly in the countries belonging to German legal family, the impact of ownership...... in Scandinavia. This in turn implies that restrictions of shareholdings in banks could alleviate governance problems in some countries, but lower bank valuation in others....

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2001, Hendricks Co. Engineering.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2001. This data set includes internal links to...

  4. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Mecosta County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Mecosta County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Saginaw County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Saginaw County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Howell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Howell County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Taos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tate County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. >Problems and Countermeasures of Collective Land Ownership Disputes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; QIAO; Kening; WU; Hongjuan; WANG; Qi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, No.1 document of central government demanded strengthening mediation and settlement of ownership of rural collective land, to complete confirmation of right and registration and issue of certificate of rural collective land in 3 years. However, the mediation and settlement of land ownership in China still remain at starting stage, and there are many problems in both theory and practice. In this situation, this paper summarizes current situations of disputes about ownership of collective land in Beijing, analyzes causes of disputes, introduces existing working mechanism, methods and problems of dispute mediation and settlement, and finally presents feasible recommendations, in the hope of providing guidance for mediation and settlement of land ownership disputes.

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Codington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coffee County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conejos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conejos County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Honolulu County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Honolulu County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Esmeralda City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Esmeralda County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Evans County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Evans County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pulaski County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pulaski County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Long County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Long County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Atkinson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Atkinson County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Henry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Henry County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rutherford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rutherford County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Oconto County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building Permit...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Buffalo County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Buffalo County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, SD. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Davis County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Schuyler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Schuyler County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Huntington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Huntington County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Churchill County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Churchill County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Recent Digital Watermarking Approaches, Protecting Multimedia Data Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Gupta

    Full Text Available As the internet networks are proliferating and diversifying across the globe, the accessibility of digital multimedia contents such as images, audios and videos become more frequent. Digital watermarking approaches ensure data authentication, ownership pr ...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limestone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limstone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Becker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Becker County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Coles County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coles County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cole County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cole County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Mapping Strategy, Structure, Ownership and Performance in European Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin; Colli, Andrea; de Jong, Abe

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Weld County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Webster County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Washington County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Cerro Gordo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Fleming County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Florence County, SC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Florence County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Florence County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Story County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Story County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Parcels'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pitkin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pitkin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jasper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jasper County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Parke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Parke County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Otoe County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Otoe County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Washington County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Texas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Texas County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greer County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greer County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

  8. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  9. 9 CFR 95.26 - Railroad cars, trucks, boats, aircraft and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent available chlorine) in the proportion of one pound to three gallons of water; or any one of the... and other means of conveyance, equipment or containers, yards, and premises; cleaning and disinfection... SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO...

  10. The British 'Personal Capitalism': Some Evidence on Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    1998-01-01

    By analysing the ownership and control structures of 23 Scottish textile companies of national importance this article suggests some hard evidence on the extent to )holm family influence did persist, well into the second half of the twentieth century, in both ownership and control in the British economy. The majority of the companies remained priwite• even in the companies which went public, characteristics of the private company status continued to be dominant Within these organisational f...

  11. Community Participation & Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...

  12. Ownership Concentration and Bank Performance: Evidence from MENA Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rim Boussaada; Majdi Karmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of ownership concentration on MENA banks’ performance over the period 2004-2011. The sample includes 38 commercial banks belonging to ten countries of the MENA region. We use an econometric method that deals with the endogeneity problems that have arisen in the corporate governance literature. We show that ownership concentration is significant in explaining performance differences between MENA banks. Our analysis shows that bank performance depends on the ident...

  13. Corporate Governance in Pakistan : Corporate Valuation, Ownership and Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Javid, Attiya Y.; Robina Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    In this study the relationship between corporate governance and corporate valuation, ownership structure and need of external financing for the Karachi Stock Market is examined for the period 2003 to 2008. To measure the firm- level governance a rating system is used to evaluate the stringency of a set of governance practices and cover various governance categories : such as board composition, ownership and shareholdings and transparency, disclosure and auditing. The sample consists of 60 non...

  14. THE EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNERSHIP PROGRAM PHENOMENA: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the employee stock ownership program phenomenon in public companies in Indonesia. The ownership of companies in Indonesia is concentrated by a single controlling shareholder. Sometimes, the board of directors and board of commissioners of a company or his/her family are the controlling shareholders. This study is interested in describing the employment stock option program phenomenon. This study collects data from the Indonesian Stock Exchange databas...

  15. Agency conflicts, ownership concentration, and legal shareholder protection

    OpenAIRE

    Burkart, Mike; Panunzi, Fausto

    2001-01-01

    This Paper analyses the interaction between legal shareholder protection, managerial incentives, and ownership concentration. In our framework, blockholder and manager are distinct parties and the presence of a blockholder can both protect and hurt minority shareholders. Legal shareholder protection affects both the expropriation of shareholders and the blockholder's incentives to monitor. Because of this latter effect and its repercussion on managerial incentives, outside ownership concentra...

  16. Actual Versus Perceived Risk of Victimization and Handgun Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Elpi, Clara Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that perceived risk of victimization had a stronger effect than actual exposure to victimization risk on handgun ownership and that this relationship was stronger for women than men. Perceived and actual risks of victimization have been discussed with respect to handgun ownership, but a general consensus in the literature was lacking and recent empirical research was scarce. Crime rates and respondentsâ social characteristics were used as proxy measures for ...

  17. Impact of Privatization on Employees’ Treatment towards Share Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Berķe-Berga, Anželika

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find out whether employee share ownership would have the same impact on the employees from Latvian joint stock companies that underwent privatization in the early 1990s and from the ones without such experience. For the purposes of the analysis the author uses the data from two empirical surveys. The author discovers the current situation in Latvia regarding ESO. The author finds out the opinions regarding share ownership, share purchase, change in employees’ m...

  18. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial compani...

  19. Ownership Structure and Firm Performance in the Egyptian Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelgouad, Ahmed Fayez; Pfeifer, Christian; John P. Weche Gelübcke

    2014-01-01

    We use the World Bank enterprise survey for the Egyptian manufacturing sector to study the correlation between the ownership structure (private vs. public, Egyptian vs. Arab foreign vs. non-Arab foreign) and firm performance, which we measure as sales per worker, capacity utilization, and net profit rate. Our main findings indicate that (1) productivity differences between Egyptian private and public firms are not significant, but firms with public ownership have a lower capacity utilization ...

  20. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ow...

  1. Body ownership and embodiment: vestibular and multisensory mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, C.; Halje, P.; O. Blanke

    2008-01-01

    Body ownership and embodiment are two fundamental mechanisms of self-consciousness. The present article reviews neurological data about paroxysmal illusions during which body ownership and embodiment are affected differentially: autoscopic phenomena (out-of-body experience, heautoscopy, autoscopic hallucination, feeling-of-a-presence) and the room tilt illusion. We suggest that autoscopic phenomena and room tilt illusion are related to different types of failures to integrate body-related inf...

  2. Corporate ownership and initial training in Britain, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Ryan; Karin Wagner; Silvia Teuber; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether listed companies with dispersed ownership invest less in training than do other firms, as part of a short-termist stance caused by pressure from the stock market. An analytical framework that supports the proposition involves three factors: high agency costs between the shareholders and managers of listed firms that have dispersed ownership; the use of highly geared performance-related pay to reward top managers; and accounting conventions that distort performance...

  3. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  4. A Rent-Protection Theory of Corporate Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a rent-protection theory of corporate ownership structure - and in particular, of the choice between concentrated and dispersed ownership of corporate shares and votes. The paper analyzes the decision of a company's initial owner whether to maintain a lock on control when the company goes public. This decision is shown to be very much influenced by the size that private benefits of control are expected to have. Most importantly, when private benefits of control are large -...

  5. The Structure of Corporate ownership in Privatized Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Trillas, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Paper is to study the determinants of the concentration of ownership in a privatized, regulated firm. The discussion illustrates some aspects of the costs and benefits of different corporate systems. Privatized utilities are large firms with professional management: there is a separation between ownership and control. The agency costs of this separation interact with the regulation of the product market. The main issue to be addressed here is how the degree to which regula...

  6. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDO LEFORT

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of corporate governance practices in Latin American countries, surveying the available empirical literature, reviewing the reports on the subject prepared by multinational organizations, and providing new data for ownership and control structures of companies in different Latin American economies. Like in other emerging economies corporate governance in Latin America is conditioned by the high level of ownership concentration and the profusion of industrial and...

  7. uling Elites' Rotation and Asset Ownership: Implications for Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Polishchuk; Georgiy Syunyaev

    2014-01-01

    We provide a theory and empirical evidence indicating that the rotation of ruling elites in conjunction with elites’ asset ownership could improve property rights protection in non-democracies. The mechanism that upholds property rights is based on elites’ concern about the security of their own asset ownership in the event they lose power. Such incentives provide a solution to the credible commitment problem in maintaining secure property rights when institutional restrictions on expropriati...

  8. Investment activity and ownership structure of Czech corporate farms

    OpenAIRE

    Curtiss, Jarmila; Latruffe, Laure; Medonos, Thomas; RATINGER Tomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the relationship between ownership structure, performance and investment activity. In particular it studies how behavioural differences between farms related to ownership structure influence farms' investment activity and thus their further development potential resulting in farm structural changes. The paper analyses a sample of corporate farms over 7 years, 1997-2003, using structural model of three equations including investment accelerator model. This model co...

  9. Does Ownership Structure Influence Firm Value? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayesh Kumar

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ownership structure on the firm performance for an unbalanced panel of 2478 Indian corporate firms from 1994 to 2000. We examine the effect of interactions between corporate, foreign, institutional, and managerial ownership on firm performance. Using panel data framework, we show that a large fraction of cross- sectional variation, in firm performance can be explained by unobserved firm heterogeneity. We provide evidence that the shareholding by institutional...

  10. Ownership Restrictions, Tax Competition and Transfer Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Diaw, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes tax/subsidy competition and transfer pricing regulation between governments involved in trade through a multinational firm and a joint venture using an input provided by the former.The paper takes into account the fact that in absence of bargaining, any model of such JV is discontinuous in the ownership distribution in that for di erent ownership distributions, control is either fully held by one party, or no party in particular.The paper therefore model control problems t...

  11. Corporate Ownership, Leadership and Job Charateristics in Russian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Weisberg; Moshe Banai

    2005-01-01

    This study tests the application of the Western theory of organization's ownership in Russia, suggesting that ownership types – such as state-owned and private – influence leadership style and employees' jobs characteristics. A sample of 724 Russian employees in 15 service and manufacturing companies was surveyed. The results indicate that, contrary to Western theories, the leadership in Russian state-owned enterprises tends to be perceived as being more effective than the leadership in priva...

  12. Audit Fee Determinants in different Ownership Structures : The Swedish Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Joakim; LJ Holm, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the audit fee determinants for companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange and to examine whether the audit fee determinants diverge for ownership structures. By testing the audit fee determinants in a Swedish setting the study contributes to the research body in two ways; by testing a previously sparsely researched setting and examining the monitoring need for different ownership structures. The results indicate that audit fees are explained to a ...

  13. Genetic resources, biotech patents and gene ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic resources are increasingly considered as ordinary commercial goods, but their value and utility go beyond the simple and immediate private profit. In contrast to other biological resources, commercial use does not focus upon the material itself but rather upon the genetic information it contains. Information goods are then usually subject to intellectual property rights, but in the biological and life science domains, property rights can have a negative influence upon the proper allocation of several goods, including genetic material or goods that are related to it. This scenario reflects the facts of recent litigations in the United States and Europe. In particular, these lawsuits have revived the debate over private ownership and control over genes. Within this context, the objective of the paper is to discuss how to recast the traditional right to access to and use of biochemical and human genetic material currently considered as part of the market framework. Looking beyond the protection of traditional public goods, the paper emphasizes the debate around the progressive commodification of human genetic resources facilitated by an improper use of intellectual property rights. Different scenarios are analyzed to evaluate alternative instruments and new regulatory approaches to avoid the private appropriation of human genetic resources and other natural assets. PMID:25845208

  14. Disrupting Vestibular Activity Disrupts Body Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive at detecting asynchrony between a self-generated movement and visual feedback concerning that movement when the movement is viewed from a first-person perspective. We call this the 'self-advantage' and interpret it as an objective measure of self. Here we ask if disruption of the vestibular system in healthy individuals affects the self-advantage. Participants performed finger movements while viewing their hand in a first-person ('self') or third-person ('other') perspective and indicated which of two periods (one with minimum delay and the other with an added delay of 33-264 ms) was delayed. Their sensitivity to the delay was calculated from the psychometric functions obtained. During the testing, disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied in five-minute blocks interleaved with five minutes of no stimulation for a total of 40 min. We confirmed the self-advantage under no stimulation (31 ms). In the presence of disruptive GVS this advantage disappeared and there was no longer a difference in performance between perspectives. The threshold delay for the 'other' perspective was not affected by the GVS. These results suggest that an intact vestibular signal is required to distinguish 'self' from 'other' and to maintain a sense of body ownership. PMID:26595957

  15. Robust copyright protection using multiple ownership watermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Lee, In-Kwon

    2015-02-01

    Generally, conventional transform (DWT and DFT, etc.) -based watermarking techniques provide only one spectrum plane for embedding the watermark, thus the embedding watermark information can be easily removed. To solve this problem, we propose an efficient cellular automata (CA) based watermarking method that CA transform (CAT) with various gateway values can provide many transform planes for watermark embedding according to various CA rules. In this paper, multiple ownership watermarks are first recorded in the form of an elemental image array (EIA), simultaneously, and then the recorded EIA as the watermark data is embedded into the CAT coefficient. An additional advantage of this proposed method is that EIA is composed of many elemental images and each elemental image has its own property of watermarks. Even though most data of elemental images are lost, the watermarks can be reconstructed from the remaining elemental images successfully. Experimental results show that the proposed technique provides good image quality and is robust in varying degree to some image processing attacks.

  16. Mask cost of ownership for advanced lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Edward G.; Seidel, Philip K.

    2000-07-01

    As technology advances, becoming more difficult and more expensive, the cost of ownership (CoO) metric becomes increasingly important in evaluating technical strategies. The International SEMATECH CoC analysis has steadily gained visibility over the past year, as it attempts to level the playing field between technology choices, and create a fair relative comparison. In order to predict mask cots for advanced lithography, mask process flows are modeled using bets-known processing strategies, equipment cost, and yields. Using a newly revised yield mode, and updated mask manufacture flows, representative mask flows can be built. These flows are then used to calculate mask costs for advanced lithography down to the 50 nm node. It is never the goal of this type of work to provide absolute cost estimates for business planning purposes. However, the combination of a quantifiable yield model with a clearly defined set of mask processing flows and a cost model based upon them serves as an excellent starting point for cost driver analysis and process flow discussion.

  17. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  18. Impact of the Ownership Structure on Corporate Management in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieieva Nataliia E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses impact of the ownership structure on corporate management in the engineering industry of Ukraine. In order to detect impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management the article uses general scientific and special methods of study: method of critical analysis and generalisation of theoretical studies, comparison method and statistical method. Analysis of engineering enterprises confirmed availability of impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management. The article also shows that the engineering industry of Ukraine is characterised with the concentrated ownership structure, which has the following features: restriction of rights of minority shareholders with respect to management and control in a joint stock company; availability of corporate conflicts between majority and minority shareholders; availability of intense control of owners over management, which influences efficiency of making managerial decisions; hired managers and enterprise employees have no possibility to acquire stock of a joint stock company including in the form of bonuses and incentives; the controlling owner is interested in efficient activity of the enterprise and tries to create necessary conditions for this. The conducted studies give a possibility to establish that a share of stock that belongs to a hired executive body is smaller in those joint stock companies in which concentration of ownership is higher. The article also shows that the higher ownership concentration the higher is the probability that the owner would be a part of controlling bodies.

  19. The Moderating Effect of Ownership Structure on the Relationship between Free Cash Flow and Asset Utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Rina Br Bukit; Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi

    2012-01-01

    Based on agency theory, ownership structure plays a role in monitoring managerial opportunistic behaviour. This study examines how different forms of ownership structures including foreign ownership, government ownership, and managerial ownership moderate the relationship between free cash flow and asset utilisation. This cross-sectional study involves companies listed on Bursa Malaysia. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis show a negative relationship between free cash ...

  20. Bargaining with a Shared Interest: The Impact of Employee Stock Ownership Plans on Labor Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton; Hamid Mehran; Joseph Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Bargaining often occurs between parties with some shared interest. Partnerships, joint ventures, and cross ownership are examples. We extend standard bargaining models to allow for joint ownership. Joint ownership reduces costly bargaining disputes, as bargainers’ interests are more aligned. We then test the theory with collective bargaining data, where employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) are the source of joint ownership. The theory predicts that ESOPs will lead to a reduction in strike i...